close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

- Санкт-Петербургский государственный

код для вставкиСкачать
К 632.4.01/.08
ш я
. .
я, . .
, . .
-
«
»
,
.
[1–3
.],
,
-
,
,
.
,
,
.
-
,
–
,
.
,
»,
-
. Н
-
(60° 43′–60° 44′ .
.
«
,
28° 42′–28° 44′ . .),
.
»
,
. И
-
XVIII –
XIX
,
.
.
132,04
«
[4]. Н
»
23,5 %
212
–
(
,
13 %
,
.
),
29,21
К
«
V
«
.
.
»,
. .Ш
я
я, .М.
, . .
(
77 %
«
»)
Populus, Alnus, Tilia, Acer,
Salix, Betula, Padus, Sorbus, Ulmus, Quercus, Fraxinus Malus [4].
«
»
1770 .
. 1945 .
:
,
,
. 1988 .
«
» [4].
1991 .
. . .К
. . . .И.
. . . . .
[5]. 2011–2013 .
«
»,
-
1991–2011
:
.
–
–
(
«
»,
-
);
–
;
–
.
: Quercus –
– 34 %; Tilia – 31 %; Betula – 23 %; Acer –
«
[4],
,
7
,
,
[4],
.
VIII–XI
7 %;
»
14
[5],
.И.
,
.
,
,
-
,
[6],
,
.И
213
я
х
-П
(
. 2014. ы . 207
1:1000,
-
1:500).
,
,
,
[6]: I
, II –
–
, IV –
.
(
,
, -
, III –
, VI –
, V –
(
)
),
(
,
,
,
К
,
,
,
. .).
(P)
,
,
(
)
,
,
-
–
[7]:
Ncp. = (N1 + II N2 +III N3 + IV
Ni –
N2; III – N3; IV – N4; V – N5; VI – N6.
N4 + V N5 + VI
:I
N6) / (ΣNi),
– N1; II –
-
.
я.
»
548
Acer platanoides L. (К
) Quercus robur L. (
(
),
.
(
.Н
31 %
214
,
.
.И
-
[6
.].
CABI [8].
2011 .
«
.
), Betula pendula Roth. (
)
,
.
Tilia cordata Mill.
,
-
. 1),
B. pendula
I II
A. platanoides
–
80
42 %
83
III
. .Ш
я
я, .М.
, . .
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
1991
2011
1991
Acer platanoides
2011
1991
Betula pendula
I
2011
1991
Tilia cordata
II
2011
Quercus robur
IV
V–VI
. 1.
1991
IV
B. pendula
:
III IV
2011
– 21
52 %
V VI
.Н
A. latanoides,
I II
.
17
64 %,
,
-
Q. robur
98
2
71 %,
29 %.
,
(
,
).
,
Q. robur,
Н
,
.
. = 3,0–5,5)
(pH
«
. Н
» [4]
(
,
)
;
,
–
-
-
,
«
»
-
.
,
,
.
,
;
,
,
,
-
.
215
я
х
-П
. 2014. ы . 207
1
я
я
я
х
ш
я
К
,%
(
-
-
1991
2011
1991
2011
1991
2011
)
Н
P, %
К
-
Acer platanoides (
66,3
5,9
133
73,9
8,8
Betula pendula (
35,8
–
117
65,8
–
Tilia cordata (
41,9
26,9
211
74,5
29,5
Quercus robur (
78,8
–
87
91,4
–
1991
2011
я
34,2
65,8
38,6
52,5
5,7
26,3
9,4
26,9
VIII–X)
10,8
19,3
VIII–XI)
17,3
31,9
VIII–X)
13,8
32,4
VIII–XI)
8,5
18,2
,
,
,
,
,
–
,
Ncp.,
87,1
98,3
2,1
2,8
69,7
91,7
2,0
2,9
54,5
89,5
1,6
2,5
45,5
73,3
1,5
2,0
,
–
-
.Н
-
,
,
[2, 6, 9],
-
.
И
.1
,
20
B. pendula T. cordata
0,9
, A. platanoides –
0,7
, Q. robur – 0,5
.Н
B. pendula A. platanoides.
T. cordata
35 %,
Q. robur – 28 %,
B. pendula – 22 %,
A. platanoides – 11 %.
,
A. platanoides, B. pendula
T. cordata
Q. robur
.
20- 2011 .
,
,
.
216
Н
. 1–5
(
-
)
.
Neonectria galligena (Bres.)
Rossman et Samuels,
–
Cylindrocarpon mali (Allesch.) Wollenw. –
(
,
)
(
. 2) –
T. cordata.
,
,
-
я
я, .М.
, . .
100
1991
90
2011
Neonectria galligena,
%
. .Ш
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1
4
8
9
13
№
. 2.
[6],
Tilia cordata
.
(
. 2)
,
(
. .И
).
-
– 13-
[10],
,
,
–
–
.
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
. К
,
. Н
(
+18,2 °C),
–
–7,3 °C).
700–735
– 75,5 % [11].
(
+ 4,8 °C.
[11]
–
-
,
-
.
217
я
х
-П
. 2014. ы . 207
Cytospora leucosperma (Pers.) Fr.,
– Valsa ambiens (Pers.) Fr. –
. 2).
,
(
Tilia, Betula, Acer
( . 3). 1991
A. platanoides Q. robur
. T. cordata B. pendula,
,
(
–
11– 21
).
,
[12
.],
.
,
[12, 13].
,
(
Quercus),
2011 .
C. leucosperma,
,
.
Armillaria mellea (Vahl) P. Kumm. (
Armillaria[3, 14] –
)
,
(
. 2),
T. cordata
),
(
(
13-
–
%
90
ь Cytospora leucosperma,
80
. 4).
32
100
-
1991
Q. robur –
,
2011
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
4
5
8
9
Acer platanoides
. 3.
218
13
1
4
5
9
Betula pendula
11
№
1
4
8
9
13
4
5
9
11
13
ч
Tilia cordata
Quercus robur
. .Ш
я
я, .М.
, . .
100
1991
2011
ь Armillaria mellea,
%
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
4
5
8
9
13
1
4
5
9
11
№
Acer platanoides
Betula pendula
1
4
8
9
13
4
5
9
11
13
ч
Tilia cordata
Quercus robur
. 4.
9-
–
16
5-
–
25
.
. .
-
[14],
.
,
.Н
:
.Н
,
.,
.
,
-
( ),
–
-
,
,
,
.
: A. mellea,
,
,
[14].
,
Oxyporus populinus (Schumach.) Donk (К
obliquus (Ach. ex Pers.) Pilát. (
) –
Fomitiporia robusta (P. Karst.) Fiasson et Niemelä (
),
,
:
), Inonotus
,
–
219
я
х
-П
(
. 2014. ы . 207
. 2),
.
,
-
,
,
[15].
. 5). И
(
,
-
-
–
. .
[1, 15].
[16],
,
–
(80–100 %).
(
20…30 ° )
-
,
(
,
)
(
«
,
-
»
,
).
,
A. platanoides, T. cordata
– A. mellea O. popu); A. mellea
–
Q. robur
.
A. platanoides (4100
2011
%
80
70
60
50
1991
100
2011
90
%
1991
90
ь Inonotus obliquus,
ь Oxyporus populinus,
%
100
9-
90
80
ь Fomitiporia robusta,
linus –
80
70
60
50
60
50
40
40
30
30
30
20
20
20
10
10
10
0
0
5
№
8
9
13
ч
Acer platanoides
. 5.
220
2011
70
40
4
1991
0
1
4
№
5
ч
9
Betula pendula
11
4
5
№
9
11
ч
Quercus robur
13
. .Ш
T. cordata (8- , 9- , 13(5).
я, .М.
, . .
); Vuilleminia comedens –
Q. Robur
,
»
– O. populinus
,
:
A. platanoides (9-
я
13-
1991 .
«
).
-
(
.
2).
,
-
Н
9
18
,
1991 .,
«
»
.
(
– O. populinus,
T. cordata.
)
1991 .
A. platanoides, 2011 .
2
х
Н
я
-
Neonectria galligena (Bres.)
Acer
Rossman et Samuels*
platanoides
Nectria cinnabarina (Tode) Fr.
Cytospora leucosperma (Pers.) Fr.
Cytospora decipiens Sacc.*
Betula
Nectria cinnabarina
pendula
Cytospora leucosperma
Cytospora horrida Sacc.*
Cytospora personata (Fr.)
Sacc.*
Tilia
Neonectria galligena
cordata
Nectria cinnabarina
Cytospora leucosperma
Cytospora carphosperma Fr.*
Quercus
robur
*
Cytospora leucosperma
Cytospora intermedia Sacc.*
Clithris quercina (Fr.)
P. Karst.*
Vuilleminia comedens (Nees)
Maire*
2011 .
-
х
х
К
Armillaria Fomes fomentarius (L.) Fr.
mellea Phellinus igniarius (L.) Quel.
(Vahl)
Oxyporus populinus
P. Kumm.
(Schumach.) Donk
Armillaria
mellea
Fomes fomentarius
Phellinus igniarius
Inonotus obliquus
(Ach. ex Pers.) Pilát.
Armillaria
mellea
Fomes fomentarius
Phellinus igniarius
Oxyporus populinus*
Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.)
Murrill*
Climacodon septentrionalis
(Fr.) P. Karst.*
Armillaria Laetiporus sulphureus*
mellea
Fomitiporia robusta
(P. Karst.) Fiasson et
Niemelä
«
».
221
я
х
-П
1991–2011
.
. 2014. ы . 207
.
B. endula
« .
– A. latanoides
», T. cordata –
«
».
Q. robur,
[3, 14],
,
,
,
. Н
-
,
:
T. cordata – N. galligena A. mellea,
B. pendula – I. obliquus A. mellea,
A. platanoides – O. populinus A. mellea,
Q. robur – F. robusta.
,
,
–
«
».
,
.
ы
1.
i .
2.
я
.
/
3.
(
4.
.
5.
«
.И.
. .,
.М.
i i
. . .К
. .
i
i , 2009. . 7, № 1. . 17–30.
.
.: И -
-
. 2003. № 2. . 54–59.
. .
.
«
»:
.
.:
»:
, . .
НИ
.
.
)
- , 2010. 344 .
1983–1999
, 1988. 147 .
.).
Н
., 1991. 45 .
. ., М
я . .
.
(
//
. //
-
;
.:
6.
.П.,
:
. . 1.
.: НИИ
, 2004.
120 .
7.
/
.
. .К. . .: НИИ
, 2004. 200 .
8. CABI «Index Fungorum». URL: http://www.speciesfungorum.org/Names/Na
mes.asp
9.
. ., М
. .
//
XXI
–
:
.
.:
, 2001. . 47–52.
222
. .Ш
10.
я
я, .М.
, . .
К
. -
.П.
:
.
:
. - , 1982. 24 .
11. Н
«К
». URL: http://meteo.ru/
pogoda-i-klimat/197-nauchno-prikladnoj-spravochnik-klimat-rossii
12.
. .
//
. 1999. № 2. . 57–62.
. ., х
. .
Cytospora leucosperma
13.
Fr.
(
):
.I
. ., 2002. . 84.
14.
. . К
. .:
- , 1964. 184 .
15.
. .
//
. 1999. № 2. . 140–150.
16.
. .
: .
.…
.
.
. ., 1987. 19 .
ш я
И
2011–2013
.
ых
я
.),
ых
.
, х
,
я
»
К
я
ы
:
,
ы
ы ,
ых
М
«П
.
ых
я
ы
,
яых
я я ыя ы
я
ы
» (.
я
я
,
.
ы
«П
ых
,
,
-
-
х
1991–2011 .
ых
ых
х
ы
ы
. …
. .
» // И
. 207. . 212–224.
я
ых
ых
я . .,
. .,
«
. 2014.
.
М
-
,
-
,
ых
.
,
.
Shishlyannikova A.B., Zarudnaya G.I., Zinchuk T.M. Analysis of changes in the
health conditions of memorial woody plants of the museum-reserve «Monrepos Park».
Izvestia Sankt-Peterburgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2014, is. 207, pp. 212–224
(in Russian with English summary).
223
я
-П
х
. 2014. ы . 207
In 2011–2013 phytopathologic health conditions of deciduous trees in the memorial
Monrepos Park (Vyborg, Leningrad Region, Russia) was re-examined to analyze
changes in the prevalence of the most common tree diseases and their pathogens in the
historic park over a period of 1991–2011. A comparison of the data on distribution of
memorial trees by categories of condition showed decline in trees’ biological
resistance over the study period. The most common and harmful pathogens such as
canker-cancerous and rot diseases were identified. Uneven and often sharp rise
ofpathogens abundance at different sections of the park, their patchy distribution,
expansion of their substrate specialization as well as increase in the species
composition of plant pathogens were observed. It is suggested that the disturbance of
soil hydrological regime of the Monrepos Park has the leading role in the qualitative
and quantitive changes in composition of pathogens and reduction of biological
sustainability of memorial deciduous trees.
K e y w o r d s : memorial trees, canker-cancers, rot diseases, infestation, biological
stability, hydrological regime.
,
,
. . К
. SPIN- :
. E-mail:
2962-9507. 194021, И
., . 5,
,
[email protected]
SHISHLYANNIKOVA Arina B., PhD student, SPIN-code: 2962-9507, 194021,
Institute per. 5. St. Petersburg. Russia. E-mail: [email protected]
,
.
.
,
.,
. .К
. 194021, И
,
. E-mail: [email protected]
., . 5,
ZARUDNAYA Galina I., PhD (Biology), Associate Professor, St. Petersburg State
Forest Technical University. 194021, Institute per. 5. St. Petersburg. Russia. E-mail:
[email protected]
я
,
,
«
».
188800,
, . 19, .
,
.,
. E-mail:
[email protected]
ZINCHUK Tatiana M., Chief Curator, National historical, architectural and natural
museum-reserve «Monrepos Park». 188800. Monrepos Park. 19. Vyborg. Leningrad
Region. Russia. E-mail: [email protected]
224
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа