close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

Инструкция по эксплуатации ультразвукового;pdf

код для вставкиСкачать
МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РФ
Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
«Воронежский государственный
архитектурно-строительный университет»
Кафедра иностранных языков
Искусство дизайна: основные направления
Методическая разработка
по английскому языку
для студентов 1-го курса специальности
«Дизайн»
Воронеж 2013
1
УДК 802.0:477(07)
ББК 81.2Англ:30.18я7
Составитель Л.Н. Крячко
Искусство дизайна: основные направления: метод. разработка по
английскому языку для студ. 1-го курсе факультет СПО по спец. «Дизайн»(по
отраслям) / Воронежский ГАСУ; сост.: Л. Н. Крячко. – Воронеж, 2013. – 30 с.
Методическая разработка состоит из пяти уроков, организованных на
основе текстов, освещающих актуальные вопросы современного дизайна.
Работа над текстами осуществляется с помощью разнообразных упражнений
лексического характера. Включенные в разработку грамматические
упражнения имеют целью закрепить знания учащихся по темам: “Present
Simple Tense”, “Present Continuous Tense”, “Future Simple Tense”, “Past Simple
Tense” и “Present Perfect Tense”, а также способствовать развитию у них
практических навыков использования данных грамматических явлений в
речи.
Методическая разработка предназначена для студентов 1-го курса,
обучаюшихсяя по специальности «Дизайн».
УДК 802.0:477(07)
ББК 81.2Англ:30.18я7
Печатеется по решению научно-методического совета
Воронежского ГАСУ
Рецензент – Н.Н. Лапынина, канд. филол. наук, проф.
кафедры русского языка и межкультурной коммуникации
Воронежского ГАСУ
2
ВВЕДЕНИЕ
Данная методическая разработка предназначена для обучающихся на 1
курсе факультета СПО по специальности «Дизайн» (по отраслям) и имеет
целью совершенствовать знания учащихся в области профессиональной
терминологии, развивать их умение высказываться по темам, связанным с их
будущей профессиональной деятельностью.
Методическая разработка состоит из пяти уроков, в основе которых лежат
аутентичные тексты, рассказывающие об основных направлениях
современного дизайна.
К каждому тексту прилагается вокабуляр, включающий лексические
единицы, которые могут представлять трудность при переводе их учащимися.
Облегчить восприятие информации также помогают предтекстовые
упражнения лексического характера. Проверка понимания текстов
учащимися, а также закрепление усвоенного в процессе работы материала
осуществляется с помощью ряда послетекстовых упражнений.
В каждый из уроков также включены фонетические упражнения на
повторение основных правил чтения, а также разнообразные упражнения для
активизации следующих грамматических тем: “Present Simple Tense”, “Present
Continuous Tense”, “Future Simple Tense”, “Past Simple Tense” и “Present
Perfect Tense”.
3
УРОК I
LESSON ONE
Фонетика: Повторение чтения букв “a”, “e”.
Грамматика: Present Simple Tense.
Тема: Дизайн . Design.
Предтекстовые задания
I. Прочитайте слова со следующими звуками:
[ei] – lake, make, made, take, plane, pavement, disintegration, foundation,
way, day, lay, detail, maintain, aim.
[x] -– traffic, passenger, factor, transport, mathematical.
[R] -– mark, are, part, car, large, far, marsh.
[ J] - speed, mean, wheel, lead, vehicle.
II. Запомните слова, необходимые для понимания текста.
1. convention, n [kqn`venSqn] – зд. соглашение
2. blueprints, n [`blHprJnts] – проекты
3. pattern, n [`pxtqn] – выкройка
4. circuit diagrams – электрические схемы
5. connotation, n [ˏkOnou`teISqn] – дополнительное, сопутствующее значение
6. direct, a [dI`rekt] - непосредственный
7. pottery, n [`pOtqrI] – гончарное дело
8. specification, n [ˏspesIfI`keiSqn] — зд. детализация
9. manifest, v [`mxnIfest] – предъявлять, обнародовать
10. agent, n [`eIGqnt] – зд. создатель
11. subject (to), n [`sAbGikt] - подлежащий
12. constraints, n [kqn`streInts] – зд. рамки, ограничения
13. specify, v [`spesIfaI] – уточнять
14. dimensions, n [dI`menSqns] – параметры
15. meanwhile [`mJn`waIl] – между тем
4
16. design, v [di`zain] – создавать творческий проект, дизайн
17. denotation, n [ˎdInou`teISqn
teISqn] - значение
Ш. Переведите следующие предложения на английский язык.
Английские эквиваленты слов и словосочетаний, выделенных курсивом,
вы сможете найти в предыдущем задании.
1.
Ткань разрезают по выкройке. 2. Между тем, дождь перестал и
выглянуло солнце.. 3. Электрики разбираются в электрических схемах. 4.
Гончарное искусство известно с незапамятных времен.
времен 5. Уточните,
пожалуйста, даты поставки оборудования на наш завод.
Чтение и перевод текста
Design
Design is the creation of a plan or convention for the construction of an object or a
system (as in architectural blueprints,
blueprints engineering drawing,, business process,
circuit diagrams and sewing patterns).
p
). Design has different connotations in
different fields. In some cases the direct construction of an object (as in pottery,
engineering management, cowboy coding and graphic
engineering,
design is also considered to be design.
design)
More formally
formally design has been defined as follows: a
specification of an object,, manifested by an agent, intended
to accomplish goals, in a particular environment,
environment using a set
of primitive components, satisfying a set of requirements,
subject to constraints.
Another definition for design is a roadmap or a strategic
approach for someone to achieve a unique expectation. It
defines the specifications, plans, parameters, costs, activities, processes and how
and what to do within legal, political, social, environmental, safety and economic
constraints in achieving that objective. Here, a "specification" can be manifested
as either a plan or a finished product, and "primitives" are the elements from
which the design object is composed.
With such a broad denotation, there is no universal language or unifying institution
for designers of all disciplines.
sciplines. This allows for many differing philosophies and
approaches toward the subject.
The person designing is called a designer,, which is also a term used for people
5
who work professionally in one of the various design areas, usually also specifying
which area is being dealt with (such as a fashion designer, concept designer or web
designer). A designer's sequence of activities is called a design process. The
scientific study of design is called design science.
Designing often necessitates considering the aesthetic, functional, economic and
sociopolitical dimensions of both the design object and design process. It may
involve considerable research, thought, modeling, interactive adjustment, and redesign. Meanwhile, diverse kinds of objects may be designed, including clothing,
graphical user interfaces, skyscrapers, corporate identities, business processes and
even methods of designing.
Послетекстовые задания
I. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующим русским словосочетаниям:
Архитектурные проекты, выкройки для шитья, технические чертежи,
условный язык ковбоев, стратегический подход, функциональные параметры,
графический дизайн, концептуальный дизайнер, дизайнер одежды,
пользовательские интерфейсы.
II. Выберите существительные,
следующими прилагательными:
которые
A
могут
сочетаться
со
B
1. aesthetic
views, requirements, approach, patterns,
goals, costs, constraints, philosophy,
process, skyscrapers
2. universal
language, design, methods, creation,
system, plan, person
3. functional
processes,
dimensions,
clothing,
approach, constraints, elements, methods,
costs, expectation
Ш. Сопоставьте термин в колонке А с его дефиницией в колонке В.
А
В
1. Design
a) is a designing person.
6
2. To design
b) are the elements from which the design
object is composed.
3. A designer
c) is the creation of a plan or convention
for the construction of an object or a
system.
4. "Primitives"
d) to create a design, in an environment
(where the designer operates).
5. A design process
e) a specification of an object, manifested
by an agent, intended to accomplish
goals, in a particular environment, using
a set of primitive components, satisfying
a set of requirements, subject to constraints.
6 Design science
f) is a specialist who works professionally in one of the various design areas,
usually also specifying which area is
being dealt with.
g) is a designer's sequence of activities.
h) is a roadmap or a strategic approach
for someone to achieve a unique
expectation. It defines the specifications,
plans, parameters, costs, activities,
processes and how and what to do within
legal, political, social, environmental,
safety and economic constraints in
achieving that objective.
i) is the scientific study of design.
II. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту.
1. Which definition of the term “design” did you like most of all?
2. What are he examples of design?
3. Is there one universal language or one unifying institution for designers of all
disciplines?
4. What designers do you know?
5. What dimensions of both the design object and the design process does
designing often needs considering?
Грамматические упражнения
7
I. Используя подсказки, составьте предложения.
Example: Mary/ live/ in/ a town/ near Dublin.
Mary lives in a town near Dublin.
1.
John/ not go to school by bus.
2.
Bob/ be/ a mechanic.
3.
He/ enjoy/ reading books in his free time.
4.
There/ be/ many festivals/ in our country.
5.
I/ usually/ not work/ on Saturdays.
II. Вставьте в пропуски нужную форму глагола в Present Simple Tense.
This 1) … (be) Ingrid and she 2) (come) from Sweden. She … (3) live with her
family in a flat in the city of Stockholm. In the winter, it 4) … (get) dark very early
in Sweden and it 5) … (snow) a lot. Most people there 6) … (love) skiing and
children 7) … (learn) to ski at a very young age. In the summer, they 8) … (ride)
bicycles and 9) … (spend) most of the day outdoors. Sweden 10) … (be) a
beautiful country. Ingrid really 11) … (enjoy) living there.
III. Раскройте скобки и поставьте глагол в правильную форму.
1.
2.
3.
4.
6.
7.
8.
The swimming bath … (open) at 9.00 and … (close) at 18.30 every day.
What time … (the banks/close) in Britain?
I have a car but I … (not/use) it very often.
‘What … (you/do)?’ ‘I’m an electrical engineer.’
‘Where … (your father/come) from?’ ‘He … (come) from Scotland.’
If you need money, why … (you/not/get) a job?
I … (play) the guitar, but I … (not/play) very way.
УРОК 2
LESSON TWO
Фонетика: Повторение чтения букв “i” и “y”.
Грамматика: Present Continuous Tense.
Тема: Дизайн как процесс. Design as a Process.
I. Прочитайте слова со следующими звуками.
[ai] – line, five, high, design, mild, kind,
by, type, satisfy, apply.
[W] – first, third, thirteen, thirty.
[I] – traffic, satisfy, distance, since, will
8
early, industry, many, vary, topography.
[j] – your, you, yes.
II. Запомните слова необходимые для понимания текста.
1.
amateur, n [`xmqtW] – любитель, не профессионал
2.
discrete, a [dIs`krIt] – отдельный
3.
consistent, a [kqn`sIstqnt] – совместимый, согласующийся
4.
posit, v [`pozIt] - утверждать
5.
in situ testing [ˎIn`saItju] – испытание, тестирование продукта дизайна
непосредственно на месте его создания или в естественных для него
условиях
6.
feedback, n [`fJdbxk] – оценка продукта дизайна (потребителями),
отзывы (со стороны потребителей)
7.
assumption, n [q`sAmpSqn] – предположение
8.
antithetical, a [ˎxntI`TetIkql] – прямо противоположный
9.
сontemporary, adv [kqn`tempqrqrI] – одновременно
10.
inextricably, adv [In`ekstrIkqblI] – неразрывно
III. Переведите предложения на английский язык. Английские
эквиваленты слов и словосочетаний, выделенных курсивом, вы сможете
найти в предыдущем задании.
1.
Это любительский спектакль. Актеры, которые в нем играют не
профес- сиональные актеры. 2. Мы надеемся на положительные отзывы о
нашей работе. 3. Эти два процесса неразрывно связаны. 4. То, что он сказал –
всего лишь предположение, не более того. 5. Ваши поступки должны
оответство- вать принципам нашего учебного заведения.
2.
Чтение и перевод текста
Design as a Process
Substantial disagreement exists concerning how designers in many fields, whether
amateur or professional, alone or in teams, produce designs. There are two basic
and fundamentally different ways of describing design processes, both of which
have several names. The prevailing view has been called "The Rational Model".
9
The Rational Model posits that:
1. designers attempt to optimize a design candidate for known constraints and
objectives,
2. the design process is plan-driven,
3. the design process is understood in terms of a discrete sequence of stages.
The Rational Model is based on a rationalist philosophy. According to the
rationalist philosophy, design is informed by research and knowledge in a
predictable and controlled manner. Technical rationality is at the center of the
process.
Typical stages consistent with The Rational Model include the following.
•
Pre-production design.
•
Design brief or Parti pris – an early (often the beginning) statement of design
goals.
•
Analysis – analysis of current design goals.
•
Research – investigating similar design solutions in the field or related
topics.
•
Specification – specifying requirements of a design solution for a product
(product design specification) or service.
•
Problem solving – conceptualizing and documenting design solutions.
•
Presentation – presenting design solutions.
•
Design during production.
•
Development – continuation and improvement of a designed solution.
•
Testing – in situ testing a designed solution.
•
Post-production design feedback for future designs.
•
Implementation – introducing the designed solution into the environment.
•
Evaluation and conclusion – summary of process and results, including
constructive criticism and suggestions for future improvements.
•
Redesign – any or all stages in the design process repeated (with corrections
made) at any time before, during, or after production.
The Rational Model has been widely criticized on two primary grounds:
1. Designers do not work this way – extensive empirical evidence has demonstrated that designers do not act as the rational model suggests.
2. Unrealistic assumptions – goals are often unknown when a design project
begins, and the requirements and constraints continue to change.
The Action-Centric Model (Perspective) is a label given to a collection of
interrelated concepts, which are antithetical to the Rational Model. It posits that:
1. designers use creativity and emotion to generate design candidates,
2. the design process is improvised,
3. no universal sequence of stages is apparent – analysis, design and
10
implementation are contemporary and inextricably linked.
Like the Rational Model, the Action-Centric model sees design as informed by
research and knowledge. However, research and knowledge are brought into the
design process through the judgment and common sense of designers more than
through the predictable and controlled process stipulated by the Rational Model.
Designers' context-dependent experience and professional judgment take center
stage more than technical rationality.
As this perspective is relatively new, it has not yet encountered much criticism.
One possible criticism is that it is less intuitive than The Rational Model.
Послетекстовые задания
I. Какое слово в ряду является лишним?
1. research, criticism, testing, analysis
2. constraints, objectives, goals, aims
3. agent, designer, process, amateur
4. improvised, creative, intuitive, substantial
II. Сопоставьте термин в колонке А с его дефиницией в колонке В.
А
В
1. In situ -
a) “performance – appraisal
collected from “all around”.
2. Design feedback -
b) a collection of interrelated concepts,
which are antithetical to The Rational
Model.
3. Design – brief -
c) in its natural,normal, or original place
or position.
4. The Action-Centric Model -
d) an early (often the beginning) statement of design goals.
III. Являются ли утверждения истинными? Если нет, исправьте их.
1. Are there many different ways of describing design processes? How many?
2. What is the Rational Model based on?
11
data,
3. What does the Rational Model posit?
4. What are the typical stages of the design process consistent with the Rational
Model?
5. Why has the Rational Model been widely criticized?
6. Are the concepts and principles of the Action-Centric Model (Perspective)
antithetical to the Rational Model?
7. What does the Action-Centric Model posit?
8. What is the difference between the Rational Model and the Action-Centric
Model?
9. Which of the models is truer in your opinion?
Грамматические упражнения
I. Заполните пропуски глаголами в форме Present Continuous:
mow, ride, have, not go, play, wash, not clean, water, stay, eat
1. Gary is mowing the lawn.
2. Juan and Maria …. a sandwich.
3. I …. my room. I …. chess.
4. Kelly …a horse.
5. I … to the party. I … .
7. We … the car.
8. They … a dinner party on Saturday.
II. Раскройте скобки и поставьте глаголы в нужную форму: Present
Simple или Present Continuous.
Dear Molly,
I 1) … (write) from the gorgeous island of Jamaica! Jim and I 2) … (stay) in a
five-star hotel by the sea. Right now, I 3) … (sit) on the balcony and I 4) … (drink)
a delicious fruit punch. Jim 5) … (walk) along the beach. He 6) … (collect) shells
and rocks to bring back home. The weather 7) … (be) hot and sunny. We 8) …
(spend) most of the day relaxing and reading under the beautiful palm trees.
Tonight we 9) … (go) to a reggae festival and on Tuesday we 10) … (leave) for
Barbados. The Jamaican people 11) … (make) you feel happy as they 12) … (be)
cheerful and kind. I 13) … (love) it here so much that I 14) … (not/want) to leave!
See you soon.
Cindy
12
III. Выберите правильное предложение.
1. a) Most people in Thailand live in villages.
b) Most people in Thailand are living in villages.
2. a) We’re having a great time.
b) We have a great time.
3. a) What do you do now?
b) What are you doing now?
4. a) He’s flying to Oslo tomorrow.
b) He flies to Oslo tomorrow.
5. a) We see some friends this evening.
b) We are seeing some friends this evening.
6. a) Farmers are working in the fields.
b) Farmers work in the fields.
7. a) What is the Chinese like?
b) What are the Chinese like?
8. a) Brian haven’t got blue eyes.
b) Brian hasn’t got blue eyes.
9. a) A vet can treats sick animals.
b) A vet can treat sick animals.
IV. Правильно ли выбраны
предложениях? Почему?
формы
глаголов
в
следующих
1. Look! Somebody is climbing up that tree over there. 2. Can you hear those
people? What do they talk about? 3. Are you believing in God? 4. Look! That man
tries to open the door of your car. 5. The moon goes round the earth. 6. I’m
thinking it would be a good idea to leave early. 7. The Government is worried
because the number of people without jobs is increasing. 8. I’m usually going to
work by car.
V. Заполните пропуски глаголами в нужной форме.
1. We … (have) a party next Saturday. Would you like to come? 2. I … (not/go)
away for my holidays next month because I haven’t got enough money. …
(you/go) away? 3. The concert this evening … (start) at 7.30. 4. George, is it true
that you … (get) married next week? 5. The art exhibition … (open) on 6 June and
(finish) on 1 August. 6. What time …. (the train to London/leave)? Ann, we … (go)
to town. … (you/come) with us?
VI. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в нужную форму Present Continuous или
Present Simple.
13
A: Carlos 1) … (fly) to Italy next week.
B: Where 2) … (he usually/stay)?
A: When he 3) … (go) there, he 4) … (always/stay) with his cousin.
B: Why 5) … (he/go) there?
A: He 6) … (study) at University.
B: 7) … (he/come) back to England?
A: Yes, after he 8) … (finish) his exams next month.
УРОК 3
LESSON THREE
Фонетика: Повторение чтения буквы “o”.
Грамматика: .Future Simple Tense.
Тема: Прикладное искусство. Коммуникационный дизайн. Applied Arts.
Communication Design.
Предтекстовые задания
I. Прочитайте слова со следующими звуками.
[Ou] – zone, slope, motor, stone, cold, hold.
[L] – or, for, form, order, support.
[O] – borrow, from, cross, top, cost.
II. Запомните слова, необходимые для понимания текста.
1.
aesthetics, n [I:s`TetIks] – эстетика
1.
sensibilities, n [ˎsensI`bIlItIz] – восприятие
2.
overlap, n [quvq`lxp] - наложение, нахлестка
3.
posters, n [`pqustqz] – пакаты, афиши
4.
advertisements, n [qd`vWtIsmqnts] – рекламные тексты, объявления
5.
intermission, n [ˏIntq`mISqn] – пауза, перерыв ( в вещании)
6.
crafted, p.p. [`krRftId] – созданный мастером, художником
7.
media, n [`mJdjq] - средства, способы
8.
aside from, adv [q`saId] – помимо
14
9.
impact, n [`Impxkt] – влияние, воздействие
10.
typography, n [taI`pOgrqfI] – печать и оформление книг
11. ambient media
[`xmbIqnt] – эмбиент медиа – одно из наиболее
стремительно развивающихся направлений в рекламе. Спустя десятилетие, к
эмбиенту относят все нетрадиционные, небанальные, незанятые, очень часто
интегрированные в окружающую среду рекламоносители, будь это борт
Международной космической станции или дно лунки для гольфа.
12. bottom line – чистый доход
III. Переведите предложения на английский язык. Английские
эквиваленты слов и словосочетаний, выделенных курсивом, вы сможете
найти в предыдущем задании.
1. Все стены маленькой комнаты были увешаны афишами. 2. Я просмотрел
рекламные объявления в газете. 3. Благодаря средствам массовой информации мы узнаем новости очень быстро. 4. Сколько составил чистый доход ком
пании за прошлый год? 5. Помимо английского он изучает немецкий.
Чтение и перевод текста
Applied Arts
Applied art is the application of design and aesthetics to objects of function and
everyday use (for example: a cup figuring a tortoise). Whereas fine arts serve as
intellectual stimulation to the viewer or academic sensibilities as well as produced
or intended primarily for beauty; the applied arts incorporate design and creative
ideals to objects of utility, such as a cup, magazine
or decorative park bench. There is a considerable
overlap between this field and that of the decorative
arts; to some extent they are alternative terms.
The fields of industrial design, graphic design,
fashion design, interior design, decorative art and
functional art are altogether considered applied arts.
In a creative and/or abstract context, the fields of
architecture and photography are considered applied arts. Many applied art objects
are collected, for instance ceramics, textiles, jewelry, glass, furniture, children's
toys, cars, electric guitars, as well as various forms of images produced in
commercial contexts, such as film posters or old advertisements.
Communication Design
15
Communication design is a mixed discipline between design and informationdevelopment which is concerned with how media intermission such as printed,
crafted, electronic media or presentations communicate with people. A
communication design approach is not only concerned with developing the
message aside from the aesthetics in media, but also with creating new media
channels to ensure the message reaches the target audience. Some designers use
graphic design and communication design interchangeably.
Communication design can also refer to a systems-based approach, in which the
totality of media and messages within a culture or organization are designed as a
single integrated process rather than a series of discrete efforts.
Communication design seeks to attract, inspire, create desires and motivate the
people to respond to messages, with a view to making a favorable impact to the
bottom line of the commissioning body, which can be either to build a brand, move
sales, or for humanitarian purposes. Its process involves strategic business
thinking, using market research, creativity, and problem-solving.
The term communication design is often used interchangeably with visual
communication, but has an alternative broader meaning that includes auditory,
vocal, touch and smell. Examples of communication design include information
architecture, editing, typography, illustration, web design, animation, advertising,
ambient media, visual identity design, performing arts, copywriting and
professional writing skills applied in the creative industries.
Послетекстовые задания
I. Дайте объяснения следующим интернациональным терминам.
Communication, electronic presentation, audience, channel, integrated, motivate,
series, discrete, brand, humanitarian, strategic, business, market, creativity, visial,
alternative, auditory, vocal, animation, copywriting, academic, interior, abstract,
ceramics.
II. Выберите прилагательные, которые могут сочетаться со следующими
существительными:
A
B
art(s)
performing, fine, applied, intellectual,
academic,
decorative,
considerable,
functional, abstract, commercial, creative
advertisement
commercial,
creative,
alternative,
business, vocal, visual, professional,
graphic, printed, mixed, strong
16
media
beautiful, mass, electronic, ambient
III. Поместите следующие термины в соответствующие колонки.
Industrial design, decorative art, decorative art bench, glass, a cup figuring a
tortoise, advertising, photography, textile, information architecture, copywriting, a
magazine, web design, cars, children’s toys, animation, ceramics, performing arts,
typography, graphic design, furniture, fashion design, editing, functional art,
jewelry, illustration, interior design, electric guitars, visual identity design,
architecture.
Applied arts
Applied arts objects
Decorative art bench
IV. Составьте предложения со следующими словами:
1. Applied, of, objects, is, application, arts, of, function, the, and, aesthetics, to,
design.
2. Applied, are, arts, arts, and, terms, decorative, alternative.
3. Many, are, arts, collected, applied, objects.
4. Communication, is, intermission, with, with, design, concerned, people, how,
communicate, media.
Communication, to, to, to seeks, people, design, motivate, respond, messages, the.
Грамматические упражнения
I. Заполните пропуски формами will/’ll and won’t.
1. A: I want to go camping next weekend at Blue Bird Lake.
B: Who … drive you there?
A: Tom’s mother.
B: Alright. But you … be careful, … you?
2. A: I need to go shopping.
B: OK, I … give you a lift.
A: That would be great. It … take me long, so afterwards we … have time to go
for lunch.
B: That sounds wonderful!
3. A: There’s something wrong with Rocky.
B: Oh, poor thing. I … take him to the vet.
A: I … go with you. He … bark if I’m not there.
B: I hope he … bite the vet!
4. A: I think I … a barbecue at the weekend.
17
B: That’s a good idea. Who … you invite?
A: I don’t know yet. …. you help me make a list?
B: Of course.
II. Используя подсказки постройте предложения в Future Simple или
Present Continuous (be going to).
1. A: Look at the little boy!
B: He /fall/swimming pool. (He’s going to fall into the swimming pool).
2. A: It’s cold in here.
B: I/turn on/heat.
3. A: Mum, I’m hungry.
B: I/make/you/a sandwich.
4. A: What are Maggie’s plans for the summer?
B: She/travel/Italy.
5. A: Jimmy didn’t study hard for his history exam.
B: He/not pass/it.
6. A: I have a headache.
B: I/turn off/CD player.
7. A: Dad, I don’t feel well.
B: I/take/you/doctor.
8 A: Are you coming to Maria’s party?
B: Yes, I/take/Jim/with me.
III. Поставьте глагол в скобках в нужную форму Future Simple или
Present Continuous (be going to).
1. A: The doctor won’t be in tomorrow.
B: I … (visit) him today, then.
2. A: It’s very cold in here.
B: Really? I … (close) the window.
3. A: Can I watch TV?
B: No, we … (leave) soon.
4. A: Look at those dark clouds!
B: Oh no! It …. (rain) again.
5. A: We forgot to call the repairman.
B: That’s okay. I … (call) him tomorrow.
6. The repairman … (come) to fix the washing machine tomorrow.
7. A: I’m cold.
B: I … (get) you an extra blanket.
8. … (you/drive) me to the airport on Tuesday?
9. Rachel … (fly) to the Bahamas next week.
10. My son … (be) five in August.
18
11. She … (have) lunch with Doug this afternoon.
12. … (you/do) the washing-up please?
13. Rob and Molly … (celebrate) their wedding anniversary on Sunday.
14. When … (the Greens/leave) for Lima?
15. People … (live) in underwater cities in the future.
УРОК 4
LESSON FOUR
Фонетика: Повторение чтения букв “g” и “c”.
Грамматика: Время Past Simple Tense.
Тема: Архитектура. Architecture.
Предтекстовые задания
I. Прочитайте слова со следующими звуками.
[g] – grub, grader, aggregate, ground, subgrade, guide.
[G] – hydrological, carriageway, drainage, energy, original.
[k] – construct, factor, close, compaction, called, locate, cutting.
[s] – necessary, socialist, efficient, especially.
II. Запомните слова, необходимые для понимания текста.
1.
perceive, v [pW`sJv] – воспринимать
2.
ambience, n [`xmbIqns] – атмосфера, окружение
3.
manipulation, n [mq͵nIpju`leISqn] обращение
4.
coordination, n [kou͵LdI`neiSqn] – согласование
5.
encompasse, v [In`kAmpqs] – включать в себя
6.
robustly, adv [rqu`bAstlI] –крепко, прочно
7.
promote, v [prq`mqut] – выдвигать
8.
overriding, a [͵quvq`raIdIN] – основной
9.
precept, n [`prJsept] – правило
10.
notion, n [`nquSqn] – идея, мнение
11.
perception, n [pq`sepSqN] – восприятие
19
III. Переведите с английского на русский язык
1. We perceive by means of the kaleidoscopic mirror of this life. 2. This book on
English grammar encompasses all irregular verbs. 3. He was robustly built. 4. He
was promoted to senior editor. 5. The marketing department is busy promoting the
new line of men's clothes for fall. 6. The island is being promoted as a destination
for romantic getaways. 7. The ambience of a tropical island is something special. 8.
Budgetary concerns overrode all other considerations. 9. Too many existing classes
for young children have this overriding goal: To get the children ready for the first
grade. This goal is unworthy. It is hurtful. This goal has had the most distorting
impact on five-year-olds. 10. I was taught by precept and by example. 11. He has
some pretty strange notions. 12. She had a vague notion about what happened. 13.
The study disproves any notion that dolphins are not intelligent. 14. She had a
notion to try skydiving. 15. It is ironic that the impact of smoking on nonsmokers,
rather than on smokers themselves, is what finally transformed the regulation and
cultural perception of the cigarette.
Чтение и перевод текста
Architecture
Architecture is both the process and product of planning, designing and
construction. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often
perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are often
identified with their surviving architectural achievements.
In relation to buildings, architecture has
to do with the planning, designing and
constructing form, space and ambience
that reflect functional, technical, social,
environmental, and aesthetic considerations. It requires the creative manipulation and coordination of material
technology,
light
and
shadow.
Florence Cathedral. Florence, Italy
Architecture also encompasses the pragma
tic aspects of realizing buildings and structures, including scheduling, cost
estimating and construction administration. As documentation produced by
architects, typically drawings, plans and technical specifications, architecture
defines the structure and/or behavior of a building or any other kind of system that
is to be or has been constructed.
The earliest surviving written work on the subject
20
of architecture is De architectura, by the Roman architect Vitruvius in the early 1st
century AD. According to Vitruvius, a good building should satisfy the three
principles:
•
Durability – it should stand up robustly and remain in good condition.
•
Utility – it should be useful and function well The Parthenon, Athens, Greece
for the people using it.
•
Beauty – it should delight people and raise their spirits.
The great 19th century architect of skyscrapers,
Louis Sullivan, promoted an overriding precept to
architectural design: "Form follows function".
While the notion that structural and aesthetic
considerations should be entirely subject to
functionality was met with both popularity and
skepticism, it had the effect of introducing the
concept of "function" in place of Vitruvius'
The National Congress of Brazil
"utility". "Function" came to be seen as encompassing
all criteria of the use, perception and enjoyment of a building, not only practical
but also aesthetic, psychological and cultural.
Послетекстовые задания
I. Сопоставьте английские словосочетания в колонке А с их русскими
эквивалентами в колонке B.
A
1. Good condition
2. Achitecural works
3. Aesthetic considerations
4. Architectural achievements
5. Pragmatic aspect
6. Cultural symbols
7. Cost estimating
8. Construction administration
B
a) Управление строительством
b) Прагматический аспект
c) Хорошее состояние
d) Культурные символы
e) Оценка стоимости
f) Архитектурные произведения
g) Эстетические соображения
h) Достижения архитектуры
II. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту.
1. What is architecture?
2. How is it often perceived?
3. What does architecture have to do with in relation to buildings?
21
4. Does architecture define the structure and/or behavior of a building that is to be
or has been constructed?
5. What are three principles a good building should satisfy according to Vitruvius?
6. Who promoted an overriding precept to architectural design: “Form follows
function”?
7. What did the Louis Sullivan’s concept of “function” encompass?
Грамматические упражнения
I. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в форму Past Simple Tense.
1. A: … (you/go) on holiday last summer?
B: Yes, I … (go) to Hungary.
2. A: Where … (be) you last night?
B: I … (meet) a friend for dinner.
3. I … (call) her house but there … (be) no answer.
4. Yesterday Sue … (receive) a package in the post from Tom.
5. A: What … (you/do) when you … (finish) school?
B: I … (travel) through Europe.
6. I … (send) an e-mail to Marie yesterday and she … (write) back immediately.
7. A: … (they/go) to the football game on Saturday?
II. Прочтите приведенную ниже записку и поставьте глаголы в нужную
форму Present Simple, Present Continuous или Past Simple.
Dear Pam,
I 1) … (be) sorry I 2) … (not/come) to your party yesterday. As you 3) … (know) I
4) … (go) skiing three days ago. It was fantastic but I 5) … (catch) a terrible cold!
I 6) … (still/lie) in bed with a temperature! That’s why I 7) … (miss) your party.
Julie 8) … (tell) me it 9) … (be) great.
Call me as soon as you can.
Love,
Alison
III. Заполните пропуски глаголами в Past Simple Tense.
1. A: Where … (you/go) last weekend?
B: I … (visit) my grandparents on their farm.
A: … (you/enjoy) yourself?
B: Oh, yes!
A: What … (you/do)?
B: Well, on Saturday I … (go) swimming and on Sunday I … (help) my
grandfather milk the cows.
22
2. A: Uncle Tom, how … (you/spend) your time when you … (be) young?
B: First of all, we … (not/have) a television so we … (play) a lot of games.
A: Really! What else … (you/do)?
B: Well, we … (listen) to the radio and … (read) books.
IV. 10 лет назад Джерри был студентом. Сейчас он адвокат. Задайте
вопросы о прошлом и настоящем Джерри, используя приведенную ниже
модель.
A: Did Jerry use to work hard?
B: No, he didn’t. He used to study hard.
Then
Study hard
Live with his parents
Take the bus to University
Wear jeans and pullovers
Shop at discount stores
Eat fastfood at McDonald’s
Now
Work hard
Have his own house
Drive to work in his car
Wear suits
Shop at expensive stores
Eat in expensive restaurants
УРОК 5
LESSON FIVE
Фонетика: Повторение чтения буквы “u”.
Грамматика: Present Perfect Tense.
Тема: Дизайн одежды. Fashion Design.
Предтекстовые задания
I. Прочитайте слова со следующими звуками.
[A] - thus, grub, stump, must, number.
[W] – turn, purpose, burn, return.
[kw] – require, equip, quite, quality, quantity.
II. Запомните слова, необходимые для понимания текста.
1.
garment, n [`gRmqnt]- одежда, предмет одежды
1.
anticipate, v [xn`tIsIpeIt] – предвидеть, предчувствовать
23
2.
bespoke tailoring [`bIspouk] – шитье, изготовление на заказ
3.
casual, a [`kxZjuql] – элегантно небрежный
4.
freelance, a [`frJ`lRns] – фриланс
5.
cater to, v [`keItq] – зд. работать( на кого-л)
6.
apparel, n [q`pxrql] – зд. одежда
7.
painstaking, a [`peInzˏteIkIN] – тщательный, кропотливый, трудоемкий
8.
muslin, n [`mAzlIn] – муслин, (амер. миткаль)
III. Ознакомьтесь со специальными терминами, используемыми в сфере
дизайна одежды и с их толкованиями:
•
•
•
•
•
•
A fashion designer conceives garment combinations of line, proportion,
color, and texture. While sewing and pattern-making skills are beneficial,
they are not a pre-requisite of successful fashion design. Most fashion designers are formally trained or apprenticed.
A technical designer works with the design team and the factories overseas
to ensure correct garment construction, appropriate fabric choices and a
good fit. The technical designer fits the garment samples on a fit model, and
decides which fit and construction changes to make before mass-producing
the garment.
A pattern maker (or pattern cutter) drafts the shapes and sizes of a garment's pieces. This may be done manually with paper and measuring tools or
by using a CAD computer software program. Another method is to drape
fabric directly onto a dress form. The resulting pattern pieces can be constructed to produce the intended design of the garment and required size.
Formal training is usually required for working as a pattern marker.
A tailor makes custom designed garments made to the client's measure; especially suits (coat and trousers, jacket and skirt, et cetera). Tailors usually
undergo an apprenticeship or other formal training.
A textile designer designs fabric weaves and prints for clothes and furnishings. Most textile designers are formally trained as apprentices and in
school.
A stylist co-ordinates the clothes, jewelry, and accessories used in fashion
photography and catwalk presentations. A stylist may also work with an individual client to design a coordinated wardrobe of garments. Many stylists
are trained in fashion design, the history of fashion and historical costume,
and have a high level of expertise in the current fashion market and future
market trends. However, some simply have a strong aesthetic sense for pulling great looks together.
24
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
A fashion buyer selects and buys the mix of clothing available in retail
shops, department stores and chain stores. Most fashion buyers are trained in
business and/or fashion studies.
A seamstress sews ready-to-wear or mass-produced clothing by hand or
with a sewing machine, either in a garment shop or as a sewing machine operator in a factory. She (or he) may not have the skills to make (design and
cut) the garments, or to fit them on a model.
A teacher of fashion design teaches the art and craft of fashion design in art
or fashion school.
A custom clothier makes custom-made garments to order, for a given customer.
A dressmaker specializes in custom-made women's clothes: day, cocktail,
and evening dresses, business clothes and suits, trousseaus, sports clothes,
and lingerie.
An illustrator draws and paints clothing designs for commercial use.
A fashion forecaster predicts what colours, styles and shapes will be popular ("on-trend") before the garments are on sale in stores.
A model wears and displays clothes at fashion shows and in photographs.
A fit model aids the fashion designer by wearing and commenting on the fit
of clothes during their design and pre-manufacture. Fit models need to be a
particular size for this purpose.
A fashion journalist writes fashion articles describing the garments presented or fashion trends, for magazines or newspapers.
An alterations specialist (alterationist) adjusts the fit of completed garments, usually ready-to-wear, and sometimes re-styles them. NOTE: despite
tailors altering garments to fit the client, not all alterationists are tailors.
An Image Consultant, wardrobe consultant or fashion advisor recommends styles and colors that are flattering to the client.
Чтение и перевод текста
Fashion Design
Fashion design is the art of the application of design and aesthetics or natural
beauty to clothing and accessories. Fashion design is influenced by cultural and
social latitudes, and has varied over time and place. Fashion designers work in a
number of ways in designing clothing and
accessories. Some work alone or as part of
a team. They attempt to satisfy consumer
desire for aesthetically designed clothing;
and, because of the time required to bring a
garment onto the market, must at times
anticipate changing consumer tastes.
25
Fashion designers attempt to design clothes which are functional as well as
aesthetically pleasing. They must consider who is likely to wear a garment and the
situations in which it will be worn. They have a wide range and combinations of
materials to work with and a wide range of colors, patterns and styles to choose
from.
Though most clothing worn for everyday Finale of fashion show
wear
falls within a narrow range of conven tional styles, unusual garments are usually
sought for special occasions, such as evening wear or party dresses. Some clothes
are made specifically for an individual, as in the case of haute couture or bespoke
tailoring. Today, most clothing is designed for the mass market, especially casual
and every-day wear.
Fashion designers can work in a number of ways. Fashion designers may work
full-time for one fashion as 'in-house designers' which owns the designs. They may
work alone or as part of a team. Freelance designers work for themselves, selling
their designs to fashion houses, directly to shops, or to clothing manufacturers. The
garments bear the buyer's label. Some fashion designers set up their own labels,
under which their designs are marketed. Some fashion designers are self-employed
and design for individual clients. Other high-fashion designers cater to specialty
stores or high-fashion department stores. These designers create original garments,
as well as those that follow established fashion trends. Most fashion designers,
however, work for apparel manufacturers, creating designs of men’s, women’s, and
children’s fashions for the mass market. Large designer brands which have a 'name'
as their brand such as Abercrombie & Fitch, Justice, or Juicy are likely to be
designed by a team of individual designers under the direction of a designer
director.
Fashion designers work in different ways. Some sketch their ideas on paper, while
others drape fabric on a dress form. When a designer is completely satisfied with
the fit of the toile (or muslin), he or she will consult a professional pattern maker
who then makes the finished, working version of the pattern out of card or via a
computerized system. The pattern maker's job is very precise and painstaking. The
fit of the finished garment depends on their accuracy. Finally, a sample garment is
made up and tested on a model to make sure it is an operational outfit. Most of the
time fashion designers only have a fashion concept; the technicality and
construction is not thought through during the visual conception and sketching
process. Hence, the fashion designer needs to meet with a pattern maker and
sample maker to figure out if the sketch on paper can be brought to life according
its vision.
There is a number of well known specialized art schools and design schools
26
worldwide that offer degrees in fashion design and fashion design technology.
Some colleges also offer Masters of Fashion courses. Though it is not a
requirement to have a Masters level degree, it is recommended by those already
working in the industry to study at this level.
Послетекстовые задания
I. Заполните пропуски, различными частями речи, образованными от
данных слов.
noun
fashion
design
designer
verb
adjective
adverb
aesthetic
beautifull
consume
functionally
manufacturing
II. Сопоставьте термин в колонке А с его дефиницией в колонке B.
A
1. bespoke/custom tailoring 2. freelance -
3. accessories 4. brand -
5. haute couture -
6. garment -
B
a) self-employed
b) unique design, sign, symbol, words,
or a combination of these, employed in
creating an image that identifies a
product and differentiates it from its
competitors.
c) any article of clothing, as a coat, a
gown, etc.
d) the service of cutting and making a
garment by an individual specially for
an individual.
e) a subordinate or supplementary part,
object, or the like, used mainly for
convenience, attractiveness, safety, etc.,
as a spotlight on an automobile or a lens
cover on a camera.
f) the creation of exclusive custom-fitted
clothing.
27
III. Подберите заголовок к каждому из абзацев текста.
"Kutch" Design
Ready-to-wear
Haute Couture
Mass Market
Until the 1950s, fashion clothing was predominately designed and manufactured
on a made-to-measure or haute couture basis (French for high-sewing), with each
garment being created for a specific client. A couture garment is made to order for
an individual customer, and is usually made from high-quality, expensive fabric,
sewn with extreme attention to detail and finish, often using time-consuming,
hand-executed techniques. Look and fit take priority over the cost of materials and
the time it takes to make.
Ready-to-wear clothes are a cross between haute couture and mass market. They
are not made for individual customers, but great care is taken in the choice and cut
of the fabric. Clothes are made in small quantities to guarantee exclusivity, so they
are rather expensive. Ready-to-wear collections are usually presented by fashion
houses each season during a period known as Fashion Week. This takes place on a
city-wide basis and occurs twice a year. The main seasons of Fashion Week
include, spring/summer, fall/winter, resort, swim and bridal.
Currently the fashion industry relies more on mass market sales. The mass market
caters for a wide range of customers, producing ready-to-wear garments using
trends set by the famous names in fashion. They often wait around a season to
make sure a style is going to catch on before producing their own versions of the
original look. In order to save money and time, they use cheaper fabrics and
simpler production techniques which can easily be done by machine. The end
product can therefore be sold much more cheaply.
There is a type of design called "kutch" design originated from the German word
"kitschig" meaning "ugly" or "not aesthetically pleasing." Kitsch can also refer to
"wearing or displaying something that is therefore no longer in fashion." Often,
high-waisted trousers, associated with the 1980s, are considered a "kitsch" fashion
statement.
Грамматические упражнения
I. Соедините части предложений в колонках A и B.
A
B
28
1. Tom hasn’t spoken
2. Have you ever been
3. Sam has called me
4. How long have you
5. I haven’t seen my
grandmother
6. Jason has already finished
7. We are hungry because we
haven’t
8. Molly is an excellent
student and has never
a) five times this morning.
b) since I was 12 years old.
c) his honmework.
d) to Lee for three years.
e) eaten dinner yet.
f) lived in Chicago.
g) failed an exam.
h) to Singapore?
II. Используя подсказки, составьте небольшие диалоги.
Example: The dog is barking. (you/take/for a walk)
A: The dog is barking. Have you taken him for a walk?
B: No, I haven’t.
1. The food is burning. (you/turn off/oven).
A: ………………………………….
B: ………………………………….
2. The flowers are dry. (Ann water them).
3. The kitchen floor is dirty. (Scott/mop/it).
4. The baby is crying. (Carol/feed/her).
5. There isn’t any milk. (Tom and Chris/do/shopping).
6. Mary is on the phone. (you/tell her/good news).
7. The fridge isn’t working. (Sam/call/repairman).
8. Our guests are here. (Bill/set/the table).
III. Заполните пропуски, вставив have/has been или have/has gone там, где
это необходимо.
1. “Where are Mary and Steve?”
“They … to Cornwall for the weekend.”
3. “Are you going to Vienna for your holiday?”
“No, I … already … to Vienna.”
4. The Smiths … to many European countries.
5. Your sister … to the theatre tonight.
6. Dad … to the supermarket. The fridge is full.
7. I have heard that London is a pretty city but I … never … there.
8. Marie … to the shops. She should be home by 9:00.
29
IV. Выберите наиболее подходящее к данному предложению слово из двух
предложенных.
1. Has Carl painted the kitchen just/yet?
2. Pete has already/since cleaned his room.
3. We have yet/just finished eating our dinner.
4. Janet hasn’t called me back yet/already.
5. Have they returned from their trip yet/already?
6. She hasn’t seen her cousin for/just two years.
7. They have just/for returned from their trip
8. I have already/yet been to the post office.
V. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в форму Past Simple или Present Perfect.
1. A: …(you/ever/be) to Paris?
B: Yes, we ... (spend) a month in Paris two years ago.
2. A: … (you/see) Janice at the party?
B: No, I … (not/see) her for weeks.
3. A: … (Fred/visit) his grandparents in Italy?
B: Yes, he … (go) to Italy last summer to see them.
4. A: I … (eat) at Martin’s Steak House last night – the food was delicious.
B: That’s my favourite restaurant. I … (eat) there many times.
5. A: … (Mum/speak) to Jim?
B: Yes, she … (call) him this morning.
6. A: … (Michael/buy) a CD player?
B: No, he … (not/save up) enough money yet.
ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ
Введение……………………………………………………………............3
Урок I Дизайн. …….…………………...…………………….……………4
Урок 2 Дизайн как процесс. ……………………………………………...8
Урок 3 Прикладное искусство. Коммуникационный дизайн. …….....14
Урок 4 Архитектура. …………...………………………………………..18
Урок 5 Дизайн одежды. ….……………………………………………...23
30
Искусство дизайна: основные направления
Методическая разработка по английскому языку
для обучающихся на факультете СПО по специальности
«Дизайн» (по отраслям)
Составитель: Лилия Николаевна Крячко
Отпечатано в авторской редакции
Подписано в печать 31.05. 2013. Формат 60x84 1/16. Уч.-изд. л. 1.75.
Усл.-печ. л. 1.8. Бумага писчая. Заказ N Тираж 70 экз.
Отпечатано: отдел оперативной полиграфии издательства учебной
литературы и учебно-методических пособий
Воронежского ГАСУ
394006 Воронеж, ул. 20-летия Октября, 84
31
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа