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ɆɂɇɂɋɌȿɊɋɌȼɈ ɈȻɊȺɁɈȼȺɇɂə ɂ ɇȺɍɄɂ ɊɎ
ɎȿȾȿɊȺɅɖɇɈȿ ȽɈɋɍȾȺɊɋɌȼȿɇɇɈȿ
ȻɘȾɀȿɌɇɈȿ ɈȻɊȺɁɈȼȺɌȿɅɖɇɈȿ ɍɑɊȿɀȾȿɇɂȿ
ȼɕɋɒȿȽɈ ɉɊɈɎȿɋɋɂɈɇȺɅɖɇɈȽɈ ɈȻɊȺɁɈȼȺɇɂə «ȼɈɊɈɇȿɀɋɄɂɃ
ȽɈɋɍȾȺɊɋɌȼȿɇɇɕɃ ɍɇɂȼȿɊɋɂɌȿɌ»
Ȼɢɨɥɨɝɨ-ɩɨɱɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɮɚɤɭɥɶɬɟɬ
Ʉɚɮɟɞɪɚ ɡɨɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɢ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɥɨɝɢɢ
ɋɈȼɊȿɆȿɇɇɕȿ ɉɊɈȻɅȿɆɕ ɁɈɈɅɈȽɂɂ ɂ
ɉ ȺɊȺɁɂɌɈɅɈȽɂɂ
Ɇɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɵ VI Ɇɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɣ ɧɚɭɱɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɢ
«ɑɬɟɧɢɹ ɩɚɦɹɬɢ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɨɪɚ ɂ.ɂ. Ȼɚɪɚɛɚɲ-ɇɢɤɢɮɨɪɨɜɚ»
ɝ. ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ, 25 ɦɚɪɬɚ 2014 ɝ.
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ
ɂɡɞɚɬɟɥɶɫɤɢɣ ɞɨɦ ȼȽɍ
2014
ɍȾɄ 596/576.8
ȻȻɄ 28.6
ɋ56
ɇɚɭɱɧɵɣ ɪɟɞɚɤɬɨɪ – ɩɪɨɮ. ɋ.ɉ. Ƚɚɩɨɧɨɜ
Ɋɟɞɚɤɰɢɨɧɧɚɹ ɤɨɥɥɟɝɢɹ:
ɞ-ɪ ɛɢɨɥ. ɧɚɭɤ, ɩɪɨɮ. ɋ.ɉ. Ƚɚɩɨɧɨɜ (ɧɚɭɱɧɵɣ ɪɟɞɚɤɬɨɪ), ɞ-ɪ ɛɢɨɥ. ɧɚɭɤ, ɩɪɨɮ.
Ʌ.ɇ. ɏɢɰɨɜɚ (ɡɚɦ. ɧɚɭɱɧɨɝɨ ɪɟɞɚɤɬɨɪɚ), ɞ-ɪ ɛɢɨɥ. ɧɚɭɤ, ɩɪɨɮ. ȼ.ɇ. ȿɮɚɧɨɜ,
ɞ-ɪ ɛɢɨɥ. ɧɚɭɤ, ɩɪɨɮ. Ⱥ.Ⱦ. ɇɭɦɟɪɨɜ, ɞ-ɪ ɛɢɨɥ. ɧɚɭɤ, ɩɪɨɮ. ɇ.ɂ. ɉɪɨɫɬɚɤɨɜ,
ɞ-ɪ ɛɢɨɥ. ɧɚɭɤ, ɩɪɨɮ. ɇ.ɇ. ɏɚɪɱɟɧɤɨ, ɞ-ɪ ɛɢɨɥ. ɧɚɭɤ, ɩɪɨɮ. ɇ.Ⱥ. ɏɚɪɱɟɧɤɨ, ɤɚɧɞ.
ɛɢɨɥ. ɧɚɭɤ, ɞɨɰ. ɂ.Ⱥ. Ȼɭɞɚɟɜɚ (ɨɬɜ. ɫɟɤɪɟɬɚɪɶ).
ɋ56
ɋɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɡɨɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɢ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɥɨɝɢɢ : ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɵ
VI Ɇɟɠɞɭɧɚɪ. ɧɚɭɱ. ɤɨɧɮ. «ɑɬɟɧɢɹ ɩɚɦɹɬɢ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɨɪɚ ɂ.ɂ. Ȼɚɪɚɛɚɲɇɢɤɢɮɨɪɨɜɚ» (ɝ. ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ, 25 ɦɚɪɬɚ 2014 ɝ.) / ɩɨɞ ɪɟɞ. ɋ.ɉ. Ƚɚɩɨɧɨɜɚ ;
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɢɣ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ. – ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ : ɂɡɞɚɬɟɥɶɫɤɢɣ ɞɨɦ
ȼȽɍ, 2014. – 225 ɫ.
ISBN 978-5-9273-2113-1
ȼ ɫɛɨɪɧɢɤ ɜɨɲɥɢ ɫɬɚɬɶɢ ɩɨ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɦ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚɦ ɡɨɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɢ
ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɥɨɝɢɢ, ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɫɬɚɦɢ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɢ ɡɚɪɭɛɟɠɧɵɯ ɫɬɪɚɧ ɧɚ
VI Ɇɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɣ ɧɚɭɱɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɢ, ɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɧɨɣ 120-ɥɟɬɢɸ ɫɨ ɞɧɹ
ɪɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɨɪɚ ɂ.ɂ. Ȼɚɪɚɛɚɲ-ɇɢɤɢɮɨɪɨɜɚ.
ɍȾɄ 596/576.8
ȻȻɄ 28.6
ɂɡɞɚɧɨ ɜ ɚɜɬɨɪɫɤɨɣ ɪɟɞɚɤɰɢɢ
ISBN 978-5-9273-2113-1
© ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɢɣ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ, 2014
© Ɉɮɨɪɦɥɟɧɢɟ. ɂɡɞɚɬɟɥɶɫɤɢɣ ɞɨɦ ȼȽɍ, 2014
ɍȾɄ 639.2.053+551.48
ɋɈȼɊȿɆȿɇɇɈȿ ɋɈɋɌɈəɇɂȿ ɗɄɈɋɂɋɌȿɆɕ
ɒȺɊȾȺɊɂɇɋɄɈȽɈ ȼɈȾɈɏɊȺɇɂɅɂɓȺ
Ʉ.ɋ. Ȼɚɥɵɦɛɟɬɨɜ, ɇ.Ʉ. Ȼɚɥɵɦɛɟɬɨɜ,
Ɇ.Ɍ. Ʉɚɥɵɦɛɟɬɨɜɚ, ɇ.ɋ. ɋɚɦɛɚɟɜ, Ƚ.Ɍ. ɒɚɦɭɪɚɬɨɜɚ
Ⱥɪɚɥɶɫɤɢɣ ɮɢɥɢɚɥ ɌɈɈ «Ʉɚɡɚɯɫɤɢɣ ɧɚɭɱɧɨ-ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɫɤɢɣ
ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ɪɵɛɧɨɝɨ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚ», Ʉɚɡɚɯɫɬɚɧ. ɝ. Ⱥɪɚɥɶɫɤ
E-mail: [email protected]
ɒɚɪɞɚɪɢɧɫɤɨɟ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɟ ɫɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɧɨɟ ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɢ ɪ. ɋɵɪɞɚɪɢɢ
ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɧɟɩɨɫɬɨɨɹɧɧɵɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟɦ ɜɨɞɵ. ȼ ɫɬɚɬɶɟ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵ
ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɜ ɜɟɫɟɧɧɢɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ 2013 ɝ. Ⱦɚɧɵ ɝɢɞɪɨɥɨɝɨɝɢɞɪɨɯɢɦɢɱɟɤɚɹ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɚ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɚ, ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɤɨɪɦɨɜɨɣ ɛɚɡɵ,
ɜɢɞɨɜɨɣ ɫɨɫɬɚɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɵɯ ɪɵɛ.
Ʉɪɭɩɧɟɣɲɢɦ ɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɨɦ ɘɠɧɨɝɨ Ʉɚɡɚɯɫɬɚɧɚ,
ɫɨɡɞɚɧɧɵɣ
ɩɭɬɟɦ
ɡɚɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ
ɫɬɨɤɚ
ɪ.ɋɵɪɞɚɪɶɢ
ɞɥɹ
ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɚɰɢɢ ɤɚɤ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɚ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɧɨɝɨ ɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ,
ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɒɚɪɞɚɪɢɧɫɤɨɟ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɟ, ɡɚɩɭɳɟɧɧɨɟ ɜ 1965 ɝɨɞɭ.
ȼɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɟ ɧɚ ɪ.ɋɵɪɞɚɪɶɟ ɢɡɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɨ ɫɬɪɨɢɥɨɫɶ ɝɥɚɜɧɵɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ ɞɥɹ
ɧɭɠɞ ɢɪɪɢɝɚɰɢɢ ɢ ɝɢɞɪɨɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɤɢ. ɍɠɟ ɜ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɟ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɚ ɛɵɥɚ ɡɚɥɨɠɟɧɚ
8-ɦɟɬɪɨɜɚɹ ɫɪɚɛɨɬɤɚ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɩɪɢ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɣ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɟ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚ 6,5 ɦ.
ɉɥɨɳɚɞɶ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ 900 ɤɦ2, ɞɥɢɧɚ 48 ɤɦ, ɲɢɪɢɧɚ 20 ɤɦ, ɨɛɴɟɦ 5,7
ɤɦ3.Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɵɦ ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɨɦ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɒɚɪɞɚɪɢɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚ
ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɪ.ɋɵɪɞɚɪɶɹ, ɬɚɤɠɟ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɩɪɢɬɨɤ ɜɨɞɵ ɢɡ
ɪ.Ʉɟɥɟɫ (2,4-12,9%), ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɡɚɦɟɬɟɧ ɜ ɥɟɬɧɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ, ɤɨɝɞɚ ɫɬɨɤ ɪ.
ɋɵɪɞɚɪɶɢ ɪɟɡɤɨ ɫɧɢɠɚɟɬɫɹ.
Ƚɢɞɪɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɪɟɠɢɦ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚ ɜ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ
ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ ɤɚɤ ɨɬ ɜɨɞɧɨɫɬɢ ɪ.ɋɵɪɞɚɪɶɢ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɩɨɩɭɫɤɨɜ ɜɨɞɵ ɧɚ ɨɪɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɜ
ɥɟɬɧɟɟ-ɨɫɟɧɧɢɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ. ɇɚ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɪɟɠɢɦɚ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɜɨɞɵ ɜ
ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɟ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɪɟɱɧɨɣ ɫɬɨɤ, ɜ ɰɟɥɨɦ
ɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɭɸɳɢɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɭ ɜɨɞɨɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ. ȼ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɫɨɡɞɚɸɬɫɹ
ɤɨɥɟɛɚɧɢɹ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɨɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɢɱɧɨɫɬɢ, ɭɫɥɨɠɧɹɟɦɵɟ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɦ
ɝɢɞɪɨɦɟɬɟɨɪɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ. ɇɚɛɨɪ ɜɨɞɵ ɜ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɟ
ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɫ ɫɟɧɬɹɛɪɹ ɩɨ ɦɚɪɬ. Ɇɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɩɪɢɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɧɚ
ɚɩɪɟɥɶ. ɋ ɧɚɱɚɥɚ ɦɚɹ ɢ ɩɨ ɚɜɝɭɫɬ-ɫɟɧɬɹɛɪɶ ɢɞɟɬ ɢɧɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɚɹ ɫɪɚɛɨɬɤɚ
ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚ. ɋɟɡɨɧɧɵɟ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɜɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɛɚɥɚɧɫɚ ɨɛɭɫɥɨɜɥɢɜɚɸɬ
ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɭ ɤɨɥɟɛɚɧɢɹ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɢ ɢ ɨɛɴɟɦɚ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚ.
ɉɪɢɬɨɤ ɜɨɞɵ ɜ ɥɟɬɧɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɜ ɒɚɪɞɚɪɢɧɫɤɨɟ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɟ ɪɟɡɤɨ
ɭɦɟɧɶɲɚɟɬɫɹ, ɱɬɨ ɨɛɭɫɥɨɜɥɟɧɨ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɦ ɡɚɛɨɪɨɦ ɫɬɨɤɚ Ɏɚɪɯɚɞɫɤɢɦ,
Ʉɚɣɪɚɤɤɭɦɫɤɢɦ, Ɍɨɤɬɨɝɭɥɶɫɤɢɦ, ɑɟɪɜɚɤɫɤɢɦ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚɦɢ ɢ
ɢɪɪɢɝɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɦɢ ɤɚɧɚɥɚɦɢ.
3
ȼ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɣ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɟ ɜɨɞɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɛɨɥɶɲɨɟ
ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɡɚɞɚɱɢ, ɤɨɝɞɚ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɹɟɦɵɣ ɪɚɫɯɨɞ ɢɡɦɟɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɜɨ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ,
ɬ.ɟ. ɩɪɢ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɯ ɧɚɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɡɚɩɚɫɚɯ ɜɨɞɵ ɜ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɟ ɢ ɛɨɥɶɲɨɦ
ɩɪɢɬɨɤɟ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɹɟɦɵɣ ɪɚɫɯɨɞ ɩɨɜɵɲɚɥɫɹ, ɚ ɩɪɢ ɦɚɥɵɯ ɡɚɩɚɫɚɯ ɜɨɞɵ ɢ
ɦɚɥɨɦ ɩɪɢɬɨɤɟ, ɧɚɨɛɨɪɨɬ, ɩɨɧɢɠɚɥɫɹ .
ȼɟɫɧɨɣ ɞɥɹ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɚ ɪɟɡɤɚɹ "ɩɹɬɧɢɫɬɨɫɬɶ"
ɚɛɢɨɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ, ɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɧɚɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɞɜɭɯ ɦɨɳɧɵɯ
ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ - ɫ ɨɞɧɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ, ɷɬɨ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɯɨɥɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɦɭɬɧɨɝɨ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɪɟɤɢ
ɋɵɪɞɚɪɶɢ, ɫ ɞɪɭɝɨɣ, - ɧɟɪɚɜɧɨɦɟɪɧɵɣ ɩɪɨɝɪɟɜ ɥɢɬɨɪɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɡɨɧɵ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɨɣ
ɞɨ 1 ɦ ɢɞɟɬ ɨɱɟɧɶ ɛɵɫɬɪɨ. ȼ ɩɟɥɚɝɢɚɥɢ ɩɪɨɝɪɟɜ ɢɞɟɬ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ
ɦɟɞɥɟɧɧɟɟ, ɩɪɢɦɟɪɧɨ 1-2ɨɋ ɜ ɧɟɞɟɥɸ, ɚ ɜ ɡɨɧɚɯ, ɝɞɟ ɩɪɨɯɨɞɢɬ ɪɭɫɥɨ
ɪ.ɋɵɪɞɚɪɶɢ, ɫɨɯɪɚɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ ɪɟɤɢ. Ɍɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɧɨɟ ɪɚɫɫɥɨɟɧɢɟ
ɜɨɞɵ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɜ ɥɟɬɧɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɨɬ ɧɚɝɪɟɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɨɥɧɰɟɦ ɜɟɪɯɧɢɯ ɟɟ ɫɥɨɟɜ,
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɩɪɢ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɢ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɜɟɬɪɚ ɧɟ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɲɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɫ ɧɢɠɧɢɦɢ
ɫɥɨɹɦɢ. ɉɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɩɨ ɦɟɪɟ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɹ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɵ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ ɜɨɞɵ ɫɧɚɱɚɥɚ
ɩɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɨ ɩɨɧɢɠɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ 3-5°, ɡɚɬɟɦ ɞɟɥɚɟɬ ɪɟɡɤɢɣ.ɫɤɚɱɨɤ ɜ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɭ
ɩɨɧɢɠɟɧɢɹ. Ƚɪɚɧɢɰɚ ɪɚɡɧɨɫɬɢ ɷɬɢɯ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɧɵɦ
ɫɤɚɱɤɨɦ. ɉɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɝɪɚɧɢɰɚ ɧɚɫɵɳɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɜɟɪɯɧɢɯ ɫɥɨɟɜ ɜɨɞɵ ɤɢɫɥɨɪɨɞɨɦ
ɜɫɟɝɞɚ ɩɪɨɯɨɞɢɬ ɜɵɲɟ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɧɨɝɨ ɫɤɚɱɤɚ. Ƚɪɚɧɢɰɚ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɵ
ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɧɨɝɨ ɫɤɚɱɤɚ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ ɨɬ ɩɨɝɨɞɵ ɢ ɨɬ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɵ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɚ.
ɍɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɩɨɞɨɛɧɵɟ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɧɵɟ ɫɤɚɱɤɢ ɛɵɜɚɸɬ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɜ
ɜɨɞɨɟɦɚɯ ɬɢɩɚ ɨɡɟɪ ɢ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳ. ȼɟɫɟɧɧɟɟ ɧɚɝɪɟɜɚɧɢɟ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚ
ɧɚɱɢɧɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɢ ɥɟɞɨɫɬɚɜɟ. Ʉ ɦɨɦɟɧɬɭ ɨɱɢɳɟɧɢɹ ɨɬɨ ɥɶɞɚ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ ɜɨɞɵ
ɜ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɧɨɦ ɫɥɨɟ ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɟɬ 1-4ºɋ. ȼ ɦɚɪɬɟ-ɚɩɪɟɥɟ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ
ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɜ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɯ ɨɬ +5 ɞɨ +13ºɋ [2].
Ɏɢɡɢɤɨ-ɯɢɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɚ ɜɨɞɵ
ȼɨɞɚ ɜ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɟ ɧɟ ɨɬɥɢɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɣ ɩɪɨɡɪɚɱɧɨɫɬɶɸ, ɜ
ɨɬɤɪɵɬɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɚ ɨɧɚ ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɟɬ 3,5 ɦ, ɚ ɧɚ ɩɪɢɛɪɟɠɧɵɯ ɫɬɚɧɰɢɹɯ
ɦɭɬɧɚɹ, ɝɥɭɛɢɧɚ ɜ ɦɟɫɬɚɯ ɨɬɛɨɪɚ ɩɪɨɛ ɜ ɦɚɟ ɤɨɥɟɛɚɥɚɫɶ ɨɬ 1,8 ɞɨ 16,2 ɦ, ɜ
ɫɟɧɬɹɛɪɟ ɨɬ 3,2 ɞɨ 12,2 ɦ, ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɹ – 9,4 ɢ 6,2 ɦ.
ȼ ɥɟɬɧɢɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɭɟɦɵɟ ɝɨɞɵ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɚ ɪɇ ɜɨɞɵ ɩɨ ɜɫɟɣ
ɚɤɜɚɬɨɪɢɢ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚ ɢɦɟɥɚ ɫɥɚɛɨɳɟɥɨɱɧɭɸ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɸ ɢ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɥɚɫɶ ɜ
ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɯ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɣ 7.15- 7.25. Ƚɚɡɨɜɵɣ ɪɟɠɢɦ ɨɬɥɢɱɚɥɫɹ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɣ
ɫɬɚɛɢɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɸ [3].
Ʉɨɪɦɨɜɚɹ ɛɚɡɚ
Ɂɨɨɩɥɚɧɤɬɨɧ. ȼ ɜɟɫɟɧɧɢɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ 2013 ɝ. ɡɨɨɩɥɚɧɤɬɨɧ ɒɚɪɞɚɪɢɧɫɤɨɝɨ
ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚ ɛɵɥ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧ 23 ɬɚɤɫɨɧɚɦɢ: Rotifera – 10 ɬɚɤɫɨɧɨɜ,
Cladocera – 8 ɢ Copepoda – 5 ɬɚɤɫɨɧɨɜ. ɉɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɸɳɟɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɩɨ
ɜɢɞɨɜɨɦɭ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɸ ɢɦɟɥɚ ɝɪɭɩɩɚ Rotifera, ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ, ɨɞɧɚɤɨ, ɧɟ ɢɝɪɚɥɚ
ɡɚɦɟɬɧɨɣ ɪɨɥɢ ɜ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɦ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɢ ɡɨɨɩɥɚɧɤɬɨɧɚ. Ɇɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɨɣ
ɱɚɫɬɨɬɨɣ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɟɦɨɫɬɢ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɨɜɚɥɢɫɶ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɢ ɤɨɥɨɜɪɚɬɨɤ – K.
quadrata, A. priodonta, Synchaeta sp., C. mutabilis, ɫɪɟɞɢ ɜɟɫɥɨɧɨɝɢɯ – C.
vicinus, Th. taihokuensis A. viridis ɢ ɫɪɟɞɢ ɜɟɬɜɢɫɬɨɭɫɵɯ ɪɚɱɤɨɜ – D.
longispina, D. galeata, B. longirostris, Ch. sphaericus.
4
ɋɪɟɞɧɹɹ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɡɨɨɩɥɚɧɤɬɨɧɚ ɜ ɚɩɪɟɥɟ – ɦɚɟ 2013 ɝ. ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɚ –
29,75 ɬɵɫ.ɷɤɡ/ɦ3, ɩɪɢ ɛɢɨɦɚɫɫɟ 465,94 ɦɝ/ɦ2 . Ⱦɨɦɢɧɢɪɨɜɚɥɢ ɩɨ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ
ɜɟɫɥɨɧɨɝɢɟ ɪɚɤɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɟ – 43,4%, ɩɨ ɛɢɨɦɚɫɫɟ ɜɟɬɜɢɫɬɨɭɫɵɟ – 51,5%.
ɋɭɛɞɨɦɢɧɚɧɬɨɦ ɩɨ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɝɪɭɩɩɚ Cladocera (29%), ɩɨ ɛɢɨɦɚɫɫɟ
ɝɪɭɩɩɚ Copepoda (46%).
Ɇɚɤɪɨɡɨɨɛɟɧɬɨɫ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚ ɜɤɥɸɱɚɥ ɦɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɱɟɪɜɟɣ
Oligochaeta (ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ Tubifex), ɥɢɱɢɧɨɤ Insecta: Diptera:
Chironomidae (ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ Ch. plumosus, Cryptochironomus sp).
ɇɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɟɣ ɱɚɫɬɨɬɨɣ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɟɦɨɫɬɢ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɨɜɚɥɢɫɶ ɥɢɱɢɧɤɢ
Chironomidae (81%), ɪɟɠɟ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɥɢɫɶ ɱɟɪɜɢ Oligochaeta (75 %).
Ɂɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɨɛɳɟɣ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɛɢɨɦɚɫɫɵ ɛɟɫɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ
ɧɚɯɨɞɢɥɨɫɶ ɧɚ ɧɢɡɤɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ - 1466 ɷɤɡ./ɦ2 ɢ 7,85ɝ/ɦ2. Ⱦɨɦɢɧɢɪɨɜɚɥɢ ɜ
ɫɨɫɬɚɜɟ ɦɚɤɪɨɡɨɨɛɟɧɬɨɫɚ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚ ɩɨ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɦɚɥɨɳɟɬɢɧɤɨɜɵɟ
ɱɟɪɜɢ Oligochaeta, ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɹ 52,4%, ɚ ɩɨ ɛɢɨɦɚɫɫɟ Chironomidae, ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɹ
70,7 % [1].
ɂɯɬɢɨɮɚɭɧɚ
ɂɯɬɢɨɮɚɭɧɚ ɒɚɪɞɚɪɢɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚ ɫɥɨɠɢɥɚɫɶ ɢɡ ɦɟɫɬɧɵɯ
ɚɛɨɪɢɝɟɧɧɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɪɵɛ, ɧɚɫɟɥɹɜɲɢɯ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɟ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɪɟɤɢ ɋɵɪɞɚɪɶɢ, ɢ
ɪɵɛ – ɚɤɤɥɢɦɚɬɢɡɚɧɬɨɜ, ɤɚɤ ɰɟɥɟɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɨ ɜɫɟɥɹɟɦɵɯ ɜ ɜɨɞɨɟɦ ɞɥɹ
ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɹ ɟɝɨ ɪɵɛɨɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɫɥɭɱɚɣɧɵɯ ɜɫɟɥɟɧɰɟɜ. Ʉ
ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɦɭ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢɯɬɢɨɮɚɭɧɵ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɚɟɬɫɹ. ɂɡ
33 ɜɢɞɨɜ ɢ ɩɨɞɜɢɞɨɜ ɪɵɛ, ɨɛɢɬɚɜɲɢɯ ɡɞɟɫɶ ɜ ɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ
ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɚ (1965-70 ɝɝ.), ɜ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ ɝɨɞɵ ɨɬɦɟɱɚɥɢɫɶ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ 30.
Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɵɦɢ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɵɦɢ ɜɢɞɚɦɢ ɪɵɛ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ 9 ɜɢɞɨɜ: ɫɚɡɚɧ, ɥɟɳ,
ɫɭɞɚɤ, ɩɥɨɬɜɚ, ɱɟɯɨɧɶ, ɠɟɪɟɯ, ɫɨɦ, ɛɟɥɵɣ ɚɦɭɪ, ɛɟɥɵɣ ɢ ɩɟɫɬɪɵɣ
ɬɨɥɫɬɨɥɨɛɢɤɢ, ɫɟɪɟɛɪɹɧɵɣ ɤɚɪɚɫɶ. ȼ ɰɟɥɨɦ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɵɟ ɡɚɩɚɫɵ
ɢɯɬɢɨɮɚɭɧɵ ɒɚɪɞɚɪɢɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚ ɢ ɪ. ɋɵɪɞɚɪɶɢ ɞɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ
ɜɪɟɦɹ ɨɫɧɨɜɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɬɚɤɢɯ ɜɢɞɚɯ, ɤɚɤ ɫɚɡɚɧ, ɫɟɪɟɛɪɹɧɵɣ ɤɚɪɚɫɶ, ɫɭɞɚɤ,
ɬɨɥɫɬɨɥɨɛɢɤ, ɩɥɨɬɜɚ, ɥɟɳ ɢ ɫɨɦ ɜ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ ɝɨɞɵ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɦ ɨɫɜɚɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ
ɬɚɤɠɟ ɠɟɪɟɯ ɢ ɱɟɯɨɧɶ. Ɇɚɥɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɵɟ ɜɢɞɵ – ɛɟɥɵɣ ɚɦɭɪ,
ɲɟɦɚɹ, ɛɟɥɨɝɥɚɡɤɚ, ɡɦɟɟɝɨɥɨɜ ɜ ɭɥɨɜɚɯ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɟɞɢɧɢɱɧɨ.
ȼ ɯɨɞɟ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɠɟɥɚɟɦɨɝɨ ɜɢɞɨɜɨɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɚ ɢɯɬɢɨɮɚɭɧɵ ɜɦɟɫɬɟ ɫ
ɡɚɜɨɡɢɦɵɦɢ ɥɢɱɢɧɤɚɦɢ ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɹɞɧɵɯ ɪɵɛ ɫɥɭɱɚɣɧɨ ɜ ɜɨɞɨɟɦ ɩɨɩɚɥɢ
ɥɢɱɢɧɤɢ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɚ ɧɟɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɵɯ ɫɨɪɧɵɯ ɪɵɛ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɡɦɟɟɝɨɥɨɜɚ.
ȼɫɟɥɟɧɰɵ, ɧɚɣɞɹ ɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ, ɩɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɨ
ɧɚɬɭɪɢɡɨɜɚɥɢɫɶ ɜ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɟ ɢ ɧɚɲɥɢ ɧɢɲɭ ɜ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ. ɂɡ ɧɢɯ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ
ɡɦɟɟɝɨɥɨɜ, ɢɦɟɹ ɜɵɫɨɤɢɣ ɬɟɦɩ ɪɨɫɬɚ ɢ ɰɟɧɧɨɟ ɦɹɫɨ, ɜɨɲɟɥ ɜ ɫɨɫɬɚɜ
ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɵɣ ɢɯɬɢɨɮɚɭɧɵ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ, ɢɦɟɹ ɧɢɡɤɭɸ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ, ɨɧ
ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɭɥɨɜɚɯ ɪɟɞɤɨ, ɯɨɬɹ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧ ɩɨ ɜɫɟɦɭ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɭ.
ȼɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ, ɨɞɧɨɣ ɢɡ ɩɪɢɱɢɧ ɧɢɡɤɨɣ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɜɢɞɚ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ
ɧɟɫɬɚɛɢɥɶɧɵɣ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɪɟɠɢɦ, ɤɨɝɞɚ ɤ ɤɨɧɰɭ ɩɨɥɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɫɟɡɨɧɚ
ɨɬɦɟɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɫɪɚɛɨɬɤɚ ɜɨɞɵ ɞɨ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ «ɦɟɪɬɜɨɝɨ ɨɛɴɟɦɚ» (ɧɚ 6-8 ɦ), ɚ ɧɚ
ɨɫɬɚɜɲɟɣɫɹ ɦɢɧɢɦɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɢ ɜɟɞɟɬɫɹ ɢɧɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɵɣ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɟɥ ɪɵɛɵ.
5
ȼɵɫɨɤɢɟ ɬɟɦɩɵ ɛɢɨɩɪɨɞɭɰɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɢɧɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɨɟ
ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɨɝɨ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɚ ɧɚ ɧɭɠɞɵ
ɩɨɥɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɡɟɦɥɟɞɟɥɢɹ ɢ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɤɢ ɞɟɪɠɚɬ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɭ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚ ɜ
ɤɪɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɦ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɢ, ɩɪɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɦ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵ ɤɚɤ ɦɚɫɫɨɜɵɟ ɜɵɦɢɪɚɧɢɹ,
ɬɚɤ ɢ ɜɫɩɵɲɤɢ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɢɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ.
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. Ʉɢɫɟɥɟɜ Ⱥ.ɂ. ɉɥɚɧɤɬɨɧ ɦɨɪɟɣ ɢ ɤɨɧɬɢɧɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɨɜ. – Ʌ.: ɇɚɭɤɚ,
1969. – Ɍ. 1. – 558 ɫ.
2. Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɪɵɛɨɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɵɯ ɪɚɣɨɧɨɜ ɢ ɨɛɳɢɯ ɞɨɩɭɫɬɢɦɵɯ
ɭɥɨɜɨɜ ɤɪɭɩɧɵɯ ɪɵɛɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɨɜ ɪɟɫɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɢ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ
ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ. Ɋɚɡɞɟɥ: ɒɚɪɞɚɪɢɧɫɤɨɟ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɟ: Ɉɬɱɟɬ ɨ ɇɂɊ/ ɇɉɐ Ɋɏ. – Ⱥɥɦɚɬɵ,
2009- 2013ɝɝ.
3. Ɋɭɤɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ ɩɨ ɯɢɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɭ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɭ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɧɵɯ ɜɨɞ ɫɭɲɢ. – Ʌ.:
Ƚɢɞɪɨɦɟɬɟɨɢɡɞɚɬ, 1977. – 541 ɫ.
CURRENT STATE OF ECOSYSTEM OF THE SHARDARINSKY RESERVOIR
K.S. Balymbetov, N. S. Sambayev, M.T.Kalymbetova, N.K.Balymbetov,
G.T. Shamuratova
Aral Branch Kazakh Research Institute of Fishery LLP, Kazakhstan. Aralsk
E-mail: [email protected]
The Shardarinsky Reservoir was built in the middle part of of the river Syrdariya
current and characterized with a changeable water level. The gidrologogidrokhimicheky characteristic of the Reservoir, condition of food supply and
specific structure of the main commercial species of fish were given for the spring
of 2013.
ɍȾɄ 639.2.053+551.48
ɈɐȿɇɄȺ ɋɈɋɌɈəɇɂɂ ɄɈɊɆɈȼɈɃ ȻȺɁɕ ɈɁȿɊ ȺɄɒȺɌȺɍɋɄɈɃ
ɋɂɋɌȿɆɕ ɄɕɁɕɅɈɊȾɂɇɋɄɈɃ ɈȻɅȺɋɌɂ
Ʉ.ɋ. Ȼɚɥɵɦɛɟɬɨɜ, Ɇ.Ɍ. Ʉɚɥɵɦɛɟɬɨɜɚ, Ƚ.Ɍ. ɒɚɦɭɪɚɬɨɜɚ
Ⱥɪɚɥɶɫɤɢɣ ɮɢɥɢɚɥ ɌɈɈ «Ʉɚɡɚɯɫɤɢɣ ɧɚɭɱɧɨ-ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɫɤɢɣ
ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ɪɵɛɧɨɝɨ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚ», Ʉɚɡɚɯɫɬɚɧ. ɝ. Ⱥɪɚɥɶɫɤ
E-mail: [email protected]
Ⱥɤɲɚɬɚɭɫɤɚɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ ɨɡɟɪ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɚ ɜ ɧɢɡɨɜɶɟ ɪ. ɋɵɪɞɚɪɶɢ. ɋɢɫɬɟɦɚ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɚ ɩɹɬɶɸ ɨɡɟɪɚɦɢ Ⱥɤɲɚɬɚɭ, ɋɨɪɝɚɤ, Ʉɚɪɚɤɨɥɶ, ɒɨɦɵɲɤɨɥɶ,
Ʉɨɬɚɧɤɨɥɶ. ɉɪɢɜɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ
ɝɢɞɪɨɯɢɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ
ɪɟɠɢɦɚ, ɤɨɪɦɨɜɨɣ ɛɚɡɵ ɪɵɛ ɜ ɜɟɫɟɧɧɟ-ɥɟɬɧɢɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ 2013 ɝ.
6
Ɉɡɟɪɚ ɧɢɡɨɜɶɟɜ ɋɵɪɞɚɪɶɢ ɩɨ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɚɥɶɧɨɦɭ ɢ ɝɢɞɪɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɭ
ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɭ ɝɪɭɩɩɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɨɡɟɪɧɵɟ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ. ȼɚɠɧɟɣɲɢɦɢ ɢɡ ɧɢɯ ɜ ɪɵɛɧɨɦ
ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ: Ʉɚɦɵɲɥɵɛɚɲɫɤɚɹ, Ⱥɤɲɚɬɚɭɫɤɚɹ, Ⱥɤɫɚɣɫɤɚɹ,
Ʉɭɚɧɞɚɪɶɢɧɫɤɚɹ, Ʉɚɪɚɭɡɹɤɫɤɚɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɨɡɟɪ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɉɪɢɦɨɪɫɤɢɟ ɨɡɟɪɚ ɜ
Ʉɵɡɵɥɨɪɞɢɧɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ.
ɉɨ ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɸ ɫ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɦɢ ɨɡɟɪɚɦɢ, Ʉɚɦɵɲɥɵɛɚɲɫɤɢɟ ɢ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ
Ⱥɤɲɚɬɚɭɫɤɢɟ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɥɢɫɶ ɜ ɥɭɱɲɟɦ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɢ, ɛɥɚɝɨɞɚɪɹ ɫɜɨɟɣ
ɝɥɭɛɨɤɨɜɨɞɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɱɟɬɤɨ ɨɱɟɪɱɟɧɧɵɦ ɥɨɠɚɦ.
ȼ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɫɬɨɤɚ ɪ. ɋɵɪɞɚɪɶɢ, ɧɚɱɢɧɚɹ ɫ 1988 ɝɨɞɚ
ɭɥɭɱɲɢɥɨɫɶ
ɨɛɜɨɞɧɟɧɢɟ
ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ
ɨɡɟɪɧɵɯ
ɫɢɫɬɟɦ
(Ʉɚɦɵɲɥɵɛɚɲɫɤɚɹ, Ⱥɤɲɚɬɚɭɫɤɚɹ ɢ ɉɪɢɦɨɪɫɤɚɹ), ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɨ
ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɵ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɨɡɟɪɚ Ⱥɤɫɚɣɤɭɜɚɧɞɚɪɶɢɧɫɤɨɣ, Ʉɚɪɚɭɡɹɤɫɤɨɣ,
Ʉɨɧɞɚɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɣ ɢ Ɍɟɥɟɤɭɥɶɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ.
ȼ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɦɧɨɝɢɟ ɨɡɟɪɚ ɜɵɲɟɧɚɡɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɫɹ
ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɹɦɢ ɜ ɪɵɛɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɰɟɥɹɯ, ɱɬɨ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ
ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɬɶ ɢ ɧɚɪɚɳɢɜɚɬɶ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɨɜ.
ȼ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ 2013 ɝ ɫɪɟɞɧɹɹ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɚ ɜ ɦɟɫɬɚɯ ɨɬɛɨɪɚ ɩɪɨɛ ɜ
Ⱥɤɲɚɬɚɭɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ ɨɡɟɪ ɤɨɥɟɛɚɥɚɫɶ ɨɬ 1,3-3,1 ɦ. ɉɪɨɡɪɚɱɧɨɫɬɶ ɜɨɞɵ ɩɨ
ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɚ 0,5 ɦ. Ɍɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ ɜ ɚɩɪɟɥɟ ɦɨɦɟɧɬ ɨɬɛɨɪɚ
ɩɪɨɛ ɤɨɥɟɛɚɥɚɫɶ ɨɬ 19,5 ɞɨ 21,2 °ɋ. ȼɨɞɚ ɜ ɨɡɟɪɚɯ Ⱥɤɲɚɬɚɭɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ
ɢɦɟɟɬ ɫɥɚɛɨɳɟɥɨɱɧɭɸ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɸ, ɜɨɞɨɪɨɞɧɵɣ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɜ
ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɯ – 7,15-7,75. ɋɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɪɚɫɬɜɨɪɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɜ ɜɨɞɟ ɤɢɫɥɨɪɨɞɚ ɛɵɥɨ
ɧɟɜɵɫɨɤɢɦ ɢ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɦɟɧɹɥɨɫɶ ɜ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɚ. ɍɪɨɜɟɧɶ
ɜɨɞɧɨɫɬɢ Ⱥɤɲɚɬɚɭɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɜɨ ɦɧɨɝɨɦ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ ɨɬ ɩɨɫɬɭɩɥɟɧɢɹ ɪɟɱɧɨɣ
ɜɨɞɵ, ɬɚɤɠɟ ɨɬ ɫɟɡɨɧɧɵɯ ɤɨɥɟɛɚɧɢɣ ɫɬɨɤɨɜ. ɋɪɟɞɧɟɟ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɤɢɫɥɨɪɨɞɚ
ɜ ɜɨɞɟ Ⱥɤɲɚɬɚɭɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɨ 5,95 ɦɝ/ɞɦ3 ɋɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ
ɪɚɫɬɜɨɪɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɤɢɫɥɨɪɨɞɚ ɨɩɬɢɦɚɥɶɧɨ ɞɥɹ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢɯɬɢɨɮɚɭɧɵ.
ɋɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɨɬɦɟɬɢɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɧɟ ɜɫɟ ɨɡɟɪɚ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɟ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɫɨɛɨɣ.
ȼ 2013 ɝ. ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɨ ɧɢɡɤɨɟ ɩɨɫɬɭɩɥɟɧɢɟ ɜɨɞɵ ɜ ɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɨɡɟɪɚ
Ⱥɤɲɚɬɚɭ ɢ ɋɨɪɝɚɤ. Ɇɢɧɟɪɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ Ⱥɤɲɚɬɚɭɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɜɚɪɶɢɪɨɜɚɥɨ ɨɬ
1428-2698 ɦɝ/ɞɦ3 . ɇɚɢɦɟɧɶɲɚɹ ɦɢɧɟɪɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɚ ɞɥɹ ɨɡɟɪ
ɒɨɦɵɲɤɨɥɶ – 1428 ɦɝ/ɞɦ3. ɋɪɟɞɧɹɹ ɦɢɧɟɪɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɜɨɞɵ ɩɨ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ
ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɚ 2110 ɦɝ/ɞɦ3 [1].
Ʉɨɪɦɨɜɚɹ ɛɚɡɚ Ɂɨɨɩɥɚɧɤɬɨɧ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɨɜ ɜ ɥɟɬɧɢɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ 2013 ɝ.
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧ ɱɟɬɵɪɶɦɹ ɝɪɭɩɩɚɦɢ ɛɟɫɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ – Rotifera, Copepoda,
Cladocera ɢ Mollusca [2]. ɇɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɟɣ ɱɚɫɬɨɬɨɣ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɟɦɨɫɬɢ
ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɨɜɚɥɢɫɶ ɫɪɟɞɢ ɤɨɥɨɜɪɚɬɨɤ - Keratella quadrata, Collotheca
mutabilis, Asplanchna priodonta, ɢɡ ɜɟɫɥɨɧɨɝɢɯ ɪɚɱɤɨɜ - Cyclops vicinus,
Calanipeda aquaedulcis, Acanthocyclops viridis, ɫɪɟɞɢ ɜɟɬɜɢɫɬɨɭɫɵɯ Chydorus sphaericus, Ceriodaphnia reticulate, Bosmina longirostris [4].
ɉɨ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɛɢɨɦɚɫɫɟ ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɨɜɚɥɢ ɜɟɫɥɨɧɨɝɢɟ ɪɚɱɤɢ –
Copepoda – 78,7 % ɢ 63,8 %, ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ. ɍɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɨɛɳɟɣ ɛɢɨɦɚɫɫɵ
ɤɨɥɟɛɚɥɫɹ ɩɨ ɨɡɟɪɚɦ ɨɬ 136,5 ɞɨ 1976,3 ɦɝ/ɦ3, ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦ ɩɨ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ
ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɹ 1056,40 ɦɝ/ɦ3 (ɬɚɛɥ 1).
7
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 1
Ʉɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɝɪɭɩɩ ɡɨɨɩɥɚɧɤɬɨɧɚ
Ⱥɤɲɚɬɚɭɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɨɡɟɪ, ɦɚɣ-ɢɸɧɶ 2013 ɝ.
ɉɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶ
Rotifera
Copepoda
Cladocera
ɉɪɨɱɢɟ
ȼɫɟɝɨ
ɑɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ,
ɬɵɫ.ɷɤɡ/ɦ3
6,74
116,84
22,35
0,38
146,31
Ȼɢɨɦɚɫɫɚ,
ɦɝ/ɦ3
2,82
664,52
388,50
0,56
1056,40
Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɩɥɚɧɤɬɨɧɧɵɯ
ɛɟɫɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɨɜɚɥ ɨɡɟɪɚ Ⱥɤɲɚɬɚɭɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɜ ɥɟɬɧɢɣ
ɩɟɪɢɨɞ 2013 ɝ. ɤɚɤ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɵ «ɭɦɟɪɟɧɧɨɝɨ» ɤɥɚɫɫɚ, Į-ɦɟɡɨɬɪɨɮɧɨɝɨ ɬɢɩɚ.
Ɇɚɤɪɨɡɨɨɛɟɧɬɨɫ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧ ɥɢɱɢɧɤɚɦɢ Chironomidae,
ɨɥɢɝɨɯɟɬɚɦɢ ɢ ɦɨɤɪɟɰɚɦɢ Ceratopogonidae. ɇɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɟɣ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɢ
ɛɢɨɦɚɫɫɨɣ ɨɬɥɢɱɚɥɢɫɶ ɯɢɪɨɧɨɦɢɞɵ, ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɹ 62 % ɢ 56 %, ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ
[3]. ɍɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɛɢɨɦɚɫɫɵ ɩɨ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɥɚ ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦ 2,72 ɝ/ɦ2.
Ʉɨɪɦɧɨɫɬɶ ɞɥɹ ɪɵɛ ɧɚ ɭɦɟɪɟɧɧɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ (ɬɚɛɥ 2).
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 2
Ʉɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɝɪɭɩɩ ɡɨɨɛɟɧɬɨɫɚ
Ⱥɤɲɚɬɚɭɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɨɡɟɪ, ɦɚɣ-ɢɸɧɶ 2013 ɝ.
ɉɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶ
Chironomidae
Oligochaeta
Ceratopogonidae
ɑɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ,
840
446
40
ɷɤɡ/ɦ2
Ȼɢɨɦɚɫɫɚ,
5,82
0,04
4,6
ɝ/ɦ2
ɉɨ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɚɦ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ 2013 ɝ. Ⱥɤɲɚɬɚɭɫɤɚɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ ɨɡɟɪ
ɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɚɥɚ ɤ «ɭɦɟɪɟɧɧɨɦɭ» ɤɥɚɫɫɭ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɟɣ, Į –
ɦɟɡɨɬɪɨɮɧɨɦɭ ɬɢɩɭ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɨɜ.
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. Ⱥɦɢɪɝɚɥɢɟɜ ɇ.Ⱥ. Ⱥɪɚɥɨ-ɋɵɪɞɚɪɢɧɫɤɢɣ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧ : ɝɢɞɪɨɯɢɦɢɹ , ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ
ɜɨɞɧɨɣ ɬɨɤɫɢɤɨɥɨɝɢɢ.
2. Ɇɟɬɨɞɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɪɟɤɨɦɟɧɞɚɰɢɢ ɩɨ ɫɛɨɪɭ ɢ ɨɛɪɚɛɨɬɤɟ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɨɜ ɩɪɢ
ɝɢɞɪɨɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹɯ ɧɚ ɩɪɟɫɧɨɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɚɯ. Ɂɨɨɩɥɚɧɤɬɨɧ ɢ ɟɝɨ
ɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɹ. – Ʌ., 1984. – 54 ɫ.
3. Ɇɟɬɨɞɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɪɟɤɨɦɟɧɞɚɰɢɢ ɩɨ ɫɛɨɪɭ ɢ ɨɛɪɚɛɨɬɤɟ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɨɜ ɩɪɢ
ɝɢɞɪɨɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹɯ ɧɚ ɩɪɟɫɧɨɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɚɯ. Ɂɨɨɛɟɧɬɨɫ ɢ ɟɝɨ
ɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɹ. – Ʌ., 1984. – 74 ɫ.
4. Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟɥɶ ɩɪɟɫɧɨɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɛɟɫɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɢ ɫɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ
ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɣ: ɇɢɡɲɢɟ ɛɟɫɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɟ. – ɋ-ɉɛ.: Ɂɨɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ Ɋɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɣ
Ⱥɤɚɞɟɦɢɢ ɧɚɭɤ, 1994. – Ɍ. 1. – 400 ɫ.
8
ASSESSMENT OF FOOD SUPPLY CONDITION OF THE LAKES
AKSHATAUSKAYA OF THE SYSTEM OF KYZYLORDA AREA
K.S. Balymbetov, M. T. Kalymbetova, G.T. Shamuratova
Aral branch Kazakh Research Institute of Fishery LLP, Kazakhstan. Aralsk
E-mail: [email protected]
The Akshatausky system of the lakes is located at the Syr-Darya River lower
reach. The system is represented by five lakes Akshatau, Sorgak, Karakol,
Shomyshkol, Kotankol. Results of the research of a hydrochemical mode, food
supply of fish are given for spring and summer period of 2013.
ɍȾɄ 639.2.053+551.48
ɈɐȿɇɄȺ ɋɈɋɌɈəɇɂɂ ɄɈɊɆɈȼɈɃ ȻȺɁɕ ɈɁȿɊ
ɄȺɆɕɋɌɕȻȺɋɋɄɈɃ ɋɂɋɌȿɆɕ ɄɕɁɕɅɈɊȾɂɇɋɄɈɃ ɈȻɅȺɋɌɂ
Ʉ.ɋ. Ȼɚɥɵɦɛɟɬɨɜ, Ɇ.Ɍ. Ʉɚɥɵɦɛɟɬɨɜɚ, Ƚ.Ɍ. ɒɚɦɭɪɚɬɨɜɚ
Ⱥɪɚɥɶɫɤɢɣ ɮɢɥɢɚɥ ɌɈɈ «Ʉɚɡɚɯɫɤɢɣ ɧɚɭɱɧɨ-ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɫɤɢɣ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ
ɪɵɛɧɨɝɨ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚ», Ʉɚɡɚɯɫɬɚɧ. ɝ. Ⱥɪɚɥɶɫɤ
E-mail: [email protected]
ȼ ɫɬɚɬɶɟ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɜ ɜɟɫɟɧɧɟ-ɥɟɬɧɢɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ 2013
ɝ. Ⱦɚɧɵ ɤɪɚɬɤɚɹ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɚ ɝɢɞɪɨɯɢɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɟɠɢɦɚ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɨɜ,
ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɝɪɭɩɩ ɤɨɪɦɨɜɨɣ ɛɚɡɵ ɪɵɛ.
ɉɪɢɜɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɩɨ ɤɨɪɦɧɨɫɬɢ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɨɜ.
Ɉɡɟɪɧɚɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ ɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɤɚɤ ɦɧɨɝɨɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɧɵɣ
ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɣ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɨɛɴɟɤɬ, ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɭɸɳɢɣ ɩɨɞ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɦ
ɚɤɬɢɜɧɵɯ (ɤɥɢɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ) ɢ ɚɞɚɩɬɢɜɧɵɯ (ɩɨɞɫɬɢɥɚɸɳɚɹ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɶ)
ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɚ ɢ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɣ
ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɨɣ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ. ɋɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ, ɨɡɟɪɧɭɸ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɭ ɦɨɠɧɨ
ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɬɶ ɤɚɤ ɩɨɞɫɢɫɬɟɦɭ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ. ȼ ɫɜɨɸ
ɨɱɟɪɟɞɶ, ɧɟɨɬɴɟɦɥɟɦɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɶɸ ɨɡɟɪɧɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɜɨɞɧɚɹ
ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ.
Ʉɚɦɵɫɬɵɛɚɫɤɚɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ ɨɡɟɪ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɚ ɧɚ ɩɪɚɜɨɦ ɛɟɪɟɝɭ
ɪ.ɋɵɪɞɚɪɶɢ ɜ 60ɤɦ ɨɬ ɟɟ ɭɫɬɶɹ. ɋɢɫɬɟɦɚ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɚ ɩɹɬɶɸ ɨɡɟɪɚɦɢ
ɀɚɥɚɧɚɲ, Ɋɚɢɦ, Ʉɚɹɡɞɵ, Ʌɚɣɤɨɥɶ ɢ Ʉɚɦɵɫɬɵɛɚɫ ɫɨɟɞɢɧɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɦɟɠɞɭ
ɫɨɛɨɣ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɢɦɢ ɩɪɨɬɨɤɚɦɢ. ɋɚɦɵɦ ɤɪɭɩɧɵɦ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɨɡ. Ʉɚɦɵɫɬɵɛɚɫ,
ɡɚɧɢɦɚɸɳɟɟ 80% ɨɛɳɟɣ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɢ ɜɫɟɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ. ɍɱɢɬɵɜɚɹ, ɱɬɨ ɜɟɞɭɳɢɦɢ
ɦɨɪɮɨɦɟɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɹɦɢ, ɜɥɢɹɸɳɢɦɢ ɧɚ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɜɧɟɲɧɟɝɨ
ɜɨɞɨɨɛɦɟɧɚ ɨɡɟɪ ɡɨɧɵ ɢɡɛɵɬɨɱɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨɝɨ ɭɜɥɚɠɧɟɧɢɹ, ɦɨɠɧɨ
ɨɬɧɟɫɬɢ ɤ ɦɚɥɨɦɭ ɤɥɚɫɫɭ, ɬɚɤ ɤɚɤ ɭɞɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɜɨɞɨɫɛɨɪ ɢ ɨɛɴɟɦ ɜɨɞɧɨɣ ɦɚɫɫɵ
ɡɞɟɫɶ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɢɟ, ɫ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɵɦ ɛɨɥɨɬɧɵɦ ɫɭɛɫɬɪɚɤɬɨɦ [1].
9
Ƚɢɞɪɨɯɢɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɪɟɠɢɦ Ʉɚɦɵɫɬɵɛɚɫɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ ɨɡɟɪ ɜɨ ɦɧɨɝɨɦ
ɨɛɭɫɥɨɜɥɟɧɨ
ɜɨɞɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɧɚɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɹ ɪɟɱɧɵɦɢ ɜɨɞɚɦɢ.
Ƚɥɭɛɢɧɚ
ɨɛɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɨɜ ɤɨɥɟɛɚɥɚɫɶ ɨɬ 1,5 ɞɨ 5,3 ɦ. ɉɪɨɡɪɚɱɧɨɫɬɶ ɛɵɥɚ ɧɟ
ɜɵɫɨɤɨɣ, ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɹ 1,1 ɦ. Ɍɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ ɜɨɞɵ ɜ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɛɵɥɚ ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦ ɪɚɜɧɚ 17,8-19,5 °ɋ. ȼɨɞɚ ɜ ɨɡɟɪɚɯ
Ʉɚɦɵɫɬɵɛɚɫɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɡɚ ɜɟɫɶ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɢɦɟɥɚ
ɫɥɚɛɨɳɟɥɨɱɧɭɸ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɸ.
ȼɨɞɨɪɨɞɧɵɣ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɨɜ ɤɨɥɟɛɚɥɫɹ
ɨɬ 7,15 ɞɨ 8,10 ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦ ɢɦɟɹ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ 7,75. Ʉɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɹ ɤɢɫɥɨɪɨɞɚ ɜ
ɜɨɞɟ ɛɵɥɚ ɧɟɜɵɫɨɤɨɣ, ɧɨ ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨɣ ɞɥɹ ɠɢɡɧɟɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ
ɝɢɞɪɨɛɢɨɧɬɨɜ. ɇɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɟɟ ɧɚɫɵɳɟɧɢɟ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɥɨɫɶ ɜ ɨɡ. Ʉɚɦɵɫɬɵɛɚɫ –
6,39-7,45 ɦɝ/ɞɦ3 ɧɚɢɦɟɧɶɲɟɟ ɜ ɨɡ. Ʉɚɹɡɞɵ – 4,40-5,49 ɦɝ/ɞɦ3 ɫɪɟɞɧɟɟ
ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɹ ɩɨ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɚ 5,65ɦɝ/ɞɦ3 [4].
ȼ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ ɝɨɞɵ ɜɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɢɬɨɤɚ ɪɟɱɧɨɣ ɜɨɞɵ ɜ
ɜɟɫɟɧɧɟ-ɥɟɬɧɢɟ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɵ ɜ ɨɡɟɪɧɵɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɯ ɦɢɧɟɪɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɩɨɧɢɡɢɥɚɫɶ.
Ɇɢɧɟɪɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɜ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ ɨɡɟɪ ɜɚɪɶɢɪɭɟɬ ɜ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɯ 714-2014 ɦɝ/ɞɦ3.
ɋɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɨɬɦɟɬɢɬɶ ɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɬɨɤɚ ɪɟɱɧɨɣ ɜɨɞɵ
ɜ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɭ.
ȼ ɥɟɬɧɢɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ 2013 ɝ. ɡɨɨɩɥɚɧɤɬɨɧ ɜ Ʉɚɦɵɫɬɵɛɚɫɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ ɨɡɟɪ
ɛɵɥ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧ ɱɟɬɵɪɶɦɹ ɝɪɭɩɩɚɦɢ ɛɟɫɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ – Rotifera, Copepoda,
Cladocera
ɢ
Mollusca.
Ɇɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɨɣ
ɱɚɫɬɨɬɨɣ
ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɟɦɨɫɬɢ
ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɨɜɚɥɢɫɶ - Brachionus quadridentatus, Keratella quadrata,
Asplanchna priodonta, Cyclops vicinus, Calanipeda aquaedulcis, Mesocyclops
leuckarti, Chydorus sphaericus, Bosmina longirostris, Daphnia galeata.
(Ɂɨɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ Ɋɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɣ Ⱥɤɚɞɟɦɢɢ ɧɚɭɤ, 1994).
ɉɨ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɛɢɨɦɚɫɫɟ ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɨɜɚɥɢ ɜɟɫɥɨɧɨɝɢɟ ɪɚɱɤɢ –
Copepoda – 56,4 % ɢ 76,4 % ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ, ɞɚɥɟɟ ɩɨ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɝɪɭɩɩɚ
ɤɨɥɨɜɪɚɬɨɤ Rotifera, ɩɨ ɛɢɨɦɚɫɫɟ ɝɪɭɩɩɚ Cladocera – 32,6 % ɢ 16,4 %
ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ. ɋɪɟɞɧɹɹ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɡɨɨɩɥɚɧɤɬɨɧɚ ɩɨ ɨɡɟɪɚɦ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɚ
174,40 ɬɵɫ.ɷɤɡ/ɦ3 ɛɢɨɦɚɫɫɚ 1011,67 ɦɝ/ɦ3 (ɬɚɛɥ 1).
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 1
Ʉɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɝɪɭɩɩ ɡɨɨɩɥɚɧɤɬɨɧɚ
Ʉɚɦɵɲɥɵɛɚɲɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɨɡɟɪ, ɦɚɣ-ɢɸɧɶ 2013 ɝ.
ɉɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶ
Rotifera
Copepoda
Cladocera
ɉɪɨɱɢɟ
ɑɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ,
63,18
100,34
10,51
0,37
ɬɵɫ.ɷɤɡ/ɦ3
Ȼɢɨɦɚɫɫɚ,
32,68
791,39
186,94
0,66
ɦɝ/ɦ3
ȼɫɟɝɨ
174,40
1011,6
7
ɍɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɩɥɚɧɤɬɨɧɧɵɯ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ
ɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨɜɚɥ ɨɛ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢ ɨɡɟɪ Ʉɚɦɵɲɥɵɛɚɲɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɤ
«ɭɦɟɪɟɧɧɨɦɭ» ɤɥɚɫɫɭ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɟɣ, Į-ɦɟɡɨɬɪɨɮɧɨɦɭ ɬɢɩɭ ɩɨ
ɋ.ɉ. Ʉɢɬɚɟɜɭ [2].
10
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 2
Ʉɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɝɪɭɩɩ ɡɨɨɛɟɧɬɨɫɚ
Ʉɚɦɵɲɥɵɛɚɲɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɨɡɟɪ, ɦɚɣ-ɢɸɧɶ 2013 ɝ.
ɉɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶ
Chironomidae
Oligochaeta
Amphipoda Mysidacea
ɑɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ,
3063
2040
80
40
ɷɤɡ/ɦ2
Ȼɢɨɦɚɫɫɚ, ɝ/ɦ2
8,44
3,66
0,08
0,04
Ɇɚɤɪɨɡɨɨɛɟɧɬɨɫ. ȼ ɥɟɬɧɢɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ 2013 ɝ. ɡɨɨɛɟɧɬɨɫ ɨɡɟɪ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧ
ɥɢɱɢɧɤɚɦɢ Chironomidae ɢ ɨɥɢɝɨɯɟɬɚɦɢ Oligochaeta. Ɍɚɤɠɟ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɥɢɫɶ
ɛɨɤɨɩɥɚɜɵ Dikerogammarus aralensis, ɦɢɡɢɞɵ Paramysis intermedia [3].
Ȼɢɨɦɚɫɫɚ ɞɨɧɧɵɯ ɛɟɫɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɤɨɥɟɛɚɥɚɫɶ ɨɬ 1,64 ɞɨ 3,68 ɝ/ɦ2, ɜ
ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦ ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɹ 2,66 ɝ/ɦ2. ɉɨ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɛɢɨɦɚɫɫɟ ɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɥɢ
ɯɢɪɨɧɨɦɢɞɵ, ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɹ 56,8 % ɢ 61 % ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ (ɬɚɛɥ. 2).
ɉɨ ɢɬɨɝɚɦ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ 2013 ɝ. ɨɡɟɪɚ Ʉɚɦɵɫɬɵɛɚɫɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ
ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɸɬɫɹ ɭɦɟɪɟɧɧɨɣ ɤɨɪɦɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɞɥɹ ɢɯɬɢɨɮɚɭɧɵ.
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. Ɋɭɤɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ ɩɨ ɯɢɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɭ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɭ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɧɵɯ ɜɨɞ ɫɭɲɢ. – Ʌ.:
Ƚɢɞɪɨɦɟɬɟɨɢɡɞɚɬ, 1977.- 541 ɫ.
2. Ʉɢɬɚɟɜ ɋ.ɉ. Ɉ ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɬɪɨɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɭɪɨɜɧɟɣ ɢ «ɲɤɚɥɵ
ɬɪɨɮɧɨɫɬɢ» ɨɡɟɪ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɡɨɧ // Ɍɟɡ. ɞɨɤɥ. V ɫɴɟɡɞɚ ȼȽȻɈ ɝ. Ɍɨɥɶɹɬɬɢ, 15-19
ɫɟɧɬ. 1986 ɝ. – Ʉɭɣɛɵɲɟɜ, 1986. – ɑ. 2. – ɋ. 254-255.
3. Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟɥɶ ɩɪɟɫɧɨɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɛɟɫɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɢ ɫɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ
ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɣ: ɇɢɡɲɢɟ ɛɟɫɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɟ. – ɋ-ɉɛ.: Ɂɨɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ Ɋɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɣ
Ⱥɤɚɞɟɦɢɢ ɧɚɭɤ, 1994. – Ɍ. 1. – 400 ɫ.
Ɉɛɳɢɯ ɞɨɩɭɫɬɢɦɵɯ ɭɥɨɜɨɜ ɧɚ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɚɯ
4. Ȼɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɟ //
ɨɛɥɚɫɬɧɨɝɨ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ Ʉɵɡɵɥɨɪɞɢɧɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ. 2010-2013
ASSESSMENT OF FOOD SUPPLY CONDITION OF THE LAKES OF
THE KAMYSTYBASS SYSTEM OF KYZYLORDA AREA
K.S. Balymbetov, M. T. Kalymbetova, G.T. Shamuratova
Aral branch Kazakh Research Institute of Fishery LLP, Kazakhstan. Aralsk
E-mail: [email protected]
In article results of researches are given to the spring and summer period of 2013.
The short characteristic of a hydrochemical mode of reservoirs, quantitative
indices of the main groups of food supply of fishes are given. Data about food
capacity of the reservoirs are provided.
11
ɍȾɄ 598.8 591.5
ɉɈɁȾɇȿȿ ȽɇȿɁȾɈȼȺɇɂȿ ɄɈɇɈɉɅəɇɄɂ ȼ Ƚ. ɊəɁȺɇɂ
Ⱥ.ȼ. Ȼɚɪɚɧɨɜɫɤɢɣ
ɋɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɣ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ, ɝ. Ɋɹɡɚɧɶ,
E-mail: [email protected]
ȼ 2000-2013 ɝɝ. ɜ ɝ. Ɋɹɡɚɧɢ ɦɵ ɢɡɭɱɚɥɢ ɪɟɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɭɸ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɸ
ɤɨɧɨɩɥɹɧɤɢ. ɋ ɧɚɱɚɥɚ ɨɬɤɥɚɞɤɢ ɹɢɰ ɩɪɨɫɥɟɠɟɧɚ ɫɭɞɶɛɚ 73 ɝɧɟɡɞ.
Ɉɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɨ ɬɪɢ ɫɥɭɱɚɹ ɩɨɡɞɧɟɝɨ ɝɧɟɡɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ (ɤɨɧɟɰ ɢɸɥɹ – ɚɜɝɭɫɬ), ɞɜɚ ɢɡ
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɛɵɥɢ ɭɫɩɟɲɧɵɦɢ.
ȼ 2000-2013 ɝɝ. ɜ ɦɵ ɢɡɭɱɚɥɢ ɪɟɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɭɸ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɸ ɤɨɧɨɩɥɹɧɤɢ
(Akanthis cannabina L.). ɋ ɧɚɱɚɥɚ ɨɬɤɥɚɞɤɢ ɹɢɰ ɩɪɨɫɥɟɠɟɧɚ ɫɭɞɶɛɚ 73 ɝɧɟɡɞ
[1, 2]. ȼ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɟ ɝɧɟɡɞ ɨɬɤɥɚɞɤɚ ɹɢɰ ɩɟɪɜɨɣ ɤɥɚɞɤɢ ɧɚɱɚɥɚɫɶ ɜ ɩɟɪɜɨɣ
ɩɨɥɨɜɢɧɟ ɦɚɹ, ɜɬɨɪɨɣ – ɜ ɫɟɪɟɞɢɧɟ ɢɸɧɹ.
Ɉɬɤɥɚɞɤɚ ɹɢɰ ɜ ɨɞɧɨɦ ɢɡ ɝɧɟɡɞ (2005 ɝ) ɧɚɱɚɥɚɫɶ ɧɟɨɛɵɱɧɨ ɩɨɡɞɧɨ, 20
ɢɸɥɹ, ɢ ɢɡ 4 ɹɢɰ ɧɢ ɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɩɬɟɧɰɚ ɬɚɤ ɢ ɧɟ ɜɵɥɭɩɢɥɨɫɶ, 14 ɚɜɝɭɫɬɚ ɩɬɢɰɵ
ɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɢ ɝɧɟɡɞɨ, ɩɨɫɥɟ ɧɚɫɢɠɢɜɚɧɢɹ, ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɩɪɟɜɵɲɚɸɳɟɝɨ
ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɟ ɞɥɹ ɜɵɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɩɬɟɧɰɨɜ ɜɪɟɦɹ (12-13 ɞɧɟɣ). ȼɟɪɨɹɬɧɨ, ɩɪɢ
ɩɨɡɞɧɟɦ ɝɧɟɡɞɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɤ ɦɨɦɟɧɬɭ ɤɥɚɞɤɢ ɨɞɧɚ ɢɥɢ ɨɛɟ ɩɬɢɰɵ ɭɠɟ ɛɵɥɢ
ɮɢɡɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɧɟɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɵ ɤ ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɟɧɢɸ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɜ 2010 ɝ. 28 ɚɜɝɭɫɬɚ
ɧɚɦɢ ɛɵɥ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɟɧ ɩɥɨɯɨ ɥɟɬɚɸɳɢɣ ɫɥɟɬɨɤ ɤɨɧɨɩɥɹɧɤɢ ɜ ɫɨɩɪɨɜɨɠɞɟɧɢɢ
ɪɨɞɢɬɟɥɟɣ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ, ɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɨ, ɩɨɹɜɢɥɫɹ ɜ ɧɚɱɚɥɟ ɜɬɨɪɨɣ ɞɟɤɚɞɵ ɷɬɨɝɨ
ɦɟɫɹɰɚ, ɬɨ ɟɫɬɶ ɢɡ ɹɢɰ, ɨɬɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɜ ɟɳɟ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɩɨɡɞɧɢɟ ɫɪɨɤɢ.
ȼ 2013 ɝ. ɧɚ ɞɚɱɧɨɦ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɟ (ɋɩɚɫɫɤɢɣ ɪɚɣɨɧ Ɋɹɡɚɧɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ) ɧɚɦɢ
ɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɧɨ ɫ ȼ.ȼ. Ɍɭɚɪɦɟɧɫɤɢɦ ɡɚɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɚ ɜɬɨɪɚɹ ɫɬɨɥɶ ɠɟ ɩɨɡɞɧɹɹ
ɤɥɚɞɤɚ ɤɨɧɨɩɥɹɧɤɢ – 20 ɢɸɥɹ ɜ ɝɧɟɡɞɟ ɩɨɹɜɢɥɨɫɶ ɩɟɪɜɨɟ ɹɣɰɨ [6]. ȼ
ɤɨɥɨɧɢɢ ɤɨɧɨɩɥɹɧɨɤ, ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɜ ɷɬɨɦ ɝɨɞɭ ɝɧɟɡɞɢɥɚɫɶ ɧɚ ɞɚɱɧɨɦ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɟ, ɤ
ɷɬɨɦɭ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɡɚɤɚɧɱɢɜɚɥɨɫɶ ɧɚɫɢɠɢɜɚɧɢɟ ɧɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɜɬɨɪɵɯ ɤɥɚɞɨɤ, ɱɬɨ
ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɦɵ ɢɦɟɟɦ ɞɟɥɨ ɫ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɤɥɚɞɤɨɣ,
ɩɨɫɥɟ ɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɭɫɩɟɲɧɨɝɨ ɰɢɤɥɚ ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɨɞɧɨɣ ɩɨɬɟɪɢ ɤɥɚɞɤɢ. ȼɫɟɝɨ
ɛɵɥɨ ɨɬɥɨɠɟɧɨ 4 ɹɣɰɚ, ɢ ɢɡ ɜɫɟɯ ɛɥɚɝɨɩɨɥɭɱɧɨ ɜɵɜɟɥɢɫɶ ɩɬɟɧɰɵ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ
ɩɨɤɢɧɭɥɢ ɝɧɟɡɞɨ 21 ɚɜɝɭɫɬɚ.
ɇɚ ɩɨɡɞɧɢɟ ɤɥɚɞɤɢ ɤɨɧɨɩɥɹɧɤɢ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɢ ɨɛɪɚɳɚɥɢ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɢ
ɪɚɧɶɲɟ. Ɍɚɤ, Ⱥ.ɋ. Ɇɚɥɶɱɟɜɫɤɢɣ [5] ɫɨɨɛɳɚɟɬ ɨ ɝɧɟɡɞɟ, ɜ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɦ ɩɟɪɜɨɟ
ɹɣɰɨ ɩɨɹɜɢɥɨɫɶ 26 ɢɸɥɹ. ɋɯɨɞɧɵɣ ɫɥɭɱɚɣ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɥɢ ɢ ɜ ɘɠɧɨɣ ɒɜɟɰɢɢ
[7].
Ⱦ. Ʌɷɤ [4, 8], ɚ ɜɫɥɟɞ ɡɚ ɧɢɦ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɟ ɨɪɧɢɬɨɥɨɝɢ ɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɥɢ, ɱɬɨ
ɩɨɡɞɧɟɟ ɝɧɟɡɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ, ɩɨɦɢɦɨ ɧɢɡɤɨɣ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ, ɨɬɥɢɱɚɟɬɫɹ
ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɣ ɫɦɟɪɬɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɦɨɥɨɞɵɯ ɩɬɢɰ, ɢ ɩɨɬɨɦɭ ɷɥɢɦɢɧɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ
ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦ ɨɬɛɨɪɨɦ. Ȼɵɥɨ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɨ ɨɛɴɹɫɧɟɧɢɟ ɷɬɨɦɭ – ɪɨɞɢɜɲɢɟɫɹ ɜ
ɩɨɡɞɧɢɟ ɫɪɨɤɢ ɩɬɢɰɵ ɧɟ ɭɫɩɟɜɚɸɬ ɜɨɜɪɟɦɹ ɡɚɜɟɪɲɢɬɶ ɩɨɫɬɸɜɟɧɢɥɶɸɧɭɸ
12
ɥɢɧɶɤɭ, ɩɨɞɝɨɬɨɜɢɬɶɫɹ ɤ ɦɢɝɪɚɰɢɢ ɢ ɞɨ ɧɚɫɬɭɩɥɟɧɢɹ ɧɟɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɵɯ
ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ ɨɤɚɡɚɬɶɫɹ ɧɚ ɦɟɫɬɚɯ ɡɢɦɨɜɨɤ. ȼɫɟ ɷɬɢ ɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ ɜ ɪɚɜɧɨɣ ɦɟɪɟ
ɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹ ɢ ɤ ɜɡɪɨɫɥɵɦ ɩɬɢɰɚɦ, ɡɚɜɟɪɲɚɸɳɢɦ ɝɧɟɡɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɜ ɩɨɡɞɧɢɟ
ɫɪɨɤɢ.
ɉɪɢ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɜ ɧɟɫɬɚɛɢɥɶɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɩɨɡɞɧɟɟ
ɝɧɟɡɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɬɚɟɬ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɞɥɹ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɹ
ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ [3]. ȼɟɪɨɹɬɧɨ, ɢɦɟɧɧɨ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɚ
ɩɨɡɞɧɟɟ ɝɧɟɡɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɬɢɰ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɢɦɟɬɶ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟ ɚɞɚɩɬɢɜɧɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ.
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. Ȼɚɪɚɧɨɜɫɤɢɣ Ⱥ.ȼ. Ƚɧɟɡɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɤɨɧɨɩɥɹɧɤɢ (Acanthis cannabina) ɜ ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɨɦ
ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɟ ɝ. Ɋɹɡɚɧɢ // ɉɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɢ./ ɉɨɞ ɪɟɞ. Ʉɨɱɭɪɨɜɚ Ȼ.ɂ. Ɇ.,
2004 . ɋ.23-25.
2. Ȼɚɪɚɧɨɜɫɤɢɣ Ⱥ.ȼ. ɋɪɚɜɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɹ ɩɬɢɰ ɫɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɚ ɜɶɸɪɤɨɜɵɯ (ɧɚ
ɩɪɢɦɟɪɟ ɝ. Ɋɹɡɚɧɢ). Ɇɨɧɨɝɪɚɮɢɹ. Ɋɹɡɚɧɶ. ɉɨɥɢɬɟɯ. 2013. 132 ɫ.
3. Ɂɢɦɢɧ ȼ.Ȼ. ɗɤɨɥɨɝɢɹ ɜɨɪɨɛɶɢɧɵɯ ɩɬɢɰ ɋɟɜɟɪɨ-Ɂɚɩɚɞɚ ɋɋɋɊ. Ʌ.: ɇɚɭɤɚ, 1988. 184
ɫ.
4. Ʌɷɤ Ⱦ. ɑɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɢ ɟɟ ɪɟɝɭɥɹɰɢɹ ɜ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɟ. Ɇ. 1957. 403 ɫ.
5. Ɇɚɥɶɱɟɜɫɤɢɣ Ⱥ. ɋ. 1959. Ƚɧɟɡɞɨɜɚɹ ɠɢɡɧɶ ɩɟɜɱɢɯ ɩɬɢɰ. Ɋɚɡɦɧɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɢ
ɩɨɫɬɷɦɛɪɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ ɜɨɪɨɛɶɢɧɵɯ ɩɬɢɰ ȿɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɋɋɋɊ. Ʌ. ɂɡɞ-ɜɨ
ɅȽɍ. 279 ɫ.
6. Ɍɭɚɪɦɟɧɫɤɢɣ ȼ.ȼ. ɋɥɭɱɚɣ ɩɨɡɞɧɟɝɨ ɝɧɟɡɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɤɨɧɨɩɥɹɧɤɢ (Akanthis cannabina)
ɜ Ɋɹɡɚɧɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɇɚɭɤɚ ɢ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɏɏI ɜɟɤɚ: Ɇɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɵ VII-ɣ Ɇɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɣ
ɧɚɭɱɧɨ-ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɤɨɧɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɢ – Ɋɹɡɚɧɶ, ɋɌɂ, 2013. ɋ. 115-116.
7. Enemar A. Senahackningar hos hamplingen Carduelis cannabina i sydvastra Sverige. //
Ornissvecica ʋ 1-2, 1999, v.9, p. 90-93.
8. Lack D. Population studies of birds. Oxford, 1966. 341 p.
TARDY NESTING OF THE LINNET IN RYAZAN
A.V. Baranovsky
Modern Technical Institute Ryazan
Reproductive biology of the linnet was studied in 2000-2013 in Ryazan. Since the
beginning of oviposition the fate of 73 nests was observed. Three cases of late
nesting (end of July - August) were found. Two of the tardy nestlings were
successful.
13
ɍȾɄ 599.32/33+574.3
ȼɅɂəɇɂȿ ɅȺɇȾɒȺɎɌɇɈɃ ɇȿɈȾɇɈɊɈȾɇɈɋɌɂ
ɌȿɊɊɂɌɈɊɂɂ ɇȺ ɊȺɋɉɊɈɋɌɊȺɇȿɇɂȿ ɆȿɅɄɂɏ
ɆɅȿɄɈɉɂɌȺɘɓɂɏ ɂ ɂɏ ɑɂɋɅȿɇɇɈɋɌɖ
Ⱥ.ȼ. Ȼɨɛɪɟɰɨɜ
ɉɟɱɨɪɨ-ɂɥɵɱɫɤɢɣ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɣ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤ, əɤɲɚ
E-mail: [email protected]
Ʌɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɧɚɹ ɧɟɨɞɧɨɪɨɞɧɨɫɬɶ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɨɞɧɢɦ ɢɡ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ
ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ
ɢ
ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ
ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ
ɜɢɞɨɜ
ɦɟɥɤɢɯ
ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ. ȼɚɠɧɭɸ ɪɨɥɶ ɩɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɢɝɪɚɟɬ ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ
ɦɟɫɬɨɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɣ. ɇɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɟ ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɨɜ ɉɟɱɨɪɨ-ɂɥɵɱɫɤɨɝɨ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɚ
ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɡɚɤɨɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɫɬɢ ɪɚɡɦɟɳɟɧɢɹ ɜɢɞɨɜ.
ɉɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ, ɢɦɟɸɳɢɯ ɨɛɲɢɪɧɵɟ ɚɪɟɚɥɵ, ɤɚɤ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ,
ɧɚɯɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɜ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ. Ʌɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɧɚɹ ɧɟɨɞɧɨɪɨɞɧɨɫɬɶ
ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɫɢɥɶɧɨɟ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ
ɦɟɥɤɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ ɢ ɧɚ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɢɯ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ [3, 8]. ȼ
ɞɚɧɧɨɦ ɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɟ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɜɚɠɧɵɦɢ ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɧɵɦɢ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɚɦɢ
ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɫɨɫɬɚɜ ɢ ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɬɢɩɨɜ ɦɟɫɬɨɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɣ (ɜɵɞɟɥɹɟɦɵɯ
ɩɨ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɭ ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ) ɢɯ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɵ ɢ ɤɨɧɮɢɝɭɪɚɰɢɹ [1, 9]. ȼ
ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ ɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɧɢɹ ɜ ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɟ ɬɟɯ ɢɥɢ ɢɧɵɯ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɨɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ
ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɦɟɥɤɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ ɛɭɞɭɬ ɫɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɬɶ
ɩɨ-ɪɚɡɧɨɦɭ. ȼ ɞɚɧɧɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɫɚɦɚ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɶ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ, ɡɚɧɹɬɚɹ ɤɨɪɟɧɧɵɦɢ
ɫɬɚɰɢɹɦɢ ɜɢɞɚ, ɦɨɠɟɬ ɢɝɪɚɬɶ ɪɨɥɶ ɥɢɦɢɬɢɪɭɸɳɟɝɨ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɚ [6]. ɉɨɷɬɨɦɭ
ɱɢɫɥɨ ɢ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɶ ɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɵɯ ɫɬɚɰɢɣ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɫɚɦɵɦ ɜɚɠɧɵɦ
ɚɫɩɟɤɬɨɦ ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɧɨɣ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ ɞɥɹ ɩɪɨɝɧɨɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ
ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ [7].
Ɍɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹ ɉɟɱɨɪɨ-ɂɥɵɱɫɤɨɝɨ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɚ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɯɨɪɨɲɢɦ
ɩɨɥɢɝɨɧɨɦ ɞɥɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɨɜ ɧɚ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ
ɜɢɞɨɜ ɢ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɢɯ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɦɟɳɟɧɢɹ. Ɂɞɟɫɶ ɧɚ ɩɪɨɬɹɠɟɧɢɢ
120 ɤɦ ɫ ɡɚɩɚɞɚ ɧɚ ɜɨɫɬɨɤ ɫɦɟɧɹɸɬ ɞɪɭɝ ɞɪɭɝɚ ɬɪɢ ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɧɵɯ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ –
ɪɚɜɧɢɧɧɵɣ (Ɋɭɫɫɤɚɹ ɪɚɜɧɢɧɚ), ɩɪɟɞɝɨɪɧɵɣ ɢ ɝɨɪɧɵɣ (ɋɟɜɟɪɧɵɣ ɍɪɚɥ).
ɉɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ ɨɛɢɥɢɹ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɚ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɩɨ
ɪɚɣɨɧɚɦ (ɬɚɛɥ). Ɉɬɦɟɱɟɧɨ ɬɪɢ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɚ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɣ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ
Micromammalia ɜ ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɧɨɦ ɝɪɚɞɢɟɧɬɟ. ɉɟɪɜɭɸ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɦɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɭɸ ɝɪɭɩɩɭ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɜɢɞɵ, ɨɛɢɥɢɟ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɨɬ
ɪɚɜɧɢɧɵ ɤ ɝɨɪɚɦ. ȼ ɧɟɟ ɜɯɨɞɹɬ ɬɪɢ ɜɢɞɚ ɛɭɪɨɡɭɛɨɤ – ɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɚɹ (Sorex
araneus L.), ɪɚɜɧɨɡɭɛɚɹ (S. isodon Turov) ɢ ɬɭɧɞɪɹɧɚɹ (S. tundrensis Merriam),
ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɬɟɦɧɚɹ (Microtus agrestis L.) ɢ ɜɨɞɹɧɚɹ ɩɨɥɟɜɤɢ (Arvicola terrestris
L.), ɩɨɥɟɜɤɚ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɤɚ (Microtus oeconomus Pall.), ɥɟɫɧɚɹ ɦɵɲɨɜɤɚ (Sicista
betulina Pall.), ɤɭɬɨɪɚ (Neomys fodiens Pennant) ɢ ɤɪɨɬ (Talpa europaea L.).
14
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ
ɑɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɦɟɥɤɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ ɜ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɚɯ
ɉɟɱɨɪɨ-ɂɥɵɱɫɤɨɝɨ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɚ, ɤɚɧɚɜɤɢ (ɚɜɝɭɫɬ, ɷɤɡ. ɧɚ 100 ɤɨɧɭɫɨ-ɫɭɬɨɤ)
ȼɢɞ
Sorex araneus
Sorex isodon
Sorex
tundrensis
Sorex
caecutiens
Sorex munutus
Sorex
minutissimus
Neomys fodiens
Talpa europaea
Myodes rutilus
Myodes
glareolus
Myodes
rufocanus
Microtus
agrestis
Microtus
oeconomus
Arvicola
terrestris
Myopus
schisticolor
Sicista betulina
Ɋɚɜɧɢɧɚ
Lim
Mrm
7,6-92,4
28,6 r 4,2
0-2,2
0,3 r 0,1
0-2,6
0,5 r 0,2
ɉɪɟɞɝɨɪɶɟ
Lim
Mrm
69,1 r 12,1 6,1-229,0
0-61,1
9,8 r 2,6
0-10,1
1,8 r 0,4
Ƚɨɪɵ
Lim
Mrm
72,8 r 16,9 5,2-164,9
0,6-82,6
27,9 r 9,3
0-13,0
4,6 r 1,5
18,2 r 2,7
3,2-60,4
50,4 r 8,3
4,2-150,9
19,5 r 5,2
1,4-63,2
6,5 r 0,8
0,8 r0,2
0,5-17,6
0-4,0
5,9 r 1,0
0,2 r 0,07
0-21,8
0-1,2
7,4 r 2,0
0,5 r 0,2
0,8-21,5
0-2,0
0,6 r 0,2
0,6 r 0,2
15,1 r 2,3
6,0 r0,9
0-4,0
0-3,8
2,0-52,2
0-14,6
0,5 r 0,1
2,5 r 0,6
28,9 r 3,1
29,7 r 5,2
0-2,0
0-16,5
3,3-76,6
0-110,3
1,6 r 0,4
11,7 r 1,7
18,7 r 3,9
14,2 r 3,1
0-3,4
3,4-19,6
2,6-51,0
0,6-31,0
0,1 r 0,05
0-1,0
2,0 r 0,7
0-15,6
2,9 r 1,3
0-16,0
8,4 r 2,3
0-41,5
14,3 r 4,2
0-103,0
34,6 r 6,6
3,4-69,4
0,3 r 0,1
0-2,9
11,7 r 3,3
0-75,0
14,1 r 4,9
2,2-64,0
0
0
0,1 r 0,05
0-1,1
14,2 r 4,3
1,0-41,8
3,5 r 1,9
0-38,6
27,6 r 7,4
0-133,0
11,7 r 4,9
0-54,9
1,0 r 0,5
0-13,4
5,0 r 0,9
0-16,5
19,5 r 6,7
0,8-64,4
ȼɬɨɪɭɸ ɝɪɭɩɩɭ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɜɢɞɵ, ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɚ ɜ
ɩɪɟɞɝɨɪɧɨɦ ɪɚɣɨɧɟ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɚ ɢ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɝɨɪɚɯ ɢ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɧɚ
ɪɚɜɧɢɧɟ. ȿɟ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɱɟɬɵɪɟ ɜɢɞɚ – ɫɪɟɞɧɹɹ ɛɭɪɨɡɭɛɤɚ (Sorex caecutiens
Laxmann), ɤɪɚɫɧɚɹ (Myodes rutilus Pall.) ɢ ɪɵɠɚɹ (Myodes glareolus Schreber)
ɩɨɥɟɜɤɢ ɢ ɥɟɫɧɨɣ ɥɟɦɦɢɧɝ (Myopus schisticolor Lilljeborg). ɂ ɬɪɟɬɶɹ ɝɪɭɩɩɚ,
ɫɨɫɬɨɹɳɚɹ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɢɡ ɦɚɥɨɣ (Sorex munutus L.) ɢ ɤɪɨɲɟɱɧɨɣ (S. minutissimus
Zimm.) ɛɭɪɨɡɭɛɨɤ, ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɧɟɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦ ɜɚɪɶɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ
ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ
ɩɨ
ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ
ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɚ.
Ɍɚɤɨɟ
ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɧɨɟ
ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɜɨ ɦɧɨɝɨɦ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟɦ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɬɢɩɨɜ
ɦɟɫɬɨɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɣ ɜ ɷɬɢɯ ɪɚɣɨɧɚɯ, ɫ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɦɢ ɬɟɫɧɨ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɵ ɬɟ ɢɥɢ ɢɧɵɟ ɜɢɞɵ
ɦɟɥɤɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ.
Ʉɨɪɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɚɦɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɩɟɪɜɨɣ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ
ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɥɟɫɧɵɟ ɢ ɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɟ ɬɪɚɜɹɧɵɟ ɫɬɚɰɢɢ. ɂɯ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɶ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚɟɬ ɨɬ
ɪɚɜɧɢɧɵ ɤ ɝɨɪɚɦ, ɜ ɬɨɦ ɠɟ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ
ɟɦɤɨɫɬɶ ɦɟɫɬɨɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɣ ɢ ɤɚɤ ɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɩɨɜɵɲɚɟɬɫɹ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ
ɜɢɞɨɜ. ȼ ɪɚɜɧɢɧɧɨɦ ɪɚɣɨɧɟ ɷɬɢ ɫɬɚɰɢɢ ɡɚɧɢɦɚɸɬ ɨɤɨɥɨ 8% ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ, ɜ
ɩɪɟɞɝɨɪɧɨɦ ɪɚɣɨɧɟ – 18,6%, ɚ ɜ ɝɨɪɚɯ - ɞɨ 30%. ȼ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ
15
ɮɨɧɨɜɨɝɨ ɜɢɞɚ ɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɛɭɪɨɡɭɛɤɢ ɧɚ ɪɚɜɧɢɧɟ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɥɢɲɶ
27,6 ɷɤɡ. ɧɚ 100 ɤɨɧ.-ɫɭɬ. ɢ ɩɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɸ ɦɚɥɨ ɨɬɥɢɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɨɬ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ
ɪɚɜɧɢɧɧɵɯ ɪɚɣɨɧɨɜ ȿɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɋɟɜɟɪɚ. ȼ ɩɪɟɞɝɨɪɧɨɦ ɪɚɣɨɧɟ ɨɛɢɥɢɟ
ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚɟɬ ɞɨ 65,4 ɷɤɡ., ɚ ɜ ɝɨɪɚɯ ɫɪɟɞɧɢɣ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶ ɨɛɢɥɢɹ ɜɢɞɚ
ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɭɠɟ 72,7 ɷɤɡ. ɧɚ 100 ɤɨɧ.-ɫɭɬ.
Ɉɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɨɛɢɥɢɹ ɜ ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɧɨɦ ɝɪɚɞɢɟɧɬɟ
ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɵ ɭ ɪɚɜɧɨɡɭɛɨɣ ɛɭɪɨɡɭɛɤɢ. ȼ ɪɚɜɧɢɧɧɨɦ ɪɚɣɨɧɟ ɷɬɨ ɪɟɞɤɢɣ ɜɢɞ (0,2
ɷɤɡ. ɧɚ 100 ɤɨɧ.-ɫɭɬ.). Ɂɞɟɫɶ ɞɚɠɟ ɜ ɫɚɦɵɯ ɛɨɝɚɬɵɯ ɬɪɚɜɹɧɵɯ ɟɥɶɧɢɤɚɯ ɜ
ɩɨɣɦɟ ɉɟɱɨɪɵ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɟɬ ɥɢɲɶ 6,7 ɷɤɡ. ɧɚ 100
ɤɨɧ.-ɫɭɬ. ȼ ɩɪɟɞɝɨɪɶɹɯ ɫɪɟɞɧɢɣ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶ ɭɱɟɬɚ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɞɨ 9,6 ɷɤɡ.,
ɚ ɜ ɝɨɪɚɯ ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɟɬ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɣ – 28,0 ɷɤɡ. ɧɚ 100 ɤɨɧ.-ɫɭɬ. ɗɬɨɬ
ɜɢɞ ɨɱɟɧɶ ɱɭɜɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɟɧ ɤ ɜɥɚɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɤɨɪɦɨɜɵɦ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɚɦ, ɨɫɧɨɜɧɭɸ ɞɨɥɸ
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɞɨɠɞɟɜɵɟ ɱɟɪɜɢ. Ɂɞɟɫɶ ɧɚ 1 ɦ2 ɩɨɱɜɵ ɢ ɩɨɞɫɬɢɥɤɢ
ɨɛɢɬɚɟɬ ɞɨ 83 ɷɤɡ. [5], ɬɨɝɞɚ ɤɚɤ ɜ ɪɚɜɧɢɧɧɵɯ ɥɟɫɚɯ – ɨɬ 0,2 ɞɨ 1,8 ɷɤɡ. ɜ
ɫɨɫɧɹɤɚɯ ɢ ɨɬ 13,5 ɞɨ 30,8 ɜ ɟɥɶɧɢɤɚɯ [2].
Ɍɟɦɧɚɹ ɩɨɥɟɜɤɚ – ɬɢɩɢɱɧɵɣ ɡɟɥɟɧɨɹɞɧɵɣ ɜɢɞ. ɉɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟ
ɮɢɬɨɦɚɫɫɵ ɨɛɵɱɧɨ ɜɫɟɝɞɚ ɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɨ ɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɟɟ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ [3].
ɇɟɫɦɨɬɪɹ ɧɚ ɬɨ, ɱɬɨ ɨɧɚ ɡɚɫɟɥɹɟɬ ɫɚɦɵɟ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɟ ɥɟɫɧɵɟ ɢ ɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɟ
ɦɟɫɬɨɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ, ɟɟ ɤɨɪɟɧɧɵɟ ɫɬɚɰɢɢ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɵ ɫ ɬɪɚɜɹɧɵɦɢ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚɦɢ.
ɋɪɟɞɧɹɹ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɜɢɞɚ ɜ ɝɨɪɚɯ ɜ 4 ɪɚɡɚ ɜɵɲɟ ɚɧɚɥɨɝɢɱɧɨɝɨ
ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɹ ɧɚ ɪɚɜɧɢɧɟ.
Ɋɚɜɧɢɧɧɵɟ ɢ ɩɪɟɞɝɨɪɧɵɟ ɦɟɫɬɨɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɧɟɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɵ ɞɥɹ ɜɨɞɹɧɨɣ
ɩɨɥɟɜɤɢ (ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɨɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɫɬɚɪɢɰ ɢ ɫɤɭɞɧɚɹ ɜɨɞɹɧɚɹ ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ).
ɋɪɟɞɧɢɣ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶ ɟɟ ɨɛɢɥɢɹ ɡɞɟɫɶ ɧɟ ɩɪɟɜɵɲɚɟɬ 0,2 ɷɤɡ. ɧɚ 100 ɤɨɧ.-ɫɭɬ.
ȼ ɝɨɪɚɯ ɜɨɞɹɧɚɹ ɩɨɥɟɜɤɚ ɠɢɜɟɬ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɜɞɨɥɶ ɦɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɪɭɱɶɟɜ ɢ
ɤɥɸɱɟɣ, ɚ ɲɢɪɨɤɨ ɧɚɫɟɥɹɟɬ ɬɪɚɜɹɧɵɟ ɥɟɫɚ ɢ ɥɭɝɚ. Ⱦɢɟɬɚ ɝɨɪɧɵɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ
ɫɨɫɬɨɢɬ ɭɠɟ ɢɡ ɥɭɝɨɜɵɯ ɬɪɚɜ, ɡɚɩɚɫɵ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɡɞɟɫɶ ɨɝɪɨɦɧɵɟ. ȼ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ
ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɜɢɞɚ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɡɞɟɫɶ ɞɨ 14,2 ɷɤɡ. ɧɚ 100 ɤɨɧ.-ɫɭɬ.
ɋɪɟɞɧɹɹ ɛɭɪɨɡɭɛɤɚ, ɤɪɚɫɧɚɹ ɩɨɥɟɜɤɚ ɢ ɥɟɫɧɨɣ ɥɟɦɦɢɧɝ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɢɬɚɸɬ
ɦɟɫɬɨɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɬɚɟɠɧɨɝɨ ɬɢɩɚ - ɟɥɶɧɢɤɢ (ɡɟɥɟɧɨɦɨɲɧɵɟ ɢ ɞɨɥɝɨɦɨɲɧɵɟ).
ɂɯ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɶ ɧɚ ɪɚɜɧɢɧɟ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɜɫɟɝɨ 3,0%, ɜ ɩɪɟɞɝɨɪɶɹɯ - 56,6%, ɝɨɪɚɯ
– 23,0%. ɗɬɨ ɯɨɪɨɲɨ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɭɟɬɫɹ ɫɨ ɫɪɟɞɧɢɦɢ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɹɦɢ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ
ɞɚɧɧɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ. Ɇɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɨɛɢɥɢɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɭ ɷɬɢɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɨ ɜ
ɩɪɟɞɝɨɪɧɨɦ ɪɚɣɨɧɟ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɚ, ɝɞɟ ɤɨɪɟɧɧɵɟ ɫɬɚɰɢɢ ɡɚɧɢɦɚɸɬ ɛɨɥɶɲɟ
ɩɨɥɨɜɢɧɵ ɜɫɟɣ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ.
Ɉɫɨɛɭɸ ɧɢɲɭ ɜ ɷɬɨɣ ɝɪɭɩɩɟ ɡɚɧɢɦɚɟɬ ɪɵɠɚɹ ɩɨɥɟɜɤɚ - ɜɢɞ
ɧɟɦɨɪɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜ. ɍ ɧɟɟ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɢɡɦɟɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɜɞɨɥɶ
ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɧɨɝɨ ɝɪɚɞɢɟɧɬɚ, ɤɚɤ ɢ ɭ ɬɚɟɠɧɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ, ɚ ɧɟ ɤɚɤ ɭ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɟɣ
ɩɟɪɜɨɣ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ, ɯɨɬɹ ɨɧɚ ɢ ɛɥɢɡɤɚ ɤ ɧɢɦ. ɇɚ ɪɚɜɧɢɧɟ ɢɧɞɟɤɫ ɨɛɢɥɢɹ ɟɟ
ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɥ 5,4 ɷɤɡ., ɜ ɩɪɟɞɝɨɪɧɨɦ ɪɚɣɨɧɟ – 24,2 ɷɤɡ., ɚ ɜ ɝɨɪɧɨɦ ɪɚɣɨɧɟ – 14,2
ɷɤɡ. ɧɚ 100 ɤɨɧ.-ɫɭɬ. ȼɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ, ɬɚɤɢɟ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɨɛɭɫɥɨɜɥɟɧɵ ɜ ɤɚɤɨɣ-ɬɨ
ɦɟɪɟ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɟɣ ɡɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɜɢɞɨɦ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɣ. ȼ ɫɜɨɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ȼ.ɉ. ɢ
ȿ.ɇ. Ɍɟɩɥɨɜɵ [4] ɨɬɦɟɱɚɥɢ, ɱɬɨ ɪɵɠɚɹ ɩɨɥɟɜɤɚ ɜ ɉɟɱɨɪɨ-ɂɥɵɱɫɤɨɦ
ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɟ ɩɪɨɧɢɤɚɟɬ ɜɵɫɨɤɨ ɜ ɝɨɪɵ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɩɨ ɩɨɣɦɚɦ ɪɟɤ ɢ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ
16
ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɨɦ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɜ ɩɨɞɝɨɥɶɰɨɜɨɦ ɩɨɹɫɟ. ȼ ɬɟɦɧɨɯɜɨɣɧɵɯ ɥɟɫɚɯ ɩɨ
ɫɤɥɨɧɚɦ ɝɨɪ ɨɧɚ ɧɟ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɥɚɫɶ. ȼ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɨɧɚ ɡɚɫɟɥɢɥɚ ɢ ɷɬɢ
ɦɟɫɬɨɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ, ɧɨ ɨɫɬɚɟɬɫɹ ɡɞɟɫɶ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɦɚɥɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɦ ɜɢɞɨɦ.
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. Ȼɨɪɹɤɨɜɚ ȿ.ȿ., Ɇɟɥɶɧɢɤ ɋ.Ⱥ., ɋɢɡɨɜɚ Ɉ.ɇ. Ɋɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɩɨɤɪɨɜ ɢ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ
ɦɟɥɤɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɇɢɠɟɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɨɝɨ ɉɪɟɞɜɨɥɠɶɹ // ȼɟɫɬɧ. ɇɇȽɍ ɢɦ.
ɇ.ɂ. Ʌɨɛɚɱɟɜɫɤɨɝɨ. - 2010. - ʋ 2 (2). - ɋ. 376-382.
2. Ʉɪɵɥɨɜɚ Ʌ.ɉ., Ⱥɤɭɥɨɜɚ Ʌ.ɂ., Ⱦɨɥɝɢɧ Ɇ.Ɇ. Ⱦɨɠɞɟɜɵɟ ɱɟɪɜɢ (Oligochaeta,
Lumbricidae) ɬɚɟɠɧɨɣ ɡɨɧɵ Ɋɟɫɩɭɛɥɢɤɢ Ʉɨɦɢ. - ɋɵɤɬɵɜɤɚɪ: Ʉɨɦɢ ɩɟɞɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ, 2011. 104 ɫ.
3. Ʉɭɪɯɢɧɟɧ ɘ.ɉ., Ⱦɚɧɢɥɨɜ ɉ.ɂ., ɂɜɚɧɬɟɪ ɗ.ȼ. Ɇɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɟ Ɏɟɧɧɨɫɤɚɧɞɢɢ ɜ
ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɨɣ ɬɪɚɧɫɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ ɬɚɟɠɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ. - Ɇ.: ɇɚɭɤɚ, 2006. - 208 ɫ.
4. Ɍɟɩɥɨɜ ȼ.ɉ., Ɍɟɩɥɨɜɚ ȿ.ɇ. Ɇɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɟ ɉɟɱɨɪɨ-ɂɥɵɱɫɤɨɝɨ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɚ // Ɍɪ.
ɉɟɱɨɪɨ-ɂɥɵɱɫɤɨɝɨ ɝɨɫ. ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɚ. - Ɇ., 1947. - ȼɵɩ. 5.- ɋ. 3-85.
5. ɒɚɲɤɨɜ Ɇ.ɉ., Ʉɚɦɚɟɜ ɂ.Ɉ. ɇɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɞɨɠɞɟɜɵɯ ɱɟɪɜɟɣ ɬɟɦɧɨɯɜɨɣɧɵɯ ɥɟɫɨɜ
ɧɢɠɧɟɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɚ ɪɟɤɢ Ȼɨɥɶɲɚɹ ɉɨɪɨɠɧɹɹ (ɩɪɢɬɨɤ ɪ. ɉɟɱɨɪɚ) // Ɍɪɭɞɵ ɉɟɱɨɪɨɂɥɵɱɫɤɨɝɨ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɚ. - ɋɵɤɬɵɜɤɚɪ, 2010. - ȼɵɩ. 16. - ɋ. 204-207.
6. ɒɜɚɪɰ ȿ.Ⱥ., Ⱦɟɦɢɧ Ⱦ.ȼ., Ɂɚɦɨɥɨɞɱɢɤɨɜ Ⱦ.Ƚ. ɗɤɨɥɨɝɢɹ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜ ɦɟɥɤɢɯ
ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ ɥɟɫɨɜ ɭɦɟɪɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɹɫɚ (ɧɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɟ ȼɚɥɞɚɣɫɤɨɣ ɜɨɡɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ). - Ɇ.:
ɇɚɭɤɚ, 1992. - 127 ɫ.
7. Corkum C.V. Response of small mammals to landscape structure at multiple spatial
scales. - M.Sc. Thesis. - Edmonton: University of Alberta, 1999. - 87 p. - Ɋɟɠɢɦ ɞɨɫɬɭɩɚ:
http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk2/ftp01/MQ47018.pdf
8. Cushman S.A., Evans J., McGarigal K. Landscape ecology: past, present and future //
Spatial complexity, informatics, and wildlife conservation. Eds. S. Cushman, F. Huettmann. New York: Springer-Verlag, 2010. - P. 65-82.
9. Mohammadi S. Microhabitat selection by small mammals // Advan. Biol. Res. - 2010. Vol. 4, no. 5. - P. 283-287. - Ɋɟɠɢɦ ɞɨɫɬɭɩɚ: http://www.idosi.org/abr/4%285%29/8.pdf
INFLUENCE OF LANDSCAPE STRUCTURE OF THE TERRITORY ON
DISTRIBUTION OF SMALL MAMMALS AND THEIR NUMBER
A.V. Bobretsov
Pechora-Ilych State Nature Reserve, Yasha
E-mail: [email protected]
Landscape heterogeneity of the territory is one of the factors of spread and
formation of abundance of the species of small mammals. A ratio of different
habitat plays an important role. Landscapes of Pechora-Ilych Reserve give a
patters of the distribution of species.
17
ɍȾɄ 576.895.771
ɈɐȿɇɄȺ ɉɈɌȿɇɐɂȺɅɖɇɈɃ ɗɉɂȾȿɆɂɈɅɈȽɂɑȿɋɄɈɃ
ɗɎɎȿɄɌɂȼɇɈɋɌɂ ɉɈɉɍɅəɐɂɃ ɄɈɆȺɊɈȼ ɊɈȾȺ ANOPHELES
(DIPTERA, CULICIDAE) ɈɊɅɈȼɋɄɈɃ ɈȻɅȺɋɌɂ
Ʌ.ɂ. Ȼɭɛɥɢɤɨɜɚ, ɘ.Ⱥ. Ƚɭɫɚɤɨɜ
Ɉɪɥɨɜɫɤɢɣ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ, ɝ. Ɉɪɟɥ
E-mail: [email protected]
ɇɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ Ɉɪɥɨɜɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɜ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ 2010 – 2013 ɝɝ. ɛɵɥɨ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɨ
ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɟ ɜɢɞɨɜɨɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɚ, ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ, ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ,
ɮɟɧɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɞɥɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɷɩɢɞɟɦɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ
ɤɪɨɜɨɫɨɫɭɳɢɯ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ. ɉɨɥɭɱɟɧɵ ɧɨɜɵɟ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ, ɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɟ ɨɛ
ɭɫɢɥɟɧɢɢ ɷɩɢɞɟɦɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɡɧɚɱɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɵɯ
ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɨɜ ɢɡɭɱɚɟɦɨɝɨ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɣ An. messeae.
Ʉɪɨɜɨɫɨɫɭɳɢɟ ɤɨɦɚɪɵ (Diptera, Culicidae) – ɦɚɫɫɨɜɵɟ ɧɚɡɨɣɥɢɜɵɟ
ɤɪɨɜɨɫɨɫɵ ɢ ɩɟɪɟɧɨɫɱɢɤɢ ɜɨɡɛɭɞɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɪɹɞɚ ɨɩɚɫɧɵɯ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɣ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ
ɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ – ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚɪɧɵɯ ɢɧɜɚɡɢɣ, ɜɢɪɭɫɧɵɯ ɢ ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢɣ.
ɍɱɢɬɵɜɚɹ ɜɵɫɨɤɭɸ ɷɩɢɞɟɦɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɡɧɚɱɢɦɨɫɬɶ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ
ɭɱɚɫɬɢɜɲɢɟɫɹ ɠɚɥɨɛɵ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɭɤɭɫɵ ɧɚɡɨɣɥɢɜɵɯ ɤɪɨɜɨɫɨɫɨɜ, ɦɵ
ɫɨɱɥɢ ɰɟɥɟɫɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɦ ɩɪɨɚɧɚɥɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɟ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ
ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɣ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ ɪɨɞɚ Anopheles ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ Ɉɪɥɨɜɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ.
ɋɛɨɪ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɚ (ɢɦɚɝɢɧɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɢ ɥɢɱɢɧɨɱɧɵɣ) ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɥɢ ɧɚ
ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɤɪɭɩɧɨɝɨ ɢɧɞɭɫɬɪɢɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɰɟɧɬɪɚ Ɉɪɥɨɜɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ – ɝ. Ɉɪɥɚ
ɢ ɪɹɞɚ ɧɚɫɟɥɺɧɧɵɯ ɩɭɧɤɬɨɜ ɍɪɢɰɤɨɝɨ, ɋɜɟɪɞɥɨɜɫɤɨɝɨ ɢ Ɉɪɥɨɜɫɤɨɝɨ
ɪɚɣɨɧɨɜ (ɩɨɫ. ɇɚɪɵɲɤɢɧɨ, Ɂɦɢɟɜɤɚ, Ɂɧɚɦɟɧɤɚ, Ʌɚɜɪɨɜɨ) ɜ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ 2010 –
2013 ɝɝ. ɉɪɢ ɫɛɨɪɟ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɚ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɥɢ ɨɛɳɟɩɪɢɧɹɬɵɟ ɦɟɬɨɞɵ ɭɱɺɬɚ
ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ [6].
ɋɛɨɪɵ ɥɢɱɢɧɨɤ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɥɢ ɜ
ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɢ ɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɜɨɞɨɺɦɚɯ. Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ
ɫɨɛɪɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɚ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɥɢ ɩɨ ɪɭɤɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɚɦ «Ɏɚɭɧɚ ɋɋɋɊ.
ɇɚɫɟɤɨɦɵɟ ɞɜɭɤɪɵɥɵɟ. Ʉɨɦɚɪɵ» [4, 5].
ɇɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɢɡɭɱɚɟɦɨɝɨ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚ ɧɚɦɢ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɨ 23 ɜɢɞɚ
ɤɪɨɜɨɫɨɫɭɳɢɯ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ ɩɹɬɢ ɪɨɞɨɜ - Anopheles, Culex, Aedes, Culiseta,
Coquillettidia.
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ (Diptera, Culicidae) Ɉɪɥɨɜɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ
Ɋɨɞ Anopheles Meigen
1.
2.
An. maculipennis Meigen, 1818
An. messeae Falleroni, 1926
4.
5.
Cx. pipiens Linnaeus, 1758
Cx. torrentium Martini, 1925
3.
An. claviger (Meigen), 1804
Ɋɨɞ Culex Linnaeus
6.
Cx. territans Walker, 1856
18
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
Ɋɨɞ Aedes Meigen
Ae. cinereus Meigen, 1818
14.
Ae. flavescens (Muller), 1764
Ae. vexans (Meigen), 1830
15.
Ae. punctor (Kirby), 1837
Ae. cantans (Meigen), 1818
16.
Ae. cataphylla Dyar, 1916
Ae. communis (De Geer), 1776
17.
Ae. diantaeus Howard, Dyar et
Ae. dorsalis (Meigen), 1830
Knab, 1913
Ae. excrucians (Walker), 1856
18.
Ae. riparius Dyar et Knab, 1907
Ae. caspius (Pallas), 1771
19.
Ae. geniculatus (Olivier), 1791
20.
21.
Ɋɨɞ Culiseta Felt
Cs. morsitans (Theobald), 1901
22.
Cs. alaskaensis (Ludlow), 1906
23.
Ɋɨɞ Coquillettidia Diar
Co. richiardii (Ficalbi), 1889
Cs. annulata (Schrank), 1776
ɋɪɚɜɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɚ
ɤɪɨɜɨɫɨɫɭɳɢɯ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ Ɉɪɥɨɜɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɨ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɦ
ɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɧɢɢ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ ɪɨɞɚ Anopheles [3].
ɉɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɭɸ
ɷɩɢɞɟɦɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɶ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɵɯ ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɨɜ
ɢɡɭɱɚɟɦɨɝɨ
ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚ
ɤɪɨɜɨɫɨɫɭɳɢɟ
ɤɨɦɚɪɵ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ
ɤɚɤ
ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɩɟɪɟɧɨɫɱɢɤɢ ɦɚɥɹɪɢɢ.
Ɍɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹ ɋɪɟɞɧɟɣ ɩɨɥɨɫɵ ȿɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ, ɜ ɬɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟ
Ɉɪɥɨɜɫɤɚɹ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɶ, ɜ 1964 ɝ. ɛɵɥɚ ɨɬɧɟɫɟɧɚ ɇ.Ʉ. ɒɢɩɢɰɢɧɨɣ ɤ ɡɨɧɟ
ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɣ ɦɚɥɹɪɢɢ.
Ɇɚɥɹɪɢɹ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɩɨɥɭɱɢɬɶ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɢ ɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɦ
ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɧɚ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɨɣ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɬɪɺɯ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ: 1) ɩɪɢɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɢ
ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ – ɩɟɪɟɧɨɫɱɢɤɨɜ ɦɚɥɹɪɢɢ, 2) ɧɚɥɢɱɢɢ ɛɨɥɶɧɵɯ ɦɚɥɹɪɢɟɣ ɢɥɢ
ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɟɣ, 3) ɧɚɥɢɱɢɢ ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨɣ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ ɞɥɹ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ
ɜɨɡɛɭɞɢɬɟɥɹ ɜ ɬɟɥɟ ɤɨɦɚɪɚ. ɂɡ ɬɪɺɯ ɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ ɩɪɢ
ɥɢɤɜɢɞɚɰɢɢ ɦɚɥɹɪɢɢ ɜ 1960 ɝ. ɛɵɥ ɭɫɬɪɚɧɺɧ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɜɬɨɪɨɣ, ɛɥɚɝɨɞɚɪɹ ɱɟɦɭ
ɛɵɥ ɢɫɱɟɪɩɚɧ ɪɟɡɟɪɜɭɚɪ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢɢ. ɉɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ ɞɜɚ ɨɫɬɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɚ
ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɬ, ɩɪɢ ɩɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɢ ɛɨɥɶɧɵɯ ɢɥɢ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ
ɜɨɡɧɢɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɟ ɦɟɫɬɧɨɣ ɦɚɥɹɪɢɢ ɢ ɟɺ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ. ɉɨɫɥɟ ɪɚɫɩɚɞɚ
ɋɋɋɊ ɦɚɥɹɪɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɹ ɪɟɡɤɨ ɨɫɥɨɠɧɢɥɚɫɶ. ȼ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ
ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ ɜ 90-ɟ ɝɝ. ɏɏ ɜɟɤɚ, ɞɟɮɢɰɢɬɚ
ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɦɚɥɹɪɢɣɧɵɯ ɥɟɤɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɟɩɚɪɚɬɨɜ ɢ ɢɧɫɟɤɬɢɰɢɞɨɜ, ɨɝɪɨɦɧɨɣ
ɦɢɝɪɚɰɢɢ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ, ɜɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɜɨɟɧɧɵɯ ɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɨɜ,
ɛɟɡɪɚɛɨɬɢɰɵ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ, ɩɨɱɬɢ ɜɫɟ ɫɬɪɚɧɵ ɋɇȽ
ɫɬɨɥɤɧɭɥɢɫɶ ɫ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɨɣ ɪɨɫɬɚ ɡɚɜɨɡɧɵɯ ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ ɢɡ Ⱥɡɟɪɛɚɣɞɠɚɧɚ ɢ
Ɍɚɞɠɢɤɢɫɬɚɧɚ, ɨɬɧɨɫɹɳɢɯɫɹ ɤ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹɦ ɫ ɜɵɫɨɤɢɦ ɦɚɥɹɪɢɨɝɟɧɧɵɦ
ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɨɦ [7]. ȿɠɟɝɨɞɧɨ ɜ ɝ. Ɉɪɥɟ ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɟɞɢɧɢɱɧɵɟ ɡɚɜɨɡɧɵɟ
ɫɥɭɱɚɢ ɦɚɥɹɪɢɢ, ɜɵɡɜɚɧɧɵɟ Pl. vivax [1].
Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ, ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɬɶ ɜɨ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ, ɱɬɨ ɜ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ
ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɭɫɭɝɭɛɢɬɶ ɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɭ ɩɪɢ
19
ɧɚɱɚɜɲɟɦɫɹ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɢ ɦɚɥɹɪɢɢ ɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ. Ⱦɜɚ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɚ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɵ ɫɨ
ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɤɨɣ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚ: ɨɛɥɚɫɬɧɨɣ ɰɟɧɬɪ – ɝ. Ɉɪɟɥ ɫ
ɩɪɢɥɟɝɚɸɳɢɦɢ ɪɚɣɨɧɚɦɢ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨ ɜɵɫɨɤɭɸ ɩɥɨɬɧɨɫɬɶ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ
ɢ ɛɨɥɶɲɨɟ ɱɢɫɥɨ ɦɢɝɪɚɧɬɨɜ. Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɧɚɥɢɱɢɟ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɵɯ
ɢ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɟ ɧɨɜɵɯ ɨɱɚɝɨɜ ɦɚɥɹɪɢɢ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɫɨɫɟɞɧɢɯ ɪɟɫɩɭɛɥɢɤ,
ɢɧɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɚɹ ɦɢɝɪɚɰɢɹ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ, ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɣ ɡɚɜɨɡ ɦɚɥɹɪɢɢ ɢ ɧɚɥɢɱɢɟ
ɩɟɪɟɧɨɫɱɢɤɨɜ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɭɸ ɭɝɪɨɡɭ ɞɥɹ ɜɨɡɨɛɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɹ
ɩɟɪɟɞɚɱɢ ɦɚɥɹɪɢɢ ɧɚ ɪɚɧɟɟ ɨɡɞɨɪɨɜɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹɯ.
Ɉɪɥɨɜɫɤɚɹ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɶ ɩɨ ɫɜɨɢɦ ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɧɨ-ɤɥɢɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɦ
ɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɚ ɞɥɹ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɦɚɥɹɪɢɣɧɵɯ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ. ɗɬɨɦɭ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɸɬ
ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɚ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɨ ɜɨɞɨɺɦɨɜ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɢ
ɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ, ɹɜɥɹɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɦɟɫɬɚɦɢ ɜɵɩɥɨɞɚ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ.
Ɋɨɥɶ ɤɚɠɞɨɝɨ ɢɡ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ ɪɨɞɚ Anopheles ɜ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɢ
ɦɚɥɹɪɢɢ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɹɦɢ ɟɝɨ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɢ. Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɨɟ
ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɵ: ɡɚɪɚɠɚɟɦɨɫɬɶ ɜɨɡɛɭɞɢɬɟɥɟɦ
ɦɚɥɹɪɢɢ, ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ ɞɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɜɢɞɚ, ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɟɡɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɯɨɞɚ
ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ, ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɨɦ [2].
ɋɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɚɦ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɺɧɧɨɝɨ ɧɚɦɢ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ
Ɉɪɥɨɜɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɵ 3 ɜɢɞɚ ɦɚɥɹɪɢɣɧɵɯ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ; ɞɜɚ ɢɡ ɧɢɯ
ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɵɯ ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɨɜ ɝ. Ɉɪɥɚ. ɗɬɨ – An.
messeae ɢ An. claviger. ȼɢɞɵ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ Anopheles, ɡɚɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ ɧɚ
ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɝ. Ɉɪɥɚ, ɜɨɫɩɪɢɢɦɱɢɜɵ ɤ ɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɵɦ ɜ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɜɢɞɚɦ
ɜɨɡɛɭɞɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɦɚɥɹɪɢɢ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ. ɉɪɢɱɺɦ, ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɭɸɳɢɦ ɜɢɞɨɦ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ
ɭɪɛɚɧɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɨɜ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ An. messeae. ɗɬɨɬ ɜɢɞ ɨɛɥɚɞɚɟɬ
ɜɫɟɦɢ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚɦɢ, ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɦɢ ɞɥɹ ɬɨɝɨ, ɱɬɨɛɵ ɫɱɢɬɚɬɶɫɹ ɨɩɚɫɧɵɦ
ɩɟɪɟɧɨɫɱɢɤɨɦ ɦɚɥɹɪɢɢ. Ɉɧ ɯɨɪɨɲɨ ɡɚɪɚɠɚɟɬɫɹ ɬɪɟɦɹ ɝɥɚɜɧɵɦɢ ɜɢɞɚɦɢ
ɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɥɚɡɦɨɞɢɟɜ. ɇɚ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɧɨɣ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ
ɭɪɛɚɧɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɨɜ ɝɨɧɨɚɤɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɫɚɦɤɢ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɜ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ
4 ɦɟɫɹɰɟɜ, ɚ ɩɪɟɢɦɚɝɢɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɫɬɚɞɢɢ ɜ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɚɯ - ɨɤɨɥɨ 4,5 ɦɟɫɹɰɟɜ.
Ɇɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɜɢɞɚ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɚ ɜ ɫɟɪɟɞɢɧɟ ɢɸɥɹ. ȼ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ
ɜɵɫɨɤɨɣ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɢ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɧɚɩɚɞɟɧɢɣ ɜ ɥɟɬɧɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɝɨɞɚ, ɚ
ɬɚɤɠɟ ɩɪɢɭɪɨɱɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɦɟɫɬ ɜɵɩɥɨɞɚ ɤ ɧɚɫɟɥɺɧɧɵɦ ɩɭɧɤɬɚɦ, An. messeae
ɜ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɭɸ ɷɩɢɞɟɦɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ
ɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɶ.
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. Ⱥɪɯɢɩɢɧɚ ɋ.Ⱥ., Ʉɚɬɵɪɢɧ ȼ.ɂ., ɒɟɩɢɥɨɜ ɉ.Ⱥ., Ɂɟɧɱɟɧɤɨ ȼ.Ȼ. Ɂɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɟɦɨɫɬɶ
ɦɚɥɹɪɢɟɣ ɜ Ɉɪɥɨɜɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ / ɇɚɭɱɧɨ-ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɨɩɵɬ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɫɥɭɠɛ
Ɉɪɥɨɜɫɤɨɣ ɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɨɣ ɛɨɥɶɧɢɰɵ ɢɦ. ɋ.ɉ. Ȼɨɬɤɢɧɚ. – Ɉɪɺɥ, 2006. - ɋ. 295 – 296.
2. Ȼɟɤɥɟɦɢɲɟɜ ȼ.ɇ. ȼɢɞɵ Anopheles ɋɋɋɊ ɢ ɫɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɬɪɚɧ Ⱥɡɢɢ, ɢɯ
ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɢ ɭɱɚɫɬɢɟ ɜ ɩɟɪɟɧɨɫɟ ɦɚɥɹɪɢɢ // Ɇɟɞɢɰɢɧɫɤɚɹ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɥɨɝɢɹ ɢ
ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚɪɧɵɟ ɛɨɥɟɡɧɢ. – 1948. - Ɍ. 17. ȼɵɩ 3. - ɋ. 201 – 209.
3. Ȼɭɛɥɢɤɨɜɚ Ʌ.ɂ., Ɋɨɝɚɱɟɜ ɂ.ɇ. ɗɩɢɞɟɦɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɚɫɩɟɤɬɵ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɦɚɫɫɨɜɵɯ
ɜɢɞɨɜ ɤɪɨɜɨɫɨɫɭɳɢɯ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ (Diptera, Culicidae) ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɵɯ
ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɨɜ Ɉɪɥɨɜɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ //ɍɱɟɧɵɟ ɡɚɩɢɫɤɢ Ɉɪɥɨɜɫɤɨɝɨ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ
ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬɚ. - 2008. - ʋ2. - ɋ. 82-86.
20
4. Ƚɨɪɧɨɫɬɚɟɜɚ Ɋ.Ɇ., Ⱦɚɧɢɥɨɜ Ⱥ.ȼ. Ʉɨɦɚɪɵ Ɇɨɫɤɜɵ ɢ Ɇɨɫɤɨɜɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ /
Ɇɨɫɤɜɚ: «Scientific Press», 1999. – 341 ɫ.
5. Ƚɭɰɟɜɢɱ Ⱥ.ȼ., Ɇɨɧɱɚɞɫɤɢɣ Ⱥ.ɋ., ɒɬɚɤɟɥɶɛɟɪɝ Ⱥ.Ⱥ. Ʉɨɦɚɪɵ (ɫɟɦ. Culicidae) /
Ɏɚɭɧɚ ɋɋɋɊ. ɇɚɫɟɤɨɦɵɟ ɞɜɭɤɪɵɥɵɟ. Ɍ. 3. ȼɵɩ. 4. – Ʌɟɧɢɧɝɪɚɞ: «ɇɚɭɤɚ», 1970. – ɋ. 57 –
63.
6. Ⱦɟɬɢɧɨɜɚ Ɍ.ɋ., Ɋɚɫɧɢɰɵɧ ɋ.ɉ., Ɇɚɪɤɨɜɢɱ ɇ.ə., Ʉɭɩɪɢɹɧɨɜɚ ȼ.ɋ. Ⱥɤɫɺɧɨɜɚ Ⱥ.ɋ.
ɍɧɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɹ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɜ ɭɱɺɬɚ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɤɪɨɜɨɫɨɫɭɳɢɯ ɞɜɭɤɪɵɥɵɯ ɧɚɫɟɤɨɦɵɯ //
Ɇɟɞɢɰɢɧɫɤɚɹ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɥɨɝɢɹ ɢ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚɪɧɵɟ ɛɨɥɟɡɧɢ. – 1978. - ʋ 5. - ɋ. 84 – 91.
7. ɉɨɩɨɜ Ⱥ.Ɏ., Ɍɨɤɦɚɥɚɟɜ Ⱥ.Ʉ., ɇɢɤɢɮɨɪɨɜ ɇ.Ⱦ. Ɇɚɥɹɪɢɹ / Ɇɨɫɤɜɚ: «Ɋɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɢɣ
ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ ɞɪɭɠɛɵ ɧɚɪɨɞɨɜ», 2004. – 271 ɫ.
ESTIMATES OF POTENTIAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EFFICACY OF MOSQUITO
POPULATIONS OF THE GENUS ANOPHELES (DIPTERA, CULICIDAE) IN
ORYOL REGION
L.I. Bublikava, Y.A. Gusakov
Orel State University, Orel
In 2010-2013 in Orel Region species composition, abundance, distribution, and
phenology of mosquitoes were studied. New evidence to strengthen
epidemiological significance of the populations of An.messeae in anthropogenic
landscapes were found.
ɍȾɄ 595 771 (470.324)
Ʉ ɌȺɄɋɈɇɈɆɂɑȿɋɄɈɆɍ ɋɈɋɌȺȼɍ ɂ ɂɁɍɑȿɇɇɈɋɌɂ
ɄɊɈȼɈɋɈɋɍɓɂɏ ɄɈɆȺɊɈȼ (DIPTERA, CULICIDAE)
ȼɈɊɈɇȿɀɋɄɈɃ ɈȻɅȺɋɌɂ
ɂ.Ⱥ. Ȼɭɞɚɟɜɚ, Ⱥ.ɋ. Ʉɨɥɭɩɚɟɜ, ȿ.ɘ. ȼɢɫɥɟɜɫɤɚɹ, Ⱥ.ȼ. Ȼɨɥɝɨɜɚ
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɢɣ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ, ɝ. ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ
E-mail: [email protected]
ɇɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɤɪɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɧɨɝɨ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɚ, ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧ
ɭɬɨɱɧɟɧɧɵɣ ɫɩɢɫɨɤ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɜ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɢ ɫ
ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɞɚɧɧɵɦɢ ɬɚɤɫɨɧɨɦɢɢ ɢ ɮɢɥɨɝɟɧɢɢ. ɉɟɪɟɱɟɧɶ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ,
ɨɩɭɛɥɢɤɨɜɚɧɧɵɣ ɜ «Ʉɚɞɚɫɬɪɟ ɛɟɫɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ
ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ» (2005), ɫɨɤɪɚɳɟɧ ɫ 42 ɞɨ 34 ɜɢɞɨɜ.
ɇɚɱɚɥɨ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɫɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɚ Culicidae ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ
ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɛɵɥɨ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɨ Ƚ.Ⱥ. Ʉɨɠɟɜɧɢɤɨɜɵɦ [16]), ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɜɲɢɦ
ɧɚɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɹ ɡɚ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɟɣ ɦɚɥɹɪɢɣɧɵɯ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ ɜ ɚɫɩɟɤɬɟ ɰɢɪɤɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɧɚ
ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɦɚɥɹɪɢɢ. ɋɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɨ ɦɚɥɹɪɢɣɧɵɯ ɤɨɦɚɪɚɯ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɚ
maculipennis ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɬɫɹ ɜɨ ɦɧɨɝɢɯ ɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɰɢɹɯ [20, 21, 24, 25]. ɇɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ
21
ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɧɵɦ ɢ ɬɳɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɧɵɦ ɜɢɞɨɦ ɪɨɞɚ Anopheles ɜ
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ Anopheles maculipennis messeae Mg. (ɩɨ
ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɣ ɤɥɚɫɫɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢ Anopheles messeae Falleroni, 1926). ȼ ɪɚɛɨɬɚɯ
Ƚ.ɂ. ȿɪɦɨɥɚɟɜɚ [8, 9] ɨɫɜɟɳɟɧɵ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɵ ɮɟɧɨɥɨɝɢɢ, ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɢ,
ɷɩɢɞɟɦɢɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɢ ɫɟɡɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɯɨɞɚ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɦɚɥɹɪɢɣɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɦɚɪɚ. ɉɨ
ɞɚɧɧɵɦ ɪɹɞɚ ɚɜɬɨɪɨɜ [7, 8, 9, 19, 13, 14, 15, 23] ɜ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ
ɫɨɯɪɚɧɹɸɬɫɹ ɜɫɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɩɟɪɟɞɚɱɢ ɦɚɥɹɪɢɢ: ɢɦɟɸɬɫɹ ɚɧɚɮɟɥɨɝɟɧɧɵɟ
ɜɨɞɨɟɦɵ, ɝɞɟ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɜɵɩɥɨɞ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ, ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɟ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
ɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɸɬ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ ɫɩɨɪɨɡɨɢɬɨɜ Plasmodium vivax. Ɍɚɤ ɜ ɪɭɫɥɟ
ɪ. ɍɫɦɚɧɶ, ɟɟ ɫɬɚɪɢɰɚɯ, ɜ ɪɟɤɪɟɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɡɨɧɟ ɝɨɪɨɞɚ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɚ Anopheles
messeae ɜɵɩɥɚɠɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɦ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟ [13, 23]. ȼɦɟɫɬɟ ɫ
Anopheles messeae ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɟɬɫɹ Anopheles maculipennis Meigen, 1818.
Ɉɛɢɬɚɧɢɟ ɜ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɷɬɢɯ ɞɜɭɯ ɦɨɪɮɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɬɪɭɞɧɨ
ɞɢɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɪɭɟɦɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɦɚɥɹɪɢɣɧɵɯ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɚ maculipennis
ɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɟɧɨ ɰɢɬɨɝɟɧɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɦ [29]. Ȼɨɥɟɟ ɪɟɞɨɤ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ
ɪɨɞɧɢɤɨɜɵɣ ɦɚɥɹɪɢɣɧɵɣ ɤɨɦɚɪ Anopheles claviger (Meigen, 1804).
Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɵɟ ɦɟɫɬɚ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɦɚɥɹɪɢɣɧɵɯ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ – ɱɚɫɬɢ ɪɟɤ ɫ
ɡɚɦɟɞɥɟɧɧɵɦ
ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟɦ,
ɡɚɬɨɧɵ,
ɫɬɚɪɢɰɵ,
ɩɪɭɞɵ
ɜ
ɛɚɥɤɚɯ.
Ɇɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɦɚɥɹɪɢɣɧɵɯ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ ɜ ɪɟɱɧɵɯ ɞɨɥɢɧɚɯ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɥɚ ɜ
ɩɟɪɜɨɣ ɩɨɥɨɜɢɧɟ 20 ɜɟɤɚ ɤ ɪɟɝɭɥɹɪɧɨɣ ɢ ɦɚɫɫɨɜɨɣ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɟɦɨɫɬɢ ɦɚɥɹɪɢɟɣ
ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɭɩɨɪɧɚɹ ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɦɚɥɹɪɢɣɧɚɹ
ɤɚɦɩɚɧɢɹ, ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɜɲɚɹɫɹ ɜ 1947-1956 ɝɝ., ɜ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɟ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɲɢɪɨɤɨ
ɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɥɢ ɨɩɵɥɟɧɢɟ ɚɧɚɮɟɥɨɝɟɧɧɵɯ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɨɜ ɢ ɨɛɪɚɛɨɬɤɭ ɦɟɫɬ ɞɧɟɜɨɤ
ɞɭɫɬɨɦ ȾȾɌ, ɞɚɥɚ ɫɜɨɢ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ. ɋɪɟɞɧɢɣ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬ ɦɚɥɹɪɢɣɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɦɚɪɚ
ɫɨɤɪɚɬɢɥɫɹ ɧɚɫɬɨɥɶɤɨ, ɱɬɨ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɫɩɨɪɨɡɨɢɬɨɜ ɦɚɥɹɪɢɣɧɨɝɨ
ɩɥɚɡɦɨɞɢɹ ɜ ɬɟɥɟ ɤɨɦɚɪɚ, ɬɪɟɛɭɸɳɟɟ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɫɪɨɤɚ, ɫɬɚɬɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ
ɫɬɚɥɨ ɦɚɥɨɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɨ, ɢ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɹ ɫɬɚɥɚ ɨɫɜɨɛɨɠɞɚɬɶɫɹ ɨɬ ɩɥɚɡɦɨɞɢɟɜ. ȼ
ɩɨɡɠɟ ɫɥɭɱɚɢ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɹ ɦɚɥɹɪɢɟɣ ɜ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɫɬɚɥɢ
ɧɚɫɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɪɟɞɤɢ, ɱɬɨ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɛɵɥɨ ɝɨɜɨɪɢɬɶ ɨ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɬɟɪɢɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ
ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ [26]. ȼ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɛɨɪɶɛɚ ɫ ɦɚɥɹɪɢɣɧɵɦɢ
ɤɨɦɚɪɚɦɢ ɛɵɥɚ ɩɨɜɫɟɦɟɫɬɧɨ ɩɪɟɤɪɚɳɟɧɚ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɞɚɧɧɵɣ ɭɫɩɟɯ ɧɟ ɭɦɚɥɹɟɬ
ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɡɧɚɱɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɦɚɥɹɪɢɣɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɦɚɪɚ ɤɚɤ ɩɟɪɟɧɨɫɱɢɤɚ ɦɚɥɹɪɢɢ,
ɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ ɟɠɟɝɨɞɧɨ ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɟɟ ɡɚɜɨɡɧɵɟ ɫɥɭɱɚɢ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɦɨɝɭɬ
ɩɪɢɜɟɫɬɢ ɤ ɡɚɪɚɠɟɧɢɸ ɦɟɫɬɧɨɣ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ.
ȼɢɞɵ ɪɨɞɚ Aedes ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɭɸ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ, ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ
ɜ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɵɯ ɢ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɚɯ ɨɛɥɟɫɧɟɧɧɵɯ ɢ ɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɯ ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɨɜ
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ, ɜ ɬɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟ ɜ ɍɫɦɚɧɫɤɨɦ ɛɨɪɭ [12, 13] ɢ ɧɚ ɸɝɨɜɨɫɬɨɤɟ ɑɟɪɧɨɡɟɦɧɨɝɨ ɰɟɧɬɪɚ [22, 23].
ȼ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɸɝɨ-ɜɨɫɬɨɤɚ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɫɛɨɪɵ
ɢ
ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɹ ɡɚ ɤɨɦɚɪɚɦɢ ɛɵɥɢ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɵ Ʌ.ȼ. Ɋɹɛɵɯ [23].
ȿɸ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɨ 25 ɜɢɞɨɜ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ. Ʉ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɦɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɦ ɢ
ɧɚɡɨɣɥɢɜɵɦ ɤɨɦɚɪɚɦ ɧɚ ɞɚɧɧɨɣ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɨɬɧɟɫɟɧɵ Aedes excrucians
Walker, 1856, Aedes cinereus Meigen, 1818, Aedes communis De Geer, 1776,
Aedes intrudens Dyar, 1919, Aedes maculatus Meigen, 1804. 10 ɢɡ
22
ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɟɦ ɜɢɞɨɜ, ɩɨ ɞɚɧɧɵɦ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ, ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ
ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɦɢ ɩɟɪɟɧɨɫɱɢɤɚɦɢ ɬɭɥɹɪɟɦɢɢ [23]. ɇɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɟɟ ɩɨɞɨɡɪɟɧɢɟ ɧɚ
ɭɱɚɫɬɢɟ ɜ ɩɟɪɟɞɚɱɟ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɚɞɚɟɬ ɧɚ Aedes excrucians ɢ Aedes
cinereus. Ɉɛɚ ɜɢɞɚ ɜɟɫɶɦɚ ɦɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵ ɧɚ ɩɨɣɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɥɟɫɧɵɯ ɢ
ɨɛɟɡɥɟɫɟɧɧɵɯ ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɚɯ, ɫɚɦɤɢ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨ ɧɚɩɚɞɚɸɬ ɧɚ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ ɢ
ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɜ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ 4-5 ɦɟɫɹɰɟɜ, ɱɬɨ ɫɨɜɩɚɞɚɟɬ ɫ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɨɦ
ɬɪɚɧɫɦɢɫɫɢɜɧɵɯ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɣ ɬɭɥɹɪɟɦɢɟɣ [17].
ȼ ɪɚɣɨɧɟ ɪɟɤɪɟɚɰɢɢ ɍɫɦɚɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɛɨɪɚ ȼ.ɂ. Ʉɚɦɨɥɨɜɵɦ [12, 13]
ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɨ 27 ɜɢɞɨɜ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ, ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɨ ɢɡ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɚɬ ɪɨɞɭ
Aedes. ɉɨ ɞɚɧɧɵɦ ɚɜɬɨɪɚ ɜɵɬɟɫɧɟɧɢɟ ɢɡ ɪɟɚɤɪɟɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɡɨɧɵ
ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɢ ɞɢɤɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɩɟɪɟɨɪɢɟɧɬɚɰɢɢ
ɝɟɦɚɬɨɮɚɝɨɜ ɫ ɡɨɨɮɢɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɮɢɥɶɧɨɟ. Ɉɛɢɥɢɟ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɨɜ
ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɨɝɨ ɬɢɩɚ ɢ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɚ – ɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɢ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɵɯ, ɪɟɥɢɤɬɨɜɵɯ ɨɡɟɪ,
ɫɬɚɪɢɰ, ɛɨɥɨɬ ɞɟɥɚɟɬ ɜ ɰɟɥɨɦ ɪɚɣɨɧ ɪɟɤɪɟɚɰɢɢ ɍɫɦɚɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɛɨɪɚ
ɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɵɦ ɞɥɹ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɤɪɨɜɨɫɨɫɭɳɢɯ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ ɫ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɦ ɜɢɞɨɜɵɦ
ɫɨɫɬɚɜɨɦ.
ɋɪɟɞɢ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ ɪɨɞɚ Culex ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ
ɧɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɢɣ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫ Culex pipiens. ȼ ɟɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɟ
ɞɨɫɬɨɜɟɪɧɨ ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɵ ɮɨɪɦɵ Culex pipiens pipiens Linnaeus, 1758 ɢ Culex
pipiens molestus Culex pipiens molestus Forskal, 1775, ɪɚɧɟɟ ɫɱɢɬɚɜɲɢɦɢɫɹ
ɩɨɞɜɢɞɚɦɢ. ɋɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɦ ɞɚɧɧɵɦ ɧɚɞɟɠɧɵɯ ɦɨɪɮɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ
ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɨɜ, ɪɚɡɥɢɱɚɸɳɢɯ ɷɬɢ ɩɨɞɜɢɞɵ, ɧɟɬ, ɨɧɢ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɸɬɫɹ ɝɥɚɜɧɵɦ
ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɹɦɢ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɢ. Ɋɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɧɵɟ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ
ɚɜɬɨɝɟɧɧɵɟ ɢ ɧɟɚɜɬɨɝɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ Culex pipiens ɪɟɤɨɦɟɧɞɭɟɬɫɹ
ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɬɶ ɩɨɞ ɨɞɧɢɦ ɧɚɡɜɚɧɢɟɦ, ɢ ɫɱɢɬɚɬɶ Culex molestus ɜ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ
ɛɢɨɬɢɩɚ ɩɨɞɜɢɞɚ Culex pipiens [3, 4, 27, 30, 38].
Ɇɟɞɢɤɨ-ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɚ Culex pipiens ɭɫɢɥɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ
ɪɨɫɬɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɢɧɚɧɬɪɨɩɧɵɯ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɣ Culex pipiens molestus,
ɚɝɪɟɫɫɢɜɧɵɯ ɩɨ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɸ ɤ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɭ. ȼ ɝɨɪɨɞɚɯ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɦ ɦɟɫɬɨɦ
ɜɵɩɥɨɞɚ Culex pipiens molestus ɫɥɭɠɚɬ ɡɚɤɪɵɬɵɟ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɵ ɩɨɞɜɚɥɨɜ ɠɢɥɵɯ
ɞɨɦɨɜ. ɋɚɦɤɢ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɵ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɬɶ ɩɟɪɜɵɟ ɹɣɰɟɤɥɚɞɤɢ ɛɟɡ ɤɪɨɜɨɫɨɫɚɧɢɹ,
ɱɬɨ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɤɨɦɚɪɭ ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɚɬɶɫɹ ɜ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɤɪɭɝɥɨɝɨ ɝɨɞɚ ɫ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟɦ
ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɯ ɩɨɤɨɥɟɧɢɣ [1].
ɉɨɩɵɬɤɚ ɨɛɨɛɳɟɧɢɹ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɚɜɬɨɪɨɜ, ɢɡɭɱɚɜɲɢɯ ɫɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɨ
Culicidae ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ, ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɚ ɜ Ʉɚɞɚɫɬɪɟ
ɛɟɫɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ [10]. ɉɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɣ ɜ
Ʉɚɞɚɫɬɪɟ ɫɩɢɫɨɤ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ ɜɤɥɸɱɚɟɬ 42 ɜɢɞɚ ɢɡ ɞɜɭɯ ɩɨɞɫɟɦɟɣɫɬɜ, 5 ɪɨɞɨɜ –
Anopheles, Aedes, Culex, Culiseta, Mansonia [10]. ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɜ
ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɢ ɫ ɤɥɚɫɫɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɟɣ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɨɣ Ⱥ.ȼ. Ƚɭɰɟɜɢɱ [5].
Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɜ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ ɞɟɫɹɬɢɥɟɬɢɹ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɵ ɧɨɜɵɟ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɩɨ
ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɬɢɤɟ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ ɫɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɚ Culicidaɟ. ȼ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɵɦɢ
ɮɢɥɨɝɟɧɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹɦɢ ɜɨ ɦɧɨɝɨɦ ɢɡɦɟɧɢɥɢɫɶ ɜɡɝɥɹɞɵ ɧɚ
ɜɨɩɪɨɫɵ ɬɚɤɫɨɧɨɦɢɢ [3, 28, 30, 36]. Ȼɵɥɢ ɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɵ ɧɨɜɵɟ ɪɨɞɵ ɢ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧ
ɬɚɤɫɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɪɚɧɝ ɪɹɞɚ ɩɨɞɪɨɞɨɜ ɞɨ ɪɨɞɚ [31, 33, 34]. Ⱦɢɫɤɭɬɚɛɟɥɶɧɵɦ
23
ɨɫɬɚɟɬɫɹ ɬɚɤɫɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɪɚɧɝ ɪɹɞɚ ɪɨɞɨɜ ɬɪɢɛɵ Aedini, ɜ ɬɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟ ɪɨɞɚ
Ochlerotatus ɢ Aedimorphus ɩɨɥɭɱɢɜɲɢɯ ɫɬɚɬɭɫ ɪɨɞɚ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹɦ Ɋɟɣɧɟɪɬɚ ɢ ɟɝɨ ɤɨɥɥɟɝ [33, 34, 36]. Ⱥɜɬɨɪɵ ɧɟ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɸɬ
ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɧɭɸ ɢɦɢ ɪɟɜɢɡɢɸ ɤɚɤ ɨɤɨɧɱɚɬɟɥɶɧɭɸ ɢ ɫɱɢɬɚɸɬ, ɱɬɨ ɩɨ ɦɟɪɟ
ɧɚɤɨɩɥɟɧɢɹ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɦɨɠɟɬ
ɛɵɬɶ ɭɬɨɱɧɟɧɨ. ɇɟ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɨ, ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɤ ɤɚɤɨɦɭ ɩɨɞɪɨɞɭ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ
ɨɬɧɟɫɬɢ ɲɢɪɨɤɨ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɧɵɟ ɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ Ochlerotatus communis ɢ
Ochlerotatus dorsalis.
ɇɨɜɚɹ ɤɥɚɫɫɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɹ Aedini [35, 36, 37], ɹɜɥɹɸɳɚɹɫɹ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɦ
ɮɭɧɞɚɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɜɟɞɭɳɢɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɬɢɤɨɜ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ,
ɧɟɫɨɦɧɟɧɧɨ, ɛɥɢɠɟ ɤ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ, ɱɟɦ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɳɚɹɫɹ ɜ ɧɚɲɟɣ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ ɜ
ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ [5, 6]. Ɉɧɚ ɭɠɟ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɚ ɡɚ ɪɭɛɟɠɨɦ, ɢ, ɩɨ ɦɧɟɧɢɸ Ɋ.Ɇ.
Ƚɨɪɧɨɫɬɚɟɜɨɣ [4] ɰɟɥɟɫɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɨ ɜ ɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɟɦ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶ ɟɟ ɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ.
ɉɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɨɬɟɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɫɬɵ [4, 28] ɨɛɪɚɳɚɸɬ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ, ɱɬɨ
ɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɬɪɚɤɬɨɜɨɤ ɩɨɞɪɨɞɨɜɨɝɨ ɢ ɜɢɞɨɜɨɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɚ ɪɨɞɚ Aedes
ɪɚɡɧɵɦɢ ɚɜɬɨɪɚɦɢ ɡɚɦɟɬɧɨ ɭɫɥɨɠɧɹɟɬ ɪɚɛɨɬɭ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɨɜ, ɩɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɝɥɚɜɧɵɦ
ɩɨ-ɩɪɟɠɧɟɦɭ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɞɢɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɤɚ ɜɢɞɨɜ, ɢ, ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ (ɢ ɞɚɠɟ
ɪɟɤɨɦɟɧɞɭɟɬɫɹ), ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɬɶ ɪɨɞɵ, ɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɟ Ɋɟɣɧɟɪɬɨɦ [33, 34, 35, 36]
ɢɡ ɪɨɞɚ Aedes ɜ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɩɨɞɪɨɞɨɜ ɞɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɪɨɞɚ ɞɨ ɡɚɜɟɪɲɟɧɢɹ ɰɢɤɥɚ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɬɪɢɛɵ Aedini.
ɇɢɠɟ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧ ɫɩɢɫɨɤ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ ɫɟɦ. Culicidae ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ
ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ, ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɣ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɩɟɪɟɱɧɹ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ ɢɡ «Ʉɚɞɚɫɬɪɚ
ɛɟɫɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ» [10] ɢ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɰɢɣ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɚɜɬɨɪɨɜ, ɪɚɛɨɬɚɜɲɢɯ ɜ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɟ. ɇɚɡɜɚɧɢɹ ɬɚɤɫɨɧɨɜ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɦ ɞɚɧɧɵɦ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɬɢɤɢ [32, 36, 37], ɩɪɢɱɟɦ
ɜɧɭɬɪɢɪɨɞɨɜɚɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɬɢɤɚ ɩɨ ɪɹɞɭ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɨɫɬɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɫɬɚɞɢɢ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɢ.
ɂɡ-ɡɚ ɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɪɹɞɚ ɬɚɤɫɨɧɨɜ ɜ ɫɢɧɨɧɢɦɵ ɢ ɧɟɬɨɱɧɨɝɨ ɰɢɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ
ɢɫɯɨɞɧɵɯ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɧɵɯ ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɨɜ ɫɩɢɫɨɤ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ,
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɣ ɜ Ʉɚɞɚɫɬɪɟ [10], ɫɨɤɪɚɳɟɧ ɫ 42 ɞɨ 34 ɜɢɞɨɜ.
ɂɡ ɫɩɢɫɤɚ ɢɫɤɥɸɱɟɧ ɜɢɞ Aedes maculatus Mg. Ⱦɚɧɧɨɟ ɧɚɡɜɚɧɢɟ ɜ
ɨɬɟɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɟ ɱɚɫɬɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɥɨɫɶ ɞɥɹ ɷɤɡɟɦɩɥɹɪɨɜ ɜɢɞɚ
Aedes cantans (Meigen, 1818) [27] ɢ ɩɨ ɧɚɲɟɦɭ ɦɧɟɧɢɸ, ɬɚɤɨɜɵɦ ɢ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ.
Aedes maculatus ɭɩɨɦɢɧɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɪɚɛɨɬɚɯ Ʌ.ȼ. Ɋɹɛɵɯ [22, 23] ɢ Ɋ.ȼ.
Ʉɨɥɵɱɟɜɨɣ [17] ɤɚɤ ɦɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɣ ɩɨɡɞɧɟɜɟɫɟɧɧɢɣ ɜɢɞ ɜ ɨɛɥɟɫɧɟɧɧɵɯ
ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɚɯ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ. ɏɨɬɹ ɧɚɡɜɚɧɢɟ Aedes maculatus Mg.
ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɦɥɚɞɲɢɦ ɫɢɧɨɧɢɦɨɦ ɧɚɡɜɚɧɢɹ Aedes rusticus (Rossi, 1790),
ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɣ ɜɤɥɸɱɟɧ ɜ ɫɨɫɬɚɜ ɮɚɭɧɵ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɭɫɥɨɜɧɨ, ɬɚɤ ɤɚɤ ɞɨɫɬɨɜɟɪɧɨ
ɢɡɜɟɫɬɟɧ ɢɡ Ʉɚɪɩɚɬ [28], ɢ ɧɚɯɨɞɤɚ ɟɝɨ ɜ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ
ɦɚɥɨɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɚ.
Ⱦɥɹ 6 ɜɢɞɨɜ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɵ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɟ ɜɚɥɢɞɧɵɟ ɧɚɡɜɚɧɢɹ ɜɡɚɦɟɧ
ɦɥɚɞɲɢɯ ɫɢɧɨɧɢɦɨɜ [27]: Ochlerotatus euedes (Howard, Dyar et Knab, 1913)
ɜɦɟɫɬɨ Aedes beklemishevi Denisova, 1955, Anopheles claviger (Meigen, 1804)
ɜɦɟɫɬɨ Anopheles bifurcatus Meigen, 1818, Culex territans Walker, 1856
ɜɦɟɫɬɨ Culex apicalis Adams, 1903, Culex vagans Wiedermann, 1828 ɜɦɟɫɬɨ
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Culex exilis Dyar, 1024, Culex pipiens pipiens Linnaeus, 1758 ɜɦɟɫɬɨ Culex
pipiens molestus Forskal, 1775 (ɋɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɦ ɞɚɧɧɵɦ,
Culex molestus ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɬɶ ɤɚɤ ɫɢɧɨɧɢɦ ɧɨɦɢɧɚɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɞɜɢɞɚ
[4, 27, 30, 38]).
ȿɳɟ 2 ɧɚɡɜɚɧɢɹ ɢɫɤɥɸɱɟɧɵ ɢɡ ɫɩɢɫɤɚ, ɬɚɤ ɤɚɤ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɨɩɟɱɚɬɤɚɦɢ,
ɨɲɢɛɨɱɧɨ ɩɟɪɟɧɟɫɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɜ Ʉɚɞɚɫɬɪ: Aedes cinciens Mg. [17, 18] ɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɨ
ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɬɶ ɤɚɤ Aedes cinereus Meigen, 1818, Aedes menctor Kirby [17, 18]
– ɤɚɤ Aedes punctor (Kirby, 1837).
ɉɪɢɫɭɬɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɜ ɫɩɢɫɤɟ, ɧɨ ɬɪɟɛɭɸɬ ɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ
ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ 4 ɜɢɞɚ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ: Ochlerotatus
hexodontus (Dyar, 1916) (ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ: ɋɟɜɟɪ ɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ
ɛɵɜɲɟɝɨ ɋɋɋɊ, Ɂɚɩɚɞɧɚɹ ɢ ȼɨɫɬɨɱɧɚɹ ɋɢɛɢɪɶ, ɋɤɚɧɞɢɧɚɜɢɹ, ɋɟɜɟɪɧɚɹ
Ⱥɦɟɪɢɤɚ [28]), Ochlerotatus pulcritarsis (Rondani, 1872) (ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ:
Ʉɚɜɤɚɡ, ɍɤɪɚɢɧɚ, ɰɟɧɬɪ ɢ ɸɝ Ɂɚɩɚɞɧɨɣ ȿɜɪɨɩɵ, Ɇɚɥɚɹ Ⱥɡɢɹ), Culex
theileri Theobald, 1903 (ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ: Ʉɚɜɤɚɡ, Ʉɪɵɦ, Ɂɚɤɚɜɤɚɡɶɟ,
Ʉɚɡɚɯɫɬɚɧ, ɋɪɟɞɧɹɹ Ⱥɡɢɹ, ɋɪɟɞɢɡɟɦɧɨɦɨɪɶɟ), Culex vagans Wiedemann, 1828
(ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ: ȼɨɫɬɨɱɧɚɹ ɋɢɛɢɪɶ ɢ Ⱦɚɥɶɧɢɣ ȼɨɫɬɨɤ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ, ɂɪɚɧ,
Ɇɨɧɝɨɥɢɹ, əɩɨɧɢɹ, Ʉɨɪɟɹ, Ʉɢɬɚɣ).
ȼ ɰɟɥɨɦ, ɮɚɭɧɭ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɧɟɥɶɡɹ ɫɱɢɬɚɬɶ
ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɧɨɣ. Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɵɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɢɫɶ ɝɥɚɜɧɵɦ
ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ ɜ 50–70-ɯ ɝɨɞɚɯ ɩɪɨɲɥɨɝɨ ɫɬɨɥɟɬɢɹ ɢ ɛɵɥɢ ɫɨɫɪɟɞɨɬɨɱɟɧɵ ɜ
ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɪɚɣɨɧɚɯ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ. Ⱦɨ ɫɢɯ ɩɨɪ ɧɟ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɫɹ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɟ
ɦɟɬɨɞɵ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ, ɬɚɤɢɟ ɤɚɤ ɰɢɬɨɝɟɧɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɢ
ɛɢɨɯɢɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ, ɲɢɪɨɤɨ ɢ ɫ ɭɫɩɟɯɨɦ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɡɚ ɪɭɛɟɠɨɦ ɞɥɹ
ɭɬɨɱɧɟɧɢɹ ɫɬɚɬɭɫɚ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɢ ɢɯ ɚɪɟɚɥɨɜ.
ȿɫɬɶ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɩɪɢ ɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɟɦ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɢ ɮɚɭɧɵ
ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɜ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɣ ɧɚɦɢ ɫɩɢɫɨɤ
ɛɭɞɭɬ ɜɧɟɫɟɧɵ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɭɬɨɱɧɟɧɢɹ.
ɋɉɂɋɈɄ ɄɈɆȺɊɈȼ ȼɈɊɈɇȿɀɋɄɈɃ ɈȻɅȺɋɌɂ
ɋɟɦ. CULICIDAE
ɉɨɞɫɟɦ. ANOPHELINAE
Ɋɨɞ Anopheles Meigen, 1818
ɉɨɞɪɨɞ Anopheles Meigen, 1818
1. Anopheles (Anopheles) claviger (Meigen, 1804)
2. Anopheles (Anopheles) maculipennis Meigen, 1818
3. Anopheles (Anopheles) messeae Falleroni, 1926
ɉɨɞɫɟɦ. CULICINAE
Ɍɪɢɛɚ Aedini
Ɋɨɞ Aedes Meigen, 1818
ɉɨɞɪɨɞ Aedes Meigen, 1818
4. Aedes (Aedes) cinereus Meigen, 1818
5. Aedes (Aedes) rossicus Dolbeskin, Gorickaja et Mitrofanova, 1930
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Ɋɨɞ Aedimorphus Theobald, 1903
6. Aedimorphus vexans (Meigen, 1830)
Ɋɨɞ Dahliana Reintert, Harbach & Kitching 2006
7. Dahliana geniculata (Olivier, 1791)
Ɋɨɞ Ochlerotatus Lynch Arribalzaga, 1891
8. Ochlerotatus annulipes (Meigen, 1830)
9. Ochlerotatus behningi (Martini, 1926)
10. Ochlerotatus cantans (Meigen, 1818)
11. Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771)
12. Ochlerotatus cataphylla (Dyar, 1916)
13. Ochlerotatus communis (de Geer, 1776)
14. Ochlerotatus cyprius (Ludlow, 1920)
15. Ochlerotatus dorsalis (Meigen, 1830)
16. Ochlerotatus euedes (Howard, Dyar et Knab, 1913)
17. Ochlerotatus excrucians (Walker, 1856)
18.Ochlerotatus flavescens (Muller, 1764)
19. Ochlerotatus hexodontus (Dyar, 1916)
20. Ochlerotatus leucomelas (Meigen, 1804)
21. Ochlerotatus pulcritarsis (Rondani, 1872)
22. Ochlerotatus punctor (Kirby, 1837)
23. Ochlerotatus sticticus (Meigen, 1838)
ɉɨɞɪɨɞ Rusticoidus Shevchenko & Prudkina, 1973
24. Ochlerotatus (Rusticoidus) subdiversus (Martini, 1926)
ɉɨɞɪɨɞ Woodius Reintert, Harbach & Kitching, 2009
25. Ochlerotatus (Woodius) diantaeus (Howard, Dyar et Knab, 1913)
26. Ochlerotatus (Woodius) intrudens (Dyar, 1919)
Ɍɪɢɛɚ Culicini
Ɋɨɞ Culex Linnaeus, 1758
ɉɨɞɪɨɞ Barraudius Edwards, 1921
27. Culex (Barraudius) modestus Ficalbi, 1890
ɉɨɞɪɨɞ Culex Linnaeus, 1758
28. Culex (Culex) pipiens Linnaeus, 1758
29. Culex (Culex) theileri Theobald, 1903
30. Culex (Culex) vagans Wiedemann, 1828
ɉɨɞɪɨɞ Neoculex Dyar, 1919
31. Culex (Neoculex) territans Walker, 1856
Ɍɪɢɛɚ Culisetini
Ɋɨɞ Culiseta Felt, 1904
ɉɨɞɪɨɞ Culiɫella Felt, 1904
32. Culiseta (Culiɫella) ochroptera (Peus, 1935)
ɉɨɞɪɨɞ Culiseta Felt, 1904
33. Culiseta (Culiseta) annulata (Schrank, 1776)
Ɍɪɢɛɚ Mansoniini
Ɋɨɞ Coquillettidia Dyar, 1905
ɉɨɞɪɨɞ Coquillettidia Dyar, 1905
34. Coquillettidia (Coquillettidia) richiardii (Ficalbi, 1889)
26
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. ȼɢɧɨɝɪɚɞɨɜɚ ȿ.Ȼ. Ʉɨɦɚɪɵ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɚ Culex pipiens ɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ // Ɍɪ. Ɂɨɨɥ. ɢɧ–ɬɚ
ɊȺɇ, 1997. – Ɍ. 271 – ɋ. 256–262.
2. Ƚɨɥɭɛ ȼ.Ȼ., Ʉɚɦɨɥɨɜ ȼ.ɂ. Ʉ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɸ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɢ Culex pipiens molestus Fornk. ɜ
ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɝ. ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɚ ɢ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɥɚɛɨɪɚɬɨɪɧɵɯ ɢɫɩɵɬɚɧɢɣ ȺɘȽ ɸɜɟɦɨɧ // ɋɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ
ɢ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɍɫɦɚɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɛɨɪɚ. – ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ: ȼȽɍ, 1993. – ȼɵɩ. 3. – ɋ. 84–92.
3. Ƚɨɪɧɨɫɬɚɟɜɚ Ɋ.Ɇ. Ⱥɧɚɥɢɡ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ ɨ ɮɚɭɧɟ ɢ ɚɪɟɚɥɚɯ ɦɚɥɹɪɢɣɧɵɯ
ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ (Diptera: Culicidae: Anopheles) ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ // ɉɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɥɨɝɢɹ. – 2003.–
Ɍ. 37, ʋ 4. – ɋ. 298–305.
4. Ƚɨɪɧɨɫɬɚɟɜɚ Ɋ.Ɇ. ɇɨɜɵɣ ɫɩɢɫɨɤ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ (Diptera: Culicidae) Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ // Ɇɟɞ.
ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɥ. ɢ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚɪ. Ȼɨɥɟɡɧɢ. – 2009. ʋ 1. – ɋ. 60–62.
5. Ƚɭɰɟɜɢɱ Ⱥ.ȼ., Ɇɨɧɱɚɞɫɤɢɣ Ⱥ.ɋ., ɒɬɟɤɟɥɶɛɟɪɝ Ⱥ.Ⱥ. ɇɚɫɟɤɨɦɵɟ ɞɜɭɤɪɵɥɵɟ:
ɋɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɨ Culicidae. – Ɇ.–Ʌ.: ɇɚɭɤɚ, 1970. – 380 ɫ.
6. Ƚɭɰɟɜɢɱ Ⱥ.ȼ., Ⱦɭɛɢɰɤɢɣ Ⱥ.Ɇ. ɇɨɜɵɟ ɜɢɞɵ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ ɮɚɭɧɵ ɋɨɜɟɬɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɨɸɡɚ //
ɉɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɥ. ɫɛ. – 1981. – Ɍ.30. – ɋ.197–165.
7. ȿɝɨɪɨɜɚ Ʌ.ȼ. Ʉ ɮɚɭɧɟ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ ɫɟɦ. Culicidae ɜ ɨɤɪɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɹɯ ɝ. ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɚ //
Ɇɟɞɢɰ. ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬ. ɢ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬ. ɛɨɥɟɡɧɢ. – 1946. – Ɍ. 15. ȼɵɩ. 4. – ɋ. 99.
8. ȿɪɦɨɥɚɟɜ Ƚ.ɂ. Ʉ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɸ ɮɟɧɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɦɚɥɹɪɢɣɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɦɚɪɚ ɜ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ
ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ // Ɉɯɪɚɧɚ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ ɐɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨ–ɑɟɪɧɨɡɟɦɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɨɫɵ. – ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ: ɂɡɞ-ɜɨ
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ. ɭɧ-ɬɚ, 1958. – ȼɵɩ. 1. – ɋ. 375–392.
9. ȿɪɦɨɥɚɟɜ Ƚ.ɂ. Ɋɨɫɬ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɦɚɥɹɪɢɣɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɦɚɪɚ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɹ
ɛɨɪɶɛɵ ɫ ɧɢɦ ɜ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ // Ɉɯɪɚɧɚ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ ɐɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨ–ɑɟɪɧɨɡɟɦɧɨɣ
ɩɨɥɨɫɵ. – ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ: ɂɡɞ-ɜɨ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ. ɭɧ-ɬɚ, 1964. – ȼɵɩ. 5. – ɋ. 213–216.
10. Ʉɚɞɚɫɬɪ ɛɟɫɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ. – ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ:
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɢɣ ɝɨɫ. ɭɧ-ɬ., 2005. – 825 ɫ.
11. Ʉɚɦɨɥɨɜ ȼ.ɂ. ɇɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɹ ɡɚ ɤɨɦɚɪɚɦɢ ɪɨɞɚ Culex ɜ ɪɟɤɪɟɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ
ɡɨɧɟ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚ // ɉɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɨɯɪɚɧɵ ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɨɜ. –
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ: ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɢɣ ɝɨɫ. ɭɧ-ɬ., 1974. – ɋ. 58-62.
12. Ʉɚɦɨɥɨɜ ȼ.ɂ. Ʉɪɨɜɨɫɨɫɭɳɢɟ ɞɜɭɤɪɵɥɵɟ ɧɚɫɟɤɨɦɵɟ ɜ ɪɟɤɪɟɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɡɨɧɟ ɝ.
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɚ: ɞɢɫɫ. ɤɚɧɞ. ɛɢɨɥ. ɧɚɭɤ. – ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ, 1976. – 203 ɫ.
13. Ʉɚɦɨɥɨɜ ȼ.ɂ. Ʉ ɮɚɭɧɟ ɤɪɨɜɨɫɨɫɭɳɢɯ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ ɪɟɤɪɟɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɡɨɧɵ ɍɫɦɚɧɫɤɨɝɨ
ɛɨɪɚ // ɋɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɢ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɍɫɦɚɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɛɨɪɚ. Ɍɪ. Ȼɢɨɥ. ɭɱɟɛ.-ɧɚɭɱ. ɛɚɡɵ
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ. ɝɨɫ. ɭɧ-ɬɚ «ȼɟɧɟɜɢɬɢɧɨɜɨ».– ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ: ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɢɣ ɝɨɫ. ɭɧ-ɬ., 1992. – ȼɵɩ. 2.
– ɋ. 52–58.
14. Ʉɚɦɨɥɨɜ ȼ.ɂ. Ʉɪɨɜɨɫɨɫɭɳɢɟ ɤɨɦɚɪɵ ɫɟɜɟɪɨ-ɡɚɩɚɞɚ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ //
Ɉɯɪɚɧɚ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ ɐɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨ–ɑɟɪɧɨɡɟɦɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɨɫɵ. – ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ : ɐɟɧɬɪ.–ɑɟɪɧɨɡ. ɤɧɢɠɧ.
ɢɡɞ–ɜɨ, 1998. – ȼɵɩ. 10. – ɋ. 78–81.
15. Ʉɚɦɨɥɨɜ ȼ.ɂ., Ƚɨɥɭɛ ȼ.Ȼ., ɉɪɨɫɬɚɤɨɜ ɇ.ɂ. Ʉ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɭ ɛɢɨɷɤɨɥɨɝɢ ɜɨɡɛɭɞɢɬɟɥɹ ɢ
ɩɟɪɟɧɨɫɱɢɤɚ ɦɚɥɹɪɢɢ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɝ. ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɚ ɜ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɷɩɢɞɟɦɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɨɣ ɜ 1995 ɝ. // ɋɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɢ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɋɪɟɞɧɟɝɨ ɉɨɞɨɧɶɹ: Ɍɪ. Ȼɢɨɥ.
ɭɱɟɛ.-ɧɚɭɱ. ɛɚɡɵ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ. ɝɨɫ. ɭɧ-ɬɚ «ȼɟɧɟɜɢɬɢɧɨɜɨ». – ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ: ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɢɣ ɝɨɫ. ɭɧɬ., 1995. – ȼɵɩ. 7. – ɋ. 90–98.
16. Ʉɨɠɟɜɧɢɤɨɜ Ƚ.Ⱥ. Ɇɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɵ ɩɨ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɢ Anopheles, ɫɨɛɪɚɧɧɵɟ ɜɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ
ɦɚɥɹɪɢɣɧɨɣ ɷɤɫɩɟɞɢɰɢɟɣ // Ɍɪ. ɤɨɦɢɫɫɢɢ ɩɨ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɸ ɦɚɥɹɪɢɢ ɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ. – Ɇ., 1903. –
ȼɵɩ. 1. – ɋ. 69-94.
17. Ʉɨɥɵɱɟɜɚ Ɋ.ȼ. ɋɪɚɜɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɮɟɧɨɥɨɝɢɢ, ɪɢɬɦɭ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ
ɥɟɬɚ ɢ ɮɢɡɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɭ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɭ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɣ ɤɪɨɜɨɫɨɫɭɳɢɯ ɞɜɭɤɪɵɥɵɯ ɜ ɪɟɱɧɵɯ
ɩɨɣɦɚɯ ɸɝɨ-ɜɨɫɬɨɤɚ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ: ɞɢɫɫ. …ɤɚɧɞ. ɛɢɨɥ. ɧɚɭɤ. – ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ, 1966. –
347 ɫ.
27
18. Ʉɨɥɵɱɟɜɚ Ɋ.ȼ. Ȼɢɨɮɟɧɨɥɨɝɢɹ ɢɦɚɝɨ ɤɪɨɜɨɫɨɫɭɳɢɯ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ
ɨɛɥɟɫɧɺɧɧɨɣ ɩɨɣɦɵ ɏɨɩɪɚ ɜ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ // Ɍɪɭɞɵ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɝɨ
ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɚ. – ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ: ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɢɣ ɝɨɫ. ɭɧ-ɬ., 1967. – ɋ. 131–139.
19. Ɇɚɪɱɭɤɨɜɚ ȿ.Ⱥ., Ɋɹɛɵɯ Ʌ.ȼ. Ʉ ɮɚɭɧɟ ɢ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɤɪɨɜɨɫɨɫɭɳɢɯ ɞɜɭɤɪɵɥɵɯ –
ɩɟɪɟɧɨɫɱɢɤɨɜ ɜɨɡɛɭɞɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɣ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ ɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɧɚ ɸɝɨ-ɜɨɫɬɨɤɟ
ɑɟɪɧɨɡɟɦɧɨɝɨ ɐɟɧɬɪɚ // ɏ ɫɨɜɟɳɚɧɢɟ ɩɨ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚɦ ɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨ–
ɨɱɚɝɨɜɵɦ ɛɨɥɟɡɧɹɦ. – Ɇ.–Ʌ., 1959. – ȼɵɩ. 2. – ɋ. 78–80.
20. Ɇɭɮɟɥɶ ɉ.ɉ. ɇɚɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɞ ɦɟɫɬɚɦɢ ɜɵɩɥɨɞɚ ɦɚɥɹɪɢɣɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɦɚɪɚ ɜ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɟ
ɜ 1925 ɝ. // Ɋɭɫɫɤɢɣ ɠɭɪɧ. ɬɪɨɩɢɱ. ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɵ. – 1926. – ȼɵɩ. 3. – ɋ. 34–39.
21. Ɇɭɮɟɥɶ ɉ.ɉ. Anopheles bifurcatus L. ɜ ɐɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨ-ɑɟɪɧɨɡɟɦɧɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ //
Ɋɭɫɫɤɢɣ ɠɭɪɧɚɥ ɬɪɨɩɢɱ. ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɵ. – 1929. – Ɍ. 8. ȼɵɩ. 1. – ɋ. 56–57.
22. Ɋɹɛɵɯ Ʌ.ȼ. Ʉ ɮɚɭɧɟ ɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ Aedes ɢ Culex ɢ ɢɯ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɚɹ
ɷɩɢɞɟɦɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɪɨɥɶ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɸɝɨ–ɜɨɫɬɨɤɚ ɑɟɪɧɨɡɟɦɧɨɝɨ ɐɟɧɬɪɚ // III ɫɨɜɟɳɚɧɢɟ
ȼɫɟɫɨɸɡɧɨɝɨ ɷɧɬɨɦɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ: ɦɚɬɟɪ. ɤɨɧɮ.— Ɍɛɢɥɢɫɢ, 1957. – ɋ. 204–205.
23. Ɋɹɛɵɯ Ʌ.ȼ. Ʉ ɮɚɭɧɟ ɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɤɪɨɜɨɫɨɫɭɳɢɯ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɸɝɨ–ɜɨɫɬɨɤɚ
ɑɟɪɧɨɡɟɦɧɨɝɨ ɰɟɧɬɪɚ // Ɉɯɪɚɧɚ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ ɐɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨ–ɑɟɪɧɨɡɟɦɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɨɫɵ. – ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ :
ɂɡɞ-ɜɨ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ. ɭɧ-ɬɚ, 1960. – ȼɵɩ. 3. – ɋ. 239–248.
24. ɋɟɧɬ-ɂɥɟɪ Ʉ.Ʉ. ɇɚɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɞ ɦɚɥɹɪɢɣɧɵɦ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɦ (Anopheles maculipennis)
ɨɤɨɥɨ ɝ. ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɚ ɜ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ 1923 ɝ. // Ȼɸɥɥ. ɨɛ-ɜɚ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɨɢɫɩɵɬ. ɩɪɢ ȼȽɍ. – 1925. –
Ɍ.1, ȼɵɩ.1. – ɋ. 17–22.
25. ɋɟɧɬ–ɂɥɟɪ Ʉ.Ʉ. ɇɚɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɞ ɦɚɥɹɪɢɣɧɵɦ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɦ (An. maculipennis) ɨɤɨɥɨ
ɝ. ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɚ // Ɍɪ. ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ. ɝɨɫɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬɚ. – ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ: ɂɡɞ-ɜɨ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ. ɭɧ-ɬɚ, 1949.
– Ɍ. 17. – ɋ. 33–67.
26. ɋɤɭɮɶɢɧ Ʉ.ȼ. ɇɚɫɟɤɨɦɵɟ ɘɝɨ–ȼɨɫɬɨɤɚ ɑɟɪɧɨɡɟɦɧɨɝɨ ɰɟɧɬɪɚ / Ʉ.ȼ. ɋɤɭɮɶɢɧ. –
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ: ɂɡɞ-ɜɨ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ. ɭɧ-ɬɚ, 1978. – 163 ɫ.
27. ɏɚɥɢɧ Ⱥ.ȼ. ɉɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɫɢɧɨɧɢɦɢɢ ɤɪɨɜɨɫɨɫɭɳɢɯ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ (Diptera: Culicidae)
ɮɚɭɧɵ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ // ɉɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɥɨɝɢɹ. – 2008. – Ɍ. 42. ȼɵɩ. 6. – ɋ. 452–466.
28. ɏɚɥɢɧ Ⱥ.ȼ., Ƚɨɪɧɨɫɬɚɟɜɚ Ɋ.Ɇ. Ʉ ɬɚɤɫɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɭ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɭ ɤɪɨɜɨɫɨɫɭɳɢɯ
ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ (Diptera: Culicidae) ɦɢɪɨɜɨɣ ɮɚɭɧɵ ɢ ɮɚɭɧɵ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ (Ʉɪɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɨɛɡɨɪ) //
ɉɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɥɨɝɢɹ – 2008. – Ɍ. 42. ȼɵɩ. 5. – ɋ. 360–381.
29. ɒɭɜɚɥɢɤɨɜ ȼ.Ȼ. ɂɧɜɟɪɫɢɨɧɧɵɣ ɩɨɥɢɦɨɪɮɢɡɦ ɜ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɹɯ ɦɚɥɹɪɢɣɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɦɚɪɚ
Anopheles messeae Ɉɤɫɤɨ-Ⱦɨɧɫɤɨɣ ɪɚɜɧɢɧɵ // ȼɟɫɬɧɢɤ ɡɨɨɥɨɝɢɢ. – 1983. – ȼɵɩ. 3. – ɋ.
83–85.
30. Becker, N., Petric, D., Zgomba, M., Boase, C., Dahl, C., Lane, J. & Kaiser, A.
Mosquitoes and their control. Kluwer Academic. New York: Plenum Publisher, 2003. – 498
pp.
31. Harbach, R.E. & Kitching, I.J. Phylogeny and classification of the Culicidae (Diptera) //
Systematic Entomology. – 1998. – Vol. 23. – P. 327-370.
32. Harbach R.E. Valid Species List. pdf // Mosquito Taxonomic Inventory: [ɫɚɣɬ]. – URL:
http://mosquito-taxonomic-inventory.info (ɞɚɬɚ ɨɛɪɚɳɟɧɢɹ 03.04.2014).
33. Reinert J.F. New classi¿cation for the composite genus Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae:
Aedini), elevation of subgenus Ochlerotatus to generic rank, reclassi¿cation of the other
subgenera, and notes on certain subgenera and species // Journal of the American Mosquito
Control Association. – 2000. – Vol. 16. – Ɋ.175–188.
34. Reinert J.F., Harbach R.E., Kitching I.J. Phylogeny and classification of Aedini
(Diptera: Culicidae), based on morphological characters of all life stages. // Zool. J. Linnean
Soc.– 2004. – Vol.142. – P.289–368.
35. Reinert, J.F., Harbach, R.E. & Kitching, I.J. Phylogeny and classification of
Ochlerotatus (Diptera: Culicidae: Aedini) and allied taxa based on morphological data from all
life stages // Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. – 2008. – Vol. 153. – Ɋ.29–114.
28
36. Reinert, J.F., Harbach, R.E. & Kitching, I.J. Phylogeny and classification of Aedini
(Diptera: Culicidae) // Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. – 2009. – Vol. 157. – P. 700–
794.
37. Systematic Catalog of Culicidae. Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit. [ɫɚɣɬ]. – URL:
http://www.mosquitocatalog.org/default.aspx (ɞɚɬɚ ɨɛɪɚɳɟɧɢɹ 03.04.2014).
38. Ward R.A. Third Supplement to «Ⱥ catalog of the Mosquitoes of the World» (Diptera,
Culicidae) // Mosquito Systematics. – 1992. – V. 24, N 3. – P. 177–230.
AT TAXONOMIC COMPOSITION OF BLOOD SUCKING MOSQUITOES
(DIPTERA, CULICIDAE) IN VORONEZH REGION
I.A. Budaeva, A.S. Kolupaev, E.Yu. Vislevskaya, A.V. Bolgova
Voronezh State University, Voronezh, Russia
Based on a critical analyzis of references, an updated list of the mosquitoes of
Voronezh Region is represented in accordance with modern data of taxonomy and
phylogeny. Species list of the mosquitoes, which was published in «Cadastre of
invertebrate animals Voronezh region» (2005) has been reduced from 42 to 34
species.
ɍȾɄ 595.14:575
ɊȺɋɉɊɈɋɌɊȺɇȿɇɂȿ ɂɄɋɈȾɈȼɕɏ ɄɅȿɓȿɃ
ɇȺ ɌȿɊɊɂɌɈɊɂɂ ȺɅɌȺɃɋɄɈȽɈ ɄɊȺə
ȿ.ɂ. Ȼɭɬɚɤɨɜ
Ⱥɥɬɚɣɫɤɢɣ ɧɚɭɱɧɨ-ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɫɤɢɣ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚ,
Ȼɚɪɧɚɭɥ. E-mail: [email protected]
ɒɟɫɬɶ ɮɨɧɨɜɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ – Ixodes persulcatus Schulze, Haemaphysalis concinna
C.L. Koch, Dermacentor nuttali Olenev, Dermacentor reticulatus Hermann,
Dermacentor marginatus Schulzer, Dermacentor silvarum Olenev ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ
ɮɚɭɧɭ ɢɤɫɨɞɨɜɵɯ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ ɜ Ⱥɥɬɚɣɫɤɨɦ ɤɪɚɟ. ɂɡ ɧɢɯ ɦɚɫɫɨɜɵɦɢ ɜɢɞɚɦɢ
ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ: Ixodes persulcatus, Haemaphysalis concinna, Dermacentor
reticulatus, Dermacentor marginatus. ɋɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ ɜɢɞɨɜɨɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɚ:
Dermacentor marginatus –53%, Ixodes persulcatus – 22%, Dermacentor
reticulates – 14%, Haemaphysalis concinna – 8%. ɑɢɫɥɨ ɭɤɭɲɟɧɧɵɯ ɤɥɟɳɚɦɢ
ɡɚ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ 5 ɥɟɬ ɫɧɢɡɢɥɨɫɶ ɧɚ 31%. Ʉɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɡɚɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ
ɫɥɭɱɚɟɦ ɤɥɟɳɟɜɨɝɨ ɷɧɰɟɮɚɥɢɬɚ ɨɫɬɚɥɨɫɶ ɧɚ ɩɪɟɠɧɟɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ. Ʉɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ
ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ ɤɥɟɳɟɜɨɝɨ ɪɢɤɤɟɬɫɢɨɡɚ ɫɧɢɡɢɥɨɫɶ ɧɚ 36%. ȼ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ ɝɨɞɵ ɜ
Ⱥɥɬɚɣɫɤɨɦ ɤɪɚɟ ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɵ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɹ, ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɚɰɢɹ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɜɜɟɞɟɧɚ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ
ɜ 2013 ɝɨɞ ɭ – ɝɪɚɧɭɥɨɰɢɬɚɪɧɵɣ ɚɧɚɩɥɚɡɦɨɡ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ ɢ ɦɨɧɨɰɢɬɚɪɧɵɣ
ɷɪɥɢɯɢɨɡ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ.
Ɏɚɭɧɚ ɢɤɫɨɞɨɜɵɯ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ, ɨɛɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ ɜ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɚɯ
Ⱥɥɬɚɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɤɪɚɹ,
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɚ ɲɟɫɬɶɸ ɮɨɧɨɜɵɦɢ ɜɢɞɚɦɢ: Ixodes
29
persulcatus Schulze, Haemaphysalis concinna C.L. Koch, Dermacentor nuttali
Olenev, Dermacentor reticulatus Hermann, Dermacentor marginatus Schulzer,
Dermacentor silvarum Olenev. Ɇɚɫɫɨɜɵɦɢ ɜɢɞɚɦɢ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ: Ixodes
persulcatus, Haemaphysalis concinna, Dermacentor reticulatus ɢ Dermacentor
marginatus.
ȼɫɟ
ɨɧɢ
ɢɦɟɸɬ
ɜɚɠɧɨɟ
ɷɩɢɞɟɦɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ
ɢ
ɷɩɢɡɨɨɬɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ, ɬɚɤ ɤɚɤ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɩɟɪɟɧɨɫɱɢɤɚɦɢ ɪɹɞɚ
ɨɩɚɫɧɵɯ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɛɨɥɟɡɧɟɣ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ ɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ [2]. Ⱥɧɚɥɢɡ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥ,
ɱɬɨ ɜ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɟ ɜɢɞɨɜɨɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɚ ɢɤɫɨɞɨɜɵɯ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ, ɨɛɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ ɜ
ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɚɯ Ⱥɥɬɚɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɤɪɚɹ, ɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɟɬ ɜɢɞ Dermacentor
marginatus, ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɢɣ 53%. ȼɬɨɪɨɟ ɦɟɫɬɨ ɡɚɧɢɦɚɟɬ ɜɢɞ Ixodes
persulcatus –
22%, ɡɚɬɟɦ ɜɢɞɵ Dermacentor reticulates (14%) ɢ
Haemaphysalis concinna (8%).
ɇɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɜ ɦɧɨɝɨɥɟɬɧɢɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ
ɢ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ
ɫɬɚɬɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɢɤɫɨɞɨɜɵɟ ɤɥɟɳɢ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɵ
ɜ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɚɯ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɜɨ ɜɫɟɯ ɚɞɦɢɧɢɫɬɪɚɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɫɟɥɶɫɤɢɯ
ɪɚɣɨɧɚɯ Ⱥɥɬɚɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɤɪɚɹ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɜ ɩɪɢɝɨɪɨɞɚɯ ɢ ɱɟɪɬɟ ɬɚɤɢɯ ɝɨɪɨɞɨɜ ɤɚɤ
Ȼɚɪɧɚɭɥ, Ȼɟɥɨɤɭɪɢɯɚ, Ɂɚɪɢɧɫɤ, Ɂɦɟɢɧɨɝɨɪɫɤ, ɇɨɜɨɚɥɬɚɣɫɤ, ɱɬɨ ɫɨɡɞɚɟɬ
ɪɟɚɥɶɧɭɸ ɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɶ ɧɚɩɚɞɟɧɢɹ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ ɧɚ ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ, ɦɟɥɤɢɯ
ɞɨɦɚɲɧɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɜɫɟɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ (ɫɨɛɚɤɢ, ɤɨɲɤɢ ɢ ɞɪ.), ɢ ɥɸɞɟɣ.
ɇɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɭɸ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɢɤɫɨɞɨɜɵɯ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɥɢ ɧɚ
ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹɯ ɋɚɥɚɢɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɤɪɹɠɚ, ɩɪɟɞɝɨɪɢɣ Ⱥɥɬɚɹ, ɩɨɣɦɵ ɪ. Ɉɛɶ,
ɪɟɥɢɤɬɨɜɵɯ ɫɨɫɧɨɜɵɯ ɥɟɧɬɨɱɧɵɯ ɛɨɪɨɜ (Ʉɚɫɦɚɥɢɧɫɤɢɣ, Ȼɚɪɧɚɭɥɶɫɤɢɣ,
Ȼɭɪɥɢɧɫɤɢɣ, Ʉɭɥɭɧɞɢɧɫɤɢɣ), ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɩɨ ɜɨɞɨɪɚɡɞɟɥɚɦ ɪɟɤ Ʉɚɫɦɚɥɚ, Ⱥɥɟɣ ɢ
Ȼɚɪɧɚɭɥɤɚ [1].
Ⱥɧɚɥɢɡ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɢɤɫɨɞɨɜɵɯ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ ɩɨ
ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨ-ɤɥɢɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɡɨɧɚɦ ɢ ɪɨɞɨɜɨɣ ɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɢɤɫɨɞɨɜɵɯ
ɤɥɟɳɟɣ, ɨɛɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ Ⱥɥɬɚɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɤɪɚɹ, ɜɵɹɜɢɥ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ
ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɢɯ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɚɞɦɢɧɢɫɬɪɚɬɢɜɧɵɦ ɪɚɣɨɧɚɦ ɢ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɦ
ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ (ɪɢɫ. 1):
I. Ʉɭɥɭɧɞɢɧɫɤɚɹ ɡɨɧɚ (ɜɤɥɸɱɚɟɬ Ɂɚɩɚɞɧɨ-Ʉɭɥɭɧɞɢɧɫɤɭɸ ɫɭɯɨɫɬɟɩɧɭɸ
ɢ ȼɨɫɬɨɱɧɨ-Ʉɭɥɭɧɞɢɧɫɤɭɸ ɡɚɫɭɲɥɢɜɭɸ ɫɬɟɩɧɭɸ) – ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɧɵ
ɤɥɟɳɢ ɪɨɞɚ Dermacentor ɜ Ȼɭɪɥɢɧɫɤɨɦ, Ȼɥɚɝɨɜɟɳɟɧɫɤɨɦ, Ɋɨɞɢɧɫɤɨɦ ɢ
ȼɨɥɱɢɯɢɧɫɤɨɦ ɪɚɣɨɧɚɯ ɤɪɚɹ. Ʉɨɥɟɛɚɧɢɹ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ ɡɚɜɢɫɹɬ ɨɬ
ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ ɫɧɟɠɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɤɪɨɜɚ, ɚɦɩɥɢɬɭɞɵ ɤɨɥɟɛɚɧɢɣ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪ
(ɚɛɫɨɥɸɬɧɵɣ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɭɦ ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɟɬ +38–41 Ɉɋ, ɦɢɧɢɦɭɦ – 47–50 Ɉɋ), ɚ
ɬɚɤɠɟ ɩɪɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɡɚɫɭɯ ɢ ɩɵɥɶɧɵɯ ɛɭɪɶ.
II. ɉɪɢɚɥɟɣɫɤɚɹ ɡɨɧɚ. Ɋɚɣɨɧɵ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ ɪɨɞɚ
Dermacentor –ɉɨɫɩɟɥɢɯɢɧɫɤɢɣ, Ⱥɥɟɣɫɤɢɣ, Ɍɨɩɱɢɯɢɧɫɤɢɣ. ɑɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ
ɤɥɟɳɟɣ ɧɟɜɵɫɨɤɚ ɢɡ-ɡɚ ɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨɣ ɭɜɥɚɠɧɺɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɡɨɧɵ ɢ ɜɵɫɨɤɢɯ
ɥɟɬɧɢɯ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪ.
III. ɉɪɢɨɛɫɤɚɹ ɡɨɧɚ. Ɋɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɧɵ ɤɥɟɳɢ ɪɨɞɨɜ Dermacentor,
Ixodes, Haemaphysalis ɜ ɉɚɜɥɨɜɫɤɨɦ, Ɍɚɥɶɦɟɧɫɤɨɦ, ɉɟɪɜɨɦɚɣɫɤɨɦ ɢ
Ʉɚɥɦɚɧɫɤɨɦ ɪɚɣɨɧɚɯ. ɂɦɟɸɬɫɹ ɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɢ
ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ. Ʉɨɥɟɛɚɧɢɹ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɟɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵ.
30
IV. Ȼɢɣɫɤɨ-ɑɭɦɵɲɫɤɚɹ ɡɨɧɚ. Ɋɚɣɨɧɚɦɢ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ ɪɨɞɨɜ
Dermacentor, Ixodes, Haemaphysalis ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ: Ʉɨɫɢɯɢɧɫɤɢɣ, Ɍɪɨɢɰɤɢɣ,
ɐɟɥɢɧɧɵɣ, Ɂɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣ, Ȼɢɣɫɤɢɣ. ɍɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɨɱɚɝɨɜ
ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ ɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɵ.
V. ɉɪɢɫɚɥɚɢɪɫɤɚɹ ɡɨɧɚ. Ɋɚɣɨɧɵ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ ɪɨɞɨɜ
Dermacentor, Ixodes – Ɂɚɥɟɫɨɜɫɤɢɣ, Ɂɚɪɢɧɫɤɢɣ, Ʉɵɬɦɚɧɨɜɫɤɢɣ, Ɍɨɝɭɥɶɫɤɢɣ,
ȿɥɶɰɨɜɫɤɢɣ, ɋɨɥɬɨɧɫɤɢɣ. ɍɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ ɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɵ.
VI. ɉɪɢɚɥɬɚɣɫɤɚɹ ɡɨɧɚ. Ɋɚɣɨɧɵ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ ɪɨɞɨɜ
Dermacentor,
Ixodes
–
ɍɫɬɶ-ɉɪɢɫɬɚɧɫɤɢɣ,
Ȼɵɫɬɪɨɢɫɬɨɤɫɤɢɣ,
ɉɟɬɪɨɩɚɜɥɨɜɫɤɢɣ, ɱɚɫɬɶ ɍɫɬɶ-Ʉɚɥɦɚɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɢ Ɂɦɟɢɧɨɝɨɪɫɤɨɝɨ. ɍɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɞɥɹ
ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ ɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɵ.
VII. Ⱥɥɬɚɣɫɤɚɹ ɡɨɧɚ. Ɋɚɣɨɧɵ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ ɪɨɞɨɜ
Dermacentor, Ixodes, Haemaphysalis – Ⱥɥɬɚɣɫɤɢɣ, ɋɨɥɨɧɟɲɟɧɫɤɢɣ ɢ
ɑɚɪɵɲɫɤɢɣ. ɗɬɚ ɡɨɧɚ ɡɚɧɢɦɚɟɬ ɫɬɟɩɧɨɟ ɧɢɡɤɨɝɨɪɶɟ, ɥɟɫɨɫɬɟɩɧɨɟ
ɫɪɟɞɧɟɝɨɪɶɟ ɢ ɫɭɛɚɥɶɩɢɣɫɤɢɟ ɥɭɝɚ. ɋɪɟɞɧɟɝɨɞɨɜɨɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɨɫɚɞɤɨɜ 530–
640 ɦɦ. Ɂɞɟɫɶ ɫɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɨɱɟɧɶ ɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ
ɤɥɟɳɟɣ.
Ɋɢɫ. 1
Ɋɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɪɨɞɨɜ ɢɤɫɨɞɨɜɵɯ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ ɩɨ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨ-ɤɥɢɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɡɨɧɚɦ
Ⱥɥɬɚɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɤɪɚɹ:
Ÿ – ɪɨɞ Ixodes; Ŷ – ɪɨɞ Dermacentor, Ɣ – ɪɨɞ Haemaphysalis
Ʉɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɡɚɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɦɚɫɫɨɜɵɯ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢɣ
ɩɟɪɟɞɚɜɚɟɦɵɯ ɨɬ ɢɤɫɨɞɨɜɵɯ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɭ ɡɚ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ 5 ɥɟɬ ɜ
Ⱥɥɬɚɣɫɤɨɦ ɤɪɚɟ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵ ɜ ɬɚɛɥ.
31
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ
ɗɩɢɞɟɦɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɟɦɨɫɬɢ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ ɢ ɚɝɪɟɫɫɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɢɤɫɨɞɨɜɵɯ
ɤɥɟɳɟɣ ɜ Ⱥɥɬɚɣɫɤɨɦ ɤɪɚɟ (2009-2013 ɝɝ.)
ɗɩɢɞɟɦɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ
ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ
ɑɢɫɥɨ ɥɢɰ,
ɨɛɪɚɬɢɜɲɢɯɫɹ ɜ
Ʌɉɍ ɩɨ ɩɨɜɨɞɭ
ɩɪɢɫɚɫɵɜɚɧɢɹ ɤɥɟɳɚ
Ʉɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ
ɤɥɟɳɟɜɨɝɨ
ɷɧɰɟɮɚɥɢɬɚ
Ʉɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ
ɤɥɟɳɟɜɨɝɨ
ɪɢɤɤɟɬɫɢɨɡɚ
2009 ɝ.
2010 ɝ.
2011 ɝ.
2012 ɝ.
2013 ɝ.
16354
12314
11309
10188
11289
82
59
68
85
82
732
657
524
578
471
Ʉɪɨɦɟ ɬɨɝɨ, ɜ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ ɝɨɞɵ ɜ Ⱥɥɬɚɣɫɤɨɦ ɤɪɚɟ ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɵ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɹ,
ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɚɰɢɹ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɜɜɟɞɟɧɚ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɜ 2013 ɝɨɞɭ - ɝɪɚɧɭɥɨɰɢɬɚɪɧɵɣ
ɚɧɚɩɥɚɡɦɨɡ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ ɢ ɦɨɧɨɰɢɬɚɪɧɵɣ ɷɪɥɢɯɢɨɡ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɬɚɤɠɟ
ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɨɛɳɢɦɢ ɞɥɹ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ ɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ. ɒɢɪɨɤɨɟ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ
ɢɤɫɨɞɢɞ ɩɨ ɜɫɟɣ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɤɪɚɹ, ɛɥɢɡɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɨɱɚɝɨɜ ɤ
ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɧɵɦ ɩɭɧɤɬɚɦ, ɜɢɞɨɜɨɟ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟ ɩɟɪɟɧɨɫɱɢɤɨɜ, ɰɢɪɤɭɥɹɰɢɹ ɜ
ɧɢɯ ɩɚɬɨɝɟɧɨɜ, ɜɵɡɵɜɚɸɳɢɯ ɨɩɚɫɧɵɟ ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɡɨɨɧɨɡɧɵɟ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢɢ, ɞɟɥɚɸɬ
ɜɟɫɶɦɚ ɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɭ ɡɚɳɢɬɵ ɨɬ ɢɤɫɨɞɨɜɵɯ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ, ɤɚɤ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ,
ɬɚɤ ɢ ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ.
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. Ȼɭɬɚɤɨɜ ȿ.ɂ. ɗɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɧɨɜɵɯ, ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɵɯ ɩɪɟɩɚɪɚɬɨɜ
ɩɪɨɬɢɜ ɢɤɫɨɞɨɜɵɯ (ɩɚɫɬɛɢɳɧɵɯ) ɤɥɟɳɟɣ. Ɍɪɭɞɵ ɜɫɟɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɧɚɭɱɧɨɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬɚ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɧɨɣ ɷɧɬɨɦɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɢ ɚɪɚɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɢ, ɋɛɨɪɧɢɤ
ɧɚɭɱɧɵɯ ɬɪɭɞɨɜ. ʋ 50. Ɍɸɦɟɧɶ. 2010. – ɋ. 20–27
2. ɉɨɦɟɪɚɧɰɟɜ ȼ.ɂ. ɂɤɫɨɞɨɜɵɟ ɤɥɟɳɢ (Ixodidae).: Ɏɚɭɧɚ ɋɋɋɊ. Ʌ.: –
ɉɚɭɤɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɟ. Ɍ. 4. ȼɵɩ. 2. 1950. – 224 ɫ.
DISTRIBUTION OF THE TICKS IN ALTAI REGION
E.I. Butakov
The Altaian Research Institute of Rural Economy, Barnaul
Six basic species 0f the ticks - Ixodes persulcatus Schulze, Haemaphysalis
concinna C.L. Koch, Dermacentor nuttali Olenev, Dermacentor reticulatus
Hermann, Dermacentor marginatus Schulzer, Dermacentor silvarum Olenev
compose the fauna of Ixodidae in Altai Region. Mass species are Ixodes
persulcatus, Haemaphysalis concinna, Dermacentor reticulatus, Dermacentor
marginatus. The structure of species composition is: Dermacentor marginatus –
32
53%, Ixodes persulcatus – 22%, Dermacentor reticulates – 14%, Haemaphysalis
concinna – 8%. Number of people bitten by ticks decreased in 31% for last 5
years. Number of the cases of tick-borne encephalitis is on the same level.
Number of the cases of rickesiosis decreased on 36%. In recent years in The Altai
region granular anaplasmosis and monocyte ehrlichiosis were detected in human
since 2013.
ɍȾɄ: 598.243; 591.5
ɊȺɋɉɈɅɈɀȿɇɂȿ ɂ ɍɋɌɊɈɃɋɌȼɈ ȽɇȿɁȾ ɍ ɄɍɅɂɄɈȼ,
ɊȺɁɆɇɈɀȺɘɓɂɏɋə ȼ ɌɍɇȾɊȿ ɋȿȼȿɊɈ-ȼɈɋɌɈɄȺ əɄɍɌɂɂ
ȼ.ȼ. Ƚɚɜɪɢɥɨɜ
Ɂɜɟɧɢɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɚɹ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɫɬɚɧɰɢɹ ɢɦ. ɋ.ɇ. ɋɤɚɞɨɜɫɤɨɝɨ, ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ
ɮɚɤɭɥɶɬɟɬɚ ɆȽɍ ɢɦ Ɇ.ȼ. Ʌɨɦɨɧɨɫɨɜɚ, ɝ. Ɇɨɫɤɜɚ, 119899, Ɋɨɫɫɢɹ
E-mail: [email protected]
ɉɨɥɟɜɵɟ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɢ ɫ 15-20 ɦɚɹ ɩɨ 5-20 ɚɜɝɭɫɬɚ ɜ 1984, 1985, 1987,
1988 ɢ 1990 ɝɝ. ɜ ɇɢɠɧɟɤɨɥɵɦɫɤɨɦ ɪɚɣɨɧɟ əɤɭɬɢɢ. Ȼɵɥɨ ɧɚɣɞɟɧɨ ɢ
ɢɡɦɟɪɟɧɨ 308 ɝɧɟɡɞ 10 ɜɢɞɨɜ ɤɭɥɢɤɨɜ. Ʉɭɥɢɤɢ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɢɬɚɥɢ ɝɧɟɡɞɢɬɶɫɹ ɜ
ɩɨɧɢɠɟɧɢɹɯ ɦɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ, ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɧɚ ɫɤɥɨɧɚɯ ɸɠɧɨɣ ɨɪɢɟɧɬɚɰɢɢ, ɚ
ɬɚɤɠɟ ɢɦɟɬɶ ɩɪɢɤɪɵɬɢɟ ɫ ɫɟɜɟɪɧɨɣ ɢ/ɢɥɢ ɫɟɜɟɪɨ-ɡɚɩɚɞɧɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧ. Ƚɧɟɡɞɚ
ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɟ ɜɨ ɜɥɚɠɧɵɯ ɦɟɫɬɨɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹɯ, ɛɨɥɟɟ ɭɤɪɵɬɵ, ɢɦɟɸɬ
ɛɨɥɶɲɭɸ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɭ ɥɨɬɤɚ ɢ ɛɨɥɶɲɭɸ ɬɨɥɳɢɧɭ ɩɨɞɫɬɢɥɤɢ. ɇɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ
ɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɟ ɝɧɟɡɞɚ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɤɪɭɩɧɵɟ ɜɢɞɵ, ɭ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɧɚɫɢɠɢɜɚɸɬ ɨɛɚ
ɩɚɪɬɧɟɪɚ; ɨɧɢ ɠɟ ɝɧɟɡɞɹɬɫɹ ɜ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɫɭɯɨɦ ɦɟɫɬɨɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɢ. Ɇɟɥɤɢɟ
ɜɢɞɵ, ɭ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɩɬɢɰɵ ɧɚɫɢɠɢɜɚɸɬ ɜ ɨɞɢɧɨɱɤɭ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɭɫɬɪɨɟɧɧɵɟ ɢ
ɛɨɥɟɟ ɡɚɦɚɫɤɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ ɝɧɟɡɞɚ, ɢ ɨɧɢ ɝɧɟɡɞɹɬɫɹ ɜ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɜɥɚɠɧɵɯ
ɦɟɫɬɨɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹɯ.
ɉɬɢɰɵ ɫɬɪɨɹɬ ɝɧɟɡɞɚ ɪɚɡɧɨɣ ɮɨɪɦɵ ɢ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɚ, ɧɨ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɟ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ
ɝɧɟɡɞ ɫɜɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɤ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɸ ɰɟɥɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɨɛɳɧɨɫɬɢ ɤɥɚɞɤɢ, ɩɪɟɞɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɢ
ɹɢɰ ɨɬ ɯɢɳɧɢɤɨɜ ɢ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɢ ɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɨɝɨ ɦɢɤɪɨɤɥɢɦɚɬɚ ɫ ɰɟɥɶɸ ɡɚɳɢɬɵ
ɨɬ ɧɟɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɵɯ ɩɨɝɨɞɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ [4, 5].
ȼ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɦ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɢ ɨɩɢɫɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɭɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜɨ ɢ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ
ɝɧɟɡɞ ɤɭɥɢɤɨɜ ɜ ɬɭɧɞɪɨɜɨɣ ɡɨɧɟ ɋɟɜɟɪɨ-ɜɨɫɬɨɤɚ əɤɭɬɢɢ.
ɉɨɥɟɜɵɟ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɢ ɫ 15-20 ɦɚɹ ɩɨ 5-20 ɚɜɝɭɫɬɚ ɜ 1984, 1985,
1987, 1988 ɢ 1990 ɝɝ. ɧɚ ɞɜɭɯ ɫɬɚɰɢɨɧɚɪɚɯ ɨɪɧɢɬɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɨɬɪɹɞɚ ɂȻɉɋ
ȾȼɈ ɊȺɇ ɜ ɇɢɠɧɟɤɨɥɵɦɫɤɨɦ ɪɚɣɨɧɟ əɤɭɬɢɢ. Ʉɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬɵ ɦɟɫɬɚ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɛɵɥɢ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɵ ɩɨ ɬɨɩɨɤɚɪɬɚɦ (ɜ 1 ɫɦ 2 ɤɦ) - 69ɨ 30' ɋ.ɒ.,
158ɨ 30' ȼ.Ⱦ.
ɉɪɢ ɧɚɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɢ ɝɧɟɡɞɚ ɮɢɤɫɢɪɨɜɚɥɢ ɟɝɨ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɫɤɥɨɧɚɯ ɪɚɡɧɨɣ
ɷɤɫɩɨɡɢɰɢɢ, ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɛɥɢɡɥɟɠɚɳɢɯ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ (ɭɤɪɵɬɢɣ),
ɭɤɪɵɬɨɫɬɶ ɝɧɟɡɞɚ ɢ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɭɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜɚ ɫɚɦɨɝɨ ɝɧɟɡɞɚ. Ⱦɥɹ ɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɹ
ɭɤɪɵɬɨɫɬɢ ɝɧɟɡɞ ɢ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɢɯ ɭɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜɚ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɥɚɫɶ ɫɯɟɦɚ Ⱥ.ə.
Ʉɨɧɞɪɚɬɶɟɜɚ [3] ɫ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɦɨɞɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɹɦɢ [1, 2].
33
ȼɫɟɝɨ ɛɵɥɨ ɧɚɣɞɟɧɨ ɢ ɢɡɦɟɪɟɧɨ 308 ɝɧɟɡɞ 10 ɜɢɞɨɜ: ɬɭɥɟɫ (Pluvialis
squatarola), ɛɭɪɨɤɪɵɥɚɹ ɪɠɚɧɤɚ (Pluvialis fulva), ɳɟɝɨɥɶ (T. erythropus),
ɤɪɭɝɥɨɧɨɫɵɣ ɩɥɚɜɭɧɱɢɤ (Phalaropus lobatus), ɬɭɪɭɯɬɚɧ (Philomachus
pugnax), ɛɟɥɨɯɜɨɫɬɵɣ ɩɟɫɨɱɧɢɤ (C. temminckii), ɨɫɬɪɨɯɜɨɫɬɵɣ ɩɟɫɨɱɧɢɤ (ɋ.
acuminata), ɤɭɥɢɤ-ɞɭɬɵɲ (C. melanotus), ɛɟɤɚɫ (Gallinago gallinago),
ɚɦɟɪɢɤɚɧɫɤɢɣ ɛɟɤɚɫɨɜɢɞɧɵɣ ɜɟɪɟɬɟɧɧɢɤ (Limnodromus scolopaceus).
Ɋɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɝɧɟɡɞ. Ʉɭɥɢɤɢ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɢɬɚɥɢ ɝɧɟɡɞɢɬɶɫɹ ɜ ɩɨɧɢɠɟɧɢɹɯ
ɦɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ, ɝɞɟ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ ɜɟɬɪɚ ɨɫɥɚɛɥɟɧɨ, ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɧɚ ɫɤɥɨɧɚɯ
ɸɠɧɨɣ ɨɪɢɟɧɬɚɰɢɢ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɩɪɢɤɪɵɬɢɟ ɫ ɫɟɜɟɪɧɨɣ ɢ/ɢɥɢ ɫɟɜɟɪɨɡɚɩɚɞɧɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧ.
ɍɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜɨ ɝɧɟɡɞ. Ɉɛɵɱɧɨ ɝɧɟɡɞɨ ɤɭɥɢɤɚ ɷɬɨ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɢɥɢ ɦɟɧɟɟ
ɡɚɦɟɬɧɨɟ ɭɝɥɭɛɥɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɩɨɱɜɟ, ɤɨɬɨɪɨɟ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɭɸ ɜɵɫɬɢɥɤɭ. Ʉɪɚɹ
ɹɦɤɢ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɛɵɬɶ, ɤɚɤ ɨɜɢɬɵ ɫɭɯɨɣ ɬɪɚɜɨɣ (ɨɫɨɤɨɣ ɢɥɢ ɚɪɤɬɨɮɢɥɨɣ)
(ɛɟɥɨɯɜɨɫɬɵɣ ɩɟɫɨɱɧɢɤ, ɤɪɭɝɥɨɧɨɫɵɣ ɩɥɚɜɭɧɱɢɤ, ɞɭɬɵɲ, ɨɫɬɪɨɯɜɨɫɬɵɣ
ɩɟɫɨɱɧɢɤ, ɛɟɤɚɫ, ɬɭɪɭɯɬɚɧ, ɚɦɟɪɢɤɚɧɫɤɢɣ ɛɟɤɚɫɨɜɢɞɧɵɣ ɜɟɪɟɬɟɧɧɢɤ,
ɳɟɝɨɥɶ), ɬɚɤ ɢ ɧɟɬ (ɛɟɥɨɯɜɨɫɬɵɣ ɩɟɫɨɱɧɢɤ, ɛɭɪɨɤɪɵɥɚɹ ɪɠɚɧɤɚ, ɬɭɥɟɫ). ȼ
ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɩɨɞɫɬɢɥɤɢ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɜɫɟ ɜɢɞɵ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬ ɫɭɯɭɸ ɬɪɚɜɭ (ɨɫɨɤɭ
ɢɥɢ ɚɪɤɬɨɮɢɥɭ), ɫɭɯɢɟ ɥɢɫɬɶɹ ɛɟɪɟɡɵ ɢɥɢ ɢɜɵ. Ʉɪɭɩɧɵɟ ɜɢɞɵ ɜ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ
ɫɥɭɱɚɹɯ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬ ɫɭɯɢɟ ɜɟɬɨɱɤɢ ɢɜɵ ɢɥɢ ɛɟɪɟɡɵ. ɓɟɝɨɥɶ, ɛɭɪɨɤɪɵɥɚɹ
ɪɠɚɧɤɚ ɢ ɬɭɥɟɫ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɟɳɟ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬ ɫɭɯɨɣ ɦɨɯ.
ɋɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɞɫɬɢɥɨɱɧɨɝɨ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɚ ɭ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɧɟ ɜɵɹɜɢɥɨ ɤɚɤɢɯɥɢɛɨ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɬɟɧɢɣ. ȼɫɟ ɤɭɥɢɤɢ ɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɫɹ
ɨɞɧɢɦɢ ɢ ɬɟɦɢ ɠɟ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɞɨɫɬɭɩɧɵɦɢ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɚɦɢ (ɥɢɫɬɶɹ ɛɟɪɟɡɵ, ɢɜɵ,
ɬɪɚɜɚ, ɫɭɯɢɟ ɜɟɬɨɱɤɢ, ɫɭɯɨɣ ɦɨɯ ɢ ɬ.ɞ.), ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɨɧɢ ɫɨɛɢɪɚɸɬ
ɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɜ ɨɤɪɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɹɯ ɝɧɟɡɞɚ. ɉɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɸɳɢɣ ɜ ɜɵɛɪɚɧɧɨɣ
ɦɢɤɪɨɫɬɚɰɢɢ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥ, ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɦɵɦ ɞɥɹ ɝɧɟɡɞɨɜɨɣ
ɩɨɞɫɬɢɥɤɢ. ɗɥɟɦɟɧɬɵ ɩɨɞɫɬɢɥɤɢ (ɥɢɫɬɶɹ ɛɟɪɟɡɵ, ɢɜɵ, ɬɪɚɜɚ, ɫɭɯɢɟ ɜɟɬɨɱɤɢ,
ɫɭɯɨɣ ɦɨɯ ɢ ɬ.ɞ.) ɢɦɟɸɬ ɭ ɜɫɟɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɨɞɢɧɚɤɨɜɭɸ ɫɪɟɞɧɸɸ ɦɚɫɫɭ: 60 + 30
ɦɝ.
ɂɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ ɜɢɞɵ ɤɭɥɢɤɨɜ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɪɚɡɞɟɥɢɬɶ ɧɚ ɬɪɢ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ ɜ
ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɢ ɫ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɚɦɢ ɭɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜɚ ɝɧɟɡɞ.
1. Ɍɭɥɟɫ (100%) ɢ ɛɭɪɨɤɪɵɥɚɹ ɪɠɚɧɤɚ (100%). Ƚɧɟɡɞɨ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ
ɫɨɛɨɣ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɨɟ ɭɝɥɭɛɥɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɩɨɱɜɟ, ɤɪɚɹ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ ɧɟ ɜɵɥɨɠɟɧɵ ɬɪɚɜɨɣ,
ɩɨɞɫɬɢɥɤɢ ɫɪɚɜɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɧɟɦɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɩɨɞɫɬɢɥɤɚ ɧɟ ɨɮɨɪɦɥɟɧɚ ɬɪɚɜɨɣ.
2. Ȼɟɥɨɯɜɨɫɬɵɣ ɩɟɫɨɱɧɢɤ (100%) ɢ ɳɟɝɨɥɶ(100%). Ƚɧɟɡɞɚ ɩɨ ɤɪɚɹɦ
ɛɨɥɟɟ ɢɥɢ ɦɟɧɟɟ ɨɮɨɪɦɥɟɧɵ ɬɪɚɜɨɣ, ɢ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɢɦɟɬɶ ɨɮɨɪɦɥɟɧɢɟ ɬɪɚɜɨɣ
ɜɧɢɡɭ ɝɧɟɡɞɚ. Ƚɧɟɡɞɚ ɳɟɝɨɥɹ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɨɮɨɪɦɥɟɧɵ ɬɪɚɜɨɣ ɤɚɤ ɩɨ ɤɪɚɸ ɝɧɟɡɞɚ,
ɬɚɤ ɢ ɫɚɦɨɝɨ ɝɧɟɡɞɚ, ɱɟɦ ɝɧɟɡɞɚ ɛɟɥɨɯɜɨɫɬɨɝɨ ɩɟɫɨɱɧɢɤɚ.
3. Ʉɪɭɝɥɨɧɨɫɵɣ ɩɥɚɜɭɧɱɢɤ (100%), ɞɭɬɵɲ (100%), ɨɫɬɪɨɯɜɨɫɬɵɣ
ɩɟɫɨɱɧɢɤ (100%), ɛɟɤɚɫ (100%), ɚɦɟɪɢɤɚɧɫɤɢɣ ɛɟɤɚɫɨɜɢɞɧɵɣ ɜɟɪɟɬɟɧɧɢɤ
(100%), ɬɭɪɭɯɬɚɧ (100%). Ʉɪɚɹ ɝɧɟɡɞ ɯɨɪɨɲɨ ɨɜɢɬɵ, ɚ ɫɚɦɢ ɝɧɟɡɞɚ ɢɦɟɸɬ
ɦɨɳɧɭɸ ɝɧɟɡɞɨɜɭɸ ɩɨɞɫɬɢɥɤɭ, ɨɮɨɪɦɥɟɧɧɭɸ ɬɪɚɜɨɣ. ɇɢɡ ɝɧɟɡɞɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ
ɯɨɪɨɲɨ ɨɜɢɬ ɬɪɚɜɨɣ.
34
ɉɪɨɫɥɟɠɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɹ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɭɜɥɚɠɧɟɧɢɹ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚ ɧɚ
ɭɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜɨ ɝɧɟɡɞ. Ʉɭɥɢɤɢ, ɝɧɟɡɞɹɳɢɟɫɹ ɜɨ ɜɥɚɠɧɵɯ ɦɟɫɬɨɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹɯ, ɤɚɤ
ɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɝɧɟɡɞɚ ɫ ɦɨɳɧɨɣ ɝɧɟɡɞɨɜɨɣ ɩɨɞɫɬɢɥɤɨɣ, ɯɨɪɨɲɨ
ɨɮɨɪɦɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɬɪɚɜɨɣ ɤɚɤ ɩɨ ɤɪɚɸ ɝɧɟɡɞɚ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɜɧɢɡɭ ɝɧɟɡɞɚ (ɤɪɭɝɥɨɧɨɫɵɣ
ɩɥɚɜɭɧɱɢɤ, ɞɭɬɵɲ, ɨɫɬɪɨɯɜɨɫɬɵɣ ɩɟɫɨɱɧɢɤ, ɛɟɤɚɫ, ɚɦɟɪɢɤɚɧɫɤɢɣ
ɛɟɤɚɫɨɜɢɞɧɵɣ ɜɟɪɟɬɟɧɧɢɤ, ɬɭɪɭɯɬɚɧ). ɂɫɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɳɟɝɨɥɶ.
ȼɢɞɵ, ɭ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɨɛɚ ɩɚɪɬɧɟɪɚ ɧɚɫɢɠɢɜɚɸɬ ɤɥɚɞɤɭ, ɢɦɟɸɬ ɦɟɧɟɟ
ɭɫɬɪɨɟɧɧɵɟ ɝɧɟɡɞɚ (ɬɭɥɟɫ, ɛɭɪɨɤɪɵɥɚɹ ɪɠɚɧɤɚ).
ɍɤɪɵɬɨɫɬɶ ɝɧɟɡɞ. ɂɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ ɜɢɞɵ ɤɭɥɢɤɨɜ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɪɚɡɞɟɥɢɬɶ ɧɚ 4
ɬɢɩɚ, ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɸɳɢɟ ɢɯ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɭɤɪɵɬɨɫɬɢ.
1. Ɍɭɥɟɫ (100%) ɢ ɛɭɪɨɤɪɵɥɚɹ ɪɠɚɧɤɚ (100%). Ƚɧɟɡɞɚ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɟ
ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɨ ɨɬɤɪɵɬɨ, ɛɟɡ ɤɚɤɨɝɨ-ɥɢɛɨ ɩɪɢɤɪɵɬɢɹ ɜ ɜɢɞɟ ɩɭɱɤɨɜ ɬɪɚɜɵ ɢɥɢ
ɪɚɫɬɭɳɟɝɨ ɤɭɫɬɚɪɧɢɤɚ. ɇɚɫɢɠɢɜɚɸɳɚɹ ɩɬɢɰɚ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɯɨɪɨɲɢɣ ɨɛɡɨɪ.
2. Ȼɟɥɨɯɜɨɫɬɵɣ ɩɟɫɨɱɧɢɤ (100%) ɢ ɳɟɝɨɥɶ(85%). Ƚɧɟɡɞɚ
ɫɥɚɛɨɭɤɪɵɬɵɟ, ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɵ ɩɨɞ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɢɦ ɩɪɢɤɪɵɬɢɟɦ ɬɪɚɜɵ ɢɥɢ
ɤɭɫɬɚɪɧɢɤɚ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɩɪɢɤɪɵɜɚɸɬ ɢɯ ɫ ɨɞɧɨɣ, ɪɟɠɟ ɞɜɭɯ ɫɬɨɪɨɧ.
ɇɚɫɢɠɢɜɚɸɳɢɣ ɤɭɥɢɤ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɯɨɪɨɲɢɣ ɨɛɡɨɪ.
3. Ʉɪɭɝɥɨɧɨɫɵɣ ɩɥɚɜɭɧɱɢɤɚ (100%), ɞɭɬɵɲ (76%), ɨɫɬɪɨɯɜɨɫɬɵɣ
ɩɟɫɨɱɧɢɤ (100%), ɛɟɤɚɫ (31%), ɚɦɟɪɢɤɚɧɫɤɢɣ ɛɟɤɚɫɨɜɢɞɧɵɣ ɜɟɪɟɬɟɧɧɢɤ
(44%), ɬɭɪɭɯɬɚɧ (100%), ɳɟɝɨɥɶ (15%). Ƚɧɟɡɞɚ ɩɨɥɭɭɤɪɵɬɵɟ, ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɵ
ɩɨɞ ɝɭɫɬɵɦ ɩɪɢɤɪɵɬɢɟɦ ɬɪɚɜɵ ɢɥɢ ɤɭɫɬɚɪɧɢɤɚ, ɬɚɤ ɱɬɨ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɩɪɨɞɭɜɚɬɶɫɹ
ɜɟɬɪɨɦ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɫɨ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ ɜɯɨɞɚ ɜ ɝɧɟɡɞɨ. Ƚɭɫɬɨɟ ɩɪɢɤɪɵɬɢɟ ɦɨɠɟɬ
ɡɚɬɪɭɞɧɢɬɶ ɨɛɡɨɪ ɧɚɫɢɠɢɜɚɸɳɟɣ ɩɬɢɰɟ.
4. Ȼɟɤɚɫ (69%), ɚɦɟɪɢɤɚɧɫɤɢɣ ɛɟɤɚɫɨɜɢɞɧɵɣ ɜɟɪɟɬɟɧɧɢɤ (56%), ɞɭɬɵɲ
(24%). Ƚɧɟɡɞɚ ɩɨɥɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɭɤɪɵɬɵɟ, ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɵ ɜɧɭɬɪɢ ɤɨɱɤɢ (ɧɚ ɪɚɡɥɨɦɟ)
ɢɥɢ ɜɧɭɬɪɢ ɩɥɨɬɧɵɯ ɤɭɫɬɨɜ ɬɚɤ, ɱɬɨ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ ɧɟ ɩɪɨɞɭɜɚɟɦɵ ɜɟɬɪɨɦ ɢ
ɢɦɟɸɬ ɦɨɳɧɨɟ ɩɪɢɤɪɵɬɢɟ ɫɚɦɨɝɨ ɝɧɟɡɞɚ. ɋɚɦɚ ɧɚɫɢɠɢɜɚɸɳɚɹ ɩɬɢɰɚ
ɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɨ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɬɪɭɞɧɨɫɬɢ ɫ ɨɛɡɨɪɨɦ.
ɉɪɨɫɥɟɠɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɹ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɭɜɥɚɠɧɟɧɢɹ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚ ɧɚ
ɛɥɚɝɨɭɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜɨ ɝɧɟɡɞ. Ƚɧɟɡɞɚ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɟ ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɨ ɨɬɤɪɵɬɨ
ɧɚɯɨɞɢɥɢɫɶ ɜ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɫɭɯɢɯ ɦɟɫɬɨɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹɯ, ɚ ɝɧɟɡɞɚ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ
ɭɤɪɵɬɵɟ - ɜ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɜɥɚɠɧɵɯ ɦɟɫɬɨɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹɯ. ȼɢɞɵ, ɭ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɨɛɚ
ɩɚɪɬɧɟɪɚ ɧɚɫɢɠɢɜɚɸɬ ɤɥɚɞɤɭ, ɢɦɟɸɬ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɟ ɝɧɟɡɞɚ (ɬɭɥɟɫ,
ɛɭɪɨɤɪɵɥɚɹ ɪɠɚɧɤɚ).
Ɂɚɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟ. Ʉɭɥɢɤɢ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɢɬɚɥɢ ɝɧɟɡɞɢɬɶɫɹ ɜ ɩɨɧɢɠɟɧɢɹɯ
ɦɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ, ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɧɚ ɫɤɥɨɧɚɯ ɸɠɧɨɣ ɨɪɢɟɧɬɚɰɢɢ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɢɦɟɬɶ
ɩɪɢɤɪɵɬɢɟ ɫ ɫɟɜɟɪɧɨɣ ɢ/ɢɥɢ ɫɟɜɟɪɨ-ɡɚɩɚɞɧɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧ. Ƚɧɟɡɞɚ
ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɟ ɜɨ ɜɥɚɠɧɵɯ ɦɟɫɬɨɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹɯ, ɛɨɥɟɟ ɭɤɪɵɬɵ, ɢɦɟɸɬ
ɛɨɥɶɲɭɸ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɭ ɥɨɬɤɚ ɢ ɛɨɥɶɲɭɸ ɬɨɥɳɢɧɭ ɩɨɞɫɬɢɥɤɢ. ɇɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ
ɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɟ ɝɧɟɡɞɚ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɤɪɭɩɧɵɟ ɜɢɞɵ, ɭ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɧɚɫɢɠɢɜɚɸɬ ɨɛɚ
ɩɚɪɬɧɟɪɚ; ɨɧɢ ɠɟ ɝɧɟɡɞɹɬɫɹ ɜ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɫɭɯɨɦ ɦɟɫɬɨɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɢ. Ɇɟɥɤɢɟ
ɜɢɞɵ, ɭ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɩɬɢɰɵ ɧɚɫɢɠɢɜɚɸɬ ɜ ɨɞɢɧɨɱɤɭ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɭɫɬɪɨɟɧɧɵɟ ɢ
ɛɨɥɟɟ ɡɚɦɚɫɤɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ ɝɧɟɡɞɚ, ɢ ɨɧɢ ɝɧɟɡɞɹɬɫɹ ɜ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɜɥɚɠɧɵɯ
ɦɟɫɬɨɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹɯ. Ɋɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ, ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɭɤɪɵɬɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɭɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜɚ ɝɧɟɡɞɚ
35
ɫɜɹɡɚɧɵ ɫ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɜɢɞɚ, ɚ ɢɦɟɧɧɨ, ɫ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨɦ ɩɚɪɬɧɟɪɨɜ
ɧɚɫɢɠɢɜɚɸɳɢɯ ɹɣɰɚ.
ɉɨɞɞɟɪɠɚɧɨ ɊɎɎɂ ɝɪɚɧɬ ʋ 12-04-01288-ɚ.
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. Ƚɚɜɪɢɥɨɜ ȼ.ȼ. Ȼɢɨɥɨɝɢɹ ɢ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɤɚ ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɤɭɥɢɤɨɜ ɧɚ ɫɟɜɟɪɨ-ɜɨɫɬɨɤɟ
əɤɭɬɢɢ. // Ⱦɢɫɫ. ... ɤɚɧɞ. ɛɢɨɥ. ɧɚɭɤ. Ɇ.: ɆȽɍ, 1993. 356 ɫ.
2. Ƚɚɜɪɢɥɨɜ ȼ.ȼ. Ɋɚɡɦɟɪɵ ɢ ɭɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜɨ ɝɧɟɡɞ ɤɭɥɢɤɨɜ ɜ ɬɭɧɞɪɟ ɧɚ ɇɨɜɨɣ Ɂɟɦɥɟ. //
Ɍɪɭɞɵ Ɇɟɧɡɛɢɪɨɜɫɤɨɝɨ ɨɪɧɢɬɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ. Ɍɨɦ 2. Ɇɚɯɚɱɤɚɥɚ: ȺɅȿɎ, 2013. ɫ.
231-240.
3. Ʉɨɧɞɪɚɬɶɟɜ Ⱥ.ə. Ȼɢɨɥɨɝɢɹ ɤɭɥɢɤɨɜ ɜ ɬɭɧɞɪɚɯ ɫɟɜɟɪɨ-ɜɨɫɬɨɤɚ Ⱥɡɢɢ. Ɇ.: ɇɚɭɤɚ,
1982. 192 ɫ.
4. Hansell M.H. Bird nests and construction behaviour. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge
University Press. 2000. 281 p.
5. Heenan C.B., Seymour R.S. Structural support, not insulation, is the primary driver for
avian cup-shaped nest design. // Proceedings of the Royal Society B, Vol. 278. 2011. P. 29242929.
LOCATION AND LAY-OUT OF NESTS IN WADERS BREEDING
IN TUNDRA OF THE NORTH-EAST YAKUTIA.
V. V. Gavrilov
Zvenigorod Biological Station, Biological Department,
Moscow State University, 119899, Moscow, Russia
E-mail: [email protected]
Research was carried out from 15-20th May to 5-20th of August 1984, 1985, 1987,
1988, and 1990 at Lower Kolyma district of Yakutia. 308 nests of 10 wader
species were found and described. Wader nests that were located on a slope were
most often oriented towards the south and have cover from the north or northwest. The nest located in wet environments more masked, have bigger nest depth
and bigger spreading thickness. There were differences in nests masking between
birds which raised brood alone or pare. The more open nests have bigger species,
in that both parents incubate eggs. The smaller species, in that only one parent
incubate eggs, have more masked nests.
36
ɍȾɄ 575.775
ȻɂɈɗɄɈɅɈȽɂə ȻɅɈɏ (SIPHONAPTERA) ȽɊɕɁɍɇɈȼ ɂ
ɇȺɋȿɄɈɆɈəȾɇɕɏ ȼ ɍɊȻɈɋɂɋɌȿɆȺɏ ȼɈɊɈɇȿɀȺ
ɋ.ɉ. Ƚɚɩɨɧɨɜ, Ⱥ.Ⱥ. ɋɬɟɤɨɥɶɧɢɤɨɜ
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɢɣ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ, ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ, Ɋɨɫɫɢɹ
Ȼɥɨɯɢ, ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɟ ɫ ɝɪɵɡɭɧɚɦɢ ɢ ɧɚɫɟɤɨɦɨɹɞɧɵɦɢ, ɛɵɥɢ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɵ ɜ
2012-2013 ɝɝ. ɜ 30-ɢ ɤɦ ɡɨɧɟ ɜɨɤɪɭɝ ɝ. ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɚ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɜ ɭɪɛɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɯ.
ȼɫɟɝɨ ɛɵɥɨ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɨ 13 ɜɢɞɨɜ ɦɟɥɤɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ ɢ 27 ɜɢɞɨɜ ɛɥɨɯ.
Ⱦɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɛɵɥɢ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɨ ɟɳɟ 5 ɜɢɞɨɜ ɦɟɥɤɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ, ɫ
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɦɢ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɵ 6 ɜɢɞɨɜ ɛɥɨɯ. Ɉɛɳɟɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɜɢɞɨɜ Siphonaptera,
ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɯ ɫ ɝɪɵɡɭɧɚɦɢ ɢ ɧɚɫɟɤɨɦɨɹɞɧɵɦɢ, ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɨ 33. ɂɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɨ
ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɛɥɨɯ ɢ ɢɯ ɩɪɨɤɨɪɦɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɩɨ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɚɦ. ɍɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟ
ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɨɣ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ ɤ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɸ ɜɢɞɨɜɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ
ɦɟɥɤɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ ɢ ɢɯ ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɤ ɫɦɟɧɟ
ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɭɸɳɢɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ. ɑɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɭɸɳɢɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɛɥɨɯ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚɟɬ ɜ
ɝɪɚɞɢɟɧɬɟ ɭɪɛɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ.
ȼ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɝɨɪɨɞɨɜ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ, ɜ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ
ɫɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɫɢɧɚɧɬɪɨɩɧɵɟ, ɩɨɥɭɫɢɧɚɧɬɪɨɩɧɵɟ ɢ ɞɢɤɢɟ ɜɢɞɵ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɢɯ
ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɵ. Ⱥɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɚɹ ɬɪɚɧɫɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɹ ɫɪɟɞɵ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬɶ ɤ
ɪɚɡɛɚɥɚɧɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚɪɧɵɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ. ɇɚɪɭɲɟɧɢɟ ɫɚɦɨɪɟɝɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɜ
ɧɢɯ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚɪɧɵɦɢ ɷɤɫɩɪɟɫɫɢɟɣ, ɷɤɫɩɚɧɫɢɟɣ ɢ ɫɭɤɰɟɫɫɢɟɣ.
ɇɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɟ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɜ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ ɝɨɞɵ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɢɫɶ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɢɤɫɨɞɨɜɵɯ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ, ɦɵɲɟɜɢɞɧɵɯ ɝɪɵɡɭɧɨɜ,
ɝɚɦɚɡɨɜɵɯ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ, ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɜ ɭɪɛɨɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɢ ɹɜɥɹɸɳɢɯɫɹ
ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɚɦɢ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ [3, 4, 5, 6]. ɐɟɥɶ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɥɚ ɜ
ɚɧɚɥɢɡɟ ɮɚɭɧɵ ɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɛɥɨɯ ɝɪɵɡɭɧɨɜ ɢ ɧɚɫɟɤɨɦɨɹɞɧɵɯ ɜ ɝɪɚɞɢɟɧɬɟ
ɭɪɛɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɜ 2012-2013 ɝɝ. ɧɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɟ ɝ. ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɚ.
ȼ ɦɢɪɨɜɨɣ ɮɚɭɧɟ ɧɚɫɱɢɬɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɨɤɨɥɨ 2000 ɜɢɞɨɜ ɛɥɨɯ ɢɡ 18 ɫɟɦɟɣɫɬɜ;
ɨɤɨɥɨ 1000 ɜɢɞɨɜ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ (Ɇɟɞɜɟɞɟɜ, 1994). ɇɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɛɨɝɚɬɚ
ɮɚɭɧɚ ɛɥɨɯ ɉɚɥɟɚɪɤɬɢɤɢ (892 ɜɢɞɚ ɢɡ 96 ɪɨɞɨɜ, ɱɬɨ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ 38% ɨɬ ɱɢɫɥɚ
ɜɫɟɯ ɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɢ 38% ɜɫɟɯ ɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɵɯ ɪɨɞɨɜ) [10, 11, 12]. ɇɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ
ɛɥɨɯɢ ɦɧɨɝɨɹɞɧɵ ɢ ɧɚɩɚɞɚɸɬ ɧɚ ɥɸɛɨɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɨɟ, ɞɪɭɝɢɟ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɵ
ɧɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɨ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ ɢ ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɚɬɶɫɹ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɧɚ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɹɳɢɯ
ɩɪɨɤɨɪɦɢɬɟɥɹɯ. ɉɨɞɚɜɥɹɸɳɟɟ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɨ ɛɥɨɯ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɫɨɛɨɣ
ɩɟɪɢɨɞɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɧɚɩɚɞɚɸɳɢɯ ɝɧɟɡɞɨɜɨ-ɧɨɪɨɜɵɯ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ, ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɵɯ
ɞɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɶɫɹ ɜ ɲɟɪɫɬɢ ɯɨɡɹɢɧɚ. Ȼɥɨɯɚɦ ɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɟɧ ɥɢɲɶ ɨɞɢɧ ɬɢɩ
ɧɚɩɚɞɟɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɯɨɡɹɟɜ — ɩɚɫɫɢɜɧɨɟ ɩɨɞɫɬɟɪɟɝɚɧɢɟ ɜ ɭɛɟɠɢɳɚɯ (ɧɨɪɚɯ ɢ
ɝɧɟɡɞɚɯ) ɢ, ɪɟɠɟ - ɜɧɟ ɢɯ. ɋɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɜɢɞɵ, ɧɚɯɨɞɹɳɢɟɫɹ ɧɚ ɩɪɨɤɨɪɦɢɬɟɥɟ
ɛóɥɶɲɭɸ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɠɢɡɧɢ, ɧɟ ɭɬɪɚɱɢɜɚɹ ɩɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɜɨɛɨɞɧɨ
ɩɟɪɟɞɜɢɝɚɬɶɫɹ ɢ ɦɟɧɹɬɶ ɯɨɡɹɢɧɚ; ɨɧɢ ɧɭɠɞɚɸɬɫɹ ɜ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɱɚɫɬɨɦ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɢ
[1] ɢ ɨɛɥɚɞɚɸɬ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɫɬɚɛɢɥɶɧɨɣ ɹɣɰɟɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɟɣ ɩɪɢ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ
37
ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɤɨɪɦɢɬɟɥɹ [8], ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɡɚɜɢɫɹɬ
ɨɬ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɢ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɯɨɡɹɟɜ [9] ɢ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɛɥɨɯɚɦɢ ɲɟɪɫɬɢ. Ⱦɪɭɝɢɟ
ɜɢɞɵ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɵ ɫ ɯɨɡɹɢɧɨɦ ɤɨɪɨɬɤɨɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ, ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɟ ɞɥɹ ɩɪɢɟɦɚ ɩɢɳɢ, ɢ
ɧɚɡɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɛɥɨɯɚɦɢ ɝɧɟɡɞɚ. ɗɬɢ ɞɜɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɟ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ,
ɨɬɥɢɱɚɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɢ ɮɢɡɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢ, ɫɜɹɡɚɧɵ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɫɨɛɨɣ
ɪɹɞɨɦ ɩɪɨɦɟɠɭɬɨɱɧɵɯ ɮɨɪɦ. Ʉɚɤ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ, ɛɥɨɯɢ - ɫɬɚɰɢɨɧɚɪɧɵɟ ɢ
ɩɨɥɭɫɬɚɰɢɨɧɚɪɧɵɟ ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɵ.
Ɋɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ ɛɥɨɯ ɫɨɩɪɨɜɨɠɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɨɥɧɵɦ ɦɟɬɚɦɨɪɮɨɡɨɦ. ɋɚɦɤɚ
ɨɬɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɟɬ ɜ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɠɢɡɧɢ 400-600 ɹɢɰ (ɧɟ ɛɨɥɟɟ 10 ɡɚ ɨɞɢɧ ɩɪɢɟɦ);
ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɚ ɝɨɧɨɬɪɨɮɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɝɚɪɦɨɧɢɹ. ɂɡ ɹɢɰ ɜɵɯɨɞɹɬ ɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɟɫɹ
ɞɟɬɪɢɬɨɦ ɱɟɪɜɟɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɟ, ɛɟɡɧɨɝɢɟ, ɛɟɡɝɥɚɡɵɟ ɥɢɱɢɧɤɢ ɫ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɨɣ ɝɨɥɨɜɧɨɣ
ɤɚɩɫɭɥɨɣ, ɨɧɢ ɥɢɧɹɸɬ ɞɜɚ ɪɚɡɚ ɢ ɩɪɢ ɬɪɟɬɶɟɣ ɥɢɧɶɤɟ ɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɬ ɤɭɤɨɥɤɭ
ɫɜɨɛɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɬɢɩɚ, ɥɟɠɚɳɭɸ ɜ ɤɨɤɨɧɟ ɢɡ ɩɚɭɬɢɧɵ, ɢɧɤɪɭɫɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɣ ɩɵɥɶɸ
ɢ ɩɟɫɱɢɧɤɚɦɢ [2].
ɑɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɝɪɵɡɭɧɨɜ ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɥɚɫɶ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɦ ɥɨɜɭɲɤɨ-ɥɢɧɢɣ (ɥ/ɧ),
ɜɵɪɚɠɚɥɚɫɶ ɜ ɩɪɨɰɟɧɬɚɯ ɩɨɩɚɞɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ 100 ɥɨɜɭɲɤɨ-ɫɭɬɨɤ (ɥ/ɫ). ɉɪɢɦɟɧɹɥɢ
ɞɚɜɢɥɤɢ «Ƚɟɪɨ» ɩɨ ɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɧɨɣ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤɟ [7]. Ȼɥɨɯɢ ɫɱɟɫɵɜɚɥɢɫɶ ɫ
ɩɪɨɤɨɪɦɢɬɟɥɟɣ, ɩɨɞɥɟɠɚɥɢ ɮɢɤɫɚɰɢɢ ɢ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɸ. ɋɛɨɪɵ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɵ ɜ
2012-2013 ɝɝ. ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɝ. ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɚ ɢ ɜ ɟɝɨ ɛɥɢɠɚɣɲɢɯ ɨɤɪɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɹɯ ɢ
ɛɢɨɬɨɩɚɯ 30-ɢ ɤɦ ɡɨɧɵ. ȼ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥ ɛɵɥ ɫɨɛɪɚɧ ɜ
ɥɟɫɧɵɯ (ɅȻ), ɨɤɨɥɨɜɨɞɧɵɯ (ɈȻ), ɥɭɝɨɜɵɯ (ɅɍȻ) ɛɢɨɬɨɩɚɯ. Ɉɤɪɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ
ɝɨɪɨɞɚ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɚ ɨɯɜɚɬɵɜɚɥɢ ɥɟɫɨɩɨɫɚɞɤɢ, ɩɚɪɤɢ, ɥɟɫɨɩɨɥɨɫɵ, ɤɥɚɞɛɢɳɚ ɜ
ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɯ ɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɨɣ ɡɨɧɵ.
ȼ ɢɡɭɱɚɟɦɵɯ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɚɯ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɨ 12 ɜɢɞɨɜ ɝɪɵɡɭɧɨɜ ɢ ɨɞɢɧ ɜɢɞ
ɧɚɫɟɤɨɦɨɹɞɧɵɯ (ɬɚɛɥ. 1).
ɇɚ ɝɪɵɡɭɧɚɯ ɢ ɧɚɫɟɤɨɦɨɹɞɧɵɯ, ɫɨɛɪɚɧɧɵɯ ɦɚɫɫɨɜɨ, ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɨ 27 ɜɢɞɨɜ
ɛɥɨɯ (ɬɚɛɥ. 2). Ⱦɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɫɨɛɪɚɧɵ ɟɞɢɧɢɱɧɵɟ ɷɤɡɟɦɩɥɹɪɵ ɟɳɟ 4 ɜɢɞɨɜ
ɝɪɵɡɭɧɨɜ (ɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɛɟɥɤɢ, ɤɪɚɩɱɚɬɨɝɨ ɢ ɦɚɥɨɝɨ ɫɭɫɥɢɤɨɜ) ɢ ɨɞɧɨɝɨ
ɜɢɞɚ ɧɚɫɟɤɨɦɨɹɞɧɵɯ (ɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɟɠɚ). Ɋɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɩɨ ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚɦ
ɷɬɢɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɩɨɩɨɥɧɹɸɬ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɨ ɮɚɭɧɟ ɛɥɨɯ ɦɟɥɤɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ
ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚ, ɧɨ ɧɟ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɸɬ ɫɭɞɢɬɶ ɨ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ, ɫɟɡɨɧɧɨɣ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɟ ɢ
ɨɛɢɥɢɢ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɛɥɨɯ ɜɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟ ɬɨɝɨ, ɱɬɨ ɛɵɥɢ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɵ ɟɞɢɧɢɱɧɵɟ
ɷɤɡɟɦɩɥɹɪɵ ɩɪɨɤɨɪɦɢɬɟɥɟɣ. ɇɚ ɫɥɟɩɵɲɟ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɚ ɛɥɨɯɚ Ctenophihalmus
(Spalacoctenophthalmus) spalacis Jordan et Rothschild, 1911, ɧɚ ɛɟɥɤɟ
ɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɨɣ - Ceratophyllus (Monopsyllus) sciurorum (Schrank, 1803),
ɤɪɚɩɱɚɬɨɦ ɢ ɦɚɥɨɦ ɫɭɫɥɢɤɚɯ - Citellophilus tesquorum (Wagner, 1898),
Frontopsylla (Frontopsylla) semura Wagner et Ioff, 1926, Ctenophthalmus
(Euctenophthalmus) orientalis (Wagner, 1898) ɢ Neopsylla setosa (Wagner,
1898). ɇɚ ɟɠɚɯ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɚ Archaeopsylla erinacei (Bouché 1835). ɋ ɭɱɟɬɨɦ
ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɚ ɫ ɟɞɢɧɢɱɧɵɯ ɨɫɨɛɟɣ ɜɢɞɨɜ-ɩɪɨɤɨɪɦɢɬɟɥɟɣ - 33 ɜɢɞɚ Siphonaptera
(ɬɚɛɥ. 3).
ȼ ɥɟɫɧɵɯ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɚɯ ɧɚ ɦɟɥɤɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧ 21 ɜɢɞ ɛɥɨɯ
(77,8 % ɨɬ ɨɛɳɟɝɨ ɱɢɫɥɚ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɢ 39,27 % ɨɬ ɨɛɳɟɝɨ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɫɨɛɪɚɧɧɵɯ
ɨɫɨɛɟɣ), ɜ ɨɤɨɥɨɜɨɞɧɵɯ – 16 (59,5 % ɢ 16,73 %, ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ), ɜ ɥɭɝɨɜɵɯ
38
– 15 (55,6 % ɢ 19,06 %), ɜ ɨɤɪɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɹɯ ɝ. ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɚ – 9 (33,3 % ɢ 13,97 %),
ɜ ɡɨɧɟ ɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɨɣ ɭɪɛɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ – 6 (22,2 % ɢ 7,50 %), ɜ ɡɨɧɟ ɩɨɥɧɨɣ
ɭɪɛɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ – 3 ɜɢɞɚ (11,1 % ɢ 3,47 %).
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 1
Ɉɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɦɟɥɤɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ ɜ 2012-2013 ɝɝ.
ɅȻ
ɈȻ
ɅɍȻ
ɈȽ
Ƚ
Ƚɨɞɵ
12
13
12
13
12
13
12
13
12
1.1
1.1
5.0
3.1
0.4
0.2
14.9 15.6 94.8
Mus musculus
14.8 29.0 30.0 17.3 20.5 18.8 19.2 20.6 0.0
Sylvaemus
uralensis
10.3 7.1
7.3
13.0 28.3 34.1 23.8 27.8 0.0
Apodemus
agrarius
18.2 31.4 0.5
2.1
2.8
3.2
4.1
3.2
0.0
Apodemus
flavicollis
1.9
5.2
46.0 46.1 6.3
8.8
2.8
2.2
0.0
Microtus sp.
31.1 16.2 0.5
7.6
40.5 33.2 32.3 28.6 0.0
Clethrionomys
glareolus
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.4
0.0
0.0
Dryomys
nitedula
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
5.2
Rattus
norvegicus
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
Micromys
minutus
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
Cricetulus
migratorius
0.0
0.0
5.0
2.3
0.3
0.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
Crocidura
suaveolens
0.0
0.0
0.4
4.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
Arvicola
terrestris
0.1
0.1
5.3
4.4
0.3
0.6
2.5
2.0
0.0
Sorex araneus
13
96.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
ɇɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɛɥɢɡɤɢɦɢ ɫ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɚɦɢ ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ
ɮɚɭɧɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɵ ɛɥɨɯ ɢɡ ɨɤɪɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɝɨɪɨɞɚ (0,54). Ɇɟɧɶɲɟɟ
ɫɯɨɞɫɬɜɨ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɚɦɢ ɢ ɡɨɧɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɨɣ
ɭɪɛɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ (0,20), ɦɟɠɞɭ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɟɣ ɢ ɨɤɪɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɹɦɢ ɝɨɪɨɞɚ (0,53). Ɂɨɧɚ
ɩɨɥɧɨɣ ɭɪɛɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɨɟ ɫɯɨɞɫɬɜɨ ɫ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɚɦɢ ɛɥɨɯ
ɨɤɪɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɝɨɪɨɞɚ (0,16) ɢ ɡɨɧɵ ɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɨɣ ɭɪɛɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ (0,16) ɢ ɩɨɥɧɨɟ
ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟ ɨɛɳɢɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɫ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɚɦɢ.
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 2
1
2
3
Ɉɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɛɥɨɯ ɦɟɥɤɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ (ɜ %).
ȼɢɞ
ɅȻ
ɈȻ
ɅɍȻ
ɈȽ
ɑɋ
Ƚ
Amphipsylla prima Wagner
0,90 0,47 0,82
Paraneopsylla ioffi Tifl.
0,30 0,24
0,41
Frontopsylla elata Roths.
0,70
39
ȼɫɟɝɨ
0,59
0,25
0,29
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 2. ɉɪɨɞɨɥɠɟɧɢɟ
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
Ctenophthalmus agyrtes 6,43
Heller
1,41
Ctenophthalmus
uncinatus Wagner
Ct. breviatus Wag.et Ioff
Ct. assimilis Taschenberg
Ct. wagneri Tifl.
24,7
2
Hystrichopsylla
talpae
Curt.
Rhadinopsylla integella
Ioff at Tifl.
Monopsyllus sciurorum
Schrank
Ctenocephalides
felis
Bouche
Neopsylla pleskei Ioff
N. fasciatus Bosc.
Doratopsylla dasycnema
Roths.
Doratopsylla birulai Ioff
Palaeopsylla soricis Wag.
Pulex irritans L.
Leptopsylla
bidentata
Kol.
L. segnis Schonch.
L. sylvatica Mein.
L. taschenbergi Wag.
Amalaraeus penicilliger
Gr.
Megabothris
turbidus
Roths.
M. walkeri Roths.
Amphipsylla
rossica
Wag.
Nosophyllus consimilis
Wag.
ȼɫɟɝɨ ɜɢɞɨɜ
5,65
11,59
6,21
-
-
6,56
1,42
7,45
-
-
-
1,03
0,71
3,30
26,42
9,32
14,70
0,85
16,95
-
-
0,25
2,34
19,3
-
-
3,11
-
-
-
0,59
3,52
-
6,21
-
-
-
2,57
1,01
0,47
8,49
-
-
-
2,09
-
-
-
-
-
4,55
0,16
0,20
0,70
1,65
0,83
-
1,05
-
4,55
-
0,09
0,25
0,71
0,50
3,32
1,61
2,59
1,42
16,36
7,63
1,05
8,42
-
0,19
1,74
0,09
5,69
3,22
1,51
8,14
9,25
20,52
8,96
7,04
5,38
35,88
1,13
22,03
7,63
80,53
7,37
-
90,90
-
15,48
0,76
11,61
7,23
14,6
7
0,80
9,05
14,86
-
-
-
-
8,26
8,49
1,66
6,63
1,69
-
1,58
-
-
0,99
6,25
8,04
2,83
-
-
-
-
3,64
21
16
15
9
6
3
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 3
ȼɢɞ ɛɥɨɯɢ
Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɵɟ ɬɪɨɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɛɥɨɯ ɫ ɩɪɨɤɨɪɦɢɬɟɥɹɦɢ
ɉɪɨɤɨɪɦɢɬɟɥɢ
Amphipsylla prima Wag.
Microtus, Arvicola terrestris
Amphipsylla rossica Wag.
Arvicola terrestris, S. uralensis, Ap. flavicollis, Ap.
agrarius, Clethrionomys glareolus
40
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 3. ɉɪɨɞɨɥɠɟɧɢɟ
Paraneopsylla ioffi Tifl.
Clethrionomys glareolus
Frontopsylla elata Roths.
Apodemus flavicollis,
Clethrionomys glareolus, Cricetulus migratorius,
Crocidura suaveolens
Frontopsylla semura Wagner et Citellus suslicus; Spermophilus pygmaeus
Ioff
Ctenophthalmus agyrtes Heller
Microtus, Cl. glareolus, S. uralensis, Ap. flavicollis,
Ap. agrarius
Ctenophthalmus uncinatus Wag.
Clethrionomys glareolus, Ap. agrarius, Ap.
flavicollis
Ct. breviatus Wag.et Ioff
Clethrionomys glareolus, Arvicola terrestris, Mus
musculus
Ct. assimilis Taschenberg
Arvicola terrestris, Sorex araneus
Ct. wagneri Tifl.
Arvicola terrestris, Clethrionomys glareolus, S.
uralensis, Ap. flavicollis, Ap. agrarius
Hystrichopsylla talpae Curt.
Sorex araneus
Rhadinopsylla integella Ioff at Tifl. S. uralensis, Ap. flavicollis, Ap. agrarius
Monopsyllus sciurorum Schrank
Ctenocephalides felis Bouche
Sciurus vulgaris, Dryomys nitedula
Mus musculus (ɫɥɭɱɚɣɧɨ)
Neopsylla pleskei Ioff
N. fasciatus Bosc.
Doratopsylla dasycnema Roths.
Doratopsylla birulai Ioff
Dryomys nitedula
Palaeopsylla soricis Wag.
Pulex irritans L.
Peromyscopsylla
bidentata
(Kolenati)
Leptopsylla segnis Schonch.
L. silvatica Mein.
L. taschenbergi Wag.
Amalaraeus penicilliger Gr.
Megabothris turbidus Roths.
M. walkeri Roths.
Nosophyllus consimilis Wagner
Ctenophihalmus spalacis Jordan
et Rothschild
Citellophilus tesquorum (Wagner)
Ctenophthalmus
(Wagner)
Rattus norvegicus
Sorex araneus, Crocidura suaveolens
Sorex araneus
Sorex araneus
Rattus
Clethrionomys glareolus, Arvicola terrestris,
Sylvaemus uralensis, Ap. agrarius, Ap. flavicollis.
Mus musculus
Clethrionomys glareolus, Arvicola terrestris,
Sylvaemus uralensis, Ap. agrarius, Ap. flavicollis.
Clethrionomys glareolus, Arvicola terrestris,
Sylvaemus uralensis, Ap. agrarius, Ap. flavicollis.
Clethrionomys glareolus, Arvicola terrestris,
Sylvaemus uralensis
Clethrionomys glareolus, Arvicola terrestris,
Sylvaemus uralensis, Ap. agrarius
Arvicola terrestris, Microtus sp., Sylvaemus
uralensis
Arvicola terrestris
Spalax microphthalmus
Citellus suslicus; Spermophilus pygmaeus
orientalis Citellus suslicus;
Spermophilus pygmaeus
41
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 3. ɉɪɨɞɨɥɠɟɧɢɟ
Neopsylla setosa (Wagner)
Archaeopsylla erinacei (Bouché).
Citellus suslicus;
Spermophilus pygmaeus
Erinaceus europaeus
ɋɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɩɪɨɤɨɪɦɢɬɟɥɹɦɢ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɜ ɬɚɛɥ. 3. ɇɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɟɟ ɱɢɫɥɨ
ɜɢɞɨɜ ɛɥɨɯ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɨ ɧɚ Cl. glareolus (13 ɜɢɞɨɜ), A. flavicollis (12), S.
uralensis (10) ɢ A. agrarius (9). ȼ ɥɟɫɧɵɯ ɫɬɚɰɢɹɯ ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɭɸɳɢɦɢ ɜɢɞɚɦɢ
ɨɤɚɡɚɥɢɫɶ Ct. wagneri, A. rossica, M. turbidus, ɨɛɢɥɶɧɵɦɢ A. penicilliger, L.
taschenbergi, N. consimilis, Ct. agyrtes. ȼ ɨɤɨɥɨɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɫɬɚɰɢɹɯ ɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɥɢ
Ct. wagneri, L. taschenbergi, Megabothris turbidus, ɨɛɢɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɛɵɥɢ A.
penicilliger, A. rossica. ȼ ɥɭɝɨɜɵɯ ɫɬɚɰɢɹɯ ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɨɜɚɥɢ Leptopsylla
bidentata, Ct. wagneri, Ct. agyrtes, ɨɛɢɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɛɵɥɢ Ct. assimilis, M.
sciurorum Ct. uncinatus, L. taschenbergi, A. rossica, A. penicilliger (ɬɚɛɥ. 2).
Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɜ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɚɯ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɛɥɨɯ
ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɥɚɫɶ ɤɚɤ ɜɧɟɲɧɢɦɢ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɦɢ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɜɢɞɨɜɩɪɨɤɨɪɦɢɬɟɥɟɣ. ȼ ɩɹɬɢɤɢɥɨɦɟɬɪɨɜɨɣ ɡɨɧɟ ɨɤɪɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɝ. ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɚ
ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɭɸɳɢɦɢ ɜɢɞɚɦɢ ɛɥɨɯ ɛɵɥɢ L. segnis, L. taschenbergi ɢ Ct. wagneri.
ɋ ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɨɦ ɜ ɡɨɧɵ ɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɨɣ ɢ ɩɨɥɧɨɣ ɭɪɛɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɫɨɤɪɚɳɚɟɬɫɹ
ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɦɟɥɤɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ, ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɟ
ɜɢɞɨɜɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ Siphonaptera, ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɫɦɟɧɚ ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɭɸɳɢɯ
ɜɢɞɨɜ ɤɚɤ ɩɪɨɤɨɪɦɢɬɟɥɟɣ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɛɥɨɯ. ȼ ɪɚɣɨɧɚɯ ɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɨɣ ɢ ɩɨɥɧɨɣ
ɭɪɛɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɥ ɨɞɢɧ ɜɢɞ - L. segnis. ɉɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ ɢɧɞɟɤɫɚ ɨɛɢɥɢɹ
(ɂɈ) ɛɵɥɢ ɧɚɢɜɵɫɲɢɦɢ ɜ ɥɟɫɧɵɯ ɫɬɚɰɢɹɯ ɞɥɹ ɪɵɠɟɣ ɩɨɥɟɜɤɢ (1,24), ɦɚɥɨɣ
ɥɟɫɧɨɣ ɦɵɲɢ (1,11), ɠɟɥɬɨɝɨɪɥɨɣ ɦɵɲɢ (0,70), ɜ ɨɤɨɥɨɜɨɞɧɵɯ – ɞɥɹ ɦɚɥɨɣ
ɥɟɫɧɨɣ ɦɵɲɢ (1,30), ɩɨɥɟɜɨɣ ɦɵɲɢ (0,65), ɜɨɞɹɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɟɜɤɢ (0,5), ɜ ɥɭɝɨɜɵɯ
– ɞɥɹ ɦɚɥɨɣ ɥɟɫɧɨɣ ɦɵɲɢ (0,82), ɩɨɥɟɜɨɣ ɦɵɲɢ (0,82), ɪɵɠɟɣ ɩɨɥɟɜɤɢ
(0,61). ȼ ɩɹɬɢɤɢɥɨɦɟɬɪɨɜɨɣ ɡɨɧɟ ɝ. ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɚ ɧɚɢɜɵɫɲɢɟ ɢɧɞɟɤɫɵ ɨɛɢɥɢɹ
ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɵ ɞɥɹ ɪɵɠɟɣ ɩɨɥɟɜɤɢ (1,24), ɦɚɥɨɣ ɥɟɫɧɨɣ ɦɵɲɢ (1,10) ɢ ɞɨɦɨɜɨɣ
ɦɵɲɢ (0,90). ȼ ɡɨɧɚɯ ɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɨɣ ɢ ɩɨɥɧɨɣ ɭɪɛɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɜɵɫɨɤɢɣ ɂɈ
ɡɚɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɧ ɞɥɹ ɞɨɦɨɜɨɣ ɦɵɲɢ (1,11 ɢ 1,24, ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ).
ȼɵɜɨɞɵ:
1. ɂɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ ɝɪɵɡɭɧɨɜ ɢ ɧɚɫɟɤɨɦɨɹɞɧɵɯ ɜ 30-ɢ ɤɦ
ɡɨɧɟ ɝ. ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɚ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɢɥɢ ɜɵɹɜɢɬɶ 33 ɜɢɞɚ Siphonaptera.
2. ɋ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɨɣ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ ɜɢɞɨɜɨɣ ɫɨɫɬɚɜ ɦɟɥɤɢɯ
ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɚɟɬɫɹ, ɢɦɟɟɬ ɦɟɫɬɨ ɫɦɟɧɚ ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɭɸɳɢɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ. ȼ
ɝɪɚɞɢɟɧɬɟ ɭɪɛɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɢɧɚɧɬɪɨɩɧɵɯ ɢ
ɩɨɥɭɫɢɧɚɧɬɪɨɩɧɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɦɟɥɤɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ. Ɉɬɦɟɱɟɧɚ ɮɥɭɤɬɭɚɰɢɹ
ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɣ ɪɹɞɚ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɩɨ ɝɨɞɚɦ.
3. ɍɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟ ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ ɜ ɰɟɥɨɦ ɤ ɫɦɟɧɟ
ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɭɸɳɢɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ; ɢɡ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɚ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɰɟɧɨɡɨɜ ɢɫɱɟɡɚɸɬ
ɪɟɞɤɢɟ ɜɢɞɵ. ɋ ɭɫɢɥɟɧɢɟɦ ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɨɣ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ ɢɡɦɟɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɜɢɞɨɜɨɣ
ɫɨɫɬɚɜ ɩɪɨɤɨɪɦɢɬɟɥɟɣ.
42
4. ɑɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɭɸɳɢɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚɟɬ ɜ
ɝɪɚɞɢɟɧɬɟ ɭɪɛɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ, ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɢɧɞɟɤɫɚ ɨɛɢɥɢɹ. ɑɢɫɥɨ
ɜɢɞɨɜ ɛɥɨɯ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɚɟɬɫɹ, ɧɨ ɩɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɜ ɭɪɛɨɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ
ɜɢɞɵ, ɧɟ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɵɟ ɞɥɹ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɨɜ.
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. ȼɚɳɟɧɨɤ B.C. Ȼɥɨɯɢ ɩɟɪɟɧɨɫɱɢɤɢ ɜɨɡɛɭɞɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɛɨɥɟɡɧɟɣ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ ɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ /
ȼ.ɋ ȼɚɳɟɧɨɤ. - Ʌ.: ɇɚɭɤɚ, 1988. —161 ɫ.
2. Ƚɚɩɨɧɨɜ ɋ.ɉ. ɉɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɥɨɝɢɹ / ɋ.ɉ. Ƚɚɩɨɧɨɜ. – ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ: ȼȽɍ, 2011. – 775 ɫ.
3. Ƚɚɩɨɧɨɜ ɋ.ɉ. ɢ ɞɪ. Ȼɢɨɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɹ ɢɤɫɨɞɨɜɵɯ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ (Ixodidae) ɜ ɝ. ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɟ / ɋ.ɉ.
Ƚɚɩɨɧɨɜ, ɋ.Ⱥ.
Ɏɟɞɨɪɭɤ, Ⱦ.ȼ. Ɍɪɚɧɤɜɢɥɟɜɫɤɢɣ // ȼɟɫɬɧɢɤ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɝɨ
ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬɚ. ɋɟɪɢɹ: ɏɢɦɢɹ. Ȼɢɨɥɨɝɢɹ. Ɏɚɪɦɚɰɢɹ. 2008. ʋ 2. ɋ. 7176.
4. Ƚɚɩɨɧɨɜ ɋ.ɉ. ɢ ɞɪ. Ⱦɢɧɚɦɢɤɚ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɢɤɫɨɞɨɜɵɯ ɢ ɝɚɦɚɡɨɜɵɯ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ ɜ
ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɩɪɟɫɫɢɢ / ɋ.ɉ. Ƚɚɩɨɧɨɜ, Ⱥ.Ⱥ. ɋɬɟɤɨɥɶɧɢɤɨɜ, ɇ.ɂ. ɉɪɨɫɬɚɤɨɜ, ɋ.Ⱥ.
Ɏɟɞɨɪɭɤ // ȼɟɫɬɧɢɤ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɝɨ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬɚ. ɋɟɪɢɹ: ɏɢɦɢɹ.
Ȼɢɨɥɨɝɢɹ. Ɏɚɪɦɚɰɢɹ. 2013. ʋ 1. ɋ. 92-97.
5. Ƚɚɩɨɧɨɜ ɋ.ɉ. ɢ ɞɪ. Ⱦɢɧɚɦɢɤɚ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɦɵɲɟɜɢɞɧɵɯ ɝɪɵɡɭɧɨɜ ɜ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɟ ɢ
ɟɝɨ ɨɤɪɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɹɯ ɜ 2001-2007 ɝɝ. / ɋ.ɉ. Ƚɚɩɨɧɨɜ, Ⱦ.ȼ. Ɍɪɚɧɤɜɢɥɟɜɫɤɢɣ // ȼɟɫɬɧɢɤ
ɇɢɠɟɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɨɝɨ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬɚ ɢɦ. ɇ.ɂ. Ʌɨɛɚɱɟɜɫɤɨɝɨ. 2009. ʋ 1. ɋ. 67-72.
6. Ƚɚɩɨɧɨɜ ɋ.ɉ. ɢ ɞɪ. ɂɤɫɨɞɨɜɵɟ ɤɥɟɳɢ (Ixodidae) ɧɚ ɭɪɛɚɧɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ
ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹɯ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɜ 2003-2009 ɝɝ. / ɋ.ɉ. Ƚɚɩɨɧɨɜ, Ɉ.Ƚ. ɋɨɥɨɞɨɜɧɢɤɨɜɚ,
ɋ.Ⱥ. Ɏɟɞɨɪɭɤ // ȼɟɫɬɧɢɤ ɇɢɠɟɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɨɝɨ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬɚ ɢɦ. ɇ.ɂ. Ʌɨɛɚɱɟɜɫɤɨɝɨ. 2011. ʋ
2-2. ɋ. 45-51.
7. Ƚɚɩɨɧɨɜ ɋ.ɉ. ɢ ɞɪ. Ɇɟɬɨɞɵ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ / ɋ.ɉ. Ƚɚɩɨɧɨɜ,
Ʌ.ɇ. ɏɢɰɨɜɚ, Ɉ.Ƚ. ɋɨɥɨɞɨɜɧɢɤɨɜɚ. – ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ: ȼȽɍ, 2009. – 182 ɫ.
8. Ⱦɚɪɫɤɚɹ ɇ.Ɏ. Ȼɥɨɯɢ (Suctoria) / ɇ.Ɏ. Ⱦɚɪɫɤɚɹ // Ɇɟɬɨɞɵ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ
ɨɱɚɝɨɜ ɛɨɥɟɡɧɟɣ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ. Ɇ.: Ɇɟɞɢɰɢɧɚ, 1964. - ɋ. 54-67.
9. Ⱦɚɪɫɤɚɹ ɇ.Ɏ. ɢ ɞɪ. Ɉ ɛɥɨɯɚɯ ɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɟɜɤɢ ɢ ɡɟɦɥɟɪɨɟɤ ɜ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ
ɪɟɡɤɢɦɢ ɤɨɥɟɛɚɧɢɹɦɢ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɷɬɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ / ɇ.Ɏ. Ⱦɚɪɫɤɚɹ, Ɂ.ɋ. Ȼɪɚɝɢɧɚ,
ȼ.Ƚ. ɉɟɬɪɨɜ // ɉɟɪɟɧɨɫɱɢɤɢ ɨɫɨɛɨ ɨɩɚɫɧɵɯ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢɣ ɢ ɛɨɪɶɛɚ ɫ ɧɢɦɢ. ɋɬɚɜɪɨɩɨɥɶ, 1970.
- ɋ.132-152.
10. Ɇɟɞɜɟɞɟɜ ɋ.Ƚ. Ɇɨɪɮɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɵ ɤɥɚɫɫɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢ ɨɬɪɹɞɚ ɛɥɨɯ
(Siphonaptera) / ɋ.Ƚ. Ɇɟɞɜɟɞɟɜ. // ɗɧɬɨɦɨɥ.ɨɛɨɡɪɟɧɢɟ. 1994. Ɍ.73, ɜɵɩ.1. ɋ.22-43.
11. Ɇɟɞɜɟɞɟɜ ɋ.Ƚ. ɉɚɪɚɡɢɬɨ-ɯɨɡɹɢɧɧɵɟ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫɟɦɟɣɫɬɜ ɛɥɨɯ (Siphopnaptera). I /
ɋ.Ƚ. Ɇɟɞɜɟɞɟɜ. // ɗɧɬɨɦɨɥ. ɨɛɨɡɪ. 1997. Ɍ.76, ɜɵɩ.2. ɋ.318-336.
12. Ɇɟɞɜɟɞɟɜ ɋ.Ƚ. ɉɚɪɚɡɢɬɨ-ɯɨɡɹɢɧɧɵɟ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫɟɦɟɣɫɬɜ ɛɥɨɯ (Siphopnaptera). II / ɋ.Ƚ.
Ɇɟɞɜɟɞɟɜ. // ɗɧɬɨɦɨɥ. ɨɛɨɡɪ. 1997. Ɍ.76, ɜɵɩ.4. ɋ.755-769.
BIOECOLOGY OF THE FLEAS (SIPHONAPTERA) OF RODENTS AND
INSECTIVORE MAMMALS IN URBAN AND SUBURBAN ECOSYSTEMS OF
VORONEZH REGION
S.P. Gaponov, A.A. Stekolnikov
Voronezh State University, Voronezh, Russia
Fleas associated with the rodents and insectivore mammals were studied in 20122013 in Voronezh Region. Material was collected in 30 km area around Voronezh
city in different biotops (wood, meadow, hydrophytic zones), in suburbs and
43
inside the city. 12 species of rodents and one species of insectivore were found. 27
fleas’ species were registered in their fur. In addition some samples of 5 other
small mammals species were observed and 6 species of fleas were found to be
connected with them. Total number of fleas species associated with small
mammals was 33. Distribution of fleas in different biotops and fleas’ connection
with their hosts were studied. Increasing of anthropogenic load leads to reduction
of the number of mammals’ species and change of prevalent species.
Simultaneously a change of fleas’ species were noted. The number of dominated
species of the fleas increased in the gradient of urbanization.
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Ʉ.Ʉ. Ƚɥɚɞɤɢɯ*, Ʌ.Ɏ. Ⱦɟɥɢɰɵɧɚ**
*ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɢɣ ɨɬɞɟɥ ɎȽȻɍ «Ⱥɡɞɨɧɪɵɛɜɨɞ»
** ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɢɣ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ
Ɋɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɩɚɜɨɞɤɨɜɵɯ ɜɨɞ ɢ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ ɧɚ
ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɵɟ ɭɥɨɜɵ ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚ ȼɟɪɯɧɟɝɨ Ⱦɨɧɚ ɜ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɯ
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ.
ɉɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ 100 ɥɟɬ, ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɜɬɨɪɚɹ ɩɨɥɨɜɢɧɚ 20 ɜɟɤɚ, ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɸɬɫɹ
ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɤɪɢɡɢɫɨɦ ɜ ɛɢɨɫɮɟɪɟ ɜ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ
ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ.
Ⱦɠ. ɋ. ȼɚɣɫɛɟɪɝ [2] ɟɳɟ ɜ 70-ɯ ɝɨɞɚɯ ɩɪɨɲɥɨɝɨ ɜɟɤɚ ɨɬɦɟɱɚɥ: «ȼ ɫɜɹɡɢ
ɫ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɩɪɨɝɪɟɫɫɨɦ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɨɦ ɛɵɥ ɜɵɩɭɳɟɧ «ɞɠɢɧ ɢɡ ɛɭɬɵɥɤɢ»,
ɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɣ ɩɚɝɭɛɧɨ ɧɚ ɜɫɟ ɠɢɜɵɟ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦɵ ɩɥɚɧɟɬɵ ɢ ɫɬɚɜɢɬ ɩɨɞ
ɫɨɦɧɟɧɢɟ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɟɫɬɜɚ».
ȼɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɬɟɩɥɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɭɯɭɞɲɟɧɢɟ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ
ɫɪɟɞɵ ɧɟ ɨɛɨɲɥɢ ɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɵ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ.
ȼɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɚ ɜ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɩɨɜɥɢɹɥɨ
ɧɚ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɨɜ, ɠɢɡɧɟɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶ, ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ
ɫɨɫɬɚɜ, ɪɵɛɨɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ ɢ ɜ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɦ
ɢɬɨɝɟ ɧɚ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɭ ɪɵɛɧɵɯ ɡɚɩɚɫɨɜ, ɢɝɪɚɸɳɢɯ ɜɚɠɧɭɸ ɪɨɥɶ ɜ ɠɢɡɧɢ
ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ, ɤɚɤ ɜɨɡɨɛɧɨɜɥɹɟɦɵɟ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɵ.
ɂɡɭɱɟɧɢɟ ɝɢɞɪɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɜɟɫɧɵ ɢ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɷɬɢɯ
ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɧɚ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɟɥ ɪɵɛɵ ɜ ɩɪɨɲɥɨɦ ɢ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɦ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɧɚɭɱɧɨɩɪɢɤɥɚɞɧɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫ ɞɥɹ ɢɯɬɢɨɥɨɝɨɜ, ɪɚɛɨɬɧɢɤɨɜ
ɪɵɛɧɨɣ ɩɪɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ, ɭɱɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɢ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɭɸɳɟɣɫɹ
ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ.
44
ȼ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɢɫɯɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɚ ɞɥɹ ɧɚɩɢɫɚɧɢɹ ɫɬɚɬɶɢ ɩɨɫɥɭɠɢɥɢ
ɭɪɨɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɢ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɧɵɣ ɪɟɠɢɦɵ ɜɟɫɟɧɧɢɯ ɩɚɜɨɞɤɨɜ ɧɚ ɪɟɤɟ Ⱦɨɧ ɫ 1936
ɩɨ 2013 ɝɝ., ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɫɬɚɬɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɩɨ ɞɨɛɵɱɟ ɪɵɛɵ
ɪɵɛɨɞɨɛɵɜɚɸɳɢɦɢ
ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹɦɢ
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ
ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ
ɜ
ɪɵɛɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɚɯ.
ɉɨɫɥɟ ɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɬɢɹ Ⱦɨɧɚ ɩɥɨɬɢɧɨɣ ɭ ɫɬɚɧɢɰɵ ɐɢɦɥɹɧɫɤɨɣ ɜ 1952 ɝɨɞɭ ɢ
ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚ Ⱥ.ȼ.Ɏɟɞɨɪɨɜɵɦ [18] ɛɵɥɨ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɨ ɫɱɢɬɚɬɶ
ȼɟɪɯɧɢɦ Ⱦɨɧɨɦ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɚ ɪɟɤɢ ɨɬ ɢɫɬɨɤɚ ɞɨ ɐɢɦɥɹɧɫɤɨɝɨ
ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚ (ɞɨ ɫɬɚɧɢɰɵ Ɍɪɟɯɨɫɬɪɨɜɫɤɚɹ ɜ ȼɨɥɝɨɝɪɚɞɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ).ȼ
ɫɜɨɸ ɨɱɟɪɟɞɶ ɨɧ ɛɵɥ ɩɨɞɟɥɟɧ ɧɚ ɬɪɢ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚ: ɫɟɜɟɪɧɵɣ (ɨɬ ɢɫɬɨɤɚ ɪɟɤɢ ɞɨ
ɝɪɚɧɢɰɵ ɫ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɶɸ), ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɣ (ɜ ɝɪɚɧɢɰɚɯ ɧɚɲɟɣ
ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ) ɢ ɸɠɧɵɣ (ɜ Ɋɨɫɬɨɜɫɤɨɣ ɢ ȼɨɥɝɨɝɪɚɞɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɹɯ). ɍɱɚɫɬɨɤ ɪɟɤɢ,
ɡɚɧɹɬɵɣ ɐɢɦɥɹɧɫɤɢɦ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɟɦ, ɛɵɥ ɨɬɧɟɫɟɧ ɤ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦɭ Ⱦɨɧɭ, ɚ
ɨɬɪɟɡɨɤ ɪɟɤɢ ɧɢɠɟ ɩɥɨɬɢɧɵ ɞɨ ɭɫɬɶɹ - ɤ ɧɢɠɧɟɦɭ Ⱦɨɧɭ. Ɍɚɤɨɟ ɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ
ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɚ Ⱦɨɧɚ ɫ ɪɵɛɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɬɨɱɤɢ ɡɪɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɰɟɥɟɫɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɨ.
ɗɬɨɣ ɬɨɱɤɢ ɡɪɟɧɢɹ ɦɵ ɛɭɞɟɦ ɩɪɢɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɢ ɜ ɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɟɦ. ȼ ɬɨɠɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ
ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɦɧɟɧɢɟ ɫɱɢɬɚɬɶ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɨɦ ȼɟɪɯɧɟɝɨ Ⱦɨɧɚ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɶ ɜɨɞɨɫɛɨɪɚ
ɪɟɤɢ ɨɬ ɢɫɬɨɤɚ ɞɨ ɭɫɬɶɹ ɪɟɤɢ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ [8].
Ȼɚɫɫɟɣɧ ȼɟɪɯɧɟɝɨ Ⱦɨɧɚ ɢɝɪɚɟɬ ɜɚɠɧɭɸ ɪɨɥɶ ɜ ɪɟɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɨɧɧɨɦ
ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɟ ɫɬɚɞ ɦɟɫɬɧɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɪɵɛ: ɫɬɟɪɥɹɞɢ, ɫɭɞɚɤɚ, ɥɟɳɚ, ɫɚɡɚɧɚ, ɹɡɹ,
ɠɟɪɟɯɚ, ɳɭɤɢ, ɫɨɦɚ, ɩɨɞɭɫɬɚ ɢ ɞɪ., ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɰɢɦɥɹɧɫɤɢɯ ɦɢɝɪɚɧɬɨɜ. Ʉ ɧɢɦ
ɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹ ɜɵɪɟɡɭɛ, ɲɟɦɚɹ, ɪɵɛɟɰ, ɱɟɯɨɧɶ, ɫɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɜɲɢɟ ɧɚ ɐɢɦɥɹɧɫɤɨɦ
ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɟ ɢ ȼɟɪɯɧɟɦ Ⱦɨɧɭ ɩɪɟɫɧɨɜɨɞɧɵɟ ɫɬɚɞɚ ɛɟɡ ɜɦɟɲɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ
ɪɵɛɨɪɚɡɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɹɬɢɣ. ɋɬɟɪɥɹɞɶ, ɜɵɪɟɡɭɛ, ɲɟɦɚɹ ɜɧɟɫɟɧɵ ɜ Ʉɪɚɫɧɭɸ
ɤɧɢɝɭ ɊɎ, ɚ ɪɵɛɟɰ ɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɟɦ ɚɞɦɢɧɢɫɬɪɚɰɢɢ ɜɤɥɸɱɟɧ ɜ
ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɭɸ Ʉɪɚɫɧɭɸ ɤɧɢɝɭ.
ɉɨ ɂ.ɂ.Ʌɚɩɢɰɤɨɦɭ [11] ɝɢɞɪɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɜɟɫɧɵ ɢ ɧɟɪɟɫɬɨɜɵɟ
ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ ɜɨɞɵ ɜ ɷɬɨɬ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɝɥɚɜɧɵɦɢ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɦɢ,
ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɳɢɦɢ ɪɟɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɵɣ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫ ɢ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɢɩɥɨɞɚ ɦɨɥɨɞɢ,
ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɭ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɨɝɨ ɡɚɩɚɫɚ ɜ ɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɟɦ.
Ɋɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɢɦ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɭ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɪɟɠɢɦɚ ɐɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚ
ȼɟɪɯɧɟɝɨ Ⱦɨɧɚ ɫ 1936 ɩɨ 2013 ɝɨɞɵ ɢ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɭ ɪɵɛɨɫɞɚɱɢ ɫ 1934 ɩɨ 2001ɝɝ.
Ⱦɥɹ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢ ɝɢɞɪɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ ɜɟɫɧɵ ɜ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɢɫɯɨɞɧɨɝɨ
ɩɭɧɤɬɚ ɧɚɦɢ ɛɵɥ ɩɪɢɧɹɬ ɉɚɜɥɨɜɫɤɢɣ ɝɢɞɪɨɩɨɫɬ (ɝ. ɉɚɜɥɨɜɫɤ),
ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɣ ɜ ɰɟɧɬɪɟ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ. ɇɚ ɧɚɲ ɜɡɝɥɹɞ ɨɧ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ
ɞɨɫɬɨɜɟɪɧɨ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɟɬ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɜɟɫɧɵ ɞɥɹ ɜɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɪɵɛɧɵɯ
ɡɚɩɚɫɨɜ.
ȼɵɯɨɞ ɩɚɜɨɞɤɨɜɵɯ ɜɨɞ ɜ ɩɨɣɦɭ Ⱦɨɧɚ ɜ ɪɚɣɨɧɟ ɝ. ɉɚɜɥɨɜɫɤɚ ɜɵɲɟ ɢ
ɧɢɠɟ ɩɨ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɸ ɪɟɤɢ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɩɪɢ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ ɜɨɞɵ 500 ɫɦ (ɨɬɦɟɬɤɚ ɧɭɥɹ
ɩɨɫɬɚ 70,25 ɦ Ȼȿ) [4].
ɗɦɩɢɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɤɪɢɜɵɟ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɪɟɠɢɦɚ Ⱦɨɧɚ
ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɦɨɝɨ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚ, ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɧɵɟ ɫɨɬɪɭɞɧɢɤɨɦ Ⱥɫɫɨɰɢɚɰɢɢ
«ɋɬɪɨɣɢɧɜɟɫɬɢɰɢɹ» Ɇɚɪɟɧɤɨɜɨɣ ȿ.Ƚ. ɢ ɥɸɛɟɡɧɨ ɩɪɟɞɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɧɚɦ,
ɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɬ, ɱɬɨ ɡɚ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɫ 1965 ɩɨ 2000 ɝɝ. ɞɨɧɫɤɚɹ ɩɨɣɦɚ ɧɟ ɡɚɬɨɩɥɹɥɚɫɶ ɜ
45
50% ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ, ɬɨɝɞɚ ɤɚɤ ɫ 1916 ɩɨ 1964 ɝɝ. ɜɨɞɚ ɧɟ ɜɵɯɨɞɢɥɚ ɜ ɩɨɣɦɭ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɜ
20% ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ.
ɇɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɪɨɦɟɪɵ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɜɟɫɟɧɧɟɝɨ ɩɚɜɨɞɤɚ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɭɸɬɫɹ ɫ
ɬɟɨɪɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚɦɢ. ɋ 1936 ɩɨ 1964 ɝɝ. ɩɨɣɦɚ ɩɨɞɜɟɪɝɚɥɚɫɶ
ɡɚɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɸ ɩɚɜɨɞɤɨɜɵɦɢ ɜɨɞɚɦɢ ɜ 50% ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ, ɫ 1965 ɩɨ 2012 ɝɝ. ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɜ
21% ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ (ɬɚɛɥ.1).
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 1
ɉɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢ ɩɚɜɨɞɤɚ ɧɚ ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɟ ȼɟɪɯɧɟɝɨ Ⱦɨɧɚ
(ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɉɚɜɥɨɜɫɤɨɝɨ ɝɢɞɪɨɩɨɫɬɚ)
ɩɨɜɨɞɨɤ
ɝɨɞ
ɞɚɬɚ
1
ɉɪɨɞɨɥɠɢɬ Ɉɬɦɟɬɤɚ, ɫɦ ɉɪɨɞɨɥɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɡɚɬɨɩɥɟɧɢɟ
ɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ,
ɩɨɣɦɵ
ɫɭɬɨɤ
ɧɚɱɚɥɨ ɩɢɤ
ɤɨɧɟɰ
2
4
3
ɞɧɟɣ
ɞɚɬɚ
Ɍɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ
ɜɨɞɵ
5
6
7
8
9
1936 4.03
23.04 2.06
91
686
21
11.04-1.05
8.0-14.1
1937 26.02
2.04
14.05
78
750
15
26.03-9.04
2.5-3.3
1938 11.03
2.04
31.05
82
592
8
31.03-7.04
5.6-12.3
1939 18.02
18.04 20.05
92
686
13
8.04-20.04
5.3-10.5
1940 19.03
12.04 31.05
74
707
20
8.04-27.04
3.7-4.8
751
15
1942 21.03
26.04 31.06
101
1038
21
18.04-7.05
-
1943 27.02
12.04 8.06
104
665
11
9.04-20.04
1.6-12.8
1941
1944 5.02
25.04 25.05
121
232
-
-
6.4-11.9
1945 10.03
11.04 9.06
92
666
11
8.04-12.04
3.3-6.8
1946 13.01
15.04 31.05
139
865
21
5.04-25.04
2.8-10.0
1947 8.03
8.04
82
929
8
1.04-8.04
6.0-6.1
1948 1.01
18.04 31.05
152
784
16
12.04-27.04 8.3-7.9
1949 25.03
19.04 16.05
53
433
-
-
-
1950 5.03
14.04 5.05
62
326
-
-
-
1951 17.03
5.04
66
931
19
28.03-15.04 5.8-10.9
1952 6.04
23.04 6.06
62
841
18
16.04-3.05
4.0-15.4
1953 23.03
1
2
7.04
3
31.05
4
70
5
872
6
16
7
3.04-18.04
8
1.0-5.7
9
1954 30.03
17.04 13.05
44
410
-
-
-
1955 +
3.04
761
15
29.03-12.04 2.6-4.9
28.05
21.05
20.05
46
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 1. ɉɪɨɞɨɥɠɟɧɢɟ
1956 3.04
26.04 1.06
60
535
7
23.04-30.04 8.6
1957 6.02
14.04 21.05
95
648
13
10.04-22-02 4.4-12.9
1958 18.02
21.04 30.05
103
560
10
17.04-26.04 5.7-9.5
1959 26.03
17.04 15.05
51
619
15
8.04-22-04
9.7-10.3
1960 22.03
18.04 23.05
63
701
21
5.04-25.04
2.6-10.8
1961 14.03
22.03 26.04
44
257
-
-
-
1962 6.03
13.04 8.05
63
484
-
-
-
1963 1.04
25.04 22.05
52
950
22
15.04-6.05
1.5-15.3
1964 30.03
20.04 14.06
77
738
20
10.04-29.04 0.6-12.7
1965 20.03
8.04
24.05
66
316
-
-
-
1966 19.02
7.04
4.05
85
359
-
-
-
1967 20.03
19.04 5.05
46
633
14
14.04-27.04 5.2-10.0
1968 20.03
10.04 13.05
54
618
15
5.04-19.04
1969 31.03
20.04 11.05
41
557
9
16.04-24.04 5.7-10.5
1970 21.03
15.04 15.05
55
994
19
9.04-27.04
1971 23.03
9.04
46
667
19
30.03-17.07 0.6-7.0
1972 6.03
29.03 16.04
27
304
-
-
-
1973 28.03
10.04 25.04
29
400
-
-
-
1974 17.03
30.03 26.04
41
660
10
27.03-5.04
1.7-5.2
1975 30.03
8.04
21.04
23
56
-
-
-
1976 3.04
16.04 30.04
28
250
-
-
-
1977 11.03
8.04
5.05
56
605
11
5.04-15.04
5.0-9.2
1978 11.03
7.04
30.04
50
613
13
1.04-13.04
4.8-5.4
1979 14.03
11.04 20.05
68
828
23
6.04-28.04
4.1-7.6
8.05
6.1-8.4
5.6-12.5
1980 3.04
20.04 17.05
45
546
6
18.04-23.04 3.4-9.2
1981 1.01
6.04
22.05
142
679
19
1.04-19.04
1.2-6.4
1982 23.03
7.04
17.05
56
276
-
-
-
1983 17.03
7.04
19.05
64
508
4
6.04-9.04
9.4-10.6
1984 4.04
10.04 17.04
14
158
-
-
-
1985 23.03
19.04 10.05
49
577
10
14.04-22.04
1986 20.03
7.04
11.05
53
783
17
1.04-17.04
5.1-11.0
1987 9.04
23.04 16.05
38
477
-
-
-
1
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1988 19.03
2
8.04
2.05
45
530
6
6.04-11.4
5.5-8.5
1989 7.03
9.03
11.03
5
23
-
-
-
47
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 1. ɉɪɨɞɨɥɠɟɧɢɟ
1990 1.03
7.03
30.03
30
243
-
-
-
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
19.03
1.04
19.03
21.03
23.02
5.04
3.04
2.04
17.04
14.03
14.05
5.04
4.05
16.05
11.05
57
5
47
57
78
390
22
582
700
255
11
26
-
29.03-8.04
2.04-16.04
-
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
4.04
8.03
24.02
25.02
30.03
11.03
16.02
20.04
15.03
12.03
21.04
17.04
25.03
19.03
16.05
25.03
14.05
6.05
15.05
18.05
20.04
43
18
78
71
47
69
64
591
184
329
277
342
200
69
10
-
17.04-26.04 -
-
-
-
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
30.03
1.02
17.01
3.01
4.01
22.02
10.03
23.04
30.03
23.04
23.04
14.03
9.03
10.04
16.05
22.05
4.07
10.05
22.05
9.05
30.04
48
104
169
159
102
78
41
498
172
470
546
269
392
195
3
9
-
21.04-23.04
19.04-27.04
-
8.2-9.8
10.5-9.1
-
2010 5.03
2011 27.03
2012 23.03
10.04 10.05 67
12.04 24.05 29
25.04 22.05 61
513
45
501
5
2
7.04-11.04 7.4-7.7
24.04-25.04 13.6-12.7
2013 16.03
19.04 19.05 65
583
10
15.04-24.04 6.3-11.0
ɋɚɦɵɟ ɜɵɫɨɤɢɟ ɭɪɨɜɧɢ ɜɨɞɵ ɜ Ⱦɨɧɭ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɥɢɫɶ ɜ 1942 ɝɨɞɭ (+ 1038
ɫɦ), ɜ 1963 ɝɨɞɭ (+ 950 ɫɦ) ɢ ɜ 1970 ɝɨɞɭ (+ 994 ɫɦ), ɚ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ
ɡɚɬɨɩɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɣɦɵ ɢ ɩɨɣɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɟɪɟɫɬɢɥɢɳ ɜ ɷɬɢ ɝɨɞɵ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ
ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɥɚ 21, 22, ɢ 19 ɞɧɟɣ. ɇɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɟɟ ɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɩɚɜɨɞɤɨɜɵɯ ɜɨɞ ɜ ɩɨɣɦɟ
ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɨ ɜ 1979 ɝ. - 23 ɞɧɹ (ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɩɚɜɨɞɤɚ +828 ɫɦ) ɢ ɜ 1994 ɝ. - 26 ɞɧɟɣ
(ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɩɚɜɨɞɤɚ + 700 ɫɦ).
Ɇɧɨɝɨɜɨɞɧɵɟ ɝɨɞɵ ɩɟɪɜɨɣ ɩɨɥɨɜɢɧɵ 20 ɜɟɤɚ (ɞɨ 1964 ɝ.) ɟɠɟɝɨɞɧɨ
ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɥɢ ɜɵɫɨɤɢɟ ɭɥɨɜɵ ɪɵɛɵ. ȼ 1913 ɝɨɞɭ ɨɧɢ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɥɢ 16,0 ɬɵɫ.ɰ
[17]. ɋ 1934 ɩɨ 1964 ɝɨɞɵ ɨɧɢ ɤɨɥɟɛɚɥɢɫɶ ɨɬ 1,5 ɬɵɫ.ɰ (ɜ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɨɤɤɭɩɚɰɢɢ
ɜ 1942 ɝ.) ɞɨ 9,6 ɬɵɫ.ɰ, ɫɪɟɞɧɢɣ ɭɥɨɜ ɛɵɥ 5,5 ɬɵɫ.ɰ. Ɋɵɛɨɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ
Ⱦɨɧɚ ɜ ɷɬɢ ɝɨɞɵ ɛɵɥɚ 2,8-!8,3 ɰ/ɤɦ, ɫɪɟɞɧɹɹ — 11,3 ɰ/ɤɦ (ɬɚɛɥ.2).
ɋ 1965 ɝɨɞɚ ɩɪɨɫɥɟɠɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɱɟɬɤɚɹ ɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɹ ɨɫɤɭɞɧɟɧɢɹ ɪɵɛɧɵɯ
ɡɚɩɚɫɨɜ ɪɵɛɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɨɜ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ. Ɍɚɤ, ɟɫɥɢ ɜ 1965 ɝɨɞɭ
ɪɵɛɨɫɞɚɱɚ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɥɚ 2,9 ɬɵɫ.ɰ, ɬɨ ɜ 2001 — ɬɨɥɶɤɨ 0,3 ɬɵɫ.ɰ, ɚ
ɪɵɛɨɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɧɢɡɢɥɚɫɶ ɫ 5,6 ɰ/ɤɦ ɞɨ 0,6 ɰ/ɤɦ. ȼ 2001 ɝɨɞɭ
48
ɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɟɦ ɚɞɦɢɧɢɫɬɪɚɰɢɢ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɟɥ ɪɵɛɵ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨ ɛɵɥ
ɩɪɟɤɪɚɳɟɧ ɢ ɧɟ ɜɨɡɨɛɧɨɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɞɨ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɝɨ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ.
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 2
Ɋɵɛɧɚɹ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɹ ɫ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɵɯ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɨɜ
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɢ ɢɯ ɪɵɛɨɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɜ 1934-2002 ɝɝ.
ɝɨɞɵ
ɪɵɛɨɫɞɚɱɚ
ɝɨɞɵ
ɪɵɛɨɫɞɚɱɚ
ɝɨɞɵ
ɪɵɛɨɫɞɚɱɚ
ɰ
ɰ/ɤɦ
ɰ
ɰ/ɤɦ
1934
7523
14.3
1957
4424
ɰ
ɰ/ɤɦ
8.4
1980
1822
3.5
1935
7029
13.4
1958
1936
7776
14.8
1959
6875
13.1
1981
1895
3.6
7890
15.0
1982
1623
1937
8459
16.1
3.1
1960
5139
9.8
1983
1701
3.2
1938
9630
1939
8577
18.3
1961
3510
6.7
1984
1818
3.5
16.3
1962
3617
6.9
1985
1805
1940
3.4
7288
13.9
1963
4555
8.8
1986
1897
3.6
1941
5307
10.1
1964
3488
6.5
1987
1757
3.3
1942
1472
2.8
1965
2949
5.6
1988
1941
3.7
1943
3846
7.3
1966
3523
6.7
1989
2360
4.5
1944
4529
8.6
1967
4242
8.1
1990
2498
4.8
1945
4815
9.2
1968
3502
6.7
1991
2005
3.8
1946
6223
11.9
1969
2921
5.6
1992
1342
2.6
1947
6055
11.5
1970
2380
4.5
1993
1066
2.0
1948
6332
12.1
1971
2647
5.0
1994
763
1.5
1949
4600
8.8
1972
2532
4.8
1995
559
1.1
1950
4582
8.7
1973
2323
4.5
1996
415
0.8
1951
6109
11.6
1974
2658
5.1
1997
253
0.5
1952
5390
10.3
1975
2915
5.6
1998
322
0.6
1953
6356
12.1
1976
2829
5.4
1999
410
0.8
1954
7232
13.8
1977
2798
5.3
2000
354
0.7
1955
8662
16.5
1978
1929
3.8
2001
315
0.6
1956
6805
13.0
1979
2662
5.1
2002
0
0
ɋɪɚɜɧɢɜɚɹ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɭɸ ɢ ɧɚɢɦɟɧɶɲɭɸ ɪɵɛɨɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ
ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɚ ȼɟɪɯɧɟɝɨ Ⱦɨɧɚ, ɦɨɠɧɨ ɨɬɦɟɬɢɬɶ ɟɟ
ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɜ 30,5 ɪɚɡɚ. Ɍɚɤ, ɟɫɥɢ ɜ 1938 ɝɨɞɭ ɨɧɚ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɥɚ 18,3 ɰ/ɤɦ, ɬɨ ɜ
2001 — ɬɨɥɶɤɨ 0,6 ɰ/ɤɦ. ɍɳɟɪɛ ɪɵɛɧɨɦɭ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɭ ɨɬ ɩɨɬɟɪɢ
ɪɵɛɨɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɜ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɰɟɧɚɯ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ 70 ɦɥɧ.ɪɭɛ.
ɉɚɞɟɧɢɟ ɪɵɛɨɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɵɯ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɨɜ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɚ
ȼɟɪɯɧɟɝɨ Ⱦɨɧɚ ɤɚɤ ɜɢɞɢɦ ɨɛɭɫɥɨɜɥɟɧɨ ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɟɦ ɨɛɜɨɞɧɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ
49
ɩɨɣɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɟɪɟɫɬɢɥɢɳ, ɜɵɡɜɚɧɧɨɣ «ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɵɦ ɩɨɬɟɩɥɟɧɢɟɦ» ɢ
ɞɪɭɝɢɦɢ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɚɦɢ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ. ɍɦɟɧɶɲɢɥɢɫɶ ɢ ɫɪɨɤɢ
ɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ ɩɚɜɨɞɤɨɜɵɯ ɜɨɞ ɧɚ ɩɨɣɦɟ (ɬɚɛɥ.3).
Ʉ ɞɪɭɝɢɦ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɚɦ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ, ɜɥɢɹɸɳɢɯ ɧɚ
ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ, ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɫɹ ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɟɧɢɟ
ɜɨɞɨɟɦɨɜ ɫɬɨɱɧɵɦɢ ɜɨɞɚɦɢ, ɞɪɭɝɢɦɢ ɜɢɞɚɦɢ ɨɬɯɨɞɨɜ ɬɟɯɧɨɝɟɧɧɨɝɨ
ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɚ, ɧɚɱɚɜɲɟɣɫɹ ɞɟɝɪɚɞɚɰɢɟɣ ɪɟɤ ɢ ɩɨɣɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɨɡɟɪ, ɧɟɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɦ
ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɦ ɢ ɛɪɚɤɨɧɶɟɪɫɬɜɨɦ.
ɇɚ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɚɯ ȼɟɪɯɧɟɝɨ Ⱦɨɧɚ ɩɨ-ɩɪɟɠɧɟɦɭ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɹ
ɧɟɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɨɝɨ ɝɢɞɪɨɯɢɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɟɠɢɦɚ ɞɥɹ ɝɢɞɪɨɛɢɨɧɬɨɜ. Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɵɦɢ
ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɹɸɳɢɦɢ ɜɟɳɟɫɬɜɚɦɢ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɧɵɯ ɜɨɞ ɪɟɤɢ Ⱦɨɧ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ
(ɩɨɜɬɨɪɹɟɦɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɨɛ ɫ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɹɦɢ,
ɩɪɟɜɵɲɚɸɳɢɦɢ ɉȾɄ): —
ɥɟɝɤɨɨɤɢɫɥɹɟɦɵɟ (ȻɉɄ5) ɢ ɬɪɭɞɧɨɨɤɢɫɥɹɟɦɵɟ (ɏɉɄ) ɨɪɝɚɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ
ɜɟɳɟɫɬɜɚ — 34% ɢ 76% ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ, ɚɡɨɬ ɚɦɦɨɧɢɣɧɵɣ ɢ ɧɢɬɪɚɬɧɵɣ —
7% ɢ 48% ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ, ɧɟɮɬɟɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɵ — 32%, ɠɟɥɟɡɨ ɨɛɳɟɟ = 28%,
ɫɨɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɹ ɦɟɞɢ — 53% (Ⱦɨɤɥɚɞ ..., 2010).
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 3
ɝɨɞɵ
Ɂɚɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɣɦɵ ɪɟɤɢ Ⱦɨɧ ɩɚɜɨɞɤɨɜɵɦɢ ɜɨɞɚɦɢ
Ʉɨɥ-ɜɨ ɩɚɜɨɞɤɨɜ ɫ
ɋɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɩɚɜɨɞɤɨɜɵɯ ɜɨɞ ɧɚ ɩɨɣɦɟ,
ɭɪɨɜɧɟɦ ɜɨɞɵ ɜɵɲɟ 5 ɦ ɫɭɬɨɤ
ɝɨɞɵ
Ɉɬ - ɞɨ
ɫɪɟɞɧɟɟ
1936-1940
5
8-21
15.4
1941-1950
7
8-21
10.3
1951-1960
9
7-21
13.4
1961-1970
6
9-22
9.9
1971-1980
6
6-23
8.2
1981-1990
5
6-19
5.6
1991-2000
3
10-26
4.7
2001-2010
2
5-9
1.4
2011-2013
2
2-10
-
Ɂɚ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ ɲɟɫɬɶɞɟɫɹɬ ɥɟɬ ɩɪɨɢɡɨɲɥɨ ɭɯɭɞɲɟɧɢɟ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ ɦɚɥɵɯ
ɪɟɤ ɩɨ ɜɫɟɣ ɞɥɢɧɟ. ɋɨɤɪɚɬɢɥɫɹ ɫɬɨɤ ɜɨɞɵ, ɪɭɫɥɚ ɪɟɤ ɨɛɦɟɥɟɥɢ, ɡɚɢɥɢɥɢɫɶ ɢ
ɡɚɪɨɫɥɢ ɜɨɞɧɨɣ ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɸ, ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɜɨɞɵ ɭɯɭɞɲɢɥɨɫɶ (ɀɟɪɞɟɜ ɢ ɞɪ.,
2003). ɋ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɢ ɜɨɞɨɫɛɨɪɚ ɢɫɱɟɡɥɨ 138 ɦɚɥɵɯ ɪɟɤ (Ʉɭɪɞɨɜ, 1984, 1995) ɢ
ɧɟɫɱɟɬɧɨɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɨɡɟɪ ɢ ɛɨɥɨɬ ɜ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɦɟɥɢɨɪɚɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɪɚɛɨɬ ɜ
ɩɨɣɦɚɯ ɪɟɤ.
Ɍ.ɂ.Ɇɨɢɫɟɟɧɤɨ, ɇ.Ⱥ.Ƚɚɲɤɢɧɚ [12] ɨɬɦɟɱɚɸɬ, ɱɬɨ ɜɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɢ
ɬɟɯɧɨɝɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɫɫɟɢɜɚɧɢɹ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɜ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɢ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɦ
ɦɚɫɲɬɚɛɟ ɢ ɜɵɳɟɥɚɱɢɜɚɧɢɹ ɤɢɫɥɨɬɧɵɦɢ ɨɫɚɞɤɚɦɢ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɹ
ɨɛɨɝɚɳɟɧɢɹ ɜɨɞ ɨɡɟɪ ɬɚɤɢɦɢ ɨɩɚɫɧɵɦɢ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɚɦɢ, ɤɚɤ Pb, Cd, Al, Cr.
Ɂɚɫɥɭɠɢɜɚɸɬ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ ɬɚɤɢɟ ɨɩɚɫɧɵɟ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɵ ɤɚɤ As ɢ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ Se. Ⱦɥɹ
ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɟɝɨ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɹ ɜ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɧɵɯ ɜɨɞɚɯ ɨɡɟɪ ɜɵɲɟ ɩɨɪɨɝɨɜɨɝɨ
50
ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɜɫɟɣ ɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ. ȼ ɰɟɥɨɦ ɩɪɟɫɧɨɜɨɞɧɵɟ ɜɨɞɵ
ɨɡɟɪ ȼɨɫɬɨɱɧɨ-ȿɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɣ ɪɚɜɧɢɧɵ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɸɬ ɜɵɫɨɤɢɟ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ
Mo, As, V, Bi, Sb, Cd, Ag, Se, Re, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɨɛɭɫɥɨɜɥɟɧɵ, ɝɥɚɜɧɵɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ,
ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɨɣ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɨɣ ɧɚ ɜɨɞɨɫɛɨɪɵ. ɇɚ ɨɡɟɪɚɯ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ
ɬɚɤɢɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɟ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɢɫɶ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɜ ɩɟɪɜɵɟ 20 ɥɟɬ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚ ɛɵɥɢ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɵ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɸ
ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɹɸɳɢɯ ɜɟɳɟɫɬɜ ɧɚ ɠɢɡɧɟɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶ ɪɵɛ, ɦɢɝɪɚɰɢɟɣ ɬɹɠɟɥɵɯ
ɦɟɬɚɥɥɨɜ ɜ ɨɪɝɚɧɚɯ ɢ ɬɤɚɧɹɯ ɪɵɛ [3, 16], ɧɚɤɨɩɥɟɧɢɟɦ ɦɟɬɚɥɥɨɜ ɜ
ɱɟɪɧɨɡɟɦɚɯ [5] ɢ ɝɪɭɧɬɚɯ. ɗɬɢɦɢ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹɦɢ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɨ
ɞɟɩɚɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɌɆ ɜ ɩɨɱɜɟ, ɝɪɭɧɬɚɯ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɧɚɤɨɩɥɟɧɢɟ ɢ ɦɢɝɪɚɰɢɹ
ɦɚɪɝɚɧɰɚ, ɰɢɧɤɚ, ɠɟɥɟɡɚ, ɧɢɤɟɥɹ, ɤɚɞɦɢɹ, ɫɜɢɧɰɚ, ɦɟɞɢ, ɯɪɨɦɚ, ɤɨɛɚɥɶɬɚ ɜ
ɬɤɚɧɹɯ, ɩɟɱɟɧɢ ɢ ɤɨɫɬɹɯ ɩɥɨɬɜɵ, ɥɟɳɚ, ɫɭɞɚɤɚ, ɨɤɭɧɹ ɢ ɟɪɲɚ. ɍ ɜɫɟɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ
ɪɵɛ ɜ ɦɵɲɰɚɯ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɠɟɥɟɡɚ, ɧɢɤɟɥɹ, ɤɚɞɦɢɹ, ɚ ɭ ɟɪɲɚ — ɯɪɨɦɚ ɛɵɥɨ
ɜɵɲɟ ɉȾɄ, ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɞɥɹ ɪɵɛɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɢ. ɇɚɤɚɩɥɟɧɢɟ
ɫɜɢɧɰɚ ɨɬ ɦɵɲɰ ɤ ɤɨɫɬɹɦ ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɨ ɭ ɩɥɨɬɜɵ, ɥɟɳɚ ɢ ɨɤɭɧɹ. Ɇɟɞɶ, ɤɚɤ ɢ
ɠɟɥɟɡɨ, ɞɟɩɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɥɢɫɶ ɜ ɩɟɱɟɧɢ ɫɭɞɚɤɚ, ɩɥɨɬɜɵ, ɥɟɳɚ ɢ ɟɪɲɚ. ȼ 21 ɜɟɤɟ
ɚɧɚɥɨɝɢɱɧɵɟ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɧɟ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɢɫɶ.
Ƚɢɞɪɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚ ɧɚ Ⱦɨɧɭ ɧɟ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɚ. ɂɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɟɟ
ɪɟɠɢɦɟ ɧɚɦɟɬɢɥɢɫɶ ɟɳɟ ɫ ɫɟɪɟɞɢɧɵ ɩɪɨɲɥɨɝɨ ɫɬɨɥɟɬɢɹ. ȼ 1951-1971 ɝɨɞɚɯ
ɩɪɨɢɡɨɲɥɨ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɟ ɝɨɞɨɜɨɝɨ ɫɬɨɤɚ ɭ ɫɬ. Ɋɨɡɞɨɪɫɤɨɣ ɧɚ 5,6 ɤɦ3/ɝɨɞ,
ɜɟɫɟɧɧɟɝɨ — ɧɚ 10,3 ɤɦ3 (ɇɢɠɧɢɣ Ⱦɨɧ). ȼ ɷɬɨɬ ɠɟ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɢɥɫɹ ɫɬɨɤ
ɪɟɤɢ ɭ ɝ. Ʌɢɫɤɢ (ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɚɹ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɶ) ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦ ɧɚ 3,5 — 7,0%. Ɍɚɤɨɟ
ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɟ ɫɬɨɤɚ ɜɵɡɜɚɧɨ ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨɦ ɜ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɟ Ⱦɨɧɚ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳ
ɢ ɩɪɭɞɨɜ, ɧɚɫɱɢɬɵɜɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɜ ɧɚɲɟɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ 2557, ɢɡɴɹɬɢɟɦ ɜɨɞɵ ɢɡ
ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɧɵɯ ɜɨɞɨɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɨɜ ɧɚ ɩɪɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɨ-ɤɨɦɦɭɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɢ
ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɧɭɠɞɵ, ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɟɦ ɨɛɜɨɞɧɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɣɦ.
ȼ ɷɬɨɬ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɂ.Ⱥ.ɒɢɤɥɨɦɚɧɨɜ [19] ɨɬɦɟɱɚɟɬ ɜ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɟ Ⱦɨɧɚ
ɡɚɦɟɬɧɨɟ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɟ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɝɨɞɨɜɨɣ ɢ ɡɢɦɧɟɣ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ,
ɜɥɢɹɸɳɢɯ ɧɚ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɜɟɫɟɧɧɟɝɨ ɩɚɜɨɞɤɚ ɢ ɩɟɪɟɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɫɬɨɤɚ
ɧɚ ɡɢɦɧɢɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ.
ɉɪɢɩɢɫɵɜɚɬɶ ɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɹ, ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɹɳɢɟ ɜ ɪɟɠɢɦɚɯ ɪɟɤ,
ɩɨɣɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɨɡɟɪ ɢ ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɪɵɛɨɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɨɜ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ
ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ ɛɵɥɨ ɛɵ, ɨɱɟɜɢɞɧɨ, ɧɟ ɫɩɪɚɜɟɞɥɢɜɨ. ɇɚ ɢɯ
ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɬ ɢ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɵ, ɩɪɢɜɨɞɹɳɢɟ ɤ
ɝɢɛɟɥɢ ɪɵɛ ɜ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɥɟɬɧɢɯ ɢ ɡɢɦɧɢɯ ɡɚɦɨɪɧɵɯ ɹɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɧɚ ɪɟɤɚɯ ɢ ɨɡɟɪɚɯ.
ɉɨ ɞɚɧɧɵɦ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬɚ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɚ ɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɩɨɫɥɟ 1975 ɝɨɞɚ
ɧɚ Ɂɟɦɥɟ ɟɠɟɝɨɞɧɨ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɢɧɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɨɟ ɩɨɬɟɩɥɟɧɢɟ, ɧɚɦɟɬɢɜɲɟɟɫɹ ɜ
ɫɟɪɟɞɢɧɟ ɫɬɨɥɟɬɢɹ. Ɂɚ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɫ 1976 ɝɨɞɚ ɩɨ 2006 ɜ ɰɟɥɨɦ ɩɨ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ
ɩɨɬɟɩɥɟɧɢɟ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɨ ɨɤɨɥɨ 1,4 ɝɪɚɞɭɫɚ ɋ. Ɂɚɦɟɬɧɨɟ ɩɨɬɟɩɥɟɧɢɟ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɨ ɜ
ɡɢɦɧɢɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɧɚ ȿɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɜ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɱɟɝɨ ɧɚ ɜɫɟɯ ɪɟɤɚɯ
ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɚ Ⱦɨɧɚ ɫɬɨɤ ɜɟɫɟɧɧɟɝɨ ɩɨɥɨɜɨɞɶɹ ɫɧɢɡɢɥɫɹ ɧɚ 10 — 30% [20].
ȼ 2009 ɝɨɞɭ ɜɨɞɧɨɫɬɶ ɪɟɤɢ Ⱦɨɧ ɭ ɝɨɪɨɞɨɜ ɇɨɜɨɜɨɪɨɧɟɠ, Ʌɢɫɤɢ,
ɉɚɜɥɨɜɫɤ ɢ ɫɟɥɚ ɇɨɜɚɹ Ʉɚɥɢɬɜɚ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɛɵɥɚ ɧɢɠɟ ɫɪɟɞɧɢɯ
ɦɧɨɝɨɥɟɬɧɢɯ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɣ ɧɚ 23% [6].
51
ɉɪɨɝɧɨɡ ɩɨ ɝɢɞɪɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɟ ɜ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɟ Ⱦɨɧɚ ɧɚ ɩɟɪɜɭɸ
ɩɨɥɨɜɢɧɭ 21 ɜɟɤɚ ɧɟɭɬɟɲɢɬɟɥɟɧ. ȼ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɨɝɨ ɦɨɞɟɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ
ɩɪɢ ɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɟɦ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɢ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬɶ
ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɟ ɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɫɦɟɳɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɥɨɜɨɞɶɹ ɧɚ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɪɚɧɧɢɟ
ɫɪɨɤɢ (Ɇɨɯɨɜ, 2007).
ɇɚ ɮɨɧɟ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɧɟɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɬɟɩɥɟɧɢɹ, ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɜ 20
ɜɟɤɟ — ɧɚ 0,6 ɝɪɚɞɭɫɨɜ ɋ (Ɋɨɦɟɬɨɪɮ, ɒɟɥɶ ɇɯɭɛɟɪ,2009), ɩɪɟɞɭɫɦɨɬɪɟɬɶ ɜ
ɤɚɤɨɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɛɭɞɭɳɟɝɨ ɧɚɦɟɬɢɬɫɹ ɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɟɟ ɭɯɭɞɲɟɧɢɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ
ɜɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɚ ɪɵɛɧɵɡ ɡɚɩɚɫɨɜ, ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɢɯɬɢɨɮɚɭɧɵ ɢ
ɭɥɨɜɨɜ ɪɵɛɵ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɧɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ.
ȼɵɜɨɞɵ
ɇɟɜɡɢɪɚɹ ɧɚ ɬɨ, ɱɬɨ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɚ ɧɚ ɛɢɨɫɮɟɪɭ
ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨ ɯɨɪɨɲɨ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɨ, ɨɞɧɚɤɨ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɟɝɨ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɧɚ
ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɚɬɶ. ɇɚɤɨɩɥɟɧɢɟ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɜ
ɷɬɢɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɢɬ ɯɨɬɹ ɛɵ ɧɚ ɧɟɞɚɥɟɤɭɸ ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɭ
ɩɪɨɝɧɨɡɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɹ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɢ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɭɩɪɟɠɞɚɬɶ ɷɬɢ
ɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɹ.
Ⱦɚɧɧɵɟ ɉɚɜɥɨɜɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɟɬɟɨɪɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɨɫɬɚ ɩɨ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɧɨɦɭ ɢ
ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɧɨɦɭ ɪɟɠɢɦɚɦ, ɫɬɨɹɧɢɢ ɩɚɜɨɞɤɨɜɵɯ ɜɨɞ ɜ ɩɨɣɦɟ
(ɧɚ
ɧɟɪɟɫɬɢɥɢɳɚɯ ɪɵɛ ɮɢɬɨɮɢɥɶɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ) ɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɨ
ɫɟɪɶɟɡɧɵɯ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹɯ ɜ ɪɟɠɢɦɟ Ⱦɨɧɚ ɜ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɯ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɢ
ɫɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ
ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹɯ.
ɗɬɢ
ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ
ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɨɜɚɥɢ
ɛɟɫɩɪɟɰɟɞɟɧɬɧɨɦɭ
ɩɚɞɟɧɢɸ
ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɨɣ
ɪɵɛɨɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ
ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɚ ȼɟɪɯɧɟɝɨ Ⱦɨɧɚ (ɜ 30,5 ɪɚɡɚ).
ɇɟ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɨɛɨɥɶɳɚɬɶɫɹ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟɦ ɧɚɲɢɯ ɪɟɤ, ɨɡɟɪ ɢ
ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳ, ɧɚɯɨɞɹɳɢɯɫɹ ɩɨɞ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɵɦ ɩɪɢɰɟɥɨɦ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ
ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ.
ȼɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɚ ɧɚ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ
ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɬɶ ɤɚɤ ɮɚɤɬɨɪ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ ɧɚ
ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ. ȼ ɧɚɲɟɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɨɛɪɚɬɢɬɶ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ, ɤɚɤ
ɢɡɦɟɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɜɢɞɨɜɚɹ, ɬɪɨɮɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɢ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɧɨ-ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɚɹ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ
ɢɯɬɢɨɮɚɭɧɵ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɚ ȼɟɪɯɧɟɝɨ Ⱦɨɧɚ.
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. Ȼɨɝɨɫɥɨɜɫɤɢɣ ɉ.ɋ., ɀɟɪɞɟɜ ȼ.ɇ. Ⱥɧɚɥɢɡ ɮɢɡɢɤɨ-ɯɢɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɚ
ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɧɨɝɨ ɫɬɨɤɚ ɝɨɪɨɞɨɜ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ, Ʌɢɫɤɢ, ɉɚɜɥɨɜɫɤ /ɉ.ɋ.Ȼɨɝɨɫɥɨɜɫɤɢɣ,
ȼ.ɇ.ɀɟɪɞɟɜ //ɇɨɜɨɜɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɚɹ Ⱥɗɋ, ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɹ, ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɨ. - Ɋɨɫɷɧɟɪɝɨɚɬɨɦ, 2010. - ɋ.
113-119.
2. ȼɚɣɫɛɟɪɝ Ⱦɠ.ɋ. Ɇɟɬɟɨɪɨɥɨɝɢɹ. ɉɨɝɨɞɚ ɧɚ Ɂɟɦɥɟ /Ⱦɠ.ɋ.ȼɚɣɫɛɟɪɝ. Ʌ.
Ƚɢɞɪɨɦɟɬɟɨɢɡɞɚɬ, 1980. - 248 ɫ.
3. Ƚɥɚɞɤɢɯ Ʉ.Ʉ. ȼɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɟɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɠɢɡɧɟɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶ ɪɵɛ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɝɨ
ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚ / Ʉ.Ʉ.Ƚɥɚɞɤɢɯ //ɉɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɵ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ, ɢɯ
ɜɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ, ɦɨɧɢɬɨɪɢɧɝ ɢ ɨɯɪɚɧɚ. - ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ, 1995. - ɋ. 179-182.
4. Ƚɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɜɨɞɧɵɣ ɤɚɞɚɫɬɪ. ȿɠɟɝɨɞɧɵɟ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɨ ɪɟɠɢɦɟ ɢ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɚɯ
52
ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɧɵɯ ɜɨɞ ɜɭɲɢ. 1985Ƚ — ɑ.1. Ɋɟɤɢ ɢ ɤɚɧɚɥɵ. - Ɍ.1. ȼɵɩ.3 (Ȼɚɫɫɟɣɧ Ⱦɨɧɚ).Ɉɛɧɢɧɫɤ, 1987. - ɋ.16.
5. Ⱦɠɭɜɟɥɢɤɹɧ ɏ.Ⱥ. ɗɤɨɥɨɝɢɹ ɢ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤ /ɏ.Ⱥ.Ⱦɠɭɜɟɥɢɤɹɧ. ɂɡɞ. ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ.ɝɨɫ.ɭɧ-ɬɚ,
1999.- 260 ɫ.
6. Ⱦɨɤɥɚɞ ɨ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɦ ɧɚɞɡɨɪɟ ɢ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɟ ɡɚ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ
ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ ɢ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟɦ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɜ 2009 ɝɨɞɭ. - ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ,
2010. - 90 ɫ.
7. ɀɟɪɞɟɜ ȼ.ɇ., Ȼɨɪɨɞɤɢɧ Ⱥ.ɂ. Ƚɟɨɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɦɚɥɵɯ ɪɟɤ /ȼ.ɇ.ɀɟɪɞɟɜ,
Ⱥ.ɂ.Ȼɨɪɨɞɤɢɧ. - ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ, 2003. - 235 ɫ.
8. ɂɜɚɧɱɟɜ ȼ.ɉ., ɋɚɪɵɱɟɜ ȼ.ɋ., ɂɜɚɧɱɟɜɚ ȿ.ɘ. Ɇɢɧɨɝɢ ɢ ɪɵɛɵ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɚ ȼɟɪɯɧɟɝɨ
Ⱦɨɧɚ /ȼ.ɉ.ɂɜɚɧɱɟɜ, ȼ.ɋ.ɋɚɪɵɱɟɜ, ȿ.ɘ.ɂɜɚɧɱɟɜɚ // Ɍɪɭɞɵ Ɉɤɫɤɨɝɨ ɝɨɫ.ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ
ɛɢɨɫɮ.ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɚ. ȼɵɩ. 28, Ɋɹɡɚɧɶ. - 274 ɫ.
9. Ʉɭɪɞɨɜ Ⱥ.Ƚ. Ɋɟɤɢ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ /Ⱥ.Ƚ.Ʉɭɪɞɨɜ. ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ, 1984. - 162 ɫ.
10. Ʉɭɪɞɨɜ Ⱥ.Ƚ. ȼɨɞɧɵɟ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɵ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ: ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ,
ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɨɟ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ, ɨɯɪɚɧɚ ɢ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɵ /Ⱥ.Ƚ.Ʉɭɪɞɨɜ. - ɂɡɞ. ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ.ɭɧ-ɬɚ, 1995.
11. Ʌɚɩɢɰɤɢɣ ɂ.ɂ. Ƚɢɞɪɨɦɟɬɟɨɪɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɤɚ ɜɟɫɧɵ ɢ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ
ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɜɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɪɵɛ ɜ ɐɢɦɥɹɧɫɤɨɦ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɟ /ɂ.ɂ.Ʌɚɩɢɰɤɢɣ
//Ɍɪɭɞɵ ȼɨɥɝɨɝɪɚɞɫɤɨɝɨ ɨɬɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ȽɨɫɇɂɈɊɏ. - ȼɨɥɝɨɝɪɚɞ, 1967. Ɍ.3. - ɋ.55-69.
12. Ɇɨɢɫɟɟɧɤɨ Ɍ.ɂ.,Ƚɚɲɤɢɧɚ ɇ.Ⱥ. Ʉɥɢɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɮɚɤɬɨɪ ɜ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢ
ɯɢɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɚ ɦɚɥɵɯ ɨɡɟɪ /Ɍ.ɂ.Ɇɨɢɫɟɟɧɤɨ, ɇ.Ⱥ.Ƚɚɲɤɢɧɚ //ȼɨɞɧɵɟ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɵ ɫɭɲɢ ɜ
ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɢɡɦɟɧɹɸɳɟɝɨɫɹ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɚ. - ɋɩɛ.:ɇɚɭɤɚ, 2007. - ɋ. 83-96.
13. Ɇɨɯɨɜ ɂ.ɂ. ȼɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɟ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɪɟɠɢɦɨɜ ɢ ɪɟɱɧɨɝɨ ɫɬɨɤɚ ɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɢɯ
ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɯ ɜ 21 ɜɟɤɟ ɩɨ ɦɨɞɟɥɶɧɵɦ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚɦ /ɂ.ɂ.Ɇɨɯɨɜ //ȼɨɞɧɵɟ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɵ ɫɭɲɢ ɜ
ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɢɡɦɟɧɹɸɳɟɝɨɫɹ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɚ. - ɋɩɛ. ɇɚɭɤɚ, 2007. - ɋ. 46-63.
14. Ɇɨɠɚɣɫɤɚɹ ȿ.Ⱥ. ɋɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ
/ȿ.Ⱥ.Ɇɨɠɚɣɫɤɚɹ //ɧɨɜɨɜɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɚɹ Ⱥɗɋ, ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɹ, ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɨ. - Ɋɨɫɷɧɟɪɝɨɚɬɨɦ, 2010. - ɋ.
96-98.
15. Ɋɚɦɫɬɨɪɮ ɒ., ɒɟɥɶɧɯɭɛɟɪ ɏ.ɂ. Ƚɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɚ /ɒ.Ɋɚɦɫɬɨɪɮ,
ɏ.ɂ.ɒɟɥɶɧɯɭɛɟɪ. - Ɇ.: ɈȽɂ, 2009. - 271 ɫ.
16. Ɍɢɲɤɨɜ Ⱥ.ɂ., Ƚɥɚɞɤɢɯ Ʉ.Ʉ. Ɇɢɝɪɚɰɢɹ ɬɹɠɟɥɵɯ ɦɟɬɚɥɥɨɜ ɜ ɨɪɝɚɧɚɯ ɢ ɬɤɚɧɹɯ ɪɵɛ
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚ /Ⱥ.ɂ.Ɍɢɲɤɨɜ, Ʉ.Ʉ.Ƚɥɚɞɤɢɯ //ɉɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɵ
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ, ɢɯ ɜɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ, ɦɨɧɢɬɨɪɢɧɝ ɢ ɨɯɪɚɧɚ — ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ,1995. ɋ.177-179.
17. Ɏɟɞɨɪɨɜ Ⱥ.ȼ. Ɋɵɛɧɨɟ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɨ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɢ ɩɭɬɢ ɟɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ
/Ⱥ.ȼ.Ɏɟɞɨɪɨɜ //Ɋɵɛɵ ɢ ɪɵɛɧɨɟ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɨ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ. - ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ, 1960. ɋ.279-308.
18. Ɏɟɞɨɪɨɜ Ⱥ.ȼ. Ɉ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ ɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɪɵɛɧɨɝɨ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚ ɞɥɹ ɪɟɱɧɵɯ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɨɜ
ɢ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɚɯ ɟɟ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɧɚ ȼɟɪɯɧɟɦ Ⱦɨɧɭ /Ⱥ.ȼ.Ɏɟɞɨɪɨɜ //Ɋɚɛɨɬɵ ɧɚɭɱ.ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜ.ɪɵɛɨɯ.ɥɚɛɨɪɚɬɨɪɢɢ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɝɨ ɭɧ-ɬɚ. - ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ, 1965. - ɋɛ. 3. -ɋ. 10-33.
19. ɒɢɤɥɨɦɚɧɨɜ ɂ.Ⱥ. Ⱥɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɵɟ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɜɨɞɧɨɫɬɢ ɪɟɤ /ɂ.Ⱥ.ɒɢɤɥɨɦɚɧɨɜ. Ʌ.Ƚɢɞɪɨɦɟɬɢɡɞɚɬ, 1979. - ɋ. 185-192.
20. ɒɢɤɥɨɦɚɧɨɜ ɂ.Ⱥ., Ƚɟɨɪɝɢɟɜɫɤɢɣ ȼ.ɘ. ɋɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɟ ɢ ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ
ɫɬɨɤɚ ɪɟɤ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɩɨɞ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟɦ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ /ɂ.Ⱥ.ɒɢɤɥɨɦɚɧɨɜ,
ȼ.ɘ.Ƚɟɨɪɝɢɟɜɫɤɢɣ //ȼɨɞɧɵɟ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɵ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɢɡɦɟɧɹɸɳɟɝɨɫɹ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɚ. - ɋɩɛ: ɇɚɭɤɚ,
2007. - ɋ. 20-32.
53
INFLUENCE OF SPRING FLOODS AND HUMAN ACTIVITY ON COMMERCIAL
FISH LANDING IN THE CENTRAL PART OF THE BASIN OF UPPER DON RIVER
(VORONEZH REGION)
Ʉ.Ʉ. Gladkhyh*, L.F. Delytsina**
*Voronezh Branch of «Azdonrybvod»
** Voronezh State University
Influence of the spring floods and human activity on commercial fish landing in
the Central part of the Upper Don River in Voronezh Region was investigated.
ɍȾɄ 597+639.2
ɑȿɏɈɇɖ PELECUS CULTRATUS (LINNEUS, 1758)
ȼ ȻȺɋɋȿɃɇȿ ȾɈɇȺ
Ʉ.Ʉ. Ƚɥɚɞɤɢɯ*, Ʌ.Ɏ. Ⱦɟɥɢɰɵɧɚ**
*ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɢɣ ɨɬɞɟɥ ɎȽȻɍ «Ⱥɡɞɨɧɪɵɛɜɨɞ, ɝ. ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ
**ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɢɣ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ, ɝ. ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ
Ɋɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɹ, ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɢ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɟɥ ɱɟɯɨɧɢ ɜ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɟ
ɪɟɤɢ Ⱦɨɧ.
ɑɟɯɨɧɶ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɫɹ ɤ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɵɦ ɜɢɞɚɦ ɪɵɛ Ⱦɨɧɚ ɢ
ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɚ ɜ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɚɯ ɤɪɭɩɧɵɯ ɪɟɤ Ⱥɡɨɜɫɤɨɝɨ, ɑɟɪɧɨɝɨ, Ʉɚɫɩɢɣɫɤɨɝɨ
ɢ Ȼɚɥɬɢɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɨɪɟɣ ɢ ɜ ɢɯ ɨɩɪɟɫɧɟɧɧɵɯ ɜɨɞɚɯ. Ɂɚ ɩɨɥɹɪɧɵɦ ɤɪɭɝɨɦ, ɜ
ɋɢɛɢɪɢ ɢ ɉɪɢɦɨɪɶɟ ɱɟɯɨɧɶ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɭɟɬ. ȿɟ ɩɨɞɨɛɢɟ ɢɦɟɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɟ
Ⱥɦɭɪɚ ɢ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɸɠɧɵɯ ɪɟɤɚɯ Ⱥɡɢɢ — ɜɟɪɯɨɝɥɹɞ, ɨɬɞɚɥɟɧɧɨ ɧɚɩɨɦɢɧɚɸɳɢɯ
ɱɟɯɨɧɶ.
ɇɚ ɨɪɟɚɥɟ ɫɜɨɟɝɨ ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɱɟɯɨɧɶ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɨ ɦɟɫɬɧɵɯ
ɧɚɡɜɚɧɢɣ: ɜ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɟ ȼɨɥɝɢ — ɫɚɛɥɹ, ɫɚɛɥɹɧɢɰɚ, ɤɨɫɚɪɶ, ɪɭɫɫɤɚɹ, ɱɟɯɨɧɹ,
ɛɟɲɟɧɤɚ.
ɉɨ ɜɧɟɲɧɟɦɭ ɜɢɞɭ ɱɟɯɨɧɶ ɧɟ ɫɩɭɬɚɟɲɶ ɧɢ ɫ ɨɞɧɨɣ ɪɵɛɨɣ
ɐɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɢ ȼɨɫɬɨɱɧɨɣ ȿɜɪɨɩɵ. ɉɨ ɮɨɪɦɟ ɬɟɥɚ ɨɧɚ ɧɚɩɨɦɢɧɚɟɬ
ɡɚɨɫɬɪɟɧɧɵɣ ɩɨ ɛɪɸɯɭ ɨɛɥɨɦɨɤ ɫɚɛɥɢ. Ƚɨɥɨɜɚ ɦɚɥɟɧɶɤɚɹ, ɚ ɝɥɚɡɚ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɟ.
Ɋɨɬɨɜɨɟ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɟ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɨɟ, ɨɛɪɚɳɟɧɧɨɟ ɤɜɟɪɯɭ. Ȼɪɸɲɧɨɣ ɤɢɥɶ ɤɨɠɢɫɬɵɣ
ɢ ɬɹɧɟɬɫɹ ɨɬ ɝɨɪɥɚ ɞɨ ɚɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɹ. Ȼɨɤɨɜɚɹ ɥɢɧɢɹ ɡɢɝɡɚɝɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɚɹ,
ɨɩɭɫɤɚɸɳɚɹɫɹ ɨɬ ɜɟɪɯɚ ɠɚɛɟɪɧɨɣ ɤɪɵɲɤɢ ɤ ɨɱɟɧɶ ɞɥɢɧɧɨɦɭ ɡɚɨɫɬɪɟɧɧɨɦɭ
ɝɪɭɞɧɨɦɭ ɩɥɚɜɧɢɤɭ ɢ ɬɹɧɭɳɚɹɫɹ ɩɨ ɛɪɸɯɭ ɞɨ ɫɢɥɶɧɨ ɜɵɹɦɱɟɬɨɦɭ
ɯɜɨɫɬɨɜɨɦɭ ɩɥɚɜɧɢɤɭ. ɋɩɢɧɧɨɣ ɩɥɚɜɧɢɤ ɤɨɪɨɬɤɢɣ ɢ ɫɞɜɢɧɭɬ ɩɨ ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɢ ɤ
ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɸ ɚɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɩɥɚɜɧɢɤɚ. ɋɩɢɧɚ ɫɟɪɨɜɚɬɨ-ɡɟɥɟɧɨɜɚɬɚɹ. Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɨɣ
ɰɜɟɬ ɪɵɛɵ ɫɟɪɟɛɪɢɫɬɵɣ ɫɨ ɫɥɟɝɤɚ ɠɟɥɬɨɜɚɬɵɦ ɨɬɬɟɧɤɨɦ. Ȼɪɸɯɨ ɫɜɟɬɥɨɟ.
Ɍɚɤɚɹ ɨɤɪɚɫɤɚ ɬɟɥɚ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɟɬ ɱɟɯɨɧɢ, ɤɚɤ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɦ ɩɟɥɚɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɜɢɞɚɦ
ɪɵɛ, ɨɛɢɬɚɸɳɢɦ ɛɨɥɶɲɭɸ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɠɢɡɧɢ ɜ ɬɨɥɳɟ ɜɨɞɵ, ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɶ ɨɬ
ɯɢɳɧɵɯ ɪɵɛ. ȼ ɬɨɠɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɨɧɚ ɜ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɟ ɞɜɭɯ-ɬɪɟɯ ɥɟɬ ɢ ɫɬɚɪɲɟ,
54
ɡɚɧɢɦɚɟɬɫɹ ɯɢɳɧɢɱɟɫɬɜɨɦ, ɩɨɟɞɚɹ ɦɨɥɨɞɶ ɭɤɥɟɣɤɢ, ɩɥɨɬɜɵ, ɨɤɭɧɹ,
ɤɪɚɫɧɨɩɟɪɤɢ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɪɵɛ.Ɇɨɥɨɞɶ ɱɟɯɨɧɢ ɧɚ ɩɟɪɜɨɦ ɝɨɞɭ ɠɢɡɧɢ
ɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɹɟɬ ɡɨɨɩɥɚɧɤɬɨɧ, ɡɚɬɟɦ ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɢɬ ɧɚ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɟ ɜɨɞɧɵɦɢ ɧɚɫɟɤɨɦɵɦɢ,
ɧɢɡɲɢɦɢ ɪɚɤɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɦɢ ɢ ɜɨɡɞɭɲɧɵɦɢ ɧɚɫɟɤɨɦɵɦɢ, ɩɚɞɚɸɳɢɦɢ ɧɚ
ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɶ ɜɨɞɵ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɨɜ.
ɋɭɞɹ ɩɨ ɢɫɤɨɩɚɟɦɵɦ ɨɫɬɚɬɤɚɦ ɪɵɛ ɫɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɚ ɤɚɪɩɨɜɵɯ, ɤɭɞɚ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɫɹ
ɧɚɲɚ «ɝɟɪɨɢɧɹ» ɢɦɟɟɬ ɞɪɟɜɧɟɟ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɟ. ɉɪɟɞɤɢ ɟɟ ɩɨɹɜɢɥɢɫɶ ɜ
ɧɚɱɚɥɟ ɬɪɟɬɢɱɧɨɝɨ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɚ, ɡɚɫɟɥɢɜ ɩɪɟɫɧɵɟ ɜɨɞɵ ɋɪɟɞɧɟɣ ȿɜɪɨɩɵ ɛɨɥɟɟ
67 ɦɥɧ.ɥɟɬ ɧɚɡɚɞ.
ɗɬɨɣ ɪɵɛɟ ɧɚ ɝɟɧɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ ɧɚɩɢɫɚɧɨ ɛɵɬɶ ɜɟɱɧɨɣ ɫɬɪɚɧɧɢɰɟɣ
— ɨɬ ɢɤɪɢɧɤɢ ɞɨ ɜɡɪɨɫɥɨɣ ɨɫɨɛɢ. ɂ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɧɚɫɬɭɩɥɟɧɢɟ ɡɢɦɧɢɯ ɯɨɥɨɞɨɜ
ɜɵɧɭɠɞɚɟɬ ɟɟ ɩɪɟɪɜɚɬɶ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟ, ɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɜɲɢɫɶ ɧɚ ɡɢɦɨɜɤɭ ɧɚ
ɝɥɭɛɨɤɨɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ ɢɥɢ ɡɢɦɨɜɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɹɦɚɯ Ⱦɨɧɚ.
Ⱦɨ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɐɢɦɥɹɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚ ɜ 1952 ɝɨɞɭ ɜ Ⱦɨɧɭ ɨɛɢɬɚɥɨ
ɞɜɟ ɮɨɪɦɵ ɱɟɯɨɧɢ. Ɉɞɧɚ ɛɵɥɚ ɩɨɥɭɩɪɨɯɨɞɧɚɹ — ɚɡɨɜɨ-ɞɨɧɫɤɚɹ,
ɩɪɢɫɩɨɫɨɛɥɟɧɧɚɹ ɤ ɠɢɡɧɢ ɜ ɨɩɪɟɫɧɟɧɧɵɯ ɜɨɞɚɯ Ɍɚɝɚɧɪɨɝɫɤɨɝɨ ɡɚɥɢɜɚ
Ⱥɡɨɜɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɨɪɹ, ɚ ɧɚ ɧɟɪɟɫɬ ɢ ɡɢɦɨɜɤɭ ɦɢɝɪɢɪɭɸɳɚɹ ɜ ɪɟɤɭ. Ⱦɪɭɝɚɹ —
ɦɟɫɬɧɚɹ, ɱɢɫɬɨ ɞɨɧɫɤɚɹ, ɥɨɜɢɜɲɚɹɫɹ ɞɨ ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ ɐɢɦɥɹɧɫɤɨɝɨ
ɝɢɞɪɨɭɡɥɚ ɜ ɧɟɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɦ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɜɟɫɧɨɣ ɢ ɥɟɬɨɦ ɜ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɟ ȼɟɪɯɧɟɝɨ
Ⱦɨɧɚ [9]. ɇɚ ɡɢɦɨɜɤɭ ɧɚɲɚ ɱɟɯɨɧɶ ɫɤɚɬɵɜɚɥɚɫɶ ɜɧɢɡ ɧɚ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɝɥɭɛɨɤɨɜɨɞɧɵɟ
ɭɱɚɫɬɤɢ Ⱦɨɧɚ ɤ ɫɬɚɧɢɰɟ ȼɟɲɟɧɫɤɨɣ ɢ ɧɢɠɟ ɞɨ ɝ. ɋɟɪɚɮɢɦɨɜɢɱ. Ɉɧɚ
ɨɬɥɢɱɚɥɚɫɶ ɨɬ ɩɨɥɭɩɪɨɯɨɞɧɨɣ ɮɨɪɦɵ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɤɪɭɩɧɵɦɢ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɚɦɢ ɢ ɛɨɥɶɲɟɣ
ɭɩɢɬɚɧɧɨɫɬɶɸ.
Ʌɟɬɨɦ 1952 ɝɨɞɚ ɧɚ ɸɝɟ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɜ Ⱦɨɧɭ ɛɵɥɨ ɩɨɣɦɚɧɨ
ɛɨɥɶɲɨɟ ɫɤɨɩɥɟɧɢɟ ɫɟɝɨɥɟɬɨɤ-ɱɟɯɨɧɟɤ, ɦɢɝɪɢɪɭɸɳɢɯ ɜɜɟɪɯ ɩɨ ɪɟɤɟ ɢɡ
ɐɢɦɥɹɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚ, ɝɞɟ ɩɪɨɢɡɨɲɥɚ ɜɫɩɵɲɤɚ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɟɟ
ɦɨɥɨɞɢ [9]. ȼ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɝɨɞɵ ɱɟɯɨɧɶ ɡɚɩɨɥɨɧɢɥɚ ɪɟɤɢ ɢ ɨɡɟɪɚ ȼɟɪɯɧɟɝɨ
Ⱦɨɧɚ, ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɹ ɜ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɵɯ ɭɥɨɜɚɯ ɨɬ 26 ɞɨ 75% ɩɨ ɫɱɟɬɭ. ȼ ɫɟɪɟɞɢɧɟ
50-ɯ ɝɨɞɨɜ ɨɧɚ ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɥɚɫɶ ɜ ɪɟɤɚɯ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ, Ɍɢɯɨɣ ɋɨɫɧɟ, Ȼɢɬɸɝɟ,
Ɉɫɟɪɟɞɢ, ɑɟɪɧɨɣ Ʉɚɥɢɬɜɟ, ɏɜɨɪɨɫɬɚɧɢ, Ɍɨɥɭɱɟɟɜɤɟ ɢ ɨɡɟɪɚɯ ɉɨɝɨɧɨɜɨ,
Ȼɨɝɚɬɨɟ, Ȼɟɥɨɟ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ. ȼ ɬɟ ɠɟ ɝɨɞɵ ɨɧɚ ɹɜɢɥɚɫɶ ɨɞɧɨɣ ɢɡ ɫɚɦɵɯ
ɦɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɪɵɛ ɧɚ ɜɫɟɦ ȼɟɪɯɧɟɦ Ⱦɨɧɭ ɜ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɯ
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ, Ɋɨɫɬɨɜɫɤɨɣ ɢ ȼɨɥɝɨɝɪɚɞɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɟɣ.
Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɱɟɯɨɧɧɨɟ ɷɥɶɞɨɪɚɞɨ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɚɥɨɫɶ ɧɟɞɨɥɝɨ. ȼ 1979 ɝɨɞɭ ɨɥɹ
ɱɟɯɨɧɢ ɜ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɵɯ ɭɥɨɜɚɯ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɤɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɭɠɟ
ɛɵɥɨ 12,9%, ɜ 1980 ɝɨɞɭ — 0,5%. ɋ 1996 ɩɨ 2001 ɝɨɞɵ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ ɟɟ
ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɤɨɥɟɛɚɥɚɫɶ ɨɬ 0,6 ɞɨ 0,08%, ɜ 2012 ɝɨɞɭ — 0,3%. ɋɪɟɞɧɹɹ ɞɥɢɧɚ
ɜɵɥɚɜɥɢɜɚɟɦɵɯ ɨɫɨɛɟɣ ɱɟɯɨɧɢ ɜ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ ɝɨɞɵ ɧɟ ɩɪɟɜɵɲɚɥɚ 29,3 ɫɦ.
ɑɟɯɨɧɶ ɜ ɭɥɨɜɚɯ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɦɧɨɝɨɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɭɸ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɭ, ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɭɸ 13
ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚɦɢ (ɨɬ 1+ ɞɨ 13+). ȼ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɷɬɚ ɪɵɛɚ ɱɚɳɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɚ ɦɢɝɪɢɪɭɸɳɢɦɢ ɰɢɦɥɹɧɫɤɢɦɢ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɹɦɢ. ɍɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟ
ɟɟ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɜ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɯ ɧɚɲɟɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬɶ ɨɬ ɬɨɝɨ, ɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɟɟ
ɛɭɞɟɬ ɩɪɨɩɭɳɟɧɨ ɜ ȼɟɪɯɧɢɣ Ⱦɨɧ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɟɟ ɜɵɥɨɜɚ ɧɚ ȼɟɪɯɧɟɦ ɩɥɟɫɟ
ɐɢɦɥɹɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚ.
55
ȼ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ, ɛɟɡ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɦɨɪɮɨɦɟɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ,
ɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɨ, ɬɪɭɞɧɨ ɧɚɣɬɢ ɦɟɫɬɧɭɸ ɮɨɪɦɭ ɱɟɯɨɧɢ, ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɸɳɭɸɫɹ ɜ Ⱦɨɧɭ ɞɨ
ɟɝɨ ɡɚɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ. Ɉɱɟɜɢɞɧɨ, ɜ ɷɬɨɦ ɧɟɬ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɢ. Ɂɚ ɩɪɨɲɟɞɲɢɟ
ɛɨɥɟɟ ɱɟɦ 60 ɥɟɬ ɜ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɟ Ⱦɨɧɚ ɫɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɥɢɫɶ ɞɜɚ ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɨ
ɨɛɨɫɨɛɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɫɬɚɞɚ. Ɉɞɧɨ — ɚɡɨɜɨ-ɞɨɧɫɤɨɟ ɜ ɧɢɡɨɜɶɹɯ Ⱦɨɧɚ, ɞɪɭɝɨɟ —
ɰɢɦɥɹɧɫɤɨɟ, ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɨɟ ɨɛɨɫɨɛɢɜɲɢɦɢɫɹ ɨɫɨɛɹɦɢ ɚɡɨɜɨ-ɞɨɧɫɤɨɣ
ɮɨɪɦɵ [6]. Ɇɵ ɠɟ ɫɱɢɬɚɟɦ, ɱɬɨ ɰɢɦɥɹɧɫɤɨɟ ɫɬɚɞɨ ɱɟɯɨɧɢ ɫɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɨ ɧɚ
ɛɚɡɟ ɦɟɫɬɧɨɣ ɢ ɚɡɨɜɨ-ɞɨɧɫɤɨɣ ɩɨɥɭɩɪɨɯɨɞɧɨɣ ɱɟɯɨɧɢ [9]. ɐɢɦɥɹɧɫɤɨɟ ɫɬɚɞɨ
ɫɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɨ ɢɧɫɬɢɧɤɬ ɤ ɧɟɪɟɫɬɨɜɵɦ ɦɢɝɪɚɰɢɹɦ, ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ
ɩɨɞɧɢɦɚɸɬɫɹ ɩɨ Ⱦɨɧɭ ɧɚ 200-400 ɤɦ.
ȼ ɩɟɪɜɵɟ 30-40 ɥɟɬ ɧɚ ɐɢɦɥɹɧɫɤɨɦ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɟ ɛɵɥɨ ɞɜɚ
ɧɟɪɟɫɬɨɜɵɯ ɫɬɚɞɚ ɱɟɯɨɧɢ. Ɉɞɧɨ — ɧɟɪɟɫɬɢɥɨɫɶ ɧɚ ɝɥɭɛɨɤɨɜɨɞɧɵɯ
ɧɟɡɚɢɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɩɥɟɫɚɯ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚ, ɞɪɭɝɨɟ — ɧɚ ɧɟɪɟɫɬ ɩɨɞɧɢɦɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɨ
Ⱦɨɧɭ ɞɨ Ʌɢɩɟɰɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɢ ɜɵɲɟ [1]. ɗɬɢɦ ɨɛɴɹɫɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɜɵɫɨɤɚɹ ɟɟ
ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɚɹ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɜ ɬɟ ɝɨɞɵ.
ɋɧɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɱɟɯɨɧɢ ɜ ɜɟɪɯɧɟɞɨɧɫɤɢɯ ɭɥɨɜɚɯ ɧɚ
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɦ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɟ ɨɛɴɹɫɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɫɥɨɛɵɦ ɟɟ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɨɦ ɢɡ ɐɢɦɥɵ,
ɧɨ ɢ ɩɚɞɟɧɢɟɦ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɨɝɨ ɡɚɩɚɫɚ.
ɂɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɱɟɯɨɧɢ ɐɢɦɥɹɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚ,
ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɧɵɟ ȿ.Ɇ.Ⱥɪɯɢɩɨɜɵɦ [1] ɩɨɡɜɨɥɢɥɢ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɶ 8-10 ɥɟɬɧɢɣ
ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɜ ɰɢɤɥɟ ɩɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɭɪɨɠɚɣɧɵɯ ɩɨɤɨɥɟɧɢɣ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɨɧ ɧɟ ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɟɬ
ɚɛɢɨɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɢ ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɵɟ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɵ, ɩɪɢɜɟɞɲɢɟ ɤ ɩɚɞɟɧɢɸ ɪɵɛɨɫɞɚɱɢ
ɱɟɯɨɧɢ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɱɟɦ ɜ 10 ɪɚɡ. Ɍɚɤ ɜ 1962 ɝɨɞɭ ɪɵɛɨɫɞɚɱɚ ɱɟɯɨɧɢ ɧɚ
ɐɢɦɥɹɧɫɤɨɦ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɟ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɥɚ 22,6 ɬɵɫ.ɬ, ɜ 2013 ɝɨɞɭ — ɬɨɥɶɤɨ 0,2
ɬɵɫ.ɬ (ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɧɵɹ ɧɚ 2013 ɝɨɞ ɤɜɨɬɚ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɚ ɧɚ 4,47%).
ȼ Ⱦɨɧɭ ɢ ɟɝɨ ɩɪɢɬɨɤɚɯ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ Ɍɭɥɶɫɤɨɣ ɢ Ɋɹɡɚɧɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɟɣ
ɱɟɯɨɧɶ ɜ ɭɥɨɜɚɯ ɜ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɧɟ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɟɧɚ [5].
ȼ ɞɨɧɫɤɢɯ ɜɨɞɚɯ Ʌɢɩɟɰɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɱɟɯɨɧɶ ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɥɚɫɶ ɞɨ ɭɫɬɶɹ ɪɟɤɢ
Ʉɪɚɫɢɜɚɹ Ɇɟɱɚ ɢ ɜ ɪɟɤɟ Ȼɵɫɬɪɚɹ ɋɨɫɧɚ ɞɨ ɝ. ȿɥɟɰ [8]. ȼ 2011 ɝɨɞɭ ɨɞɢɧ ɷɤɡɟɦɩɥɹɪ ɟɟ ɛɵɥ ɩɨɣɦɚɧ ɩɥɚɜɧɵɦɢ ɫɟɬɹɦɢ ɭ ɝ. Ɂɚɞɨɧɫɤ. ɋ 1954 ɝɨɞɚ ɨɧɚ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɥɚɫɶ
ɜ ɪɟɤɟ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ ɧɚ ɟɟ Ʌɢɩɟɰɤɨɦ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɟ, ɫɟɣɱɚɫ ɡɞɟɫɶ ɧɟ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ.
ɇɚ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɦ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɟ Ⱦɨɧɚ ɱɟɯɨɧɶ ɜ ɫɟɬɧɵɯ ɨɪɭɞɢɹɯ ɥɨɜɚ
ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨ, ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɹ ɜ 1996-2001 ɝɨɞɚɯ ɨɬ 0,08 ɞɨ 6,04%; ɜ
2013 ɝɨɞɭ — 1,04%, ɥɸɛɢɬɟɥɶɫɤɢɯ — 0,04%. ȼ ɩɪɢɬɨɤɚɯ — ɉɨɬɭɞɚɧɢ,
ɂɤɨɪɰɟ, Ȼɢɬɸɝɟ, ɑɟɪɧɨɣ Ʉɚɥɢɬɜɟ, Ɍɨɥɭɱɟɟɜɤɟ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɚ ɛɨɥɶɲɟɣ ɱɚɫɬɶɸ ɜ
ɭɫɬɶɹɯ ɷɬɢɯ ɪɟɤ. ɉɪɢ ɨɛɥɨɜɟ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɝɨ ɢ ɧɢɠɧɟɝɨ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɏɨɩɪɚ ɜ 2005-2007
ɝɨɞɚɯ ɱɟɯɨɧɶ ɞɚɥɚ ɜ ɦɚɥɶɤɨɜɵɯ ɭɥɨɜɚɯ ɩɨ ɫɱɟɬɭ 0,04-0,80% [4].
ɇɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɢɟ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ ɱɟɯɨɧɢ ɧɚ ȼɟɪɯɧɟɦ Ⱦɨɧɭ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɵ ɧɚ
ȼɟɲɟɧɫɤɨɦ ɢ ɋɟɪɚɮɢɦɨɜɢɱɫɤɨɦ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ.
ȼ ɧɢɡɨɜɶɹɯ Ⱦɨɧɚ ɢ Ɍɚɝɚɧɪɨɝɫɤɨɦ ɡɚɥɢɜɟ ɜ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ
ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɵɟ ɭɥɨɜɵ ɩɪɨɯɨɞɧɨɣ ɚɡɨɜɨ-ɞɨɧɫɤɨɣ ɱɟɯɨɧɢ ɭɩɚɥɢ ɞɨ
ɤɚɬɚɫɬɪɨɮɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɧɢɡɤɨɣ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɵ. ȼ 2011 ɝɨɞɭ ɟɟ ɪɵɛɨɫɞɚɱɚ ɩɨ
ɫɬɚɬɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɬɱɟɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɥɚ ɜɫɟɝɨ350 ɤɝ, ɬɨɝɞɚ ɤɚɤ ɜ 1962-1971
ɝɨɞɚɯ ɨɧɚ ɛɵɥɚ ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɣ — 1,9 ɬɵɫ.ɬ. ȼ ɞɨɜɨɟɧɧɵɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɟɟ
ɭɥɨɜɵ ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɥɢ 6,0 ɬɵɫ.ɬ.
56
ȼ ɪɟɤɟ ɋɟɜɟɪɧɵɣ Ⱦɨɧɟɰ ɱɟɯɨɧɶ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɨɱɟɧɶ ɪɟɞɤɨ ɩɨ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɟ ɟɟ
ɡɚɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ.
ɋɚɦɵɣ ɤɪɭɩɧɵɣ ɷɤɡɟɦɩɥɹɪ ɱɟɯɨɧɢ ɛɵɥ ɡɚɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɧ ɜ ɐɢɦɥɹɧɫɤɨɦ
ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɟ, ɨɧ ɢɦɟɥ ɞɥɢɧɭ 51 ɫɦ ɢ ɜɟɫ 1,12 ɤɝ. ɇɚ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɦ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɟ
ɩɨɣɦɚɧɚ ɱɟɯɨɧɶ ɞɥɢɧɨɣ 50 ɫɦ. ȼ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɚɯ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɨɫɨɛɢ
ɪɚɡɦɟɪɨɦ ɫɜɵɲɟ 60 ɫɦ ɢ ɦɚɫɫɨɣ ɞɨ 2 ɤɝ [3, 7]. ȼ ɞɟɥɶɬɟ Ⱦɧɟɩɪɚ ɛɵɥɨ
ɩɨɣɦɚɧɚ ɱɟɯɨɧɶ ɜɟɫɨɦ 3,5 ɤɝ [2].
Ɋɨɫɬ ɱɟɯɨɧɢ ɜ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɚɯ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧ ɜ ɬɚɛɥ.1.
ȼ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɧɨɝɨ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɚ ɧɟɪɟɫɬ ɱɟɯɨɧɢ ɜ Ⱦɨɧɭ ɧɚ
ɧɚɲɟɦ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɟ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɧɚɱɢɧɚɬɶɫɹ ɩɪɢ ɨɱɟɧɶ ɪɚɧɧɟɣ ɜɟɫɧɟ ɜ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɯ
ɱɢɫɥɚɯ ɚɩɪɟɥɹ, ɩɪɢ ɨɱɟɧɶ ɩɨɡɞɧɟɣ — ɩɟɪɜɵɟ ɧɟɪɟɫɬɹɳɢɟɫɹ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɢ
ɩɨɩɚɞɚɸɬɫɹ ɜ ɫɟɪɟɞɢɧɟ ɦɚɹ ɩɪɢ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɟ 12 ɝɪɚɞɭɫɨɜ ɋ.
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 1
Ʌɢɧɟɣɧɵɣ ɪɨɫɬ ɱɟɯɨɧɢ ɜ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɚɯ (ɩɨ Ʌɚɩɢɰɤɨɦɭ, 1970)
ȼɨɞɨɟɦɵ
ȼɨɡɪɨɫɬɧɵɟ ɝɪɵɩɩɵ
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
ȼɟɪɯɧɢɣ 16.5
Ⱦɨɧ
1
22.8
25.5
28.5
34.8
-
-
-
Ɏɟɞɨɪɨɜ
1960
ɐɢɦɥɹɧɫ 12.6
ɤɨɟ
ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧ
ɢɥɢɳɟ
19.2
23.9
26.9
29.0
30.1
30.7
30.0
Ⱦɟɥɢɰɵɧɚ
1967
ɇɢɠɧɢɣ ɞɨɧ
-
-
24.3
25.8
27.2
28.3
29.3
ɀɞɚɧɨɜɚ
1956
ɇɢɠɧɹɹ
ȼɨɥɝɚ
15.8
20.1
24.1
27.2
30.3
32.1
35.0
Ⱦɟɥɢɰɵɧɚ
1967
Ɋɵɛɢɧɫɤ 9.3
ɨɟ
ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧ
ɢɥɢɳɟ
14.8
19.2
22.8
25.8
28.6
31.0
32.3
ɉɨɞɞɭɛɧɵɣ
1958
Ʉɭɣɛɵɲ 8.5
ɟɜɫɤɨɟ
ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧ
ɢɥɢɳɟ
16.6
21.1
24.7
-
-
-
-
Ȼɭɝɚɣ 1959
10.5
ɉɨ ɧɚɲɢɦ ɩɨɞɫɱɟɬɚɦ ɚɛɫɨɥɸɬɧɚɹ ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɩɥɨɞɨɜɢɬɨɫɬɶ
ɰɢɦɥɹɧɫɤɨ-ɞɨɧɫɤɨɣ ɱɟɯɨɧɢ ɤɨɥɟɛɥɟɬɫɹ ɨɬ 10,7 ɞɨ 42,8 ɬɵɫ.ɢɤɪɢɧɨɤ, ɫɪɟɞɧɹɹ
30,5 ɬɵɫ. ɂɤɪɨɦɟɬɚɧɢɟ ɭ ɱɟɯɨɧɢ ɟɞɢɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɟ. ɂɤɪɚ ɩɟɥɚɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ,
ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɬɨɥɳɟ ɜɨɞɜ ɢ ɩɚɫɫɢɜɧɨ ɤɚɤ ɷɦɛɪɢɨɧɵ ɢ ɥɢɱɢɧɤɢ ɫɧɨɫɹɬɫɹ ɜɧɢɡ
ɩɨ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɸ ɪɟɤɢ. ɂɧɤɭɛɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɧɟɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɢɬɟɥɟɧ, ɜɫɟɝɨ 4-5 ɞɧɟɣ.
ɉɨɥɨɜɚɹ ɡɪɟɥɨɫɬɶ ɱɟɯɨɧɢ ȼɟɪɯɧɟɝɨ Ⱦɨɧɚ ɢ ɐɢɦɥɹɧɫɤɨɝɨ
ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚ ɧɚɫɬɭɩɚɟɬ ɜ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɟ 3-5 ɥɟɬ ɩɪɢ ɞɥɢɧɟ 20-24 ɫɦ. ɋɚɦɰɵ
ɫɨɡɪɟɜɚɸɬ ɪɚɧɶɲɟ ɫɚɦɨɤ.
ɑɟɯɨɧɶ ɜɟɞɟɬ ɫɬɚɣɧɵɣ ɨɛɪɚɡ ɠɢɡɧɢ. ȼ ɥɟɬɧɢɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɢɟ ɟɟ
57
ɫɬɚɣɤɢ ɧɚɯɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɜ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨɦ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɢ ɜ ɩɨɢɫɤɚɯ ɤɨɪɦɚ. ɑɚɳɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ
ɤɨɪɦɹɳɭɸɫɹ ɱɟɯɨɧɶ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɜɢɞɟɬɶ ɧɚ ɩɪɢɛɪɟɠɧɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ ɪɟɤɢ ɫ
ɨɛɪɚɬɧɵɦ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɢ ɜɨɞɨɜɨɪɨɬɚɦɢ ɭ ɤɪɭɬɵɯ ɛɟɪɟɝɨɜ, ɝɞɟ ɛɨɥɶɲɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ
ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɤɨɪɦɨɜɵɟ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦɵ.
ɉɪɚɜɢɥɚɦɢ
ɪɵɛɨɥɨɜɫɬɜɚ
ɞɥɹ
Ⱥɡɨɜɨ-ɑɟɪɧɨɦɨɪɫɤɨɝɨ
ɪɵɛɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɚ ɞɥɹ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɨɜ Ʌɢɩɟɰɤɨɣ, ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ,
Ɋɨɫɬɨɜɫɤɨɣ, ɋɚɪɚɬɨɜɫɤɨɣ ɢ ȼɨɥɝɨɝɪɚɞɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɟɣ, ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɜ
ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɟ Ⱦɨɧɚ ɢ ɟɝɨ ɩɪɢɞɚɬɨɱɧɵɯ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɚɯ, ɧɚ ɱɟɯɨɧɶ ɞɥɹ ɪɵɛɚɤɨɜɥɸɛɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɚ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɚɹ ɦɟɪɚ ɜ ɪɚɡɦɧɪɟ 24 ɫɦ, ɧɢɠɟ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ
ɪɵɛɵ ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɜɵɩɭɫɤɚɬɶɫɹ ɜ ɜɨɞɨɟɦ
Ɂɚɩɚɫɵ ɢ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɱɟɯɨɧɢ ɧɚ ɦɟɫɬɚɯ ɟɟ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨ
ɫɨɤɪɚɳɚɸɬɫɹ ɩɨ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɟ ɧɚɪɭɲɟɧɢɹ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɨɜ ɟɟ ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ, ɧɟ ɫɦɨɬɪɹ ɧɚ
ɫɜɨɸ ɜɵɫɨɤɭɸ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɩɥɚɫɬɢɱɧɨɫɬɶ ɢ ɨɝɪɨɦɧɵɣ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥ
ɚɞɚɩɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɟɣ. ȼɤɥɸɱɟɧɚ ɜ Ʉɪɚɫɧɭɸ ɤɧɢɝɭ ɆɋɈɉ.
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. Ⱥɪɯɢɩɨɜ ȿ.Ɇ. Ɉɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɱɟɯɨɧɢ ɐɢɦɥɹɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚ:
ɚɜɬɨɪɟɮɟɪ.ɞɢɫ....ɤɚɧɞ.ɛɢɨɥ.ɧɚɭɤ /ȿ.Ɇ.Ⱥɪɯɢɩɨɜɭ. ɋ.-ɉ., 2002. - 24 ɫ.
2. Ⱥɬɥɚɫ ɩɪɟɫɧɨɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɪɵɛ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ: 1ɬ /ɩɨɞ ɪɟɞ.ɘ.ɋ.Ɋɟɲɟɬɧɢɤɨɜɚ. - Ɇ.: ɇɚɭɤɚ, 2003.
-379ɫ.
3. Ȼɟɪɝ Ʌ.ɋ. Ɋɵɛɵ ɩɪɟɫɧɵɯ ɜɨɞ ɋɋɋɊ ɢ ɫɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɬɪɚɧ /Ʌ,ɋ,Ȼɟɪɝ- Ɇ; Ʌ.: ɂɡɞɜɨ Ⱥɇ ɋɋɋɊ, 1949ɚ -ɑ.2 — ɋ.467-925.
4. Ƚɥɚɞɤɢɣ Ʉ.Ʉ., Ⱦɟɥɢɰɵɧɚ Ʌ.Ɏ., Ʉɚɪɩɨɜ ɇ.Ⱥ. ɂɯɬɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɢ
ɪɵɛɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɜ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɟ ȼɟɪɯɧɟɝɨ Ⱦɨɧɚ ɧɚ ɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɚɯ
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɢ ɫɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɣ /Ʉ.Ʉ.Ƚɥɚɞɤɢɯ, Ʌ.Ɏ.Ⱦɟɥɢɰɵɧɚ,
ɇ.Ⱥ.Ʉɚɪɩɨɜ //Ɍɪɭɞɵ ɏɨɩɟɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɚ. - ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ: ɂɡɞɚɬ.ɩɨɥɢɝɪɚɮ.ɰɟɧɬɪ «ɇɚɭɱɧɚɹ ɤɧɢɝɚ», 2013. - ɋ. 3-45.
5. ɂɜɚɧɱɟɜ ȼ.ɉ., ɋɚɪɵɱɟɜ ȼ.ɋ., ɂɜɚɧɱɟɜɚ ȿ.ɘ. Ɇɢɧɨɝɢ ɢ ɪɵɛɵ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɚ ȼɟɪɯɧɟɝɨ
Ⱦɨɧɚ /ȼ,ɉ,ɂɜɚɧɱɟɜ, ȼ.ɋ.ɋɚɪɵɱɟɜ, ȿ.ɘ.ɂɜɚɧɱɟɜɚ. - Ɋɹɡɚɧɶ: ɇɉ «Ƚɨɥɨɫ ɝɭɛɟɪɧɢɢ», 2013. 274ɫ.
6. Ʌɚɩɢɰɤɢɣ ɂ.ɂ. ɇɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɨɟ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɢɯɬɢɨɮɚɭɧɵ ɢ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ
ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɣ ɪɵɛ ɜ ɐɢɦɥɹɧɫɤɨɦ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɟ /ɂ.ɂ,Ʌɚɩɢɰɤɢɣ
//Ɍɪ.ȼɨɥɝɨɝɪɚɞ.ɨɬɞ.ȽɨɫɇɂɈɊɏ — 1970. - ȼɵɩ 4. -222-223 ɫ.
7. ɇɢɤɨɥɶɫɤɢɣ Ƚ.ȼ. ɑɚɫɬɧɚɹ ɢɯɬɢɨɥɨɝɢɹ /Ƚ,ȼ.ɇɢɤɨɥɶɫɤɢɣ. - Ɇ.: ȼɵɫɲɚɹ ɲɤɨɥɚ, 1971.
- 471 ɫ.
8. ɋɚɪɵɱɟɜ ȼ.ɋ. Ɋɵɛɵ ɢ ɦɢɧɨɝɢ Ʌɢɩɟɰɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ /ȼ.ɋ.ɋɚɪɵɱɟɜ. - ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ, 2007. 115 ɫ.
9. Ɏɟɞɨɪɨɜ Ⱥ.ȼ. ɂɯɬɢɨɮɚɭɧɚ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɚ Ⱦɨɧɚ ɜ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ /Ⱥ.ȼ.Ɏɟɞɨɪɨɜ
//Ɋɵɛɵ ɢ ɪɵɛɧɨɟ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɨ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ. - ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ, 1960. - ɋ. 149-247.
PELECUS CULTRATUS (LINNEUS, 1758) IN THE BASIN OF DON RIVER
Ʉ.Ʉ. Gladkhyh*, L.F. Delytsina**
*Voronezh Branch of «Azdonrybvod»
** Voronezh State University
Biology, distribution and commertial role of Pelecus cultratus were studied.
58
ɍȾɄ 639.2.053+551.48
ɋɈȼɊȿɆȿɇɇɈȿ ɋɈɋɌɈəɇɂȿ ɗɄɈɋɂɋɌȿɆɕ
ȺɊȺɅɖɋɄɈȽɈ (ɆȺɅɈȽɈ) ɆɈɊə ɉɈɋɅȿ ɋɌɊɈɂɌȿɅɖɋɌȼȺ
ɄɈɄȺɊȺɅɖɋɄɈɃ ɉɅɈɌɂɇɕ
Ɂ.Ʉ. ȿɪɦɚɯɚɧɨɜ, Ʉ.ɍ. ɀɭɛɚɧɨɜ, Ʉ.ɋ. Ȼɚɥɵɦɛɟɬɨɜ,
ɇ.ɋ. ɋɚɦɛɚɟɜ, Ɇ.Ɍ. Ʉɚɥɵɦɛɟɬɨɜɚ
Ⱥɪɚɥɶɫɤɢɣ ɮɢɥɢɚɥ ɌɈɈ «Ʉɚɡɚɯɫɤɢɣ ɧɚɭɱɧɨ-ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɫɤɢɣ
ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ɪɵɛɧɨɝɨ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚ», Ʉɚɡɚɯɫɬɚɧ. ɝ. Ⱥɪɚɥɶɫɤ
E-mail: [email protected]
ɗɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɚɰɢɹ Ʉɨɤɚɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɣ ɩɥɨɬɢɧɵ ɧɚ Ɇɚɥɨɦ Ⱥɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɦ ɦɨɪɟ ɫ 2006 ɝ.
ɩɪɢɜɟɥɨ ɤ ɚɤɤɭɦɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɸ ɪɟɱɧɨɝɨ ɫɬɨɤɚ, ɱɬɨ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɨɜɚɥɨ ɨɩɪɟɫɧɟɧɢɸ
ɦɨɪɫɤɨɣ ɜɨɞɵ ɡɚ ɦɧɨɝɨɥɟɬɧɢɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ. ɇɚɛɥɸɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟ
ɝɢɞɪɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɟɠɢɦɚ ɧɚ ɝɢɞɪɨɯɢɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɪɟɠɢɦ Ɇɚɥɨɝɨ Ⱥɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ
ɦɨɪɹ. ȼ ɰɟɥɨɦ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɨɧɢɬɨɪɢɧɝɚ ɜ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ
ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɚ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ ɫɬɚɛɢɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɣ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɟɣ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ
ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜ ɧɢɡɲɢɯ ɝɢɞɪɨɛɢɨɧɬɨɜ.
ɋɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɟ Ʉɨɤɚɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɣ ɩɥɨɬɢɧɵ ɜ ɩɪɨɥɢɜɟ Ȼɟɪɝɚ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɢɥɨ
ɩɨɞɧɹɬɶ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɜɨɞɵ ɋɟɜɟɪɧɨɝɨ Ⱥɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɨɪɹ (ɋȺɆ) ɞɨ ɨɬɦɟɬɤɢ 42 ɦ,
ɜ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɥɫɹ ɜɨɞɨɟɦ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɶɸ 330 ɬɵɫ. ɝɚ ɢ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɣ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɨɣ
4,5-5,0 ɦ. Ʉɪɨɦɟ ɷɬɨɝɨ, ɪɟɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹ ɢ ɪɟɦɨɧɬ ɝɢɞɪɨɫɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɣ ɧɚ ɪ.
ɋɵɪɞɚɪɶɟ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɢɥɨ ɭɥɭɱɲɢɬɶ ɜɨɞɨɩɪɨɩɭɫɤɧɭɸ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶ ɪ. ɋɵɪɞɚɪɶɢ,
ɩɨɜɵɫɢɬɶ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɟɧɨɤɨɫɧɵɯ ɢ ɩɚɫɬɛɢɳɧɵɯ ɭɝɨɞɢɣ, ɭɥɭɱɲɢɬɶ
ɜɨɞɧɵɣ ɪɟɠɢɦ ɪɹɞɚ ɪɵɛɨɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɵɯ ɨɡɟɪɧɵɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɜ ɧɢɡɨɜɶɹɯ ɪɟɤɢ.
Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɜ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ ɫɟɜɟɪɧɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ
Ⱥɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɨɪɹ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɥɨɫɶ ɫɨɥɨɧɨɜɚɬɨɜɨɞɧɵɣ ɜɨɞɨɟɦ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɶɸ 330
ɬɵɫ. ɝɚ ɢ 63 ɬɵɫ. ɝɚ ɩɪɟɫɧɨɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɨɜ ɨɡɟɪɧɵɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ, ɩɪɢɝɨɞɧɵɯ ɞɥɹ
ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɪɵɛɧɨɝɨ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚ. ɉɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɟ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ Ɇɚɥɨɝɨ ɦɨɪɹ ɲɥɨ
ɢɧɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɨ ɜ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɯ ɡɢɦɧɢɯ ɩɨɩɭɫɤɨɜ ɩɨ ɪɟɤɟ ɢ ɜ ɫɟɪɟɞɢɧɟ
ɚɩɪɟɥɹ 2006 ɝ. ɨɧ ɞɨɫɬɢɝ ɨɬɦɟɬɤɢ 42,0 ɦ Ȼɋ. ɉɪɢ ɞɚɧɧɨɣ ɨɬɦɟɬɤɟ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ
ɜɨɞɵ Ɇɚɥɨɟ ɦɨɪɟ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɦɢ ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɚɦɢ: ɨɛɴɟɦ – 27,07
ɤɦ3, ɩɥɨɳɚɞɶ ɦɨɪɹ – 3288,0 ɤɦ2, ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɚ – 15,5 ɦ, ɫɪɟɞɧɹɹ
ɝɥɭɛɢɧɚ – 8,2 ɦ. Ɂɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɥɢɫɶ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɢ ɨɩɪɟɫɧɟɧɧɨɣ ɡɨɧɵ, ɢ
ɪɚɫɲɢɪɢɥɫɹ ɚɪɟɚɥ ɚɛɨɪɢɝɟɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɪɵɛ. ɂɯɬɢɨɮɚɭɧɚ
ɨɫɜɚɢɜɚɟɬ ɞɥɹ ɧɟɪɟɫɬɚ ɢ ɧɚɝɭɥɚ ɩɨɱɬɢ ɜɫɸ ɚɤɜɚɬɨɪɢɸ Ɇɚɥɨɝɨ Ⱥɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ
ɦɨɪɹ, ɡɚ ɢɫɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɡɚɥɢɜɚ Ȼɭɬɚɤɨɜɚ, ɝɞɟ ɟɳɟ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɚɹ
ɫɨɥɟɧɨɫɬɶ ɜɨɞɵ [1].
Ƚɢɞɪɨɥɨɝɨ-ɝɢɞɪɨɯɢɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɝɢɞɪɨɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɪɟɠɢɦ
ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɦɨɪɹ ɜɨ ɦɧɨɝɨɦ ɨɛɭɫɥɨɜɥɟɧɵ ɜɨɞɧɵɦ ɪɟɠɢɦɨɦ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɝɨ
ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɚ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɹ - ɪ. ɋɵɪɞɚɪɶɢ. Ɉɛɴɟɦɚ ɫɬɨɤɚ ɪ. ɋɵɪɞɚɪɶɢ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ
ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɦ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɦ, ɜɥɢɹɸɳɢɦ ɧɚ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ Ɇɚɥɨɝɨ Ⱥɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɨɪɹ,
59
ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɳɢɦ
ɫɨɥɟɧɨɫɬɶ, ɨɬ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ
ɝɢɞɪɨɛɢɨɧɬɨɜ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɚ. ȼ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɢ ɝɢɞɪɨɯɢɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɟɠɢɦɚ Ⱥɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ
(Ɇɚɥɨɝɨ)
ɦɨɪɹ
ɫ ɫɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɟɦ Ʉɨɤɚɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɣ ɩɥɨɬɢɧɵ,ɨɬɦɟɱɚɟɬɫɹ
ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɫɨɥɟɧɨɫɬɢ ɜ ɦɟɠɝɨɞɨɜɵɟ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɵ.
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 1
Ƚɢɞɪɨɯɢɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ ɜɨɞ ɆɚɥɨɝɨȺɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɨɪɹ ɡɚ ɪɹɞ ɥɟɬ
Ƚɨɞ
ɪɇ
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
7,90-8,30
6,85-7,20
6,93-7,32
7,20-7,30
7,20-7,45
7,20-7,25
7,10-8,15
O2, ɦɝ/ɞɦ3
6,71-13,63
5,32-11,42
6,20-12,51
7,84-12,30
7,62-12,74
7,74-9,28
7,70-9,20
ɉɟɪɦɚɧɝɚɧɚɬɧɚɹ
ɨɤɢɫɥɹɟɦɨɫɬɶ, ɦɝɈ/ɞɦ3
ɋɨɥɟɧɨɫɬɶ,
‰
4,3-12,0
1,5-12,2
1,4-11,7
5,8-7,0
2,4-4,6
3,2-3,9
3,1-3,5
6,3
12,1
12,9
11,0
9,9
7,6
7,4
ɂɡ ɞɚɧɧɨɣ ɬɚɛɥɢɰɵ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ, ɱɬɨ ɫɨɥɟɧɨɫɬɶ ɦɨɪɹ ɡɚɦɟɬɧɨ ɫɧɢɠɚɟɬɫɹ.
Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɵɟ ɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɫɬɨɤɢ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɵ ɞɥɹ ɫɭɥɶɮɚɬɨɜ, ɚ ɫɪɟɞɢ ɤɚɬɢɨɧɨɜ ɫɬɨɤɢ ɳɟɥɨɱɧɵɯ ɦɟɬɚɥɥɨɜ ɢ ɤɚɥɶɰɢɹ ɩɨ ɫɟɡɨɧɚɦ ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɟɬ
ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɸ ɜɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɫɬɨɤɚ ɜ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɝɨɞɚ. ɋɬɨɤ ɦɢɧɟɪɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɨɥɟɣ (4559‰) ɩɪɢɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɜɟɫɟɧɧɟɟ – ɥɟɬɧɢɟ ɦɟɫɹɰɵ. ɨɛɴɟɦ ɫɨɥɟɜɨɝɨ ɫɬɨɤɚ ɪɟɤ, ɜ
ɩɟɪɜɭɸ ɨɱɟɪɟɞɶ, ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ ɨɬ ɜɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɫɬɨɤɚ, ɩɪɹɦɨɣ ɩɪɨɩɨɪɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ
ɦɟɠɞɭ ɷɬɢɦɢ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɹɦɢ ɧɟ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɢɡ-ɡɚ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɹ ɜ ɦɢɧɟɪɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɣ
ɜɨɞɵ. ɂɫɯɨɞɹ ɢɡ ɝɢɞɪɨɥɨɝɨ-ɝɢɞɪɨɯɢɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɟɠɢɦɚ ɜ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ ɦɨɪɹ,
ɧɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɟɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɟ ɝɢɞɪɨɛɢɨɧɬɨɜ ɜ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ
ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɹɯ ɩɨ ɚɤɜɚɬɨɪɢɢ ɞɚɜɚɥɢ ɜɟɫɥɨɧɨɝɢɟ
ɪɚɱɤɢ, ɝɥɚɜɧɵɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ
ɦɨɥɨɞɶ ɤɚɥɚɧɢɩɟɞɵ, ɫɭɛɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɨɜɚɥɚ ɦɨɥɨɞɶ ɰɢɤɥɨɩɨɜ. Ʌɢɱɢɧɤɢ
ɦɨɥɥɸɫɤɨɜ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɵ ɩɨ ɜɫɟɣ ɚɤɜɚɬɨɪɢɢ ɦɨɪɹ (ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɷɬɨ
ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɡɚɥɢɜɟ Ȼɭɬɚɤɨɜɚ). ȼɫɟ ɷɬɨ ɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɨ ɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɨɦ
ɜɥɢɹɧɢɢ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɹ ɨɛɴɟɦɚ ɪɟɱɧɨɝɨ ɫɬɨɤɚ ɜ ɦɨɪɟ.
ɋɨ ɫɬɚɛɢɥɢɡɚɰɢɟɣ ɫɬɨɤɚ ɪɟɤɢ ɋɵɪɞɚɪɶɹ ɢ ɭɥɭɱɲɟɧɢɟɦ ɝɢɞɪɨɥɨɝɨɝɢɞɪɨɯɢɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɟɠɢɦɨɜ ɭɥɭɱɲɢɥɢɫɶ ɢ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɪɵɛ ɜ
ɦɨɪɟ. ɉɨɹɜɢɥɢɫɶ ɧɨɜɵɟ ɦɟɫɬɚ ɧɟɪɟɫɬɢɥɢɳ, ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɥɢɫɶ ɧɚɝɭɥɶɧɵɟ
ɩɥɨɳɚɞɢ. ȼ ɜɢɞɨɜɨɦ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɟ ɩɪɨɢɡɨɲɥɨ ɩɨɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟ. Ⱦɨɫɬɢɝɥɢ
ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɨɣ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɛɟɥɨɝɥɚɡɤɚ, ɛɟɥɵɣ ɬɨɥɫɬɨɥɨɛɢɤ, ɛɟɥɵɣ ɚɦɭɪ,
ɡɦɟɟɝɨɥɨɜ, ɤɪɚɫɧɨɩɟɪɤɚ ɢ ɫɨɦ. ɉɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɚɹ ɢɯɬɢɨɮɚɭɧɚ Ɇɚɥɨɝɨ Ⱥɪɚɥɚ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɚ 18 ɜɢɞɚɦɢ ɪɵɛ. Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɵɦɢ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɵɦɢ ɜɢɞɚɦɢ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ
ɳɭɤɚ, ɥɟɳ, ɛɟɥɨɝɥɚɡɤɚ, ɠɟɪɟɯ, ɛɟɥɵɣ ɚɦɭɪ, ɫɚɡɚɧ, ɛɟɥɵɣ ɬɨɥɫɬɨɥɨɛɢɤ,
ɱɟɯɨɧɶ, ɩɥɨɬɜɚ, ɤɪɚɫɧɨɩɟɪɤɚ, ɫɨɦ, ɫɭɞɚɤ, ɡɦɟɟɝɨɥɨɜ, ɤɚɦɛɚɥɚ. ȼɫɬɪɟɱɚɸɬɫɹ
ɦɚɥɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɜɢɞɵ ɤɚɤ ɲɟɦɚɹ, ɫɚɥɚɤɚ ɢ ɫɨɪɧɵɟ ɪɵɛɵ – ɚɬɟɪɢɧɚ, ɛɵɱɤɢ,
ɤɨɥɸɲɤɚ [2].
60
Ɏɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɢ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɜɨɞɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ Ɇɚɥɨɝɨ Ⱥɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ
ɦɨɪɹ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɨɝɪɨɦɧɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ, ɤɚɤ ɞɥɹ ɪɵɛɧɨɣ ɨɬɪɚɫɥɢ Ʉɚɡɚɯɫɬɚɧɚ, ɬɚɤ ɢ
ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɛɥɚɝɨɩɨɥɭɱɢɹ ɉɪɢɚɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚ. ɉɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɟ ɢ
ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɜɨɞɧɨɫɬɢ Ɇɚɥɨɝɨ ɦɨɪɹ ɫɦɹɝɱɚɟɬ ɫɭɪɨɜɵɟ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ
ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚ, ɭɥɭɱɲɚɟɬ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ. Ɂɞɟɫɶ ɢɦɟɸɬɫɹ
ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɵɟ ɡɚɩɚɫɵ ɪɵɛ, ɹɜɥɹɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɨɫɧɨɜɨɣ ɞɥɹ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ
ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɚ.
Ɉɰɟɧɤɚ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ ɝɢɞɪɨɛɢɨɰɟɧɨɡɨɜ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ
ɦɨɧɢɬɨɪɢɧɝɚ Ɇɚɥɨɝɨ Ⱥɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɨɪɹ ɜɵɹɜɢɥɚ, ɱɬɨ ɜ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɢɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ
ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɚ ɜ ɰɟɥɨɦ ɫɬɚɛɢɥɶɧɨɟ. ɉɨ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɚɦ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɝɢɞɪɨɯɢɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ, ɝɢɞɪɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ, ɬɨɤɫɢɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ
ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ
ɜɨɞɨɟɦɨɜ
ɭɞɨɜɥɟɬɜɨɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ
ɞɥɹ
ɠɢɡɧɟɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ
ɝɢɪɨɛɢɨɧɬɨɜ. ȼɵɹɜɥɟɧɚ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ ɫɬɚɛɢɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɣ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɧɵɯ
ɢ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɟɣ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜ ɧɢɡɲɢɯ ɝɢɞɪɨɛɢɨɧɬɨɜ.
ȼ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɷɬɢɯ ɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɢ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɭɥɭɱɲɟɧɢɟ
ɭɫɥɨɜɢɢ ɠɢɡɧɟɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɪɵɛ. Ȼɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ ɪɵɛ ɡɚɦɟɬɧɨ
ɩɨɜɵɫɢɥɢɫɶ, ɬɟɦɩɵ ɪɨɫɬɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɰɟɧɧɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɪɵɛ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ
ɜɵɫɨɤɢɟ, ɩɨɜɵɫɢɥɫɹ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɜɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɪɵɛ [3].
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. Ⱥɦɢɪɝɚɥɢɟɜ ɇ.Ⱥ. Ⱥɪɚɥɨ-ɋɵɪɞɚɪɶɢɧɫɤɢɣ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧ: ɝɢɞɪɨɯɢɦɢɹ, ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɜɨɞɧɨɣ
ɬɨɤɫɢɤɨɥɨɝɢɢ. – Ⱥɥɦɚɬɵ: Ȼɚɫɬɚɭ, 2007. – ɋ. 257.
2. Ȼɟɪɜɚɥɶɞ ɗ.Ⱥ ɉɭɬɢ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɪɵɛɧɨɝɨ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚ ɜɨ
ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɯ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɚɯ. Ɋɨɫɬɨɜ-ɧɚ Ⱦɨɧɭ ; ɂɡɞɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ Ɋɨɫɬɨɜɫɤɨɝɨ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ
ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬɚ, 1964. 148 ɫ.
3. Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɪɵɛɨɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɨɜ ɢ/ɢɥɢ ɢɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɨɜ, ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɚ
ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɩɪɨɝɧɨɡɚ ɞɨɩɭɫɬɢɦɵɯ ɭɥɨɜɨɜ ɢ ɜɵɞɚɱɚ ɪɟɤɨɦɟɧɞɚɰɢɣ ɩɨ
ɪɟɠɢɦɭ ɢ ɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɸ ɪɵɛɨɥɨɜɫɬɜɚ ɧɚ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɚɯ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɢ
ɪɟɫɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ Ⱥɪɚɥɨ-ɋɵɪɞɚɪɶɢɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɚ. Ɋɚɡɞɟɥ: Ⱥɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɟ
(Ɇɚɥɨɟ) ɦɨɪɟ ɢ ɪ. ɋɵɪɞɚɪɶɹ ɱɚɫɬɶ 2: Ɉɬɱɟɬ ɨ ɇɂɊ/ɇɉɐ Ɋɏ – Ⱥɪɚɥɶɫɤ, 2007-2013.
CURRENT CONDITIONS OF ECOSYSTEM OF THE ARAL (SMALL) SEA AFTER
CONSTRUCTION OF THE KOKARALSKY DAM
Z.K. Ermakhanov, K.U. Zhubanov, K.S. Balymbetov,
N.S. Sambayev, M.T. Kalymbetova
Aral branch Kazakh Research Institute of Fishery LLP, Kazakhstan, Aralsk
E-mail: [email protected]
Operation of the Kokaralsky dam on the Small Aral Sea since 2006 led to
accumulation of a river drain that promoted desalting of sea water for the longterm period. Positive influence of a hydrological mode on a hydrochemical mode
of the Small Aral Sea is observed. In general on the base of environmental
monitoring in an ecosystem relative stability of values of indicators of a condition
of communities of the lowest hydrobionts is revealed.
61
ɍȾɄ 639.2.053+551.48
ȺɇȺɅɂɁ ɂɁɆȿɇȿɇɂə ɋɈɋɌȺȼȺ ɂɏɌɂɈɎȺɍɇɕ ɂ ɉɊɈɆɕɋɅȺ
ȺɊȺɅɖɋɄɈȽɈ ɆɈɊə ȼ ɉȿɊɂɈȾ ɗɄɈɅɈȽɂɑȿɋɄɈȽɈ ɄɊɂɁɂɋȺ ɂ
ɉɈɋɅȿ ɋɌɊɈɂɌȿɅɖɋɌȼ ɄɈɄȺɊȺɅɖɋɄɈɃ ɉɅɈɌɂɇɕ
Ɂ.Ʉ. ȿɪɦɚɯɚɧɨɜ, Ʉ.ɍ. ɀɭɛɚɧɨɜ, Ɍ.Ɍ. ɋɚɬɟɤɟɟɜ
Ⱥɪɚɥɶɫɤɢɣ ɮɢɥɢɚɥ ɌɈɈ «Ʉɚɡɚɯɫɤɢɣ ɧɚɭɱɧɨ-ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɫɤɢɣ
ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ɪɵɛɧɨɝɨ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚ» ɝ. Ⱥɪɚɥɶɫɤ, Ʉɚɡɚɯɫɬɚɧ
E-mail: [email protected]
ȼ ɫɬɚɬɶɟ ɩɪɨɚɧɚɥɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɵ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɚ ɢɯɬɢɨɮɚɭɧɵ
Ⱥɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɨɪɹ ɞɨ ɢ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɫɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɹ Ʉɨɤɚɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɣ ɩɥɨɬɢɧɵ. ɋ
ɫɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɟɦ ɩɥɨɬɢɧɵ ɢ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ Ⱥɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ (Ɇɚɥɨɝɨ) ɦɨɪɹ, ɡɚ
ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ ɞɟɫɹɬɶ ɥɟɬ ɫɬɚɥɢ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɬɶɫɹ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɢ ɚɛɨɪɢɝɟɧɧɨɣ
ɢɯɬɢɨɮɚɭɧɵ.
ɂɯɬɢɨɮɚɭɧɚ Ⱥɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɨɪɹ, ɫɨɫɬɨɹɥɚ ɢɡ 20 ɜɢɞɨɜ ɪɵɛ, ɨɬɧɨɫɹɳɢɯɫɹ
ɤ 7 ɫɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɚɦ [1]. ȼ ɜɢɞɨɜɨɦ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɛɨɝɚɬɵɦ ɹɜɥɹɥɨɫɶ
ɫɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɨ ɤɚɪɩɨɜɵɯ, ɤ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɦɭ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɫɹ 12 ɜɢɞɨɜ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɜɲɢɯ 60 %
ɜɫɟɣ ɢɯɬɢɨɮɚɭɧɵ. ȼɬɨɪɨɟ ɦɟɫɬɨ ɩɨ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɸ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɡɚɧɢɦɚɥɢ
ɨɤɭɧɟɜɵɟ, ɚ ɤɚɠɞɨɟ ɢɡ ɨɫɬɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɟɦɟɣɫɬɜ - ɨɫɟɬɪɨɜɵɟ, ɥɨɫɨɫɟɜɵɟ,
ɫɨɦɨɜɵɟ, ɳɭɤɨɜɵɟ, ɤɨɥɸɲɤɨɜɵɟ ɛɵɥɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵ ɨɞɧɢɦ ɜɢɞɨɦ.
ɉɨɫɥɟ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɪɹɞɚ ɚɤɤɥɢɦɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɦɟɪɨɩɪɢɹɬɢɣ ɫ ɰɟɥɶɸ
ɨɛɨɝɚɳɟɧɢɹ ɢɯɬɢɨɮɚɭɧɵ (ɜɫɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɩɭɡɚɧɤɚ, ɤɟɮɚɥɟɣ, ɫɚɥɚɤɢ, ɫɟɜɪɸɝɢ,
ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɹɞɧɵɯ ɪɵɛ) ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɜɨɡɪɨɫɥɨ.
Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɜ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɚɤɤɥɢɦɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɪɚɛɨɬ ɫ 1927 ɩɨ
1963 ɝɝ. ɜ Ⱥɪɚɥɟ ɩɨɹɜɢɥɨɫɶ 17 ɧɨɜɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɪɵɛ. ɋɨɫɬɚɜ ɢɯɬɢɨɮɚɭɧɵ ɦɨɪɹ
ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɥɫɹ ɫ 20 ɞɨ 34 ɜɢɞɨɜ, ɧɨ ɫɨɫɬɚɜ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɪɵɛ ɢɡɦɟɧɢɥɫɹ
ɦɚɥɨ.
Ʉɚɬɚɫɬɪɨɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɭɯɭɞɲɟɧɢɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɜɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ
ɪɟɡɤɨ ɨɬɪɚɡɢɥɨɫɶ ɧɚ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɢ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɵɯ ɫɬɚɞ. Ɂɚ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɫ 1961 ɩɨ 1976
ɝɝ. ɭɥɨɜɵ ɪɵɛɵ ɩɨ Ⱥɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɦɭ ɦɨɪɸ ɫɨɤɪɚɬɢɥɢɫɶ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɱɟɦ ɜ 4 ɪɚɡɚ. ɉɟɪɜɵɟ
ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɢ ɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɨɫɨɥɨɧɟɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɢɯɬɢɨɮɚɭɧɭ
Ⱥɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɨɪɹ ɩɨɹɜɢɥɢɫɶ ɜ ɫɟɪɟɞɢɧɟ 60-ɵɯ ɝɨɞɨɜ ɩɪɢ ɫɨɥɟɧɨɫɬɢ 12-14 %ɨ.
ɇɚ ɦɟɥɤɨɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɧɟɪɟɫɬɢɥɢɳɚɯ ɫɨɥɟɧɨɫɬɶ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚɥɚ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɛɵɫɬɪɵɦɢ
ɬɟɦɩɚɦɢ, ɱɟɦ ɜ ɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɯ ɪɚɣɨɧɚɯ ɦɨɪɹ ɢ ɭɠɟ ɜ 1965-1967 ɝɝ. ɩɪɟɜɵɫɢɥɚ 14
%, ɱɬɨ ɝɭɛɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɫɤɚɡɚɥɨɫɶ ɧɚ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɢ ɢɤɪɵ ɪɵɛ ɩɪɟɫɧɨɜɨɞɧɨɝɨ
ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ. ȼ ɤɨɧɰɟ 60-ɵɯ ɝɨɞɨɜ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɭɯɭɞɲɢɥɨɫɶ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɧɚ
ɧɟɪɟɫɬɢɥɢɳɚɯ ɩɨɥɭɩɪɨɯɨɞɧɵɯ ɪɵɛ.
ɋɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɚɧɧɨɦɭ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɭ ɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɸ, ɫ ɰɟɥɶɸ
ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɪɵɛɨɥɨɜɫɬɜɚ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɩɪɨɝɪɟɫɫɢɪɭɸɳɟɝɨ ɨɫɨɥɨɧɟɧɢɹ
Ⱥɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɨɪɹ, ɫ 1979 ɩɨ 1987 ɝɝ. ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɥɫɹ ɡɚɜɨɡ ɤɚɦɛɚɥɵ-ɝɥɨɫɫɵ ɢɡ
Ⱥɡɨɜɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɨɪɹ ɢ ɜɫɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɜ Ⱥɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɟ ɦɨɪɟ ɩɪɢ ɨɛɳɟɦ ɨɛɴɟɦɟ 14,28 ɬɵɫɹɱ
ɷɤɡɟɦɩɥɹɪɨɜ [2]. Ʉɚɦɛɚɥɚ-ɝɥɨɫɫɚ ɭɫɩɟɲɧɨ ɚɤɤɥɢɦɚɬɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɥɚɫɶ ɜ Ⱥɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɦ
62
ɦɨɪɟ. ȼ ɧɚɱɚɥɟ 90-ɵɯ ɝɨɞɨɜ ɨɧɚ ɪɚɫɫɟɥɢɥɚɫɶ ɩɨ ɜɫɟɦɭ ɦɨɪɸ ɢ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɥɚɫɶ ɜ
ɞɢɚɩɚɡɨɧɟ ɫɨɥɟɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ 15-20 ɞɨ 50 %ɨ ɜ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɵɯ ɦɚɫɲɬɚɛɚɯ. ȼ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ
ɫ 1991 ɩɨ 2000 ɝɨɞ ɜ Ⱥɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɦ ɦɨɪɟ ɟɞɢɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɵɦ ɜɢɞɨɦ
ɛɵɥɚ ɚɤɤɥɢɦɚɬɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɚɹ ɤɚɦɛɚɥɚ-ɝɥɨɫɫɚ. ȼ ɚɜɝɭɫɬɟ 2005 ɝ. ɫ ɨɤɨɧɱɚɧɢɟɦ
ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ Ʉɨɤɚɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɣ ɩɥɨɬɢɧɵ ɩɪɨɢɡɨɲɥɨ ɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɬɢɟ ɩɪɨɬɨɤɢ,
ɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɸɳɟɣ Ɇɚɥɵɣ Ⱥɪɚɥ ɫ Ȼɨɥɶɲɢɦ ɦɨɪɟɦ ɩɪɢ ɨɬɦɟɬɤɟ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ Ɇɚɥɨɝɨ
ɦɨɪɹ ɨɤɨɥɨ 39,0 Ȼɋ. ɉɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɟ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ Ɇɚɥɨɝɨ ɦɨɪɹ ɲɥɨ ɢɧɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɨ ɜ
ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɯ ɡɢɦɧɢɯ ɩɨɩɭɫɤɨɜ ɩɨ ɪɟɤɟ ɢ ɜ ɫɪɟɞɢɧɟ ɚɩɪɟɥɹ 2006 ɝ. ɨɧ
ɞɨɫɬɢɝ ɨɬɦɟɬɤɢ 42,0Ȼɋ. ɉɪɢ ɞɚɧɧɨɣ ɨɬɦɟɬɤɟ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɜɨɞɵ Ɇɚɥɨɟ ɦɨɪɟ
ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɦɢ ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɚɦɢ: ɨɛɴɟɦ - 27,07 ɤɦ3, ɩɥɨɳɚɞɶ ɦɨɪɹ
- 3288,0 ɤɦ2, ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɚ 15,5 ɦ, ɫɪɟɞɧɹɹ 8,2 ɦ.
ɗɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ Ɇɚɥɨɝɨ Ⱥɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɨɪɹ ɩɨɫɥɟ
ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ Ʉɨɤɚɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɣ ɩɥɨɬɢɧɵ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɭɥɭɱɲɢɥɨɫɶ.
ɋɩɚɞ ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɢɥ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɬɶ
ɫɬɚɛɢɥɶɧɵɣ ɫɬɨɤ ɜɨɞɵ ɩɨ ɋɵɪɞɚɪɶɟ ɟɠɟɝɨɞɧɨ ɜ ɨɛɴɟɦɟ 6-8 ɤɦ3, ɚ
ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɣ Ʉɨɤɚɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɣ ɩɥɨɬɢɧɵ
ɩɪɢɜɟɥɨ ɤ
ɚɤɤɭɦɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɸ ɪɟɱɧɨɣ ɜɨɞɵ. ɉɪɨɢɡɨɲɥɨ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɫɧɟɧɢɟ ɦɨɪɹ, ɩɥɨɳɚɞɶɸ
ɡɨɧɵ ɫ ɫɨɥɟɧɨɫɬɶɸ 1-10 %ɨ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɥɚɫɶ ɞɨ 60 ɬɵɫɹɱ ɝɚ. ȼɩɟɪɜɵɟ ɡɚ ɦɧɨɝɢɟ
ɝɨɞɵ ɜ ɦɨɪɟ ɫɬɚɥɢ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɬɶɫɹ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɢ ɚɛɨɪɢɝɟɧɧɨɣ ɢɯɬɢɨɮɚɭɧɵ:
ɚɪɚɥɶɫɤɚɹ ɩɥɨɬɜɚ, ɥɟɳ, ɫɚɡɚɧ, ɫɭɞɚɤ, ɠɟɪɟɯ ɢ ɞɪ. ɫɬɚɥɚ ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɢ
ɪɚɧɟɟ ɭɬɪɚɱɟɧɧɚɹ ɤɨɪɦɨɜɚɹ ɛɚɡɚ ɪɵɛ, ɫɨɫɬɨɹɳɚɹ ɢɡ ɩɪɟɫɧɨɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɢ
ɫɨɥɨɧɨɜɚɬɨɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ.
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. ɇɢɤɨɥɶɫɤɢɣ Ƚ.ȼ., 1950. Ɋɵɛɵ Ⱥɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɨɪɹ. - Ɇ.: ɂɡɞɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ ɆɈɂɉ. – ɋ.
83-11.
2. Ʌɢɦ P.M., 1986. Ɉɛ ɚɤɤɥɢɦɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɤɚɦɛɚɥɵ-ɝɥɨɫɫɵ ɜ Ⱥɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɦ ɦɨɪɟ//
Ȼɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɵ ɪɵɛɧɨɝɨ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɨɜ ɋɪɟɞɧɟɣ Ⱥɡɢɢ ɢ Ʉɚɡɚɯɫɬɚɧɚ. Ⱥɲɯɚɛɚɞ, - ɋ. 249-250.
THE ANALYSIS OF CHANGE OF STRUCTURE OF THE FISH FAUNA AND
TRADE OF THE ARAL SEA DURING ECOLOGICAL CRISIS AND AFTER
CONSTRUCTIONS OF THE KOKARALSKY DAM
Z.K.Ermakhanov, K.U. Zhubanov, T.T. Satekeev
Aral branch Kazakh Research Institute of Fishery LLP, Kazakhstan. Aralsk
E-mail: [email protected]
In article are analysed a condition of change of structure of a fish fauna of the
Aral Sea before and after a construction of the Kokaralsky dam. With a
construction of a dam and formation of the Aral (Small) Sea, representatives of a
native fish fauna over the last ten years began to meet.
63
ɍȾɄ 639.2.053+551.48
ɂɏɌɂɈɎȺɍɇȺ ɄȺɇȾȺɊȺɅɖɋɄɈɃ ɋɂɋɌȿɆɕ
ɈɁȿɊ ɇɂɁɈȼɖə ɊȿɄɂ ɋɕɊȾȺɊɖə
Ɂ.Ʉ. ȿɪɦɚɯɚɧɨɜ, Ʉ.ɍ. ɀɭɛɚɧɨɜ, Ɍ.Ɍ. ɋɚɬɟɤɟɟɜ
Ⱥɪɚɥɶɫɤɢɣ ɮɢɥɢɚɥ ɌɈɈ «ɄɚɡɇɂɂɊɏ», ɝ.Ⱥɪɚɥɶɫɤ, Ʉɚɡɚɯɫɬɚɧ
E-mail: [email protected]
ɋɨɤɪɚɳɟɧɢɟ ɫɬɨɤɚ ɪɟɤɢ ɋɵɪɞɚɪɶɹ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɡɚɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɧɚɱɚɥɚ
ɒɚɪɞɚɪɢɧɫɤɨɣ, ɚ ɡɚɬɟɦ Ʉɵɡɵɥɨɪɞɢɧɫɤɨɣ ɢ Ʉɚɡɚɥɢɧɫɤɨɣ ɩɥɨɬɢɧɚɦɢ,
ɩɪɢɜɟɥɨ ɤ ɭɫɵɯɚɧɢɸ ɨɡɟɪ ɧɢɡɨɜɶɹ, ɜɩɥɨɬɶ ɞɨ ɩɨɥɧɨɝɨ ɢɫɱɟɡɧɨɜɟɧɢɹ ɦɧɨɝɢɯ
ɢɡ ɧɢɯ. ȼ ɤɨɧɰɟ ɫɟɦɢɞɟɫɹɬɵɯ ɝɨɞɨɜ ɢɡ-ɡɚ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɹ ɜɨɞɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɱɬɢ
ɩɨɥɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɜɵɫɨɯɥɢ Ʉɭɫɬɚɦɤɚɪɚɤɭɥɶɫɤɢɟ ɢ Ⱥɤɩɚɣɚɝɢɪɟɤɫɤɢɟ ɨɡɟɪɚ.
ɉɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ
ɩɪɟɤɪɚɬɢɥɢ
ɫɜɨɟ
ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɟ
Ʉɚɪɚɭɡɹɤɫɤɚɹ
ɢ
Ⱥɤɫɚɣɤɭɜɚɧɞɚɪɶɢɧɫɤɚɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɨɡɟɪ. ȼ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɫɬɨɤɚ ɪ.
ɋɵɪɞɚɪɶɢ, ɧɚɱɢɧɚɹ ɫ 1988 ɝɨɞɚ, ɭɥɭɱɲɢɥɨɫɶ ɨɛɜɨɞɧɟɧɢɟ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ
ɨɡɟɪɧɵɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ, ɜ ɬɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟ Ʉɚɧɞɚɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɣ. ȼ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɦɧɨɝɢɟ
ɨɡɟɪɚ Ʉɚɧɞɚɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɫɹ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɹɦɢ ɜ
ɪɵɛɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɰɟɥɹɯ. Ɉɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɪɟɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɢ ɪɭɫɥɚ ɪɟɤɢ
ɋɵɪɞɚɪɶɹ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ ɩɨ ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɸ
ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɜɧɨɜɟɫɢɹ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚ, ɧɟɫɨɦɧɟɧɧɨ, ɨɤɚɠɟɬ ɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ
ɷɮɮɟɤɬ ɧɚ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɢɯɬɢɨɮɚɭɧɵ ɨɡɟɪ ɧɢɡɨɜɶɹ ɋɵɪɞɚɪɶɢ.
ɂɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ Ʉɚɧɞɚɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɨɡɟɪ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɢɫɶ ɥɟɬɨɦ 2013ɝ.
ɋɛɨɪ ɢɯɬɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɚ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɥɫɹ ɢɡ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɶɧɵɯ ɭɥɨɜɨɜ
ɫɬɚɜɧɵɦɢ ɫɟɬɹɦɢ ɫ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɨɦ ɹɱɟɣ ɨɬ 18 ɞɨ 65 ɦɦ. ɉɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚ ɫɬɚɜɧɵɯ
ɫɟɬɟɣ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɥɚɫɶ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ ɫɟɬɤɟ ɫɬɚɧɰɢɣ. Ɉɛɪɚɛɨɬɤɭ ɢɯɬɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ
ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɚ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɢ ɩɨ ɨɛɳɟɩɪɢɧɹɬɵɦ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤɚɦ [1]. Ɉɰɟɧɤɚ
ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɨɣ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɛɢɨɦɚɫɫɵ ɪɵɛ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɚ ɩɨ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤɟ ɞɥɹ
ɩɚɫɫɢɜɧɵɯ ɨɪɭɞɢɣ ɥɨɜɚ [4].
ɉɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɚɹ ɢɯɬɢɨɮɚɭɧɚ ɨɡɟɪ Ʉɚɧɞɚɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɚ
ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɦɢ ɜɢɞɚɦɢ – ɫɚɡɚɧ, ɩɥɨɬɜɚ, ɠɟɪɟɯ, ɫɟɪɟɛɪɹɧɵɣ ɤɚɪɚɫɶ, ɱɟɯɨɧɶ,
ɡɦɟɟɝɨɥɨɜ, ɤɪɚɫɧɨɩɟɪɤɚ ɢ ɛɟɥɵɣ ɬɨɥɫɬɨɥɨɛɢɤ. ɇɢɠɟ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɢɯ
ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɚ.
ɋɚɡɚɧ. ȼ Ʉɚɧɞɚɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ ɨɡɟɪ ɜ ɨɩɵɬɧɵɯ ɭɥɨɜɚɯ ɞɥɢɧɚ ɫɚɡɚɧɚ
ɤɨɥɟɛɚɥɚɫɶ ɨɬ 185 ɞɨ 470 ɦɦ, ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɹ 234 ɦɦ [5]. Ɇɚɫɫɚ ɫɚɡɚɧɚ
ɜɚɪɶɢɪɨɜɚɥɚ ɨɬ 118 ɞɨ 2450 ɝ, ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɹ 481 ɝ. ȼɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɚɹ
ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ ɡɚ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɚ ɲɟɫɬɶɸ ɝɟɧɟɪɚɰɢɹɦɢ.
Ⱦɨɦɢɧɢɪɨɜɚɥɢ ɬɪɟɯ-, ɱɟɬɵɪɟɯɥɟɬɤɢ. ȼ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɫɚɡɚɧɚ ɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɥɢ ɨɫɨɛɢ
ɪɚɡɦɟɪɨɦ 251-300 ɦɦ ɢ ɦɚɫɫɨɣ 301-500 ɝ. ɋɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɥɨɜ ɜ ɫɬɚɞɟ ɫɚɡɚɧɚ
ɛɥɢɡɤɨ 1:1. ɋɪɟɞɢ ɫɚɦɨɤ ɢ ɫɚɦɰɨɜ ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɨɜɚɥɢ – ɱɟɬɵɪɟɯɥɟɬɤɢ.
Ⱥɪɚɥɶɫɤɚɹ ɩɥɨɬɜɚ. ȼ Ʉɚɧɞɚɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ ɨɡɟɪ ɜ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɜ ɫɟɬɧɵɯ ɭɥɨɜɚɯ ɞɥɢɧɚ ɚɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɣ ɩɥɨɬɜɵ ɜɚɪɶɢɪɨɜɚɥɚ ɨɬ 140
ɞɨ 230 ɦɦ, ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɥɚ 184 ɦɦ. Ɇɚɫɫɚ ɩɥɨɬɜɵ ɤɨɥɟɛɚɥɢɫɶ ɨɬ 55 ɞɨ
64
340 ɝ, ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɹ 142 ɝ. ȼɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɨɣ ɪɹɞ ɩɥɨɬɜɵ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧ ɩɹɬɶɸ
ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɵɦɢ ɝɪɭɩɩɚɦɢ, ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɭɸɳɢɦɢ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɱɟɬɵɪɟɯɥɟɬɤɢ. ȼ
ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɚɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɣ ɩɥɨɬɜɵ ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɭɸɬ ɨɫɨɛɢ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɨɦ 151-180 ɦɦ ɢ
ɦɚɫɫɨɣ 51-100 ɝ. ɋɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɟ ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɥɨɜ ɚɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɣ ɩɥɨɬɜɵ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥɨ,
ɱɬɨ ɜ ɫɬɚɞɟ ɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɸɬ ɫɚɦɰɵ. ɋɪɟɞɢ ɫɚɦɨɤ ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɭɟɬ ɫɟɦɢɥɟɬɤɢ, ɚ
ɫɪɟɞɢ ɫɚɦɰɨɜ - ɱɟɬɵɪɟɯɥɟɬɤɢ.
ɀɟɪɟɯ. ȼ ɨɩɵɬɧɵɯ ɭɥɨɜɚɯ ɧɚ Ʉɚɧɞɚɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ ɨɡɟɪ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɥɢɫɶ
ɪɵɛɵ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɨɦ ɨɬ 200 ɞɨ 430 ɦɦ, ɦɚɫɫɨɣ ɨɬ 120 ɞɨ 1200 ɝ, ɩɪɢ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɣ
ɞɥɢɧɟ ɬɟɥɚ 302 ɦɦ ɢ ɦɚɫɫɟ 430 ɝ. ȼɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɚɹ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɚ ɩɹɬɶɸ
ɝɟɧɟɪɚɰɢɹɦɢ, ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɨɜɚɥɢ ɩɹɬɢɥɟɬɤɢ. ȼ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɠɟɪɟɯɚ ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɨɜɚɥɢ
ɨɫɨɛɢ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɨɦ 301-350 ɦɦ ɢ ɦɚɫɫɨɣ 401-500 ɝ. ɋɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɥɨɜ ɠɟɪɟɯɚ
ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥɨ, ɱɬɨ ɜ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɥɢ ɫɚɦɤɢ.
Ʉɚɪɚɫɶ ɫɟɪɟɛɪɹɧɵɣ. ȼ ɨɩɵɬɧɵɯ ɭɥɨɜɚɯ ɞɥɢɧɚ ɤɚɪɚɫɹ ɫɟɪɟɛɪɹɧɨɝɨ
ɢɡɦɟɧɹɥɚɫɶ ɨɬ 120 ɞɨ 265 ɦɦ, ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦ 209 ɦɦ. Ɇɚɫɫɚ ɜɚɪɶɢɪɨɜɚɥɚ ɨɬ 35 ɞɨ
445 ɝ, ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦ 279 ɝ. ȼɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɚɹ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ ɤɚɪɚɫɹ ɫɟɪɟɛɪɹɧɨɝɨ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɚ ɩɹɬɶɸ ɝɟɧɟɪɚɰɢɹɦɢ, ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɨɜɚɥɢ ɩɹɬɢɥɟɬɤɢ. ȼ ɫɬɚɞɟ
ɫɟɪɟɛɪɹɧɨɝɨ ɤɚɪɚɫɹ ɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɥɢ ɨɫɨɛɢ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɨɦ 201-250 ɦɦ ɢ ɦɚɫɫɨɣ –
301-400 ɝ. ɋɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɥɨɜ ɫɟɪɟɛɪɹɧɨɝɨ ɤɚɪɚɫɹ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥɨ, ɱɬɨ ɜ ɫɬɚɞɟ
ɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɥɢ ɫɚɦɤɢ. ɋɪɟɞɢ ɫɚɦɨɤ ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɨɜɚɥɢ ɩɹɬɢɥɟɬɤɢ.
Ɂɦɟɟɝɨɥɨɜ. ȼ ɨɩɵɬɧɵɯ ɭɥɨɜɚɯ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɥɢɫɶ ɪɵɛɵ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɨɦ ɨɬ 360 ɞɨ
590 ɦɦ, ɦɚɫɫɨɣ ɨɬ 580 ɞɨ 2930 ɝ, ɩɪɢ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɣ ɞɥɢɧɟ ɬɟɥɚ 460 ɦɦ ɢ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɣ
ɦɚɫɫɟ 1568 ɝ. ȼɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɨɣ ɫɨɫɬɚɜ ɡɦɟɟɝɨɥɨɜɚ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧ ɬɪɟɦɹ
ɝɟɧɟɪɚɰɢɹɦɢ, ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɨɜɚɥɢ ɲɟɫɬɢ – ɢ ɜɨɫɶɦɢɥɟɬɤɢ. ȼ ɫɬɚɞɟ ɡɦɟɟɝɨɥɨɜɚ
Ʉɚɧɞɚɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɨɡɟɪ ɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɥɢ ɨɫɨɛɢ ɞɥɢɧɨɣ ɬɟɥɚ 350-400 ɦɦ ɢ
ɦɚɫɫɨɣ 501-800 ɝ.
Ʉɪɚɫɧɨɩɟɪɤɚ. ȼ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɶɧɵɯ ɭɥɨɜɚɯ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɥɢɫɶ ɤɪɚɫɧɨɩɟɪɤɢ
ɪɚɡɦɟɪɨɦ ɨɬ 195 ɞɨ 260 ɦɦ ɢ ɨɛɳɢɣ ɦɚɫɫɨɣ ɨɬ 158 ɞɨ 288 ɝ, ɩɪɢ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɣ
ɞɥɢɧɟ ɬɟɥɚ 214 ɦɦ ɢ ɦɚɫɫɟ 237 ɝ. ȼɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɨɣ ɫɨɫɬɚɜ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧ ɬɪɟɦɹ
ɝɟɧɟɪɚɰɢɹɦɢ, ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɭɸɳɢɦɢ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɲɟɫɬɢɥɟɬɤɢ. ȼ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ
ɤɪɚɫɧɨɩɟɪɤɢ Ʉɚɧɞɚɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɨɡɟɪ ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɭɸɬ ɨɫɨɛɢ ɞɥɢɧɨɣ ɬɟɥɚ
201-230 ɦɦ ɢ ɦɚɫɫɨɣ 201-250 ɝ. ɋɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɟ ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɥɨɜ ɤɪɚɫɧɨɩɟɪɤɢ
ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥɨ, ɱɬɨ ɨɧɨ ɪɚɜɧɨ 1:1. ɋɪɟɞɢ ɫɚɦɨɤ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɫɚɦɰɨɜ ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɭɸɬ
ɲɟɫɬɢɥɟɬɤɢ.
Ȼɟɥɵɣ
ɬɨɥɫɬɨɥɨɛɢɤ.
ȼ
Ʉɚɧɞɚɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɣ
ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ
ɨɡɟɪ
ɜ
ɷɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɭɥɨɜɚɯ ɞɥɢɧɚ ɛɟɥɨɝɨ ɬɨɥɫɬɨɥɨɛɢɤɚ ɜɚɪɶɢɪɨɜɚɥɚ ɨɬ 340
ɞɨ 560 ɦɦ, ɚ ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɥɚ 443 ɦɦ. Ɇɚɫɫɚ ɬɨɥɫɬɨɥɨɛɢɤɚ ɤɨɥɟɛɚɥɚɫɶ
ɨɬ 614 ɞɨ 2864 ɝ, ɚ ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɥɚ 1585 ɝ. ȼɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɨɣ ɫɨɫɬɚɜ
ɬɨɥɫɬɨɥɨɛɢɤɚ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧ ɬɪɟɦɹ ɝɟɧɟɪɚɰɢɹɦɢ, ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɭɸɳɢɦɢ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ
ɩɹɬɢɥɟɬɤɢ. ȼ ɫɬɚɞɟ ɛɟɥɨɝɨ ɬɨɥɫɬɨɥɨɛɢɤɚ ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɨɜɚɥɢ ɨɫɨɛɢ ɞɥɢɧɨɣ 401450 ɦɦ ɢ ɦɚɫɫɨɣ 1401-1800 ɝ.
ɑɟɯɨɧɶ. ȼ ɨɩɵɬɧɵɯ ɭɥɨɜɚɯ ɞɥɢɧɚ ɱɟɯɨɧɢ ɜɚɪɶɢɪɨɜɚɥɚ ɨɬ 220 ɞɨ 320 ɦɦ,
ɦɚɫɫɚ – ɨɬ 90 ɞɨ 280 ɝ, ɩɪɢ ɫɪɟɞɧɢɯ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹɯ – 272 ɦɦ ɢ 174 ɝ. ȼɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɚɹ
ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ ɱɟɯɨɧɢ ɡɚ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɚ ɬɪɟɦɹ ɝɪɭɩɩɚɦɢ,
ɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɥɢ ɱɟɬɵɪɟɯɥɟɬɤɢ. ȼ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɱɟɯɨɧɢ Ʉɚɧɞɚɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ
65
ɨɡɟɪ ɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɥɢ ɨɫɨɛɢ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɨɦ 221-270 ɦɦ ɢ ɦɚɫɫɨɣ – 101-200 ɝ.
ɋɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɥɨɜ ɱɟɯɨɧɢ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥɨ, ɱɬɨ ɜ ɫɬɚɞɟ ɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɥɢ ɫɚɦɤɢ. ɋɪɟɞɢ
ɫɚɦɨɤ ɢ ɫɪɟɞɢ ɫɚɦɰɨɜ ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɨɜɚɥɢ ɱɟɬɵɪɟɯɥɟɬɤɢ.
ȼ ɬɚɛɥɢɰɟ 1 ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɵ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɵ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ, ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɨɝɨ ɡɚɩɚɫɚ
ɪɵɛ ɧɚ ɨɡɟɪɚɯ Ʉɚɧɞɚɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɜ 2013 ɝ.
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 1
ɑɟɯɨɧɶ
Ȼɟɥɵɣ
ɬɨɥɫɬɨɥɨɛɢɤ
Ʉɪɚɫɧɨɩɟɪɤɚ
950
25
20
23
0,5
0,026
0,142
Ɂɦɟɟɝɨɥɨɜ
950
25
20
23
0,5
0,024
0,548
Ʉɚɪɚɫɶ
ɫɟɪɟɛɪɹɧɵɣ
ɉɥɨɬɜɚ
ɉɥɨɳɚɞɶ, ɝɚ
Ⱦɥɢɧɚ ɫɟɬɢ, ɦ
Ʉɨɥ-ɜɨ ɫɟɬɟɣ, ɲɬ.
ɉɥɨɳɚɞɶ ɨɛɥɨɜɚ, ɝɚ
Ʉɨɷɮ. ɭɥɨɜɢɫɬɨɫɬɢ
ȼɟɪɨɹɬɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɨɩɚɞɚɧɢɹ
ɋɪɟɞɧɹɹ ɧɚɜɟɫɤɚ, ɤɝ
ɉɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɚɹ ɱɢɫɥɟɧ., ɬɵɫ.
ɲɬ.
ɉɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɵɣ ɡɚɩɚɫ, ɬɨɧɧɵ
ɂɬɨɝɨ, ɬɨɧɧɵ
ɀɟɪɟɯ
ɉɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶ
ɋɚɡɚɧ
Ɋɚɫɱɟɬ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ, ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɨɝɨ ɡɚɩɚɫɚ ɪɵɛ ɧɚ ɨɡɟɪɚɯ
Ʉɚɧɞɚɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɜ 2013 ɝ.
ȼɢɞɵ ɪɵɛ
950
950 950
25
25
25
20
20
20
23
23
23
0,5
0,5
0,5
0,026 0,024 0,026
0,430 0,345 1,568
950
25
20
23
0,5
0,026
0,237
950
950
25
25
20
20
23
23
0,5
0,5
0,022 0,024
1,585 0,174
29,20 105,63
19,3 53,04
8,48
63,29
3,79
47,70
16,0
8,3
18,3 13,3
100,2
15,0
6,0
8,3
15,0
Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɜ 2013 ɝɨɞɭ ɜ ɨɛɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɨɡɟɪɚɯ Ʉɚɧɞɚɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɣ
ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɧɢɡɨɜɶɹ ɋɵɪɞɚɪɶɢ ɩɨ ɞɚɧɧɵɦ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɭɥɨɜɨɜ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ
ɦɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɢɡ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɩɥɨɬɜɚ, ɤɪɚɫɧɨɩɟɪɤɚ,
ɤɚɪɚɫɶ ɫɟɪɟɛɪɹɧɵɣ ɢ ɱɟɯɨɧɶ. Ɉɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɜɵɫɨɤɢɣ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɵɣ ɡɚɩɚɫ
ɢɦɟɸɬ ɤɚɪɚɫɶ ɫɟɪɟɛɪɹɧɵɣ, ɫɚɡɚɧ, ɩɥɨɬɜɚ ɢ ɤɪɚɫɧɨɩɟɪɤɚ.
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. ɉɪɚɜɞɢɧ ɇ.Ɏ. Ɋɭɤɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ ɩɨ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɸ ɪɵɛ. – Ɇ.: ɉɢɳɟɩɪɨɦɢɡɞɚɬ, 1965. – 376
ɫ.
2. ɑɭɝɭɧɨɜɚ ɇ.ɇ. Ɋɭɤɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ ɩɨ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɸ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚ ɢ ɪɨɫɬɚ ɪɵɛ. – Ɇ.:
ɉɢɳɟɩɪɨɦɢɡɞɚɬ, 1950. – 163 ɫ.
3. Ʉɨɛɥɢɰɤɚɹ Ⱥ.Ɏ. ɂɡɭɱɟɧɢɟ ɧɟɪɟɫɬɚ ɩɪɟɫɧɨɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɪɵɛ. Ɇ., 1966. – 110 ɫ.
4. Ʉɭɲɧɚɪɟɧɤɨ Ⱥ.ɂ., Ʌɭɝɚɪɟɜ ȿ.ɋ. Ɉɰɟɧɤɚ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɪɵɛ ɩɨ ɭɥɨɜɚɦ ɩɚɫɫɢɜɧɵɦɢ
ɨɪɭɞɢɹɦɢ ɥɨɜɚ// ȼɨɩɪɨɫɵ ɢɯɬɢɨɥɨɝɢɢ. – Ɇ. – 1989. – Ɍ. 23 – ȼɵɩ. 6. – ɋ. 921-926.
5. Ȼɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɨɛɳɢɯ ɞɨɩɭɫɬɢɦɵɯ ɭɥɨɜɨɜ ɧɚ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɚɯ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɧɨɝɨ
ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ Ʉɵɡɵɥɨɪɞɢɧɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ./Ɉɬɱɟɬ ɨ ɇɂɊ Ⱥɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ ɮɢɥɢɚɥɚ ɌɈɈ
«ɄɚɡɇɂɂɊɏ»-Ⱥɪɚɥɶɫɤ, 2013.-159ɫ.
66
FISH FAUNA OF THE KANDARAL SYSTEM OF THE LAKES
OF THE LOWER REACH OF THE SYR-DARYA RIVER
Z.K. Ermakhanov, K.U. Zhubanov, T.T. Satekeev
Aral branch Kazakh Research Institute of Fishery LLP, Kazakhstan. Aralsk
E-mail:[email protected]
Reduction of a drain of the Syr-Darya River after control, at first Shardarinskoy,
and then Kyzylordinsky and Kazalinsky dams, led to drying of the lakes of the
lower reach, up to total disappearance of many of them. In the late seventies
because of the water content reduction the Kustamkarakulsky and
Akpayagireksky lakes almost completely dried up. Practically Karauzyaksky and
Aksaykuvandaryinsky systems of the lakes do not exist any longer. Since 1988
due to increasing of drain of the Syr-Darya River, flood of existing lake systems,
including Kandaralsk one was improved. Now many lakes of Kandaralsk system
are used by users for fishery purposes.
Implementation of a reconstruction of the bed of the Syr-Darya River under
conditions of the project on restoration of ecological equilibrium of the region will
undoubtedly render a positive effect on fish fauna of the lakes of the lower reach
of Syr-Darya.
67
ɍȾɄ 595.422:599.32(470.62/.67)
ɉȺɊȺɁɂɌɈ-ɏɈɁəɂɇɇɕȿ ɋȼəɁɂ ȽȺɆȺɁɈȼɕɏ ɄɅȿɓȿɃ ɊɈȾȺ
HAEMOGAMASUS BERLESE (ACARI: GAMASINA) ɋ ɆȿɅɄɂɆɂ
ɆɅȿɄɈɉɂɌȺɘɓɂɆɂ ɇȺ ɌȿɊɊɂɌɈɊɂɂ ɐȿɇɌɊȺɅɖɇɈȽɈ
ɉɊȿȾɄȺȼɄȺɁɖə
Ⱥ.ɘ. ɀɢɥɶɰɨɜɚ
ɎɄɍɁ ɋɬɚɜɪɨɩɨɥɶɫɤɢɣ ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɱɭɦɧɵɣ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ Ɋɨɫɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɚɞɡɨɪɚ,
ɝ. ɋɬɚɜɪɨɩɨɥɶ. E-mail: [email protected]
ȼ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɢ ɨɛɨɛɳɟɧɵ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɨ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨ-ɯɨɡɹɢɧɧɵɯ ɫɜɹɡɹɯ 5
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɪɨɞɚ Haemogamasus ɫ ɦɟɥɤɢɦɢ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɦɢ ɧɚ
ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɐɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɉɪɟɞɤɚɜɤɚɡɶɹ.
Ʉɥɟɳɢ ɪɨɞɚ Haemogamasus Berlese, 1889 (ɫɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɨ Haemogamasidae
Oudemans, 1926) ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɝɧɟɡɞɨɜɨ-ɧɨɪɨɜɵɦɢ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚɦɢ ɦɟɥɤɢɯ
ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ (ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦ, ɝɪɵɡɭɧɨɜ ɢ ɧɚɫɟɤɨɦɨɹɞɧɵɯ). ɉɨ ɬɢɩɭ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɹ
ɨɧɢ ɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɚɬ ɤ ɨɛɥɢɝɚɬɧɵɦ ɢ ɮɚɤɭɥɶɬɚɬɢɜɧɵɦ ɝɟɦɚɬɨɮɚɝɚɦ [2].
ȼ ɨɫɧɨɜɭ ɞɚɧɧɨɣ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɥɟɝɥɢ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɵ, ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɧɚɦɢ ɜɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ
ɩɨɥɟɜɵɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ, ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɯ ɜ ɐɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɉɪɟɞɤɚɜɤɚɡɶɟ ɜ 2001 –
2010 ɝɝ.. ɉɨɦɢɦɨ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɨɜ, ɧɚɦɢ ɨɛɪɚɛɨɬɚɧɵ ɚɪɯɢɜɧɵɟ
ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɋɬɚɜɪɨɩɨɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɱɭɦɧɨɝɨ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬɚ, ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɵ ɤɨɥɥɟɤɰɢɢ
ɩɨ Gamasina Ⱥ. Ƚ. Ɋɟɣɬɛɥɚɬ ɢ ɫɛɨɪɵ, ɫɞɟɥɚɧɧɵɟ ɞɪɭɝɢɦɢ ɥɢɰɚɦɢ.
Ɂɚ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɛɵɥɨ ɨɬɥɨɜɥɟɧɨ ɢ ɨɱɟɫɚɧɨ 572 ɷɤɡ. ɦɟɥɤɢɯ
ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ (ɝɪɵɡɭɧɨɜ ɢ ɧɚɫɟɤɨɦɨɹɞɧɵɯ) 19 ɜɢɞɨɜ, ɫɨɛɪɚɧɨ 78 ɷɤɡ. ɢɯ
ɝɧɟɡɞ. ɋɨ ɜɫɟɯ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ɨɬɨɛɪɚɥɢ 5511 ɝɚɦɚɡɨɜɵɯ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ. Ʉ ɪɨɞɭ
Haemogamasus ɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɢɬ 1286 ɷɤɡɟɦɩɥɹɪɨɜ, ɱɬɨ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɩɨɱɬɢ ɩɹɬɭɸ
ɱɚɫɬɶ ɨɛɳɟɝɨ ɨɛɴɟɦɚ ɫɛɨɪɨɜ. Ⱦɥɹ ɦɚɬɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɪɚɛɨɬɤɢ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ
ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɥɢɫɶ ɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɧɵɟ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɢɧɞɟɤɫɵ [1]: ɨɛɢɥɢɹ (ɂɈ)
ɢ ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ (ɂȾ).
ɇɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɐɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɉɪɟɞɤɚɜɤɚɡɶɹ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɭɟɦɵɣ ɪɨɞ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧ 5 ɜɢɞɚɦɢ.
Hg. ambulans (Thorell, 1872).
Ƚɧɟɡɞɨɜɨɣ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬ ɝɪɵɡɭɧɨɜ. ȼ
ɐɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɉɪɟɞɤɚɜɤɚɡɶɟ ɜɩɟɪɜɵɟ ɧɚɦɢ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɨ 2 ɷɤɡɟɦɩɥɹɪɚ ɧɚ
ɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɟɜɤɟ.
Hg. nidi Michael, 1892. Ɉɛɢɬɚɟɬ ɩɨ ɜɫɟɣ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɐɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɉɪɟɞɤɚɜɤɚɡɶɹ ɢ ɜɯɨɞɢɬ ɜ ɱɢɫɥɨ ɦɚɫɫɨɜɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ Gamasina; ɧɚɣɞɟɧ ɧɚ
ɝɪɵɡɭɧɚɯ ɢ ɜ ɢɯ ɝɧɟɡɞɚɯ [3, 5]. ɋɪɟɞɧɢɣ ɂɈ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɜɢɞɚ ɜ ɝɧɟɡɞɚɯ (11) ɜ 36
ɪɚɡ ɩɪɟɜɨɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɫɪɟɞɧɢɣ ɂɈ ɜ ɨɱɟɫɚɯ ɫɨ ɡɜɟɪɶɤɨɜ (0,3). ɋɩɟɤɬɪ ɯɨɡɹɟɜ Hg.
nidi ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɐɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɉɪɟɞɤɚɜɤɚɡɶɹ ɜɤɥɸɱɚɟɬ 9 ɜɢɞɨɜ, ɫɪɟɞɢ
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɦɢ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɩɨɥɟɜɤɢ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɚɹ (ɂȾ ɜ ɝɧɟɡɞɚɯ – 29,8;
ɂȾ ɜ ɨɱɟɫɚɯ – 2,5) ɢ ɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɚɹ (ɂȾ ɜ ɝɧɟɡɞɚɯ – 19,5; ɂȾ ɜ ɨɱɟɫɚɯ – 5,8).
Ɉɥɢɝɨɝɨɫɬɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɜɢɞ ɫ ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɧɵɦ ɝɧɟɡɞɨɜɨ-ɧɨɪɨɜɵɦ ɬɢɩɨɦ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɢɡɦɚ.
68
Hg. hirsutus Berlese, 1889. ȼ ɐɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɉɪɟɞɤɚɜɤɚɡɶɟ ɨɱɟɧɶ ɪɟɞɨɤ.
Ɉɬɦɟɱɟɧ ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɜ ɥɟɫɧɵɯ ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɚɯ. ɇɚɣɞɟɧ ɧɚ ɝɪɵɡɭɧɚɯ,
ɧɚɫɟɤɨɦɨɹɞɧɵɯ ɢ ɜ ɢɯ ɝɧɟɡɞɚɯ. ɋɪɟɞɧɢɣ ɂɈ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɜɢɞɚ ɜ ɝɧɟɡɞɚɯ ɪɚɜɟɧ 2,6,
ɂɈ ɜ ɨɱɟɫɚɯ ɫɨ ɡɜɟɪɶɤɨɜ – 0,06. ɋɤɭɞɧɨɫɬɶ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ ɩɨ ɷɬɨɦɭ ɜɢɞɭ ɧɟ
ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɫ ɞɨɫɬɨɜɟɪɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɶ ɫɩɟɤɬɪ ɟɝɨ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɯɨɡɹɟɜ ɜ
ɐɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɉɪɟɞɤɚɜɤɚɡɶɟ.
Hg. hirsutosimilis Willmann, 1952. ȼ ɐɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɉɪɟɞɤɚɜɤɚɡɶɟ
ɦɚɥɨɱɢɫɥɟɧ ɢ ɩɪɢɭɪɨɱɟɧ ɤ ɥɟɫɧɵɦ ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɚɦ [4]. ɋɪɟɞɧɢɣ ɂɈ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɜɢɞɚ
ɜ ɝɧɟɡɞɚɯ ɪɚɜɟɧ 0,6, ɂɈ ɜ ɨɱɟɫɚɯ ɫɨ ɡɜɟɪɶɤɨɜ – 0,3. ɋɩɟɤɬɪ ɯɨɡɹɟɜ Hg.
hirsutosimilis ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɐɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɉɪɟɞɤɚɜɤɚɡɶɹ ɜɤɥɸɱɚɟɬ 6 ɜɢɞɨɜ,
ɫɪɟɞɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɦɢ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɦɵɲɢ ɪɨɞɚ Sylvaemus (ɂȾ ɜ ɨɱɟɫɚɯ –
28,8). Ɉɥɢɝɨɝɨɫɬɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɜɢɞ.
Hg. citelli Bregetova et Nelzina, 1952. ȼ ɐɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɉɪɟɞɤɚɜɤɚɡɶɟ
ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɫɬɟɩɧɵɯ ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɚɯ; ɝɧɟɡɞɨɜɨɣ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬ ɫɭɫɥɢɤɨɜ. ɇɚ
ɢɡɭɱɚɟɦɨɣ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧ ɧɚ ɦɚɥɨɦ ɫɭɫɥɢɤɟ ɢ ɫɟɪɨɦ ɯɨɦɹɱɤɟ [4, 5].
Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɵɦ ɯɨɡɹɢɧɨɦ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɦɚɥɵɣ ɫɭɫɥɢɤ (ɂȾ ɜ ɝɧɟɡɞɚɯ – 54,3; ɂȾ ɜ
ɨɱɟɫɚɯ – 30,5). ɇɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɐɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɉɪɟɞɤɚɜɤɚɡɶɹ ɞɚɧɧɵɣ ɜɢɞ
ɦɨɠɧɨ ɨɬɧɟɫɬɢ ɤ ɦɨɧɨɝɨɫɬɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɮɚɤɭɥɶɬɚɬɢɜɧɵɦ ɤɪɨɜɨɫɨɫɚɦ.
Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɤɥɟɳɢ ɪɨɞɚ Haemogamasus, ɨɛɢɬɚɸɳɢɟ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ
ɐɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɉɪɟɞɤɚɜɤɚɡɶɹ, ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵ ɞɜɭɦɹ
ɨɥɢɝɨɝɨɫɬɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ
ɜɢɞɚɦɢ - Hg. nidi, Hg. hirsutosimilis ɢ ɨɞɧɢɦ ɦɨɧɨɝɨɫɬɚɥɶɧɵɦ - Hg. citelli.
Ɉɫɬɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɢ ɪɨɞɚ ɬɪɟɛɭɸɬ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɹ.
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. Ȼɟɤɥɟɦɢɲɟɜ ȼ.ɇ. Ɍɟɪɦɢɧɵ ɢ ɩɨɧɹɬɢɹ, ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɟ ɩɪɢ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɦ
ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɢ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɣ ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ ɢ ɧɢɞɢɤɨɥɨɜ // Ɂɨɨɥ. ɠɭɪɧɚɥ. – 1961. – Ɍ. 40, ɜɵɩ. 2.
– ɋ. 149-158.
2. Ɂɟɦɫɤɚɹ Ⱥ.Ⱥ. ɉɚɪɚɡɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɝɚɦɚɡɨɜɵɟ ɤɥɟɳɢ ɢ ɢɯ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɫɤɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ. –
Ɇ., 1973 – 167 ɫ.
3. Ɇɭɧɹɤɢɧɚ Ⱥ. ɘ. Ƚɚɦɚɡɨɜɵɟ ɤɥɟɳɢ ɩɬɢɰ ɢ ɝɪɵɡɭɧɨɜ ɋɬɚɜɪɨɩɨɥɶɫɤɨɣ
ɜɨɡɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ. // ɉɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɧɚ ɋɟɜɟɪɧɨɦ Ʉɚɜɤɚɡɟ. ɋɬɚɜɪɨɩɨɥɶ, 2003. - ɋ. 53-54.
4. ɉɨɩɨɜɚ ȿ.ȼ. Ɉ ɜɢɞɨɜɨɦ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɟ ɢ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɢ ɢɤɫɨɞɨɜɵɯ ɢ ɝɚɦɚɡɨɜɵɯ
ɤɥɟɳɟɣ ɜ ɨɱɚɝɚɯ ɬɭɥɹɪɟɦɢɢ ɋɬɚɜɪɨɩɨɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ ɤɪɚɹ // Ɇɢɤɪɨɛɢɨɥ., ɷɩɢɞɟɦɢɨɥ. ɢ
ɩɪɨɮɢɥɚɤɬ. ɢɧɮɟɤɰ. ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɣ. – ɋɬɚɜɪɨɩɨɥɶ, 1971. – ɑ. 1. – ɋ. 240-246.
5. Ɋɟɣɬɛɥɚɬ Ⱥ.Ƚ. Ɉ ɮɚɭɧɟ ɝɚɦɚɡɨɜɵɯ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ (Gamasoidea, Parasitiformes)
ɋɬɚɜɪɨɩɨɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ ɤɪɚɹ // Ȼɸɥ. ɆɈɂɉ, ɨɬɞ. ɡɨɨɥ. – 1964. – Ɍ. 39, ɜɵɩ. 4. – ɋ. 244-258.
PARASITE-HOST RELATIONS OF GAMASINA MITES OF THE GENUS
HAEMOGAMASUS BERLESE (ACARI: GAMASINA) WITH SMALL MAMMALS IN
THE TERRITORY OF THE CENTRAL CISCAUCASIA
A. Yu. Zhiltsova
FKUZ Stavropol Research Institute for Plague Control of the Federal Service for
Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare, Stavropol
Data of the parasite-host relations of 5 species of the genus Haemogamasus with
small mammals in the territory of the Central Ciscaucasia were summarized.
69
ɍȾɄ 599.4:569.4
ɆɈɊɎɈɅɈȽɂɑȿɋɄɂȿ ɈɋɈȻȿɇɇɈɋɌɂ ɅȿɌȺɌȿɅɖɇɈɃ
ɉȿɊȿɉɈɇɄɂ CYNOCEPHALUS VARIEGATUS (DERMOPTERA)
ȼ ɗɆȻɊɂɈȽȿɇȿɁȿ
ɂ.Ɇ. Ʉɨɜɚɥɺɜɚ1, Ʌ.Ⱥ. Ɍɚɪɚɛɨɪɤɢɧ2, Ɇ.ɉ. Ɍɢɭɧɨɜ3,
ɋ.ɘ. Ʌɟɞɟɧɺɜ4, ȿ.ɋ. Ʌɟɞɟɧɺɜɚ5
1
ɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ɡɨɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɢɦ. ɂ.ɂ. ɒɦɚɥɶɝɚɭɡɟɧɚ ɇȺɇ ɍɤɪɚɢɧɵ, ɝ. Ʉɢɟɜ,
E-mail: [email protected]
2
ɇɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ ɍɤɪɚɢɧɵ «Ʉɉɂ», ɝ. Ʉɢɟɜ,
E-mail: [email protected]
3
Ȼɢɨɥɨɝɨ-ɩɨɱɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ȾȼɈ ɊȺɇ, ɝ. ȼɥɚɞɢɜɨɫɬɨɤ,
E-mail: [email protected]
4
ɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ɛɨɬɚɧɢɤɢ ɢɦ. Ƚɪɢɲɤɨ ɇȺɇ ɍɤɪɚɢɧɵ, ɝ. Ʉɢɟɜ
5
ɇɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɝ. Ʉɢɟɜ
ɍɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɚ
ɧɟɨɞɧɨɪɨɞɧɨɫɬɶ
ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ
ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ
ɨɛɥɚɫɬɟɣ
ɥɟɬɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɩɟɪɟɩɨɧɤɢ ɲɟɪɫɬɨɤɪɵɥɚ. Ʌɟɬɚɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ ɩɟɪɟɩɨɧɤɚ ɦɟɠɞɭ
ɮɚɥɚɧɝɚɦɢ ɩɚɥɶɰɟɜ ɲɟɪɫɬɨɤɪɵɥɚ ɫɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɚ ɦɟɡɟɧɯɢɦɨɣ, ɢɡɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɨ
ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɸɳɟɣ ɩɨɱɤɢ ɝɪɭɞɧɨɣ ɢ ɬɚɡɨɜɨɣ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɫɬɟɣ. Ȼɨɤɨɜɚɹ ɢ
ɩɥɟɱɟɝɨɥɨɜɧɚɹ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɥɟɬɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɩɟɪɟɩɨɧɤɢ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɫɯɨɞɧɨ ɫ
ɤɨɠɟɣ ɬɭɥɨɜɢɳɚ.
ɉɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɢ ɨɬɪɹɞɚ ɲɟɪɫɬɨɤɪɵɥɨɜ, ɢɥɢ ɤɚɝɭɚɧɨɜ Dermoptera,
ɨɛɥɚɞɚɸɬ
ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ
ɨɛɲɢɪɧɨɣ
ɥɟɬɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ
ɩɟɪɟɩɨɧɤɨɣ
ɫɪɟɞɢ
ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ, ɨɫɜɨɢɜɲɢɯ ɩɥɚɧɢɪɭɸɳɢɣ ɩɨɥɺɬ. ɗɬɚ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ
ɮɢɤɫɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɝɨɥɨɜɟ, ɲɟɟ, ɜɫɟɯ ɡɜɟɧɶɹɯ ɝɪɭɞɧɨɣ ɢ ɬɚɡɨɜɨɣ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɫɬɟɣ,
ɩɨ ɛɨɤɚɦ ɬɟɥɚ ɢ ɯɜɨɫɬɚ. Ȼɨɥɶɲɭɸ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɥɟɬɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɩɟɪɟɩɨɧɤɢ
ɲɟɪɫɬɨɤɪɵɥɨɜ ɡɚɧɢɦɚɟɬ ɬɭɥɨɜɢɳɧɚɹ (ɛɨɤɨɜɚɹ) ɟɺ ɱɚɫɬɶ. ɋɤɟɥɟɬɧɵɟ
ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɵ ɤɢɫɬɢ ɲɟɪɫɬɨɤɪɵɥɚ ɧɟ ɭɞɥɢɧɟɧɵ. ɉɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɦɟɠɩɚɥɶɰɟɜɚɹ
ɩɟɪɟɩɨɧɤɚ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɧɟɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɭɸ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɨɬ ɨɛɳɟɣ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɢ ɥɟɬɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ
ɩɟɪɟɩɨɧɤɢ [3].
Ɋɚɧɟɟ ɧɚɦɢ ɛɵɥɢ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɵ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɹ ɜ ɝɟɧɟɡɢɫɟ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɨɜ
ɥɟɬɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɩɟɪɟɩɨɧɤɢ ɪɭɤɨɤɪɵɥɵɯ [1]. ɂɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɦɨɪɮɨɝɟɧɟɡɚ
ɥɟɬɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɩɟɪɟɩɨɧɤɢ ɲɟɪɫɬɨɤɪɵɥɚ ɞɨ ɫɢɯ ɩɨɪ ɧɟ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɨɫɶ, ɬɚɤ ɱɬɨ
ɜɨɩɪɨɫ ɨ ɝɟɧɟɡɢɫɟ ɥɟɬɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɩɟɪɟɩɨɧɤɢ ɲɟɪɫɬɨɤɪɵɥɚ ɨɫɬɚɺɬɫɹ ɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɦ.
Ⱦɚɧɧɚɹ ɪɚɛɨɬɚ ɜɨ ɦɧɨɝɨɦ ɭɫɬɪɚɧɹɟɬ ɷɬɨɬ ɩɪɨɛɟɥ.
Ɇɚɬɟɪɢɚɥ ɢ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤɚ. ɂɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɵ ɮɪɚɝɦɟɧɬɵ (ɩɪɚɜɚɹ ɝɪɭɞɧɚɹ ɢ
ɬɚɡɨɜɚɹ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɫɬɢ ɫ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɦɢ ɥɟɬɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɩɟɪɟɩɨɧɤɢ) ɷɦɛɪɢɨɧɚ
ɲɟɪɫɬɨɤɪɵɥɚ ɫɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɚ Cynocephalidae Cynocephalus variegatus (Audebert)
ɢɥɢ Galiopithecus, ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɝɨ 20-ɨɣ ɫɬɚɞɢɢ ɷɦɛɪɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ, GL 19 ɦɦ. (GL = greatest length). ɋɟɪɢɣɧɵɟ ɫɚɝɢɬɬɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɫɪɟɡɵ
ɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɷɦɛɪɢɨɧɚ (ɬɨɥɳɢɧɨɣ ɞɨ 5 ɦɤɦ) ɨɤɪɚɲɢɜɚɥɢɫɶ ɩɨ Ɇɚɥɥɨɪɢ.
Ɇɢɤɪɨɩɪɟɩɚɪɚɬɵ ɢɡɭɱɚɥɢɫɶ ɢ ɮɨɬɨɝɪɚɮɢɪɨɜɚɥɢɫɶ ɫ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ ɫɜɟɬɨɜɨɝɨ
70
ɦɢɤɪɨɫɤɨɩɚ Axio Imager M1 Karl Zeiss (Ƚɟɪɦɚɧɢɹ). Ɇɚɬɟɪɢɚɥ ɥɸɛɟɡɧɨ
ɩɪɟɞɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧ Ʌɚɛɨɪɚɬɨɪɢɟɣ Ƚɭɛɪɟɯɬɚ (The Hubrecht Laboratory, Netherlands
Institute for Developmental Biology) (Utrecht, The Netherlands).
Ɋɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ. ɍ ɷɦɛɪɢɨɧɚ ɲɟɪɫɬɨɤɪɵɥɚ ɢɦɟɸɬɫɹ
ɩɥɟɱɟɝɨɥɨɜɧɚɹ, ɛɨɤɨɜɚɹ ɢ ɦɟɠɩɚɥɶɰɟɜɵɟ ɩɟɪɟɩɨɧɤɢ ɝɪɭɞɧɵɯ ɢ ɬɚɡɨɜɵɯ
ɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɫɬɟɣ. Ʉɢɫɬɟɜɵɟ ɩɥɚɫɬɢɧɤɢ ɨɯɜɚɬɵɜɚɸɬ ɜɫɟ ɮɚɥɚɧɝɢ ɩɚɥɶɰɟɜ.
Ɏɨɪɦɢɪɭɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɩɨɤɪɨɜɧɵɟ ɬɤɚɧɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵ ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ
ɨɞɧɨɪɹɞɧɵɦ ɫɥɨɟɦ ɤɭɛɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɷɩɢɬɟɥɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɥɟɬɨɤ. ɗɩɢɬɟɥɢɚɥɶɧɵɟ
ɤɥɟɬɤɢ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɚɩɢɤɚɥɶɧɨ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɟ ɹɞɪɚ. Ɇɟɠɞɭ ɤɥɟɬɤɚɦɢ ɩɪɨɫɬɨɝɨ
ɤɭɛɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɷɩɢɬɟɥɢɹ ɢɦɟɸɬɫɹ ɨɞɢɧɨɱɧɵɟ ɩɥɨɫɤɢɟ ɷɩɢɬɟɥɢɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɤɥɟɬɤɢ.
ɉɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ, ɱɬɨ ɩɨ ɦɟɪɟ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɹ ɱɢɫɥɚ ɩɥɨɫɤɢɯ ɷɩɢɬɟɥɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ
ɤɥɟɬɨɤ, ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɞɜɭɯɫɥɨɣɧɵɣ ɷɩɢɞɟɪɦɢɫ. ɉɨɞ ɷɩɢɞɟɪɦɢɫɨɦ ɢɦɟɸɬɫɹ
ɨɞɢɧɨɱɧɵɟ ɲɚɪɨɜɢɞɧɵɟ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ. Ɉɧɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɢ
ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɤɥɟɬɤɚɦɢ, ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɳɢɦɢ ɹɞɪɚ.
ɉɨɞ ɷɩɢɞɟɪɦɢɫɨɦ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɵ ɤɥɟɬɤɢ ɧɟɞɢɮɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɣ
ɦɟɡɟɧɯɢɦɵ. Ɇɟɡɟɧɯɢɦɧɵɟ ɤɥɟɬɤɢ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɹɞɪɚ ɢ ɞɥɢɧɧɵɟ ɨɬɪɨɫɬɤɢ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ
ɜɦɟɫɬɟ ɫ ɤɨɥɥɚɝɟɧɨɜɵɦɢ ɢ ɷɥɚɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɜɨɥɨɤɧɚɦɢ ɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɬ ɝɭɫɬɭɸ ɫɟɬɶ.
ȼ ɦɟɡɟɧɯɢɦɧɨɦ ɫɥɨɟ ɢɦɟɸɬɫɹ ɤɚɩɢɥɥɹɪɵ ɢ ɦɟɥɤɢɟ ɤɪɨɜɟɧɨɫɧɵɟ ɫɨɫɭɞɵ, ɜ
ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɢɡ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɢɦɟɸɬɫɹ ɹɞɟɪɧɵɟ ɷɪɢɬɪɨɰɢɬɵ.
ɉɨɞ ɫɥɨɟɦ ɦɟɡɟɧɯɢɦɵ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬɫɹ ɫɥɨɣ ɦɵɲɟɱɧɵɯ ɬɪɭɛɨɱɟɤ –
ɩɪɟɞɲɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɢɤɨɜ ɦɵɲɟɱɧɵɯ ɜɨɥɨɤɨɧ. ɗɬɢ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ ɫɬɪɨɝɨ
ɭɩɨɪɹɞɨɱɟɧɵ, ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɵ ɩɪɨɤɫɢɦɨ-ɞɢɫɬɚɥɶɧɨ ɢ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɫɤɨɲɟɧɵ
ɤɪɚɧɢɚɥɶɧɨ. ȼ ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɬɪɭɛɨɱɟɤ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɵ ɹɞɪɚ.
ɏɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɫɥɨɣ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɢɦɟɟɬɫɹ ɜɨ ɜɫɟɯ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɹɯ
ɥɟɬɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɩɟɪɟɩɨɧɤɢ, ɡɚ ɢɫɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɦɟɠɩɚɥɶɰɟɜɨɣ ɩɟɪɟɩɨɧɤɢ.
ȼ ɩɥɟɱɟɝɨɥɨɜɧɨɣ ɢ ɛɨɤɨɜɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɹɯ ɩɟɪɟɩɨɧɤɢ ɩɨɞ ɫɥɨɟɦ ɤɪɚɧɢɚɥɶɧɨ
ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɬɪɭɛɨɱɟɤ ɢɦɟɟɬɫɹ ɫɥɨɣ ɦɵɲɟɱɧɵɯ ɬɪɭɛɨɱɟɤ, ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɯ
ɤɚɭɞɚɥɶɧɨ. Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɫɨɡɞɚɸɬɫɹ ɩɨ ɤɪɚɣɧɟɣ ɦɟɪɟ ɞɜɚ ɫɥɨɹ
ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɦɵɲɟɱɧɵɯ ɜɨɥɨɤɨɧ.
ɇɚ ɞɚɧɧɨɣ ɫɬɚɞɢɢ ɷɦɛɪɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɭ ɲɟɪɫɬɨɤɪɵɥɚ
ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɯɪɹɳɟɜɚɹ ɡɚɤɥɚɞɤɚ ɜɫɟɯ ɫɤɟɥɟɬɧɵɯ ɡɜɟɧɶɟɜ ɝɪɭɞɧɨɣ
ɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɫɬɢ. ȼɫɟ ɮɚɥɚɧɝɢ ɩɹɬɢ ɩɚɥɶɰɟɜ ɝɪɭɞɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɫɬɢ ɯɨɪɨɲɨ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵ. ɋɯɨɞɧɨɟ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɫɤɟɥɟɬɚ ɝɪɭɞɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɫɬɢ
ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɭ ɪɭɤɨɤɪɵɥɵɯ [2]. ɉɟɪɜɵɣ ɩɚɥɟɰ ɲɟɪɫɬɨɤɪɵɥɚ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɞɜɟ
ɮɚɥɚɧɝɢ, ɨɫɬɚɥɶɧɵɟ – ɩɨ ɬɪɢ. ɉɟɪɜɵɣ ɩɚɥɟɰ ɦɚɥɨ ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ
ɨɫɬɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɩɚɥɶɰɚɦ ɢ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɫɢɥɶɧɨɟ ɦɵɲɟɱɧɨɟ ɭɤɪɟɩɥɟɧɢɟ. ɉɨ ɞɥɢɧɟ
ɩɚɥɶɰɵ ɲɟɪɫɬɨɤɪɵɥɚ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɹɸɬ ɩɪɨɩɨɪɰɢɢ, ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɵɟ ɞɥɹ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ
ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ. ȼɫɟ ɫɤɟɥɟɬɧɵɟ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɵ ɤɢɫɬɢ ɨɤɪɭɠɟɧɵ ɩɭɱɤɚɦɢ
ɫɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ
ɦɵɲɟɱɧɵɯ
ɜɨɥɨɤɨɧ
ɢ
ɫɧɚɛɠɟɧɵ
ɤɪɭɩɧɵɦɢ
ɤɪɨɜɟɧɨɫɧɵɦɢ ɫɨɫɭɞɚɦɢ.
Ɉɛɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɟ. ɇɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥɨ, ɱɬɨ ɜ ɩɨɤɪɨɜɧɵɯ
ɬɤɚɧɹɯ ɷɦɛɪɢɨɧɚ ɲɟɪɫɬɨɤɪɵɥɚ ɧɚ 20-ɣ ɫɬɚɞɢɢ ɷɦɛɪɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ
ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɦɵɲɟɱɧɵɟ ɫɥɨɢ. Ɏɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɨɞɨɛɧɵɯ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪ ɢɦɟɟɬ
ɦɟɫɬɨ ɜ ɤɨɠɟ ɬɭɥɨɜɢɳɚ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ. Ɋɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ
71
ɦɵɲɟɱɧɵɯ ɜɨɥɨɤɨɧ ɫɨɡɞɚɸɬ ɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɟɝɨ
ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɤɨɠɧɨ-ɦɵɲɟɱɧɨɣ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ. Ʌɢɲɶ ɜ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɨɣ
ɦɟɠɩɚɥɶɰɟɜɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɥɟɬɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɩɟɪɟɩɨɧɤɢ ɦɵɲɟɱɧɵɣ ɫɥɨɣ ɧɟ
ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ. Ɂɞɟɫɶ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɜɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɢ ɞɨɪɫɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɫɥɨɹɦɢ ɷɩɢɞɟɪɦɢɫɚ
ɢɦɟɟɬɫɹ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɫɥɨɣ ɦɟɡɟɧɯɢɦɧɵɯ ɤɥɟɬɨɤ.
ɋɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ, ɩɨ ɦɟɪɟ ɩɪɨɥɢɮɟɪɚɰɢɢ ɢ ɞɢɮɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɚɰɢɢ
ɦɟɡɟɧɯɢɦɧɵɯ ɤɥɟɬɨɤ ɫɤɟɥɟɬɚ ɝɪɭɞɧɨɣ ɢ ɬɚɡɨɜɨɣ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɢɦɟɸɳɢɟɫɹ
ɦɟɡɟɧɯɢɦɧɵɟ ɤɥɟɬɤɢ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɹɸɬɫɹ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɩɚɥɶɰɚɦɢ, ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɹ
ɦɟɠɩɚɥɶɰɟɜɭɸ ɩɟɪɟɩɨɧɤɭ. Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɭɱɚɫɬɤɢ ɩɟɪɟɩɨɧɤɢ ɦɟɠɞɭ
ɮɚɥɚɧɝɚɦɢ ɩɚɥɶɰɟɜ ɲɟɪɫɬɨɤɪɵɥɚ ɫɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɵ ɦɟɡɟɧɯɢɦɨɣ, ɢɡɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɨ
ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɸɳɟɣ ɩɨɱɤɢ ɝɪɭɞɧɨɣ ɢ ɬɚɡɨɜɨɣ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɫɬɟɣ. ɋɯɨɞɧɨɟ
ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɦɟɠɩɚɥɶɰɟɜɨɣ ɩɟɪɟɩɨɧɤɢ ɝɪɭɞɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɟɬɫɹ
ɭ ɪɭɤɨɤɪɵɥɵɯ [1].
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. Ʉɨɜɚɥɺɜɚ ɂ.Ɇ. Ɇɨɪɮɨɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɥɟɬɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɩɟɪɟɩɨɧɤɢ
ɪɭɤɨɤɪɵɥɵɯ (Mammalia, Chiroptera) ɜ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɷɜɨɥɸɰɢɟɣ ɨɬɪɹɞɚ // ȼɟɫɬɧɢɤ ɡɨɨɥɨɝɢɢ.
Ɇɨɧɨɝɪɚɮɢɱ. ɫɟɪɢɹ. – Ɉɬɞ. ɜɵɩ., ʋ 27. – Ʉɢɟɜ, 2013. – 88 ɫ.
2. Ʉɨɜɬɭɧ Ɇ.Ɏ., Ʌɟɞɟɧɺɜ ɋ.ɘ. Ɋɨɫɬ ɢ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɪɭɤɨɤɪɵɥɵɯ //
ȼɟɫɬɧɢɤ ɡɨɨɥɨɝɢɢ – Ɉɬɞ. ɜɵɩ., ʋ 12. – Ʉɢɟɜ, 1999. – 82 ɫ.
3. ɉɚɧɸɬɢɧɚ Ⱥ.Ⱥ., Ʉɨɪɡɭɧ Ʌ.ɉ. Ɇɨɪɮɨɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɫɵɥɤɢ
ɜɨɡɧɢɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɥɺɬɚ ɭ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ // Ɂɨɨɥ. ɠɭɪɧɚɥ. – 2009. – ȼɵɩ. 88, ʋ 5. –
ɋ.573–587.
MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE FLYING MEMBRANE OF
CYNOCEPHALUS VARIEGATUS (DERMOPTERA) IN THE EMBRYOGENESIS
I.Ɇ. Ʉɨvɚlyovɚ1, L.Ⱥ. Taraborkin2, M.P. Tiunov3, S.Y. Ledenev4, ȿ.S. Ledeneva 5
1
I.I.Schmalhauzen Institute of Zoology NAS of Ukraine, Kyiv,
2
National Technical University of Ukraine “KPI”, Kyiv,
3
Biology and Soil Science FEB RAS, Vladivostok,
4
Grishko Institute of Botany NAS of Ukraine, Kyiv
5
National University of biodiversity and natural resources, Kyiv
The heterogeneity of the formation of different areas in the Cynocephalus
variegatus flying membrane was established. The patagia between phalanges in
Cynocephalus variegates was formed by the mesenchyme which formed initially
the rudiment of thoracic and pelvic extremities. Lateral and brachiocephalic areas
of the flying membrane were formed similarly to the skin of the trunk.
72
ɍȾɄ 576.895.132.5
Ɉ ɁȺȻɈɅȿȼȺȿɆɈɋɌɂ ȾɂɊɈɎɂɅəɊɂɈɁɈɆ
ȼ ȼɈɊɈɇȿɀɋɄɈɃ ɈȻɅȺɋɌɂ
Ⱥ.ȼ. Ʉɨɡɨɪɟɡɨɜ1, Ɋ.ȼ. Ⱦɨɪɨɠɤɢɧɚ1, ɘ.ɂ. ɋɬɺɩɤɢɧ1,
Ⱥ.ɂ. ɀɭɤɨɜɚ1, ȿ.ɉ. Ƚɟɪɢɤ1, ɇ.ɂ. ɉɪɨɫɬɚɤɨɜ4, Ɍ.ɂ. ɉɨɩɨɜɚ1,
Ȼ.ȼ. Ɋɨɦɚɲɨɜ2, ɇ.Ȼ. Ɋɨɦɚɲɨɜɚ2, ɇ.Ⱥ. Ʉɚɪɩɨɜ3, Ⱦ.Ⱥ. Ʉɜɚɫɨɜ1
1. Ɏɟɞɟɪɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɛɸɞɠɟɬɧɨɟ ɭɱɪɟɠɞɟɧɢɟ ɡɞɪɚɜɨɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ «ɐɟɧɬɪ ɝɢɝɢɟɧɵ ɢ
ɷɩɢɞɟɦɢɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɜ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ», ɝ.ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ, e-mail: [email protected]
2. Ɏɟɞɟɪɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟ ɛɸɞɠɟɬɧɨɟ ɭɱɪɟɠɞɟɧɢɟ «ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɢɣ
ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɣ ɛɢɨɫɮɟɪɧɵɣ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤ», ɝ. ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ
3. Ɏɟɞɟɪɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟ ɛɸɞɠɟɬɧɨɟ ɭɱɪɟɠɞɟɧɢɟ «ɏɨɩɟɪɫɤɢɣ
ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤ», ɝ. ɇɨɜɨɯɨɩɟɪɫɤ
4. Ɏɟɞɟɪɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟ ɛɸɞɠɟɬɧɨɟ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ ɭɱɪɟɠɞɟɧɢɟ
ɜɵɫɲɟɝɨ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ «ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɢɣ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ
ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ», ɝ. ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ
ɉɪɨɚɧɚɥɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɵ ɡɚɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ ɫɥɭɱɚɢ ɞɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡɚ ɩɨ
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɫ 2007ɝ. ɩɨ 2013 ɝ. ɉɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɣ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥ, ɱɬɨ
ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɜ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ ɝɨɞɵ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɟɬɫɹ
ɚɤɬɢɜɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɨɱɚɝɨɜ ɞɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡɚ, ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɚɹ ɫ ɠɚɪɤɢɦ ɥɟɬɧɢɦ ɫɟɡɨɧɨɦ. ȼɨ
ɜɫɟɯ ɫɥɭɱɚɹɯ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɟ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɨ ɫ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ Dirofilalaria repens.
Ⱦɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡ ɷɬɨ ɬɪɚɧɫɦɢɫɫɢɜɧɵɣ ɝɟɥɶɦɢɧɬɨɡ
ɩɥɨɬɨɹɞɧɵɯ
ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ (ɫɟɦ. ɉɫɨɜɵɯ, Ʉɨɲɚɱɶɢɯ, ȼɢɜɶɟɪɨɜɵɯ) ɢ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ.
ȼɨɡɛɭɞɢɬɟɥɢ Dirofilalaria repens ɢ D.immitis - ɝɟɥɶɦɢɧɬɵ ɤɥ. Nematoda, ɨɬɪ.
Spirurida. ɀɢɜɨɬɧɵɟ ɢ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤ ɡɚɪɚɠɚɸɬɫɹ ɫ ɦɚɹ ɩɨ ɫɟɧɬɹɛɪɶ ɩɪɢ ɭɤɭɫɟ
ɤɨɦɚɪɚɦɢ. ȼɫɟ ɜɢɞɵ ɤɪɨɜɨɫɨɫɭɳɢɯ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɫɥɭɠɢɬɶ ɩɟɪɟɧɨɫɱɢɤɚɦɢ
ɞɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɣ. ɇɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɷɬɨ 40 ɜɢɞɨɜ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ,
ɨɬɧɨɫɹɳɢɟɫɹ ɤ 7 ɪɨɞɚɦ. (Anopheles Meigen, Aedes Meigen, Dahliana Reinert
et.al., Ochlerotatus Lynch Arribalzage, Culex Linnaeus,
Culiseta Felt.,
Coguillettidia Dyar). ȼɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɤɪɨɜɨɫɨɫɚɧɢɹ ɦɢɤɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɢ ɢɡ ɫɥɸɧɧɵɯ
ɠɟɥɟɡ ɤɨɦɚɪɚ ɩɪɨɧɢɤɚɸɬ ɜ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ. Ʌɨɤɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚ ɩɨɞɤɨɠɧɚɹ ɤɥɟɬɱɚɬɤɚ, ɧɟɪɟɞɤɨ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɝɥɚɡɧɨɝɨ ɹɛɥɨɤɚ, ɥɟɝɤɢɟ. ȼ
ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦɟ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɵ ɠɢɜɭɬ ɨɬ 4-5 ɦɟɫɹɰɟɜ ɞɨ ɞɜɭɯ ɥɟɬ.
ȼ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ ɝɨɞɵ, ɤɚɤ ɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɡɚ ɪɭɛɟɠɨɦ, ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɪɨɫɬ
ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɟɦɨɫɬɢ ɞɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡɨɦ. ɉɪɢɱɢɧɵ ɪɨɫɬɚ - ɭɪɛɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹ,
ɩɨɬɟɩɥɟɧɢɟ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɚ, ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟ ɱɢɫɥɚ ɛɟɡɧɚɞɡɨɪɧɵɯ ɛɪɨɞɹɱɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ.
ȼ 2013 ɝ. ɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɡɚɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɨ 175 ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ, (ɜ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ8). ɋɬɚɬɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɭɱɟɬ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɟɦɨɫɬɢ ɞɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡɨɦ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɜɟɞɟɬɫɹ ɫ 1998 ɝ. ȼɫɟɝɨ ɡɚ 16 ɥɟɬ ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɚɰɢɢ
ɝɟɥɶɦɢɧɬɨɡɚ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɥɨ 38 ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤ. Ɉɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ
ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɟɦɨɫɬɢ ɧɚ 100 ɬɵɫɹɱ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɜɨɡɪɨɫ ɡɚ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ
ɩɹɬɶ ɥɟɬ ɜ 8,5 ɪɚɡ ɨɬ 0,04 ɜ 2009 ɞɨ 0,34 ɜ 2013 ɝɨɞɭ.
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Ɋɢɫ. 1. Ⱦɢɧɚɦɢɤɚ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɟɦɨɫɬɢ ɞɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡɨɦ
ɜ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɡɚ1998-2013 ɝɝ.
ɉɪɨɚɧɚɥɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɵ ɫɥɭɱɚɢ ɞɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡɚ
ɫ 2007ɝ. ɩɨ 2013 ɝ.
Ɂɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɟ ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɨ ɜ ɝ. ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɟ (13) ɢ ɞɟɜɹɬɢ ɪɚɣɨɧɚɯ:
Ȼɨɪɢɫɨɝɥɟɛɫɤɨɦ (2), ɉɨɞɝɨɪɟɧɫɤɨɦ (2), Ʉɚɥɚɱɟɟɜɫɤɨɦ, Ʉɚɦɟɧɫɤɨɦ,
ɉɚɧɢɧɫɤɨɦ, Ȼɭɬɭɪɥɢɧɨɜɫɤɨɦ, Ƚɪɢɛɚɧɨɜɫɤɨɦ, Ɉɫɬɪɨɝɨɠɫɤɨɦ, ɋɟɦɢɥɭɤɫɤɨɦ.
Ɂɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɟ ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɥɨɫɶ ɜ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɵɯ ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɹɯ ɨɬ 17 ɞɨ 74 ɥɟɬ.
Ɋɢɫ. 2. ȼɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɚɹ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɲɢɯ ɞɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡɨɦ ɥɢɰ.
Ȼɨɥɶɲɭɸ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɲɢɯ 71%(17 ɢɡ 24) ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɢ ɥɢɰɚ ɡɪɟɥɨɝɨ ɢ
ɩɨɠɢɥɨɝɨ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚ ɫɬɚɪɲɟ 50 ɥɟɬ, ɫɪɟɞɢ ɧɢɯ ɜ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɟ 50-64 ɥɟɬ – 11,
ɫɬɚɪɲɟ 65 ɥɟɬ- 6 ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤ. Ⱦɨɥɹ ɦɨɥɨɞɵɯ ɥɢɰ ɞɨ 35 ɥɟɬ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɚ 29% (7
ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤ), ɜ ɬɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟ ɨɞɢɧ ɫɟɦɧɚɞɰɚɬɢɥɟɬɧɢɣ. ȼ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɨɣ ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɢ 3674
49 ɥɟɬ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɲɢɯ ɞɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡɨɦ ɧɟ ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɨ. ɉɨ ɩɨɥɨɜɨɦɭ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɭ
ɛɨɥɶɲɭɸ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɲɢɯ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɢ ɠɟɧɳɢɧɵ – 17 ɠɟɧɳɢɧ ɢ 7 ɦɭɠɱɢɧ
ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ.
Ɋɢɫ. 3. Ɋɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɲɢɯ ɞɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡɨɦ
ɜ 2007-2013 ɝɝ (ɩɨ ɩɨɥɨɜɨɦɭ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɭ).
ɂɡ 24 ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ ɜ 14 ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɨ ɩɨɪɚɠɟɧɢɟ ɨɪɝɚɧɨɜ ɡɪɟɧɢɹ, ɜ 5 ɫɥɭɱɚɹɯ
ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɥɚɫɶ ɥɨɤɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɝɨɥɨɜɵ (ɬɟɦɟɧɧɚɹ, ɜɢɫɨɱɧɚɹ
ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ, ɝɭɛɚ), ɜ ɬɪɟɯ - ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɫɬɟɣ, ɞɜɭɯ - ɦɨɥɨɱɧɨɣ ɠɟɥɟɡɵ.
ȼɨ ɜɫɟɯ ɫɥɭɱɚɹɯ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɟ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɨ ɫ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ Dirofilalaria
repens.
ɉɨ ɞɚɬɚɦ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɟɟ ɱɢɫɥɨ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɲɢɯ ɨɬɦɟɱɚɥɨɫɶ ɜ
ɨɫɟɧɧɢɣ ɢ ɜɟɫɟɧɧɢɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɵ – 16 ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ (ɨɫɟɧɶ-8, ɜɟɫɧɚ-8). Ɂɢɦɨɣ ɢ ɥɟɬɨɦ
ɨɛɪɚɬɢɥɨɫɶ 8 ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤ (5 ɢ 3 ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ). ȼɫɟ ɫɥɭɱɚɢ ɤɪɨɦɟ ɨɞɧɨɝɨ
ɡɚɜɨɡɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɫɰɟɧɟɧɵ ɤɚɤ ɦɟɫɬɧɵɟ.
Ɋɢɫ. 4. ȼɵɹɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɛɨɥɶɧɵɯ ɞɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡɨɦ ɩɨ ɫɟɡɨɧɚɦ.
75
ɉɨ ɞɚɧɧɵɦ, ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɦ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɧɵɦɢ ɤɥɢɧɢɤɚɦɢ ɝ. ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɚ,
ɩɪɢ ɥɚɛɨɪɚɬɨɪɧɨɦ ɨɛɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɢ 59 ɫɨɛɚɤ ɭ 5 (8,5%) ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɵ
ɝɟɥɶɦɢɧɬɵ ɪ. Dirofilalaria. Ɂɚɪɚɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɫɨɛɚɤ ɜɵɹɜɥɹɥɢ ɜ ɇɨɜɨɭɫɦɚɧɫɤɨɦ,
ɉɨɞɝɨɪɟɧɫɤɨɦ ɪɚɣɨɧɚɯ ɢ ɝ. ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɟ.
ȼɵɜɨɞɵ:
1. ȼ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɜ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɟɟ ɞɟɫɹɬɢɥɟɬɢɟ ɫɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɥɢɫɶ
ɫɬɨɣɤɢɟ ɨɱɚɝɢ ɞɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡɚ, ɱɬɨ ɨɛɭɫɥɨɜɥɟɧɨ ɧɚɥɢɱɢɟɦ ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɚ
ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɹ (ɡɚɪɚɠɟɧɧɵɟ ɫɨɛɚɤɢ), ɩɟɪɟɧɨɫɱɢɤɨɜ (ɤɪɨɜɨɫɨɫɭɳɢɟ ɤɨɦɚɪɵ) ɢ
ɤɥɢɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɦɢ - ɫɭɦɦɨɣ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪ,
ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨɣ ɞɥɹ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɜ ɤɨɦɚɪɚɯ ɦɢɤɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɣ ɞɨ ɢɧɜɚɡɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɫɬɚɞɢɢ.
2. ɉɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɣ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥ, ɱɬɨ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ
ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɜ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ ɝɨɞɵ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɚɤɬɢɜɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɨɱɚɝɨɜ ɞɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡɚ,
ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɚɹ ɫ ɠɚɪɤɢɦ ɥɟɬɧɢɦ ɫɟɡɨɧɨɦ. ɉɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɟɦɨɫɬɢ ɜ 2013
ɝɨɞɭ - 0,34 ɧɚ 100 ɬɵɫ. ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ – ɫɚɦɵɣ ɜɵɫɨɤɢɣ ɡɚ ɝɨɞɵ ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɚɰɢɢ.
Ɂɚɪɚɠɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɨɛɚɤ ɩɨ ɞɚɧɧɵɦ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɧɵɯ ɤɥɢɧɢɤ ɝ. ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɚ
ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɚ 8,5%;
3. ɑɚɳɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɛɨɥɟɸɬ ɥɢɰɚ ɫɬɚɪɲɟ 50 ɥɟɬ, ɱɬɨ ɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɧɚ ɛɨɥɶɲɭɸ
ɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɨɫɬɶ ɡɚɪɚɠɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɩɪɢɝɨɪɨɞɧɨɣ ɡɨɧɟ, ɬ.ɤ. ɢɦɟɧɧɨ ɷɬɚ ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɹ ɥɢɰ
ɜɵɟɡɠɚɟɬ ɡɚ ɝɨɪɨɞ ɧɚ ɞɚɱɧɵɟ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɢ.
4. Ɋɚɫɱɟɬ ɫɪɨɤɨɜ ɫɟɡɨɧɚ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɡɚɪɚɠɚɟɦɨɫɬɢ ɥɸɞɟɣ
ɞɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡɨɦ ɢ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɢɧɜɚɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɩɟɪɟɧɨɫɱɢɤɨɜ
ɷɬɨɣ ɢɧɜɚɡɢɢ ɧɚ ɫɟɝɨɞɧɹɲɧɢɣ ɞɟɧɶ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɦɢ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚɦɢ ɜ
ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɢ ɷɩɢɞɟɦɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ
ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ.
DIROFILARIASIS IN THE VORONEZH REGION
A.V. Kozorezov 1, R.W. Dorozhkina 1, Ju.I. Stjopkin 1, A.I. Zhukova 1,
E.P. Gerik 1, T.I. Popova 1, N.I. Prostakov 4 , B.V. Romashov 2, N.B. Romashova 2,
N.A. Karpov 3, D.A.Kvasov 1
1. Centre of hygieology and epidemiology in Voronezh district, Voronezh
2. Voronezh State Nature Reserve, Voronezh
3. Hopersky State Reserve, Novohopersk
4. Voronezh State University, Voronezh
Registered cases of dirofilariasis in Voronezh Region from 2007 to 2013 were
analyzed. The results showed that activation of dirofolaroasis nidi associated with
hot summer season in Voronezh Region took place. In all cases the diseases were
caused by Dirofilalaria repens.
76
ɍȾɄ 599.323.5
ɈɋɈȻȿɇɇɈɋɌɂ ɊȺɁɆɇɈɀȿɇɂə ɄɊȺɋɇɈɃ ɉɈɅȿȼɄɂ
ȼ ɋȼəɁɂ ɋ ȾɂɇȺɆɂɄɈɃ ȿȿ ɑɂɋɅȿɇɇɈɋɌɂ ȼ
ɉɊȿȾȽɈɊɇɈɆ ɊȺɃɈɇȿ ɋȿȼȿɊɇɈɃ ɌȺɃȽɂ
ɂ.Ɏ. Ʉɭɩɪɢɹɧɨɜɚ
ɉɟɱɨɪɨ-ɂɥɵɱɫɤɢɣ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤ, ɩ. əɤɲɚ, [email protected]
ɉɪɢɜɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɩɨ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɟ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢ
ɜɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɤɪɚɫɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɟɜɤɢ ɜ ɫɟɡɨɧɧɵɣ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɭɦ
ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɚ ɨɞɧɨɦ ɢɡ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɨɜ ɩɪɟɞɝɨɪɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ ɫɟɜɟɪɧɨɣ ɩɨɞɡɨɧɵ
ɤɚɦɫɤɨ-ɩɟɱɨɪɫɤɨ-ɡɚɩɚɞɧɨɭɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɣ ɬɟɦɧɨɯɜɨɣɧɨɣ ɬɚɣɝɢ.
Ʉɪɚɫɧɚɹ ɩɨɥɟɜɤɚ ɜ ɜɨɫɬɨɱɧɵɯ ɪɚɣɨɧɚɯ ɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɬɚɟɠɧɨɝɨ ɫɟɜɟɪɚ ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɭɸɳɢɣ ɜɢɞ ɜ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɢ ɝɪɵɡɭɧɨɜ. ȼɦɟɫɬɟ ɫ ɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɨɣ
ɛɭɪɨɡɭɛɤɨɣ ɨɧɚ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɛɨɥɟɟ 50% ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɦɟɥɤɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ
ɢɡɭɱɚɟɦɨɝɨ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ, ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɜ ɩɪɢɢɥɵɱɫɤɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɉɟɱɨɪɨɂɥɵɱɫɤɨɝɨ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɚ. ɍɱɚɫɬɨɤ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɫɹ ɤ ɫɟɜɟɪɧɨɣ ɩɨɞɡɨɧɟ ɤɚɦɫɤɨɩɟɱɨɪɫɤɨ-ɡɚɩɚɞɧɨɭɪɚɥɶɫɤɢɯ ɬɟɦɧɨɯɜɨɣɧɵɯ ɥɟɫɨɜ ɋɟɜɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɍɪɚɥɚ,
ɨɬɥɢɱɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɨɬ ɫɟɜɟɪɨɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɢɯ ɪɚɜɧɢɧɧɵɯ ɟɥɨɜɵɯ ɥɟɫɨɜ ɝɨɫɩɨɞɫɬɜɨɦ
ɫɢɛɢɪɫɤɢɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɜ ɞɪɟɜɨɫɬɨɹɯ ɢ ɡɚɦɟɬɧɵɦ ɢɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɢɟɦ ɜ ɧɢɠɧɢɯ ɹɪɭɫɚɯ.
Ɂɞɟɫɶ ɲɢɪɨɤɨ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɵ ɢ ɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɢɟ ɜɢɞɵ, ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɢɪɭɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɜ
ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦ ɜ ɬɪɚɜɹɧɨɦ ɩɨɤɪɨɜɟ ɢ ɨɬɱɚɫɬɢ ɜ ɩɨɞɥɟɫɤɟ, ɱɬɨ ɢ ɫɨɡɞɚɟɬ ɛɨɝɚɬɫɬɜɨ
ɷɬɢɯ ɥɟɫɨɜ [3]. Ɉɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɫɟɜɟɪɧɨɣ ɩɨɞɡɨɧɵ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɪɚɡɪɟɠɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ
ɞɪɟɜɟɫɧɨɝɨ ɹɪɭɫɚ ɢ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɚɹ ɫ ɧɟɣ ɦɨɡɚɢɱɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɧɢɠɧɢɯ ɹɪɭɫɨɜ,
ɱɬɨ ɩɪɢ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɢ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɨ ɞɥɹ ɦɟɥɤɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ.
ɂɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɢɫɶ ɜ 2004-2013 ɝɝ. ɜ ɫɟɡɨɧɧɵɣ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɭɦ
ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ (ɚɜɝɭɫɬ). Ɉɛɢɥɢɟ ɡɜɟɪɶɤɨɜ ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɥɨɫɶ ɞɚɜɢɥɤɚɦɢ ɢ
ɤɚɧɚɜɤɚɦɢ, ɨɬɪɚɛɨɬɚɧɨ 11550 ɥɨɜɭɲɤɨ/ɫɭɬɨɤ ɢ 530 ɤɚɧɚɜɤɨ/ɫɭɬɨɤ ɢ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɨ ɛɨɥɟɟ 3-ɯ ɬɵɫ. ɷɤɡɟɦɩɥɹɪɨɜ ɤɪɚɫɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɟɜɤɢ.
ɑɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɤɪɚɫɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɟɜɤɢ ɜ ɷɬɨɦ ɪɚɣɨɧɟ ɜɵɫɨɤɚɹ ɢ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɜ
ɚɜɝɭɫɬɟ ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦ ɡɚ 10 ɥɟɬ 22,7 (1,6-50,5) ɡɜɟɪɶɤɨɜ ɧɚ 100 ɥɨɜɭɲɤɨ/ɫɭɬɨɤ ɢ
19,1 (0,5-46,1) ɡɜɟɪɶɤɨɜ ɧɚ 10 ɤɚɧɚɜɤɨ/ɫɭɬɨɤ. ɉɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɜ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɫɭɪɨɜɵɦɢ
ɤɥɢɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɦɢ [1] ɝɨɞɨɜɵɟ ɤɨɥɟɛɚɧɢɹ ɨɛɢɥɢɹ ɡɞɟɫɶ ɨɱɟɧɶ
ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵ (ɪɢɫ.). ȼ ɪɚɜɧɢɧɧɨɣ ɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɣ ɬɚɣɝɟ ɨɛɢɥɢɟ ɜɢɞɚ
ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɧɢɠɟ. Ɍɚɤ, ɜ ɉɢɧɟɠɫɤɨɦ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɟ ɨɧɨ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ 7,2, ɚ
ɜɨɫɬɨɱɧɟɟ ɜ ɉɟɱɨɪɫɤɨɦ ɪɚɣɨɧɟ ɪɟɫɩɭɛɥɢɤɢ Ʉɨɦɢ - 9 ɡɜɟɪɶɤɨɜ ɧɚ 100
ɥɨɜɭɲɤɨ/ɫɭɬɨɤ [5].
77
60
50
50
40
35
40
30
30
25
20
20
15
10
10
5
0
Ɂɜɟɪɶɤɨɜ ɧɚ 10 ɤ/ɫ
Ɂɜɟɪɶɤɨɜ ɧɚ 100 ɥ/ɫ
45
0
2004ɝ. 2005ɝ. 2006ɝ. 2007ɝ. 2008ɝ. 2009ɝ. 2010ɝ. 2011ɝ. 2012ɝ. 2013ɝ.
Ʌɨɜɭɲɤɢ
Ʉɚɧɚɜɤɢ
Ɋɢɫ. Ⱦɢɧɚɦɢɤɚ ɨɛɢɥɢɹ ɤɪɚɫɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɟɜɤɢ ɜ ɚɜɝɭɫɬɟ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɥɟɬ.
ɇɚɪɚɫɬɚɧɢɟ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɤɪɚɫɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɟɜɤɢ ɧɚɱɢɧɚɟɬɫɹ ɜɟɫɧɨɣ ɫ
ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɩɟɪɟɡɢɦɨɜɚɜɲɢɯ ɡɜɟɪɶɤɨɜ, ɡɚɬɟɦ ɜɫɬɭɩɚɸɬ ɜ ɜɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ
ɫɟɝɨɥɟɬɤɢ ɪɚɧɧɟɥɟɬɧɢɯ ɜɵɜɨɞɤɨɜ, ɚ ɜ ɚɜɝɭɫɬɟ-ɫɟɧɬɹɛɪɟ ɭɠɟ ɢ ɦɨɥɨɞɵɟ
ɡɜɟɪɶɤɢ ɩɨɡɞɧɟɥɟɬɧɢɯ ɜɵɜɨɞɤɨɜ [4]. ȼ ɪɚɣɨɧɟ ɪɚɛɨɬ ɜ ɚɜɝɭɫɬɟ ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɚɥɢɫɶ
98% ɩɟɪɟɡɢɦɨɜɚɜɲɢɯ ɫɚɦɨɤ (n=214). Ɂɚ ɫɟɡɨɧ ɨɧɢ ɩɪɢɧɨɫɢɥɢ ɩɨ 2 ɜɵɜɨɞɤɚ
ɞɟɬɟɧɵɲɟɣ, ɩɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ 11% ɫɚɦɨɤ ɜɫɬɭɩɚɥɨ ɜ ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɨɞɢɧ ɪɚɡ,
78% - ɞɜɚ ɪɚɡɚ ɢ 11% ɫɚɦɨɤ ɛɵɥɢ ɛɟɪɟɦɟɧɧɵ 3 ɪɚɡɚ. ɋɪɟɞɢ ɫɟɝɨɥɟɬɨɤ,
ɪɨɞɢɜɲɢɯɫɹ ɜ ɧɚɱɚɥɟ ɥɟɬɚ, ɭɱɚɫɬɜɨɜɚɥɨ ɜ ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɟɧɢɢ ɥɢɲɶ 67% ɫɚɦɨɤ
(n=120), ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦ ɨɧɢ ɩɪɢɧɨɫɢɥɢ ɩɨ 1,53 ɩɨɦɟɬɚ ɡɚ ɥɟɬɨ, 49% ɫɚɦɨɤ ɷɬɨɝɨ
ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚ ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɚɥɢɫɶ 1 ɪɚɡ, 48% - 2 ɪɚɡɚ ɢ 3% ɭɫɩɟɜɚɥɨ ɩɪɢɧɟɫɬɢ 3
ɩɨɦɟɬɚ. ɋɟɝɨɥɟɬɤɢ ɩɨɡɞɧɟɥɟɬɧɟɝɨ ɪɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɱɬɢ ɧɟ ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɥɢ ɭɱɚɫɬɢɹ ɜ
ɜɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɟ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ. ɂɡ 1356 ɦɨɥɨɞɵɯ ɡɜɟɪɶɤɨɜ ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɚɥɨɫɶ
ɬɨɥɶɤɨ 1,9%. Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɫɪɟɞɢ ɜɫɟɯ ɫɚɦɨɤ, ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɸɳɢɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɢɟ ɜ
ɜɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɟ (n=356), ɞɨɥɹ ɩɟɪɟɡɢɦɨɜɚɜɲɢɯ ɫɚɦɨɤ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɚ 59%,
«ɫɬɚɪɲɢɯ» ɫɟɝɨɥɟɬɨɤ – 34%, ɚ «ɦɥɚɞɲɢɯ» ɫɟɝɨɥɟɬɨɤ – ɥɢɲɶ 7%.
ɉɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɨɬɥɢɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɨɬ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɟɦɵɯ ɭ
ɤɪɚɫɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɟɜɤɢ ɜ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɯ ɫɟɜɟɪɧɨɣ ɪɚɜɧɢɧɧɨɣ ɬɚɣɝɢ. ɗɬɨ
ɤɚɫɚɟɬɫɹ, ɜ ɩɟɪɜɭɸ ɨɱɟɪɟɞɶ, ɞɨɥɢ ɭɱɚɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ ɜ ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɟɧɢɢ ɫɟɝɨɥɟɬɨɤ,
ɤɚɤ «ɫɬɚɪɲɢɯ», ɬɚɤ ɢ «ɦɥɚɞɲɢɯ», ɤɨɬɨɪɨɟ ɜ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɯ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ
ɜɵɲɟ [5]. ɉɪɢɜɨɞɢɦɵɟ ɧɚɦɢ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ ɛɥɢɡɤɢ ɤ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɚɦ,
ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɧɵɦ ɭ ɤɪɚɫɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɟɜɤɢ ɜ ɝɨɪɧɨɦ ɪɚɣɨɧɟ ɉɟɱɨɪɨ-ɂɥɵɱɫɤɨɝɨ
ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɚ. Ɍɚɦ ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɚɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɩɟɪɟɡɢɦɨɜɚɜɲɢɟ ɫɚɦɤɢ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɥɢ 62%
ɨɬ ɜɫɟɯ, ɭɱɚɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ ɜ ɜɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɟ ɫɚɦɨɤ, ɯɨɬɹ ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɣ ɬɚɣɝɟ
ɩɪɟɞɝɨɪɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ ɷɬɨɬ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶ ɛɵɥ ɭɠɟ ɧɢɠɟ – 42% [5]. ɇɚ ɧɚɲ
ɜɡɝɥɹɞ, ɜɟɞɭɳɚɹ ɪɨɥɶ ɩɟɪɟɡɢɦɨɜɚɜɲɢɯ ɫɚɦɨɤ ɜ ɜɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɟ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ
ɜ ɷɬɢɯ ɪɚɣɨɧɚɯ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɚ ɫ ɫɭɪɨɜɵɦɢ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɦɢ ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ, ɜ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ
ɩɟɪɟɡɢɦɨɜɚɜɲɢɟ ɨɫɨɛɢ ɜɵɠɢɜɚɸɬ ɥɭɱɲɟ. ɇɟɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ ɭɱɚɫɬɢɟ ɜ
ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɟɧɢɢ ɦɨɥɨɞɵɯ ɡɜɟɪɶɤɨɜ (ɫɟɝɨɥɟɬɨɤ ɩɨɡɞɧɟɥɟɬɧɢɯ ɜɵɜɨɞɤɨɜ) ɦɨɠɟɬ
78
ɛɵɬɶ ɨɛɭɫɥɨɜɥɟɧɨ ɢɯ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɩɨɡɞɧɢɦ ɜɵɯɨɞɨɦ ɢɡ ɝɧɟɡɞ. ɂɡɜɟɫɬɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɧɚ
ɮɨɧɟ ɧɟɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ ɦɨɥɨɞɵɟ ɡɜɟɪɶɤɢ ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ
ɦɟɞɥɟɧɧɟɟ [2].
ɉɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ ɜɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɫɢɥɶɧɨ
ɜɚɪɶɢɪɭɸɬ ɜ ɪɚɡɧɵɟ ɝɨɞɵ ɢ ɫɨɩɪɹɠɟɧɵ ɫ ɨɛɢɥɢɟɦ ɜɢɞɚ. Ɂɚ ɞɟɫɹɬɢɥɟɬɧɢɣ
ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɥɨɫɶ 4 ɝɨɞɚ ɫ ɧɢɡɤɨɣ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɤɪɚɫɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɟɜɤɢ
(ɞɟɩɪɟɫɫɢɹ), 3 ɝɨɞɚ ɟɟ ɨɛɢɥɢɟ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɥɨɫɶ (ɪɨɫɬ) ɢ 3 ɝɨɞɚ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ
ɜɢɞɚ ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɥɚ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɝɨ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ (ɩɢɤ) (ɪɢɫ., ɬɚɛɥ.). Ʉɚɤ ɜɢɞɧɨ ɢɡ ɬɚɛɥɢɰɵ,
ɜɨ ɜɫɟ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɵ ɠɢɡɧɢ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɩɨɱɬɢ ɜɫɟ ɩɟɪɟɡɢɦɨɜɚɜɲɢɟ ɫɚɦɤɢ
ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɚɥɢɫɶ. ɇɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɚɥɚɫɶ ɥɢɲɶ ɢɧɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɢɯ
ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɟɧɢɹ. ȼ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɵ ɪɨɫɬɚ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɧɚ ɨɞɧɭ ɫɚɦɤɭ ɩɪɢɯɨɞɢɥɨɫɶ
2,25±0,069 ɜɵɜɨɞɤɚ (n=40), ɚ ɜ ɝɨɞɵ ɞɟɩɪɟɫɫɢɣ ɢ ɩɢɤɨɜ ɥɢɲɶ 1,95±0,014
(n=20) ɢ 1,95±0,037 (n=150) ɜɵɜɨɞɤɨɜ ɧɚ ɨɞɧɭ ɫɚɦɤɭ. Ɋɚɡɧɢɰɚ ɦɟɠɞɭ
ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨɦ ɜɵɜɨɞɤɨɜ ɜ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɵ ɪɨɫɬɚ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɢ ɜɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɞɟɩɪɟɫɫɢɣ
ɞɨɫɬɨɜɟɪɧɚ ɩɪɢ P=95%, ɚ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɝɨɞɚɦɢ ɪɨɫɬɚ ɢ ɩɢɤɨɜ - ɩɪɢ P=99,9%.
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ
ɏɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɚ ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɤɪɚɫɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɟɜɤɢ ɜ ɪɚɡɧɵɟ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɵ ɟɟ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ
ɉɟɪɢɨɞ
Ⱦɨɥɹ, ɭɱɚɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ ɜ ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɟɧɢɢ ɫɚɦɨɤ (%)
ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ
ɩɟɪɟɡɢɦɨɜɚɜɲɢɟ
«ɫɬɚɪɲɢɟ» ɫɟɝɨɥɟɬɤɢ
«ɦɥɚɞɲɢɟ»
ɫɟɝɨɥɟɬɤɢ
ɞɟɩɪɟɫɫɢɹ
100 (n=20)
100 (n-47)
4,5; 9,1; 29,2
(n=136)
ɪɨɫɬ
92,8-100 (n=41)
95,3 - 100 (n=67)
0,9; 1; 4, 9; (n=481)
ɩɢɤ
96,2-100 (n152)
2,3 – 22,3 (n=67)
0 (n=739)
ɍɱɚɫɬɢɟ ɜ ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɟɧɢɢ
ɫɟɝɨɥɟɬɨɤ ɪɚɧɧɟɥɟɬɧɢɯ ɢ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ
ɩɨɡɞɧɟɥɟɬɧɢɯ ɜɵɜɨɞɤɨɜ ɜ ɪɚɡɧɵɟ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɵ ɠɢɡɧɢ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɦɟɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɨɱɟɧɶ
ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ. ȿɫɥɢ ɜ ɝɨɞɵ ɞɟɩɪɟɫɫɢɢ ɜ ɜɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɟ ɭɱɚɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɜɫɟ
«ɫɬɚɪɲɢɟ» ɢ ɞɨ ɬɪɟɬɢ «ɦɥɚɞɲɢɯ» ɫɟɝɨɥɟɬɨɤ, ɬɨ ɜ ɝɨɞɵ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɨɣ
ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɛɨɥɶɲɚɹ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɫɟɝɨɥɟɬɨɤ ɪɚɧɧɟɥɟɬɧɟɝɨ ɪɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɜɫɟ
ɦɨɥɨɞɵɟ ɡɜɟɪɶɤɢ ɩɨɡɞɧɟɥɟɬɧɢɯ ɝɟɧɟɪɚɰɢɣ ɨɫɬɚɸɬɫɹ ɧɟɩɨɥɨɜɨɡɪɟɥɵɦɢ.
Ɍɚɤɢɟ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ ɡɜɟɪɶɤɨɜ ɩɪɢ ɪɚɡɧɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ
ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɦ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɦ ɜɧɭɬɪɢɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɪɟɝɭɥɹɰɢɢ.
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. .Ȼɨɛɪɟɰɨɜ Ⱥ.ȼ., ɂ.Ɏ. Ʉɭɩɪɢɹɧɨɜɚ, Ⱥ.Ⱥ. Ʉɚɥɢɧɢɧ, Ʌ.ȿ. Ʌɭɤɶɹɧɨɜɚ, ɇ.Ⱥ. ɓɢɩɚɧɨɜ.
ȼɢɞɨɜɨɟ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜ ɦɟɥɤɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ ɜ ɝɪɚɞɢɟɧɬɟ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢ
ɛɢɨɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ //ɍɫɩɟɯɢ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɣ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɢ, 2008. Ɍ.128, ʋ4, ɫ. 409-416.
2. ɂɜɚɧɬɟɪ ɗ.ȼ. ɉɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɚɹ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɹ ɦɟɥɤɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ ɬɚɟɠɧɨɝɨ ɋɟɜɟɪɨɁɚɩɚɞɚ ɋɋɋɊ. Ʌ., ɂɡɞ-ɜɨ «ɇɚɭɤɚ», 1975, 246ɫ.
3. Ʉɚɪɩɟɧɤɨ Ⱥ.ɋ. Ʉɚɦɫɤɨ-ɩɟɱɪɫɤɨ-ɡɚɩɚɞɧɨɭɪɚɥɶɫɤɢɟ ɬɟɦɧɨɯɜɨɣɧɵɟ ɥɟɫɚ //
Ɋɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɋɋɋɊ. Ʌ., ɋ. 99-104.
4. Ʉɨɲɤɢɧɚ Ɍ.ȼ. ɋɪɚɜɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɹ ɪɵɠɢɯ ɩɨɥɟɜɨɤ ɜ ɫɟɜɟɪɧɨɣ ɬɚɣɝɟ // Ɏɚɭɧɚ ɢ
ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɹ ɝɪɵɡɭɧɨɜ. Ɇ., 1957. ȼɵɩ.5, ɫ. 3-65.
79
5. Ʉɭɩɪɢɹɧɨɜɚ ɂ.Ɏ., Ⱥ.ȼ. Ȼɨɛɪɟɰɨɜ Ɋɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɥɟɫɧɵɯ
ɩɨɥɟɜɨɤ ɧɚ ȿɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɦ ɋɟɜɟɪɟ // ɋɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɟ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɢ ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɵ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ
ɨɫɨɛɨ ɨɯɪɚɧɹɟɦɵɯ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɣ ȿɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɋɟɜɟɪɚ ɢ ɍɪɚɥɚ. ɋɛɨɪɧɢɤ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɨɜ
ɧɚɭɱɧ.-ɩɪɚɤɬ. ɤɨɧɮ. ɋɵɤɬɵɜɤɚɪ, 2006. ɋ.87-92.
PECULIARITIES OF REPRODUCTION OF THE RED VOLE AND THE DYNAMICS
OF ITS NUMBER IN THE FOOTHILLS AREA OF THE NORTHERN TAIGA
I. Kupriyanova
Pechoro-Ilichski Reserve
Data of the population dynamics and some characteristics of the population
reproduction of the red voles in the seasonal maximum of number at one of the
stations of the foothill area of the Northern subarea of Kama-Pechora-West Ural
dark coniferous taiga.
ɍȾɄ 591.619:597:577.1(477)
ȼɅɂəɇɂȿ ɋɌɊȿɋɋ-ɎȺɄɌɈɊɈȼ ɇȺ ɁȺɊȺɀȿɇɂȿ
ɗɄɌɈɉȺɊȺɁɂɌȺɆɂ ɂ ɇȿɄɈɌɈɊɕȿ ȻɂɈɏɂɆɂɑȿɋɄɂȿ
ɉɈɄȺɁȺɌȿɅɂ ɊɕȻ-ȼɋȿɅȿɇɐȿȼ ȼɈȾɈȿɆɈȼ ɍɄɊȺɂɇɕ
Ʌ.ə. Ʉɭɪɨɜɫɤɚɹ, ȼ.ɇ. Ʌɵɫɟɧɤɨ
ɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ɡɨɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɢɦ. ɂ.ɂ. ɒɦɚɥɶɝɚɭɡɟɧɚ ɇȺɇ ɍɤɪɚɢɧɵ, ɝ. Ʉɢɟɜ
E-mail: [email protected]
ɉɨɤɚɡɚɧɵ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɡɚɪɚɠɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚɦɢ ɚɦɭɪɫɤɨɝɨ
ɱɟɛɚɱɤɚ ɢ ɫɟɪɟɛɪɹɧɨɝɨ ɤɚɪɚɫɹ, ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɹ ɛɟɥɤɚ ɢ ɥɢɡɨɰɢɦɚ ɜ ɬɤɚɧɹɯ ɪɵɛ
ɩɪɢ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɢ ɫɬɪɟɫɫ-ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ (ɭɥɶɬɪɚɡɜɭɤ, ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɚɹ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ).
ȼ ɪɵɛɧɵɟ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚ ɢ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚ ɍɤɪɚɢɧɵ ɩɪɢ ɢɧɬɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɨɧɧɨɚɤɤɥɢɦɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɪɚɛɨɬɚɯ ɫ ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɹɞɧɵɦɢ ɪɵɛɚɦɢ, ɧɚɱɚɬɵɯ ɜ 60-ɟ
ɝɨɞɵ ɩɪɨɲɥɨɝɨ ɫɬɨɥɟɬɢɹ, ɢɡ Ⱦɚɥɶɧɟɝɨ ȼɨɫɬɨɤɚ ɢ Ʉɢɬɚɹ ɩɪɨɧɢɤɥɢ
ɦɚɥɨɰɟɧɧɵɟ ɢ ɫɨɪɧɵɟ ɜɢɞɵ ɪɵɛ (ɱɟɛɚɱɨɤ ɚɦɭɪɫɤɢɣ, ɪɨɬɚɧ-ɝɨɥɨɜɟɲɤɚ,
ɫɟɪɟɛɪɹɧɵɣ ɤɚɪɚɫɶ). ȼ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɧɟɩɪɟɞɧɚɦɟɪɟɧɧɨɣ ɢɧɬɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɢ ɨɧɢ
ɨɤɚɡɚɥɢɫɶ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɵɦɢ ɤ ɚɝɪɟɫɫɢɜɧɨɣ ɤɨɥɨɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɨɜ ɜɨ
ɦɧɨɝɢɯ ɫɬɪɚɧɚɯ [3]. ɗɤɫɩɚɧɫɢɹ ɱɭɠɟɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɪɵɛ ɫɨɩɪɨɜɨɠɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɬɚɤ
ɡɜɚɧɵɦ «ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɟɧɢɟɦ» ɧɨɜɵɯ ɞɥɹ ɧɢɯ ɚɤɜɚɬɨɪɢɣ. ȼ ɬɚɤɨɦ
ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɟɧɢɢ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ ɪɨɥɶ ɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɢɬ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚɦ [2].
ɉɪɟɞɜɚɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹɦɢ ɛɵɥɨ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɩɪɢ
ɞɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɦ ɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɧɨɦ (ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɧɨɦ) ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɢ ɚɦɭɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɱɟɛɚɱɤɚ ɢ
ɫɟɪɟɛɪɹɧɨɝɨ ɤɚɪɚɫɹ ɜ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɭ ɩɟɪɜɨɝɨ ɧɟ
ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɥɨɫɶ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɣ ɡɚɪɚɠɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚɦɢ ɩɨ ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɸ ɫ
ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɪɵɛɚɦɢ. ɍ ɫɟɪɟɛɪɹɧɨɝɨ ɤɚɪɚɫɹ ɨɬɦɟɱɚɥɨɫɶ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟ
80
ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɩɪɨɫɬɟɣɲɢɯ ɢ ɦɨɧɨɝɟɧɟɣ ɧɚ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ ɬɟɥɚ ɢ ɠɚɛɪɚɯ.
ɍɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɡɚɪɚɠɟɧɢɹ ɤɚɪɚɫɹ ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚɦɢ ɛɵɥ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɜɵɲɟ, ɱɟɦ
ɚɦɭɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɱɟɛɚɱɤɚ. Ʉɨɧɬɪɨɥɟɦ ɫɥɭɠɢɥɢ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ ɡɚɪɚɠɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɪɵɛ ɞɨ
ɧɚɱɚɥɚ ɨɩɵɬɚ ɫ ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɧɵɦ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟɦ ɪɵɛ. Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɧɟ
ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɥɫɹ ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ ɨɬ ɫɟɪɟɛɪɹɧɨɝɨ ɤɚɪɚɫɹ ɤ ɚɦɭɪɫɤɨɦɭ ɱɟɛɚɱɤɭ
[1].
ɐɟɥɶɸ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɝɨ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɹɜɢɥɨɫɶ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɟ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɪɹɞɚ
ɫɬɪɟɫɫ-ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ (ɭɥɶɬɪɚɡɜɭɤ, ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɚɹ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ ɜɨɞɵ) ɧɚ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ
ɡɚɪɚɠɟɧɢɹ ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚɦɢ ɚɦɭɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɱɟɛɚɱɤɚ ɢ ɫɟɪɟɛɪɹɧɨɝɨ ɤɚɪɚɫɹ,
ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɛɟɥɤɚ ɢ ɥɢɡɨɰɢɦɚ ɜ ɫɵɜɨɪɨɬɤɟ ɤɪɨɜɢ ɢ ɫɥɢɡɢ ɤɨɠɢ ɪɵɛ ɩɪɢ
ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɧɨɦ ɢɯ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɢ ɜ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ.
ȼ ɨɩɵɬɟ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɥɢ ɚɦɭɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɱɟɛɚɱɤɚ (Pseudorasbora parva
Temminck, Schlegel) ɢ ɫɟɪɟɛɪɹɧɨɝɨ ɤɚɪɚɫɹ (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch),
ɩɪɢɜɟɡɟɧɧɵɯ ɢɡ ɪɵɛɧɨɝɨ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚ «ɇɢɜɤɚ» (Ʉɢɟɜɫɤɚɹ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɶ) ɜ ɜɟɫɟɧɧɢɣ
ɩɟɪɢɨɞ. Ɉɩɵɬɧɵɟ ɪɵɛɵ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɥɢɫɶ ɜ 200-ɥɢɬɪɨɜɵɯ ɚɤɜɚɪɢɭɦɚɯ ɫ ɚɷɪɚɰɢɟɣ
ɩɪɢ t – 13ɨɋ ɢ ɩɨɥɭɱɚɥɢ ɤɨɪɦ. ɍ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɶɧɵɯ ɢ ɨɩɵɬɧɵɯ ɪɵɛ ɢɡɦɟɪɹɥɢ
ɦɚɫɫɭ ɢ ɞɥɢɧɭ ɪɵɛ, ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɥɢ ɢɧɞɟɤɫ ɨɛɢɥɢɹ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ (ɂɈ),
ɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɵɜɚɥɢ ɤɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬ ɭɩɢɬɚɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɪɵɛ ɩɨ Ɏɭɥɶɬɨɧɭ, ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ
ɛɟɥɤɚ ɩɨ ɦɟɬɨɞɭ Ʌɨɭɪɢ, ɥɢɡɨɰɢɦɚ (ɦɭɪɚɦɢɞɚɡɚ) ɞɢɮɮɭɡɢɨɧɧɵɦ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɦ ɧɚ
ɚɝɚɪɟ ɜ ɫɵɜɨɪɨɬɤɟ ɤɪɨɜɢ ɢ ɫɥɢɡɢ ɤɨɠɢ ɩɪɢ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɢ ɭɥɶɬɪɚɡɜɭɤɚ (ɱɚɫɬɨɬɚ 6–
10 ɤȽɰ) ɩɨ 3 ɱɚɫ ɜ ɫɭɬɤɢ (14 ɢ 21 ɫɭɬ) ɢ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɨɣ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
(21ɨɋ) ɜ ɜɟɫɟɧɧɢɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ (13 ɢ 26 ɫɭɬ). ɉɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ
ɪɵɛ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɢ ɩɨ ɨɛɳɟɩɪɢɧɹɬɨɣ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤɟ.
ɉɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɨ ɞɜɟ ɫɟɪɢɢ ɨɩɵɬɨɜ. ȼ ɩɟɪɜɨɣ ɫɟɪɢɢ ɢɡɭɱɚɥɢ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟ
ɭɥɶɬɪɚɡɜɭɤɚ ɧɚ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɡɚɪɚɠɟɧɢɹ ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚɦɢ ɚɦɭɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɱɟɛɚɱɤɚ ɢ
ɤɚɪɚɫɹ ɩɪɢ ɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɧɨɦ ɢɯ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɢ. ɉɟɪɟɞ ɧɚɱɚɥɨɦ ɨɩɵɬɚ
ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɪɵɛ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥɨ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟ ɭ ɚɦɭɪɫɤɨɝɨ
ɱɟɛɚɱɤɚ ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ ɧɚ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ ɬɟɥɚ ɢ ɠɚɛɪɚɯ. ɍ ɤɚɪɚɫɹ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɵ
ɟɞɢɧɢɱɧɵɟ ɷɤɡɟɦɩɥɹɪɵ ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ: ɩɪɨɫɬɟɣɲɢɟ ɪɨɞɚ Trichodina
Ehrenberg (ɬɪɢɯɨɞɢɧɚ), Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet (ɢɯɬɢɨɮɬɢɪɢɭɫ),
ɦɨɧɨɝɟɧɟɢ Dactylogyrus vastator Diarova (ɞɚɤɬɢɥɨɝɢɪɭɫ), Gyrodactylus
cyprini Nybelin, (ɝɢɪɨɞɚɤɬɢɥɸɫ). ɉɪɢ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɢ ɭɥɶɬɪɚɡɜɭɤɚ ɧɚ ɩɪɨɬɹɠɟɧɢɢ
14 ɢ 21 ɫɭɬ ɭ ɚɦɭɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɱɟɛɚɱɤɚ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɵ ɟɞɢɧɢɱɧɵɟ ɷɤɡɟɦɩɥɹɪɵ ɬɪɢɯɨɞɢɧ
ɢ ɦɨɧɨɝɟɧɟɣ. ɍ ɤɚɪɚɫɹ ɧɚ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ ɬɟɥɚ ɢ ɠɚɛɪɚɯ ɱɟɪɟɡ 14 ɫɭɬ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ
ɭɥɶɬɪɚɡɜɭɤɚ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɨ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟ ɢɯ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɚ, ɚ ɱɢɫɥɨ ɢɯɬɢɨɮɬɢɪɢɭɫɨɜ
ɧɟ ɢɡɦɟɧɢɥɨɫɶ. ɑɟɪɟɡ 21 ɫɭɬ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɭɥɶɬɪɚɡɜɭɤɚ ɭ ɤɚɪɚɫɹ ɫɧɢɡɢɥɨɫɶ
ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɬɪɢɯɨɞɢɧ ɜ 5,2 ɪɚɡɚ, ɢɫɱɟɡɥɢ ɢɯɬɢɨɮɬɢɪɢɭɫɵ, ɱɢɫɥɨ
ɞɚɤɬɢɥɨɝɢɪɭɫɨɜ ɨɫɬɚɥɨɫɶ ɩɨɱɬɢ ɧɚ ɩɪɟɠɧɟɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ, ɚ ɡɚɪɚɠɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ
ɞɚɤɬɢɥɨɝɢɪɭɫɚɦɢ ɜɨɡɪɨɫɥɚ ɜ 2,5 ɪɚɡɚ (ɬɚɛɥ.).
Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɩɪɢ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɢ ɭɥɶɬɪɚɡɜɭɤɚ ɧɚ ɪɵɛ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɟɬɫɹ
ɧɟɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɩɨɞɴɟɦ ɡɚɪɚɠɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɬɪɢɯɨɞɢɧɚɦɢ ɢ ɦɨɧɨɝɟɧɟɹɦɢ ɭ
ɚɦɭɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɱɟɛɚɱɤɚ ɩɨ ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɸ ɫ ɤɚɪɚɫɟɦ.
ɋɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɛɟɥɤɚ ɜ ɫɵɜɨɪɨɬɤɟ ɤɪɨɜɢ ɩɨɞ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɦ ɭɥɶɬɪɚɡɜɭɤɚ ɱɟɪɟɡ
14 ɫɭɬ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɥɨɫɶ ɭ ɚɦɭɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɱɟɛɚɱɤɚ ɧɚ 27,5%, ɭ ɤɚɪɚɫɹ ɧɚ 35,5%, ɱɟɪɟɡ
81
21 ɫɭɬ ɨɩɵɬɚ – ɧɚ 36,6% ɭ ɚɦɭɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɱɟɛɚɱɤɚ ɢ 25,3% ɭ ɤɚɪɚɫɹ (ɪ < 0,05).
ɋɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɛɟɥɤɚ ɜ ɫɵɜɨɪɨɬɤɟ ɤɪɨɜɢ ɚɦɭɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɱɟɛɚɱɤɚ ɜ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɟ ɢ
ɨɩɵɬɟ ɜɵɲɟ, ɱɟɦ ɭ ɤɚɪɚɫɹ (ɪ < 0,05–0,01). ȼ ɫɥɢɡɢ ɤɨɠɢ ɚɦɭɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɱɟɛɚɱɤɚ
ɩɨɞ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɦ ɭɥɶɬɪɚɡɜɭɤɚ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɥɨɫɶ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɹ ɛɟɥɤɚ ɜ 1,8
ɢ 1,6 ɪɚɡɚ, ɭ ɤɚɪɚɫɹ ɷɬɨɬ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶ ɢɡɦɟɧɢɥɫɹ ɧɟɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ. ɂɡɜɟɫɬɧɨ, ɱɬɨ
ɩɪɢ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɢ ɭɥɶɬɪɚɡɜɭɤɚ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɮɚɝɨɰɢɬɚɪɧɚɹ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ
ɥɟɣɤɨɰɢɬɨɜ ɢ ɞɢɫɩɟɪɫɧɨɫɬɶ ɛɟɥɤɨɜ ɫɵɜɨɪɨɬɤɢ ɤɪɨɜɢ, ɧɚɫɬɭɩɚɟɬ ɭɫɢɥɟɧɢɟ
ɬɤɚɧɟɜɨɝɨ ɞɵɯɚɧɢɹ, ɭɫɤɨɪɟɧɢɟ ɛɢɨɯɢɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢ ɮɟɪɦɟɧɬɚɬɢɜɧɵɯ
ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɜ.
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ
Ɂɚɪɚɠɟɧɢɟ ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚɦɢ, ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɛɟɥɤɚ ɢ ɥɢɡɨɰɢɦɚ ɜ ɬɤɚɧɹɯ
ɚɦɭɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɱɟɛɚɱɤɚ ɢ ɫɟɪɟɛɪɹɧɨɝɨ ɤɚɪɚɫɹ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɭɥɶɬɪɚɡɜɭɤɚ
ɩɪɢ ɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɧɨɦ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɢ ɪɵɛ (t – 13ɨɋ)
Ʉɨɧɬɪɨɥɶ
14 ɫɭɬ
21 ɫɭɬ
ɉɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ
Ⱥɦɭɪɫɤɢɣ Ʉɚɪɚɫɶ Ⱥɦɭɪɫɤɢɣ Ʉɚɪɚɫɶ Ⱥɦɭɪɫɤɢɣ Ʉɚɪɚɫɶ
ɱɟɛɚɱɨɤ
ɱɟɛɚɱɨɤ
ɱɟɛɚɱɨɤ
Ɇɚɫɫɚ ɪɵɛ, ɝ
2,2±0,3
14,8±2,1
2,3±0,2
14,9±1,9
2,9±0,04
17,3±1,4
Ⱦɥɢɧɚ ɪɵɛ, ɫɦ 5,3±0,2
8,2±0,2
5,4±0,2
8,1±0,3
5,7±0,2
8,5±0,1
Ʉɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬ
1,48±0,06 2,68±0,09 1,44±0,04 2,70±0,15 1,45±0,07 2,82±0,04
ɭɩɢɬɚɧɧɨɫɬɢ
Ɂɚɪɚɠɟɧɢɟ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚɦɢ (ɂɈ), ɷɤɡ.
Trichodina sp.
0
0,2
1,0
9,8
0
1,9
0
0,6
0
0,8
0
0
Ichthyophthirius
multifiliis
0
1,2
0
4,4
0,2
3,9
Dactylogyrus
vastator
0
1,5
0,4
8,0
0,6
20,2
Gyrodactylus
cyprini
ɋɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɛɟɥɤɚ
ɋɵɜɨɪɨɬɤɚ
36,3±4,2* 21,7±2,1* 46, 3±4,5* 29,4±3,0* 49,6±3,9* 27,2±2,7*
ɤɪɨɜɢ, ɝ/ɥ
ɋɥɢɡɶ ɤɨɠɢ,
1,0±0,2*
2,1±0,3*
1,8±0,5
2,5±0,3
1,6±0,4
2,4±0,2
ɝ/100 ɝ ɬɤɚɧɢ
ɋɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɥɢɡɨɰɢɦɚ
ɋɵɜɨɪɨɬɤɚ
1,4±0,1*
2,1±0,2*
1,5±0,2
2,3±0,3
1,7±0,4
1,9±0,5
ɤɪɨɜɢ, ɦɤɝ/ɦɥ
ɋɥɢɡɶ ɤɨɠɢ,
18,3±0,5* 9,7±2,7*
20,7±0,8* 12,0±2,3* 22,5±0,1* 13,5±1,4*
ɦɤɝ/ɝ ɬɤɚɧɢ
ɉɪɢɦɟɱɚɧɢɟ. * – ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɹ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɞɚɧɧɵɦɢ ɨɩɵɬɨɜ ɞɨɫɬɨɜɟɪɧɵ (ɩɨɹɫɧɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɬɟɤɫɬɟ).
ȼ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ ɝɨɞɵ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɧɚ ɱɪɟɡɜɵɱɚɣɧɨ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɚɹ ɪɨɥɶ ɥɢɡɨɰɢɦɚ,
ɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɢɡ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ ɧɟɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɬɧɨɫɬɢ.
Ɉɧɚ ɧɟ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɡɚɳɢɬɨɣ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦɚ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɨɬ
ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢɢ. Ʉɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɹ ɥɢɡɨɰɢɦɚ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ ɨɬ ɜɢɞɚ ɪɵɛ ɢ
ɥɨɤɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɮɟɪɦɟɧɬɚ ɜ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦɟ. ɂɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɹ ɥɢɡɨɰɢɦɚ ɜ
ɫɵɜɨɪɨɬɤɟ ɤɪɨɜɢ ɢ ɫɥɢɡɢ ɤɨɠɢ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɭɟɦɵɯ ɪɵɛ ɩɨɞ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɦ ɭɥɶɬɪɚɡɜɭɤɚ
82
ɢɦɟɸɬ ɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɸ ɤ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɸ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɟɣ ɩɪɢ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɢ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ
ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɫɬɪɟɫɫ-ɮɚɤɬɨɪɚ. Ɍɨɥɶɤɨ ɜ ɨɞɧɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɭ ɤɚɪɚɫɹ ɱɟɪɟɡ 21 ɫɭɬ
ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɭɥɶɬɪɚɡɜɭɤɚ ɫɧɢɡɢɥɨɫɶ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɥɢɡɨɰɢɦɚ ɧɚ 17, 4% ɜ
ɫɵɜɨɪɨɬɤɟ ɤɪɨɜɢ ɩɨ ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɸ ɫ ɞɚɧɧɵɦɢ 14-ɫɭɬɨɱɧɨɝɨ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ
ɫɬɪɟɫɫ-ɮɚɤɬɨɪɚ. ȼ ɫɵɜɨɪɨɬɤɟ ɤɪɨɜɢ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɶɧɵɯ ɢ ɨɩɵɬɧɵɯ ɨɫɨɛɟɣ
ɚɦɭɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɱɟɛɚɱɤɚ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɥɢɡɨɰɢɦɚ ɦɟɧɶɲɟ, ɱɟɦ ɜ ɫɵɜɨɪɨɬɤɟ ɤɪɨɜɢ
ɤɚɪɚɫɹ (ɪ < 0,05). ȼ ɫɥɢɡɢ ɤɨɠɢ ɚɦɭɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɱɟɛɚɱɤɚ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɥɢɡɨɰɢɦɚ,
ɧɚɨɛɨɪɨɬ, ɜɵɲɟ, ɱɟɦ ɭ ɤɚɪɚɫɹ (ɪ < 0,01–0,001). ȼɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ ɩɪɢɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟ ɷɬɨɝɨ
ɮɚɤɬɨɪɚ ɧɟɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɜ ɫɥɢɡɢ ɤɨɠɢ ɢ ɡɚɳɢɳɚɟɬ
ɚɦɭɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɱɟɛɚɱɤɚ ɨɬ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɹ ɡɚɪɚɠɟɧɢɹ ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚɦɢ.
ȼɨ ɜɬɨɪɨɣ ɫɟɪɢɢ ɨɩɵɬɨɜ ɢɡɭɱɚɥɢ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɣ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
(21ɨɋ) ɜ ɜɟɫɟɧɧɢɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɧɚ ɡɚɪɚɠɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚɦɢ ɚɦɭɪɫɤɨɝɨ
ɱɟɛɚɱɤɚ ɢ ɤɚɪɚɫɹ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɛɟɥɤɚ ɢ ɥɢɡɨɰɢɦɚ ɜ ɫɵɜɨɪɨɬɤɟ ɤɪɨɜɢ
ɢ ɫɥɢɡɢ ɤɨɠɢ ɪɵɛ ɩɪɢ ɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɧɨɦ ɢɯ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɢ. ɉɟɪɟɞ ɧɚɱɚɥɨɦ ɨɩɵɬɚ
ɪɵɛɵ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɥɢɫɶ ɜ ɚɤɜɚɪɢɭɦɟ ɩɪɢ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɟ ɜɨɞɵ 13ɨɋ.
ɉɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟ ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ ɭ ɚɦɭɪɫɤɨɝɨ
ɱɟɛɚɱɤɚ ɢ ɧɚɥɢɱɢɟ ɟɞɢɧɢɱɧɵɯ ɷɤɡɟɦɩɥɹɪɨɜ ɩɪɨɫɬɟɣɲɢɯ (ɢɯɬɢɨɮɬɢɪɢɭɫ) ɢ
ɦɨɧɨɝɟɧɟɣ (ɞɚɤɬɢɥɨɝɢɪɭɫ ɢ ɝɢɪɨɞɚɤɬɢɥɸɫ) ɭ ɤɚɪɚɫɹ. ɑɟɪɟɡ 13 ɫɭɬ
ɧɚɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɪɵɛ ɜ ɜɨɞɟ ɩɪɢ t – 21ɨɋ ɭ ɚɦɭɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɱɟɛɚɱɤɚ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɵ ɧɚɣɞɟɧɵ
ɧɟ ɛɵɥɢ, ɭ ɤɚɪɚɫɹ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɨ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟ ɂɈ ɢɯɬɢɨɮɬɢɪɢɭɫɚɦɢ (5–10 ɷɤɡ.
ɧɚ ɪɵɛɭ) ɢ ɞɚɤɬɢɥɨɝɢɪɭɫɚɦɢ (5–7 ɷɤɡ.). Ʉɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɝɢɪɨɞɚɤɬɢɥɸɫɨɜ ɧɟ
ɢɡɦɟɧɢɥɨɫɶ. ɑɟɪɟɡ 26 ɫɭɬ ɨɩɵɬɚ ɚɦɭɪɫɤɢɣ ɱɟɛɚɱɨɤ ɡɚɪɚɠɟɧ ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚɦɢ
ɧɟ ɛɵɥ, ɚ ɭ ɤɚɪɚɫɹ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɥɚɫɶ ɢɧɜɚɡɢɹ ɦɨɧɨɝɟɧɟɹɦɢ. ɉɨɞ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟɦ
ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɣ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ ɭ ɚɦɭɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɱɟɛɚɱɤɚ ɢ ɤɚɪɚɫɹ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɫɶ ɬɚɤɢɟ
ɠɟ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟɦ ɛɟɥɤɚ ɢ ɥɢɡɨɰɢɦɚ ɜ ɫɵɜɨɪɨɬɤɟ ɤɪɨɜɢ ɢ
ɫɥɢɡɢ ɤɨɠɢ, ɱɬɨ ɢ ɩɪɢ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɢ ɭɥɶɬɪɚɡɜɭɤɚ ɧɚ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɭɟɦɵɯ ɪɵɛ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ
ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɥɢɡɨɰɢɦɚ ɜ ɫɥɢɡɢ ɤɨɠɢ ɭ ɚɦɭɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɱɟɛɚɱɤɚ ɩɪɢ ɞɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɦ
ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɢ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɣ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ ɜ 2,2 ɪɚɡɚ ɜɵɲɟ, ɱɟɦ ɩɪɢ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɢ
ɭɥɶɬɪɚɡɜɭɤɚ ɜ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ 21 ɫɭɬ (ɪ < 0,05).
Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɩɪɢ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɢ ɪɹɞɚ ɫɬɪɟɫɫ-ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ (ɭɥɶɬɪɚɡɜɭɤ,
ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɚɹ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ) ɧɚ ɚɦɭɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɱɟɛɚɱɤɚ ɢ ɫɟɪɟɛɪɹɧɨɝɨ ɤɚɪɚɫɹ ɩɪɢ
ɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɧɨɦ ɢɯ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɢ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɡɚɪɚɠɟɧɢɹ ɚɦɭɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɱɟɛɚɱɤɚ
ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚɦɢ ɧɟ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɥɨɫɶ. ɍ ɤɚɪɚɫɹ ɩɪɢ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɣ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɟ
ɢɧɜɚɡɢɹ ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚɦɢ ɜɵɲɟ, ɱɟɦ ɩɪɢ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɢ ɭɥɶɬɪɚɡɜɭɤɚ. ɋɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ
ɛɟɥɤɚ ɜ ɫɵɜɨɪɨɬɤɟ ɤɪɨɜɢ ɚɦɭɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɱɟɛɚɱɤɚ ɢ ɥɢɡɨɰɢɦɚ ɜ ɫɥɢɡɢ ɤɨɠɢ ɜ
ɨɛɟɢɯ ɫɟɪɢɹɯ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɩɪɟɜɵɲɚɸɬ ɬɚɤɢɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ ɭ ɤɚɪɚɫɹ ɢ
ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ ɢɝɪɚɸɬ ɜɚɠɧɭɸ ɪɨɥɶ ɜ ɭɤɪɟɩɥɟɧɢɢ ɢɯ ɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɤ
ɡɚɪɚɠɟɧɢɸ ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚɦɢ.
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. Ⱦɚɜɢɞɨɜ Ɉ.Ɇ., Ʉɭɪɨɜɫɶɤɚ Ʌ.ə., Ȼɭɬɤɨɜ Ɋ.ȼ. Ⱦɨɫɥɿɞɠɟɧɧɹ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɮɚɭɧɢ
ɚɦɭɪɫɶɤɨɝɨ ɱɟɛɚɱɤɚ – ɧɨɜɨɝɨ ɜɢɞɭ-ɿɧɬɟɪɜɟɧɬɚ ɜɨɞɨɣɦ ɍɤɪɚʀɧɢ // ɉɪɨɛɥɟɦɢ ɪɨɡɜɢɬɤɭ
ɦɨɪɫɶɤɨʀ ɬɚ ɩɪɿɫɧɨɜɨɞɧɨʀ ɚɤɜɚɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɢ. – Ʉɢʀɜ: ɇɌɍɍ «Ʉɉȱ», 2008. – ɋ. 117–124.
2. Ⱦɚɜɵɞɨɜ Ɉ.ɇ., ɇɟɛɨɪɚɱɟɤ ɋ.ɂ., Ʉɭɪɨɜɫɤɚɹ Ʌ.ə., Ʌɵɫɟɧɤɨ ȼ.ɇ. ɗɤɨɥɨɝɢɹ
ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ ɪɵɛ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɨɜ ɍɤɪɚɢɧɵ. – Ʉɢɟɜ: ȼɟɫɬɧɢɤ ɡɨɨɥɨɝɢɢ, 2011. – 492 ɫ.
83
3. ɀɭɤɢɧɫɤɢɣ ȼ.ɇ., ɏɚɪɱɟɧɤɨ Ɍ.Ⱥ., Ʌɹɲɟɧɤɨ Ⱥ.ȼ. Ⱥɞɜɟɧɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɜɢɞɵ ɢ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ
ɚɪɟɚɥɨɜ ɚɛɨɪɢɝɟɧɧɵɯ ɝɢɞɪɨɛɢɨɧɬɨɜ ɜ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɧɵɯ ɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɚɯ ɍɤɪɚɢɧɵ. ɋɨɨɛɳ.
2. Ʌɭɱɟɩɟɪɵɟ ɪɵɛɵ // Ƚɢɞɪɨɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɠɭɪɧɚɥ. – 2007. – Ɍ. 43, ʋ 4. – ɋ. 3–24.
INFLUENCE OF STRESS FACTORS ON INFECTION WITH ECTOPARASITES
AND SOME BIOCHEMICAL INDICES OF FISH INVASIVE IN THE WATERS
OF UKRAINE
L.Ya. Kurovskaya, V.N. Lysenko
Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology, NAS of Ukraine, Kiev
Change in the level of infection with ectoparasites of the Pseudorasbora parva
and Carassius auratus gibelio, protein and lysozyme content in fish tissue under
the action of stress factors (ultrasound, high temperature) has been shown.
ɍȾɄ 576.895.775:599 (470.630)
ȻɅɈɏɂ (SIPHONAPTERA, INSECTA)
ɆȿɅɄɂɏ ɆɅȿɄɈɉɂɌȺɘɓɂɏ ɋɌȺȼɊɈɉɈɅɖɋɄɈȽɈ ɄɊȺə
ȿ.ȼ. Ʌɚɡɚɪɟɧɤɨ
ɎɄɍɁ ɋɬɚɜɪɨɩɨɥɶɫɤɢɣ ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɱɭɦɧɵɣ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ Ɋɨɫɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɚɞɡɨɪɚ,
ɝ. ɋɬɚɜɪɨɩɨɥɶ
E-mail: [email protected]
Ɋɚɛɨɬɚ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɚ ɧɚ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɟ, ɫɨɛɪɚɧɧɨɦ ɜ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɪɚɣɨɧɚɯ
ɋɬɚɜɪɨɩɨɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ ɤɪɚɹ ɜ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɬɪɟɯ ɥɟɬ ɜ ɜɟɫɟɧɧɟ-ɨɫɟɧɧɢɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ.
ɉɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɵ ɢɧɞɟɤɫɵ ɨɛɢɥɢɹ ɢ ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɛɥɨɯ ɦɟɥɤɢɯ
ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ, ɧɚ ɞɚɧɧɨɣ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ.
Ȼɥɨɯɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɨɞɧɭ ɢɡ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɜɚɠɧɵɯ ɝɪɭɩɩ ɤɪɨɜɨɫɨɫɭɳɢɯ
ɧɚɫɟɤɨɦɵɯ. ȼɚɠɧɵɦ ɚɫɩɟɤɬɨɦ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɢ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɧɨɝɨ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ
ɛɥɨɯ, ɧɟ ɭɬɪɚɬɢɜɲɢɦ ɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɢ ɜ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ, ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɢɯ ɪɨɥɶ ɜ
ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɨɱɚɝɨɜ ɡɨɨɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɧɨɡɧɵɯ ɢ ɡɨɨɧɨɡɧɵɯ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢɣ.
Ɇɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɨɦ ɞɥɹ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɫɥɭɠɢɥɢ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɷɩɢɡɨɨɬɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ
ɨɛɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɫɬɟɩɧɵɯ, ɩɨɥɭɩɭɫɬɵɧɧɵɯ ɢ ɥɟɫɨɫɬɟɩɧɵɯ
ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɨɜ ɫɟɦɢ ɚɞɦɢɧɢɫɬɪɚɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɪɚɣɨɧɨɜ ɋɬɚɜɪɨɩɨɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ ɤɪɚɹ ɜ
ɜɟɫɟɧɧɟ-ɨɫɟɧɧɢɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɜ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɬɪɟɯ ɫɦɟɠɧɵɯ ɥɟɬ.
Ȼɥɨɯ ɫɨɛɢɪɚɥɢ ɫ ɦɟɥɤɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ, ɨɬɥɨɜɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɫ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ
ɥɨɜɭɲɟɤ Ƚɟɪɨ. Ⱦɥɹ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɥɢ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟ ɦɟɬɨɞɵ
ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ [1]: ɢɧɞɟɤɫ ɨɛɢɥɢɹ (ɂɈ, ɷɤɡ.) ɢ ɢɧɞɟɤɫ
ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ (ɂȾ, %).
Ɉɬɥɨɜɥɟɧɨ 414 ɷɤɡ. ɝɪɵɡɭɧɨɜ: ɩɟɫɱɚɧɤɚ ɬɚɦɚɪɢɫɤɨɜɚɹ (Meriones
tamariscinus Pallas) – 40, ɩɨɥɟɜɤɚ ɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɚɹ (Microtus arvalis Pallas) – 71,
84
ɩɨɥɟɜɤɚ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɚɹ (Microtus socialis Pallas) – 21, ɦɵɲɶ ɞɨɦɨɜɚɹ (Mus
musculus Linnaeus) – 154, ɦɵɲɢ ɪɨɞɚ Sylvaemus Ognev – 106, ɯɨɦɹɱɨɤ ɫɟɪɵɣ
(Cricetulus migratorius Pallas) – 19, ɫɨɧɹ ɥɟɫɧɚɹ (Dryomys nitedula Pallas) – 3
ɢ 24 ɷɤɡ. ɧɚɫɟɤɨɦɨɹɞɧɵɯ: ɺɠ ɭɲɚɫɬɵɣ (Hemiechinus auritus Gmelin) – 2, ɺɠ
ɸɠɧɵɣ (Erinaceus roumanicus Barrett-Hamilton) – 7, ɡɟɦɥɟɪɨɣɤɢ – 15 [4].
ɋɨɛɪɚɧɵ ɛɥɨɯɢ 8 ɜɢɞɨɜ: Nosopsyllus (G.) laeviceps Wagner, N.(N.)
ɫonsimilis Wagner, N. (N.) mokrzeckyi Wagner, Ctenophthalmus (E.) orientalis
Wagner, C. secundus, C. (E.) wagneri Tiflov, Echidnophaga gallinaceae
(Westwood), Paleopsylla soricis Dale.
ɏɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɨɣ ɱɟɪɬɨɣ ɛɥɨɯ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɬɨɣ ɢɥɢ ɢɧɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɧɚɹ
ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɨ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɸ ɤ ɯɨɡɹɢɧɭ, ɨɞɧɨ ɢɡ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɣ
ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɡɚɤɥɸɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɩɪɢɭɪɨɱɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɤ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɨɦɭ ɜɢɞɭ ɢɥɢ ɝɪɭɩɩɟ
ɜɢɞɨɜ ɩɪɨɤɨɪɦɢɬɟɥɟɣ.
Ⱥɧɚɥɢɡɢɪɭɹ ɩɪɢɭɪɨɱɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɜɢɞɵ ɛɥɨɯ ɤ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɦ
ɩɪɨɤɨɪɦɢɬɟɥɹɦ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɜɵɞɟɥɢɬɶ ɬɪɢ ɢɯ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɟ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ, ɪɚɡɥɢɱɚɸɳɢɟɫɹ
ɩɨ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɧɨɫɬɢ (Ʉɟɧɧɟɞɢ, 1978): ɦɨɧɨɤɫɟɧɧɵɟ – N. mokrzeckyi, P.
soricis; ɨɥɢɝɨɤɫɟɧɧɵɟ – C. wagneri, N. laeviceps; ɩɨɥɢɤɫɟɧɧɵɟ – E.
gallinaceae, N. ɫonsimilis, C. orientalis, C. secundus. Ƚɪɭɩɩɚ ɦɨɧɨɤɫɟɧɧɵɯ
ɛɥɨɯ ɯɨɬɹ ɢ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɬɶɫɹ ɧɚ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɜɢɞɚɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ, ɧɨ ɢɯ
ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɜ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɡɚ ɫɱɟɬ ɨɞɧɨɝɨ
ɢɫɬɢɧɧɨɝɨ ɯɨɡɹɢɧɚ [2].
ɇɚ ɬɚɦɚɪɢɫɤɨɜɵɯ ɩɟɫɱɚɧɤɚɯ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɨ 96 ɷɤɡ. ɛɥɨɯ ɬɪɟɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ (24,8
% ɨɬ ɨɛɳɟɝɨ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɫɨɛɪɚɧɧɵɯ ɛɥɨɯ), ɨɛɳɢɣ ɂɈ ɪɚɜɟɧ 2,4. Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɭɸ
ɦɚɫɫɭ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɵ N. laeviceps (ɂȾ 97,9 %, ɂɈ
2,3). ȼɢɞɵ N. ɫonsimilis ɢ C. orientalis, ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɧɚ ɲɢɪɨɤɨɦ ɤɪɭɝɟ
ɩɪɨɤɨɪɦɢɬɟɥɟɣ, ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵ ɟɞɢɧɢɱɧɵɦɢ ɷɤɡɟɦɩɥɹɪɚɦɢ.
ɋ ɦɵɲɟɣ ɪɨɞɚ Sylvaemus ɫɨɛɪɚɧɨ 84 ɷɤɡ. ɛɥɨɯ (21,7 %) ɱɟɬɵɪɟɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ,
ɨɛɳɢɣ ɂɈ – 0,8. ɇɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɦɚɫɫɨɜɵɦɢ ɛɵɥɢ ɩɨɥɢɤɫɟɧɧɵɟ ɜɢɞɵ C. orientalis
(ɂȾ 42,8 %, ɂɈ 0,3), N. ɫonsimilis (ɂȾ 20,7 %, ɂɈ 0,2). Ⱦɜɚ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɜɢɞɚ
ɦɚɥɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵ: C. secundus 16 ɷɤɡ. (ɂȾ 15 %, ɂɈ 0,1) ɢ N. mokrzeckyi 10
ɷɤɡ. (ɂȾ 9,4 %, ɂɈ 0,09). Ȼɥɨɯɚ C. secundus, ɫɱɢɬɚɸɳɚɹɫɹ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ
ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɦ ɩɨɥɟɜɨɤ, ɜ ɧɚɲɢɯ ɫɛɨɪɚɯ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɚ ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦ ɧɚ ɦɵɲɚɯ ɪɨɞɚ
Sylvaemus. ɗɬɨɦɭ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɬɚɤɢɟ ɦɨɦɟɧɬɵ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ, ɤɚɤ
ɡɚɛɟɝɚɧɢɟ ɜ ɱɭɠɢɟ ɧɨɪɵ, ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɡɚɛɪɨɲɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɨɪ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɝɪɵɡɭɧɨɜ
ɜ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɠɢɥɢɳɚ ɢ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɹɳɢɣ ɩɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɨɛɦɟɧ ɛɥɨɯɚɦɢ.
ɇɚ ɞɨɦɨɜɵɯ ɦɵɲɚɯ ɡɚɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɵ ɛɥɨɯɢ ɱɟɬɵɪɟɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ. ȼɫɟɝɨ
ɫɨɛɪɚɧɨ 82 ɷɤɡ. (21,2 %), ɨɛɳɢɣ ɂɈ – 0,5. Ȼɨɥɶɲɟ ɩɨɥɨɜɢɧɵ ɢɡ ɧɢɯ
ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɛɥɨɯɢ N. mokrzeckyi (ɂȾ 69,5 %, ɂɈ 0,37) – ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ
ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬ ɞɨɦɨɜɵɯ ɦɵɲɟɣ. Ⱦɪɭɝɢɟ ɜɢɞɵ: N. ɫonsimilis 11 ɷɤɡ. (ɂȾ 13,4 %,
ɂɈ 0,07), ɩɨ 7 ɷɤɡ. N. laeviceps ɢ C. orientalis (ɂȾ 8,5 %, ɂɈ 0,04).
ɇɚ ɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɩɨɥɟɜɤɚɯ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɨ 54 ɷɤɡ. ɛɥɨɯ ɱɟɬɵɪɟɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ
(13,9 %), ɨɛɳɢɣ ɂɈ 0,7. ɂɡ ɧɢɯ C. orientalis 25 ɷɤɡ. (ɂȾ 46,3 %, ɂɈ 0,3), N.
ɫonsimilis 24 ɷɤɡ. (ɂȾ 44,4 %, ɂɈ 0,33). Ɉɫɬɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɜɢɞɵ ɟɞɢɧɢɱɧɵɟ: N.
mokrzeckyi – 1 ɷɤɡ., C. secundus – 4 ɷɤɡ.
85
ɋ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɟɜɤɢ ɫɨɛɪɚɧɨ 28 ɷɤɡ. ɛɥɨɯ (7,2 %). ɂȾ ɢ ɂɈ N.
ɫonsimilis ɢ C. wagneri ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɢ 34,2 % ɢ 0,6 ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ. Ȼɥɨɯɚ C.
orientalis ɜ ɫɛɨɪɚɯ ɫ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɟɜɤɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɚ ɞɜɭɦɹ
ɷɤɡɟɦɩɥɹɪɚɦɢ.
ɇɚ ɫɟɪɨɦ ɯɨɦɹɱɤɟ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɨ 22 ɷɤɡ. ɛɥɨɯ (5,6 %). ȼɢɞɵ C. orientalis ɢ
C. secundus – ɟɞɢɧɢɱɧɵ. Ȼɥɨɯɢ N. mokrzeckyi 10 ɷɤɡ. (ɂȾ 45,4 %, ɂɈ 0,5),
N. ɫonsimilis ( ɂȾ 36,4 %, ɂɈ 0,4).
ɇɚ ɥɟɫɧɨɣ ɫɨɧɟ ɛɥɨɯ ɧɟ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɨ.
ɇɚ ɟɠɚɯ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɵ ɛɥɨɯɢ E. gallinaceae 20 ɷɤɡ. (5,2 %, ɨɛɳɢɣ ɂɈ
0,04), ɹɜɥɹɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɫɬɚɰɢɨɧɚɪɧɵɦɢ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚɦɢ.
ɇɚ ɡɟɦɥɟɪɨɣɤɚɯ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧ ɦɨɧɨɤɫɟɧɧɵɣ, ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬ P.
soricis 1 ɷɤɡ. (ɂɈ 0,3).
ɋɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɨɬɦɟɬɢɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɞɥɹ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɚ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɦɟɥɤɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ
ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɵ ɧɢɡɤɢɟ ɢɧɞɟɤɫɵ ɨɛɢɥɢɹ ɛɥɨɯ. Ɉɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɧɵɟ ɜɢɞɵ ɧɟ ɢɦɟɸɬ
ɫɬɪɨɝɨɣ ɯɨɡɹɢɧɨɣ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɧɨɫɬɢ. Ȼɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɨ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɛɥɨɯ ɧɚ
ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɦɨɣ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ – ɩɨɥɢɤɫɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɵ, ɨɛɢɬɚɸɳɢɟ ɧɚ
ɲɢɪɨɤɨɦ ɤɪɭɝɟ ɩɪɨɤɨɪɦɢɬɟɥɟɣ, ɱɬɨ ɢ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɨ ɞɥɹ ɛɥɨɯ ɦɟɥɤɢɯ
ɦɵɲɟɜɢɞɧɵɯ ɝɪɵɡɭɧɨɜ, ɨɬɥɢɱɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɧɟɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɣ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɸ.
ɉɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɸɳɭɸ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɲɢɪɨɤɨ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɧɵɟ ɧɚ
ɞɚɧɧɨɣ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɮɨɪɦɵ: N. mokrzeckyi (20,4 %), N. laeviceps (26,1 %), N.
consimilis (18,8 %), C. orientalis (18,8 %). Ɉɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɧɨɟ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ
ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɨ ɭ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɛɥɨɯ (E. gallinaceae, P. soricis) ɫɨ ɫɬɪɨɝɨɣ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɩɪɢɭɪɨɱɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɯɨɡɹɟɜ.
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. Ȼɟɤɥɟɦɢɲɟɜ ȼ.ɇ. Ɍɟɪɦɢɧɵ ɢ ɩɨɧɹɬɢɹ, ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɟ ɩɪɢ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɦ
ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɢ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɣ ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ ɢ ɧɢɞɢɤɨɥɨɜ // Ɂɨɨɥ. ɠɭɪɧɚɥ. – 1961. – Ɍ. XL, ɜɵɩ. 2.
– ɋ. 149 – 158.
2. ȼɚɳɟɧɨɤ ȼ.ɋ. Ȼɥɨɯɢ – ɩɟɪɟɧɨɫɱɢɤɢ ɜɨɡɛɭɞɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɛɨɥɟɡɧɟɣ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ ɢ
ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ. – Ʌ.: ɇɚɭɤɚ, 1988. – 163 ɫ.
3. Ʉɟɧɧɟɞɢ Ʉ. ɗɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɥɨɝɢɹ. – Ɇ.: Ɇɢɪ, 1978. – 230 ɫ.
4. ɉɚɜɥɢɧɨɜ ɂ.ə., Ʌɢɫɨɜɫɤɢɣ Ⱥ.Ⱥ. Ɇɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɟ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ: ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɬɢɤɨɝɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɫɩɪɚɜɨɱɧɢɤ. – Ɇ.: Ɍ-ɜɨ ɧɚɭɱ. ɢɡɞɚɧɢɣ ɄɆɄ, 2012. – 604 ɫ.
FLEAS (SIPHONAPTERA, INSECTA) OF SMALL MAMMALS OF
STAVROPOL TERRITORI
E.V. Lazarenko
FKUZ Stavropol Research Institute for Plague Control of the Federal Service for Supervision
of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare, Stavropol
During three years the fleas were collected in different areas of Stavropol
Territory at spring and autumn. Indices of abundance and dominance of some
species of the fleas associated with small mammals were given
86
ɍȾɄ 599.539.4
ɉɨɫɜɹɳɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɚɦɹɬɢ
ɂɥɶɢ ɂɥɶɢɱɚ Ȼɚɪɚɛɚɲ-Hɢɤɢɮɨɪɨɜɚ,
ɢɡɭɱɚɜɲɟɝɨ ɬɚɤɫɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ
Delphinapterus leucas
ɎȺɄɌɈɊɕ ɈȻɈɋɈȻɅȿɇɂə ȺɇȺȾɕɊɋɄɈɃ ɉɈɉɍɅəɐɂɂ
ȻȿɅɍɏɂ (ɁȺɉȺȾɇɈ-ȻȿɊɂɇȽɈȼɈɆɈɊɋɄȺə ɁɈɇȺ)
Ⱦ.ɂ. Ʌɢɬɨɜɤɚ*, Ʌ.ɇ. ɏɢɰɨɜɚ**
*ɑɭɤɨɬɌɂɇɊɈ, ɝ. Ⱥɧɚɞɵɪɶ,
**ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɢɣ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ, ɝ. ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ
Ɉɞɧɢɦ ɢɡ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɦɨɪɫɤɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ, ɢɦɟɸɳɢɯ
ɰɢɪɤɭɦɩɨɥɹɪɧɵɣ ɚɪɟɚɥ, ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɛɟɥɭɯɚ (Delphinapterus leucas),
ɜɧɭɬɪɢɜɢɞɨɜɚɹ ɞɢɮɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɚɰɢɹ ɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɹ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɬɪɟɛɭɸɬ ɛɨɥɟɟ
ɝɥɭɛɨɤɨɝɨ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɫ ɩɪɢɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɢ
ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜ. ȼ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɟ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɨɛɫɭɠɞɚɥɫɹ
ɬɚɤɫɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɫɬɚɬɭɫ ɛɟɥɭɯɢ: ɨɬ ɪɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɢɹ ɟɟ ɜ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ
ɦɨɧɨɬɢɩɢɱɧɨɝɨ ɜɢɞɚ ɤ ɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɢɸ ɬɪɟɯ ɫɚɦɨɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ,
ɞɢɜɟɪɫɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢ ɜɢɞɚ ɧɚ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ ɩɨɞɜɢɞɨɜ, ɧɚɤɨɧɟɰ, ɜ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɢ ɫ
ɤɨɧɫɟɧɫɭɫɨɦ ɬɨɱɟɤ ɡɪɟɧɢɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɬɢɤɨɜ - ɩɪɢɡɧɚɧɢɟ ɜɚɥɢɞɧɨɫɬɢ ɜɢɞɚ
D. leucɚs ɤɚɤ ɦɨɧɨɬɢɩɢɱɧɨɝɨ, ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɜ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɜ ɦɨɪɫɤɢɯ
ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɯ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɦɢ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɹɦɢ (1, 2, 9, 17, 19). ɉɪɢɧɰɢɩ
ɤɪɢɬɟɪɢɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɚ ɤ ɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɢɸ ɬɨɝɨ ɢɥɢ ɢɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɧɝɚ ɬɚɤɫɨɧɚ ɞɨɥɠɟɧ
ɛɵɬɶ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɵɦ, ɧɨ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɦ, ɬɚɤ ɤɚɤ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɟ,
ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹ
(ɩɨ
ɂɨɪɞɚɧɫɤɨɦɭ)
[8]
ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɟɣ
ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɤɨɣ
«ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ ɹɜɥɟɧɢɣ». ɉɪɟɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ ɜɢɞɚ
ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɢ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɦ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɨɬɛɨɪɚ, ɚɞɟɤɜɚɬɧɨɝɨ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹɦ
ɜɧɟɲɧɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ, ɢ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɦɢ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɹɦɢ , ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɳɢɦɢ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɵ
ɩɪɟɮɟɪɟɧɬɧɵɯ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɣ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɧɨɜɨɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ. ȼ ɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɟ
ɨɛɫɭɠɞɚɟɦɨɣ ɫɬɚɬɶɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɦ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɢɬɶɫɹ ɫ
ɇ.ɇ. ɂɨɪɞɚɧɫɤɢɦ ɜ ɬɨɦ, ɱɬɨ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɨɜ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ
"ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦ-ɫɪɟɞɚ" ɞɥɹ ɤɚɠɞɨɝɨ ɜɢɞɚ (ɢɥɢ, ɤɚɤ ɜ ɧɚɲɟɦ ɨɛɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɢ –
ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɜɢɞɚ) ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɬɫɹ «ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɦɢ ɦɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯ
ɧɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɵɯ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɧɨ-ɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɪɹɞɨɜ», ɚ ɡɧɚɧɢɟ ɜɢɞɨɜɵɯ
ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɬɚɤɫɨɧɚ ɞɟɥɚɟɬ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɦ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɬɶ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ
ɷɜɨɥɸɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɟɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɟɝɨ ɷɜɨɥɸɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɣ.
ɇ.ɇ. ɂɨɪɞɚɧɫɤɢɣ ɨɬɦɟɱɚɟɬ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟ ɚɪɝɭɦɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɜ
ɷɬɨɦ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ, ɱɬɨ ɚɤɬɭɚɥɢɡɢɪɭɟɬ ɟɝɨ ɜ ɪɚɦɤɚɯ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɣ
ɷɜɨɥɸɰɢɨɧɢɫɬɢɤɢ. ɉɨ ɦɧɟɧɢɸ ɪɹɞɚ ɚɜɬɨɪɨɜ, ɜɫɟɫɬɨɪɨɧɧɟ ɢ ɝɥɭɛɠɟ
ɪɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɟɬɶ ɜɧɭɬɪɢɜɢɞɨɜɭɸ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɭ D. leucas ɩɨɦɨɠɟɬ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɨɦɨɪɮɨɝɟɧɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɤɚɤ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɣ ɧɚɭɱɧɵɣ ɩɨɞɯɨɞ,
87
ɫɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɜɲɢɣɫɹ ɜ ɪɚɦɤɚɯ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɫɢɧɬɟɡɚ
ɦɟɬɨɞɨɜ ɪɹɞɚ ɧɚɭɱɧɵɯ ɞɢɫɰɢɩɥɢɧ ɢ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɢ ɫɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɢɦɨɫɬɢ
ɤɥɚɫɫɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɬɢɤɢ ɫ ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥɹɪɧɨ-ɝɟɧɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɞɚɧɧɵɦɢ [20].
Ⱥɧɚɥɢɡ ɨɩɭɛɥɢɤɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɣ ɢ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɣ
ɩɨɡɜɨɥɢɥ Ⱦ.ɂ. Ʌɢɬɨɜɤɟ, ɨɩɢɪɚɹɫɶ ɧɚ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɝɟɧɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ
ɷɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɨɜ, ɞɨɩɨɥɧɟɧɧɵɯ ɚɧɚɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɦɢ ɩɨ ɦɨɪɮɨɥɨɝɢɢ,
ɩɪɢɡɧɚɬɶ ɦɨɧɨɬɢɩɢɱɧɨɫɬɶ ɜɢɞɚ D. leucas, ɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɳɟɝɨ ɜ ɪɚɦɤɚɯ ɚɪɟɚɥɚ ɪɹɞ
ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɣ, ɜ ɬɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟ ɚɧɚɞɵɪɫɤɭɸ. ȼɦɟɫɬɟ ɫ ɬɟɦ, ɜɨɡɧɢɤɥɚ ɡɚɞɚɱɚ
ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɭɬɟɣ ɢ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ ɨɛɨɫɨɛɥɟɧɢɹ ɷɬɨɣ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ. ɇɚ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ
ɝɢɩɨɬɟɡɵ ɫɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɥɢɫɶ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɨ ɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɹɯ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚ),
ɨɛɴɹɫɧɹɸɳɟɝɨ ɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɚɧɚɞɵɪɫɤɨɣ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɛɟɥɭɯɢ ɜ Ⱥɧɚɞɵɪɫɤɨɦ
ɥɢɦɚɧɟ ɢ ɡɚɥɢɜɟ (Ɂɚɩɚɞɧɨ-Ȼɟɪɢɧɝɨɜɨɦɨɪɫɤɚɹ ɡɨɧɚ) ɢ ɩɪɟɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɸ ɢɯ ɤɚɤ
ɦɟɫɬ ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɜ ɩɨɫɬɥɟɞɧɢɤɨɜɨɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ.
ȼ ɯɨɞɟ ɱɟɬɵɪɧɚɞɰɚɬɢɥɟɬɧɢɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ [10,11,12,14] ɨɛɫɭɠɞɚɟɦɨɣ
ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɛɵɥɢ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɵ
ɬɚɤɢɟ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɟ ɦɟɬɨɞɵ ɤɚɤ
ɫɩɭɬɧɢɤɨɜɵɟ ɞɚɬɱɢɤɢ ɫɥɟɠɟɧɢɹ, ɦɭɥɶɬɢɫɩɟɤɬɪɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɚɜɢɚɫɴɟɦɤɚ ɢ
ɝɟɧɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ. ɂɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢɹ (ɤɭɦɦɭɥɹɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ) ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɯ ɩɨ
ɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɦ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤɚɦ ɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɣ ɫ ɬɚɤɨɜɵɦɢ ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɢ
ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɨɜ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɢɥɚ ɩɨɥɭɱɢɬɶ ɧɨɜɵɟ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɨ-ɷɬɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ
ɮɚɤɬɵ ɨɛ ɚɧɚɞɵɪɫɤɨɣ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɛɟɥɭɯɢ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɜ ɫɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ ɫ
ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɦɢ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɹɦɢ ɟɟ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɦɟɫɬɨɨɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɥɚɥɢ
ɨɫɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɞɥɹ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɨɣ ɮɭɧɞɚɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɡɚɞɚɱɢ.
Ƚɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɢɡɨɥɹɰɢɹ
ȼ ɩɨɥɶɡɭ ɨɛɨɫɨɛɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɚɧɚɞɵɪɫɤɨɣ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɜ ɝɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɦ
ɚɫɩɟɤɬɟ ɝɨɜɨɪɢɬ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɝɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɛɚɪɶɟɪɚ ɜ ɜɢɞɟ
ɩɨɥɭɨɫɬɪɨɜɚ Ʉɚɦɱɚɬɤɚ (ɪɢɫ. 1), ɜɞɨɥɶ ɜɨɫɬɨɱɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɛɟɪɟɠɶɹ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ
ɦɢɝɪɚɰɢɢ ɛɟɥɭɯɢ ɡɚ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ 30 ɥɟɬ ɧɟ ɨɬɦɟɱɚɥɢɫɶ. ɋɱɢɬɚɟɬɫɹ, ɱɬɨ ɦɨɫɬ
"Ȼɟɪɢɧɝɢɹ" ɦɟɠɞɭ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɤɚɦɢ ɪɚɡɴɟɞɢɧɢɥɫɹ 10-15 ɬɵɫɹɱ ɥɟɬ ɧɚɡɚɞ [21].
Ɉɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɚɧɚɞɵɪɫɤɨɣ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɛɟɥɭɯɢ
Ⱥɤɜɚɬɨɪɢɹ Ⱥɧɚɞɵɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɡɚɥɢɜɚ ɢ ɥɢɦɚɧɚ ɫ ɬɟɦ ɠɟ ɧɚɡɜɚɧɢɟɦ
ɧɟɨɞɧɨɪɨɞɧɚ ɩɨ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɟ: ɧɚɪɹɞɭ ɫ ɝɥɭɛɨɤɨɜɨɞɧɵɦɢ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɦɢ ɲɢɪɨɤɨ
ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɵ ɦɟɥɤɨɜɨɞɶɹ ɫ ɪɚɡɧɨɬɢɩɧɨɣ ɛɟɧɬɚɥɶɸ (ɝɪɚɜɢɣɧɵɟ ɢ
ɝɚɥɟɱɧɵɟ ɨɬɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ, ɤɪɭɩɧɨɡɟɪɧɢɫɬɵɟ ɩɟɫɤɢ, ɪɚɤɭɲɟɱɧɢɤ), ɱɬɨ
ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɟɬ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɡɚɯɨɞɨɜ ɫɸɞɚ ɛɟɥɭɯ, ɝɞɟ ɨɧɢ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɨɬɵɫɤɢɜɚɬɶ
ɩɢɳɭ, ɨɫɬɚɜɚɹɫɶ ɜ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ ɧɚɩɚɞɟɧɢɹ ɯɢɳɧɢɤɨɜ ɢ ɨɫɜɨɛɨɠɞɚɬɶɫɹ
ɨɬ ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ ɢ ɨɦɟɪɬɜɟɜɲɟɣ ɤɨɠɢ ɜɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɫɟɡɨɧɧɨɣ ɥɢɧɶɤɢ [4, 23].
ɇɚɥɢɱɢɟ ɛɢɨɝɟɧɧɵɯ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɜ ɜɨɞɚɯ Ⱥɧɚɞɵɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɡɚɥɢɜɚ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ
ɩɨɧɹɬɶ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɟ ɡɞɟɫɶ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟ ɛɢɨɰɟɧɨɡɨɜ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ
ɧɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɭɸ ɛɢɨɦɚɫɫɭ ɛɟɧɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ. Ⱥ.ȼ. Ⱦɚɬɫɤɢɣ ɢ
ɉ.ɘ. Ⱥɧɞɪɨɧɨɜ [7] ɫɨɨɛɳɚɸɬ ɨ ɬɨɦ, ɱɬɨ ɡɚ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɫ 1996 ɩɨ 2002 ɝɝ.
ɛɢɨɦɚɫɫɚ ɢɯɬɢɨɮɚɭɧɵ ɜ Ⱥɧɚɞɵɪɫɤɨɦ ɡɚɥɢɜɟ ɢ ɩɪɢɥɟɠɚɳɢɯ ɜɨɞɚɯ
ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɥɚ ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦ 3134,1 ɬɵɫ. ɬ. ɗɬɨ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɟɬ ɁɚɩɚɞɧɨȻɟɪɢɧɝɨɜɨɦɨɪɫɤɭɸ ɡɨɧɭ, ɤɚɤ ɨɞɢɧ ɢɡ ɫɚɦɵɯ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɪɚɣɨɧɨɜ
Ɇɢɪɨɜɨɝɨ ɨɤɟɚɧɚ, ɝɞɟ ɜɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɢ ɧɚɝɭɥɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɟ ɫɤɨɩɥɟɧɢɹ
88
ɰɟɧɧɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɪɵɛ (ɦɢɧɬɚɣ, ɩɚɥɬɭɫ, ɤɚɦɛɚɥɚ, ɢ ɞɪ.) ɢ ɛɟɫɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ.
ɇɚɥɢɱɢɟ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɯ ɨɛɴɹɫɧɹɟɬ ɤɨɪɦɨɜɵɟ ɦɢɝɪɚɰɢɢ ɜ ɷɬɢ ɚɤɜɚɬɨɪɢɢ ɢɡ
Ɍɢɯɨɝɨ ɨɤɟɚɧɚ ɦɧɨɝɢɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɩɬɢɰ ɢ ɦɨɪɫɤɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ.
Ɋɢɫ. 1. Ʉɚɦɱɚɬɫɤɢɣ ɩɨɥɭɨɫɬɪɨɜ – ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɝɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɛɚɪɶɟɪ ɦɟɠɞɭ
ɚɧɚɞɵɪɫɤɨɣ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɦɢ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɹɦɢ ɛɟɥɭɯɢ Ⱦȼ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ (ɤɪɚɫɧɵɦɢ ɤɪɭɠɤɚɦɢ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɧɵ ɫ
ɜɨɫɬɨɤɚ ɧɚ ɡɚɩɚɞ ɚɧɚɞɵɪɫɤɚɹ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɹ ɜ Ȼɟɪɢɧɝɨɜɨɦ ɦɨɪɟ ɢ ɥɟɬɧɢɟ ɫɤɨɩɥɟɧɢɹ ɛɟɥɭɯɢ
Ɉɯɨɬɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɨɪɹ: ɡɚɩɚɞɧɨ-ɤɚɦɱɚɬɫɤɨɟ, ɫɚɯɚɥɢɧɨ-ɚɦɭɪɫɤɨɟ ɢ ɲɚɧɬɚɪɫɤɨɟ).
Ȼɟɥɭɯɚ ɚɞɚɩɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɚ ɤ ɝɢɞɪɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɦ ɢ ɥɟɞɨɜɨɦɭ ɪɟɠɢɦɭ
ɚɪɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɚɤɜɚɬɨɪɢɢ, ɱɬɨ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɮɨɪɦɟ ɟɟ ɩɚɝɨɮɢɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ (ɬɟɫɧɚɹ
ɫɜɹɡɶ ɫ ɥɟɞɨɜɵɦ ɩɨɤɪɨɜɨɦ), ɷɜɪɢɝɚɥɢɧɧɨɫɬɢ (ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɜ
ɫɨɥɟɧɵɯ ɢ ɨɩɪɟɫɧɟɧɧɵɯ ɜɨɞɚɯ, ɱɬɨ ɜ ɫɜɨɸ ɨɱɟɪɟɞɶ ɞɟɥɚɟɬ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɦ ɡɚɯɨɞ
ɜ ɪɟɤɢ), ɢ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɜ ɜɵɛɨɪɟ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɹ [4]. ɉɚɝɨɮɢɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ
ɧɚɪɹɞɭ ɫ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɣ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɢ ɛɟɥɵɦ ɩɨɤɪɨɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦ ɨɤɪɚɫɨɦ
ɬɟɥɚ ɫɥɭɠɚɬ ɡɚɳɢɬɨɣ ɨɬ ɤɨɫɚɬɤɢ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɯɢɳɧɢɤɨɜ, ɚ ɷɜɪɢɝɚɥɢɧɧɨɫɬɶ
ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɪɚɫɲɢɪɹɬɶ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɸ ɩɨɢɫɤɚ ɤɚɤ ɩɪɟɫɧɨɜɨɞɧɵɯ, ɬɚɤ ɢ
ɚɧɚɞɪɨɦɧɵɯ ɢ ɦɨɪɫɤɢɯ ɝɢɞɪɨɛɢɨɧɬɨɜ, ɫɥɭɠɚɳɢɯ ɩɢɳɟɣ.
Ȼɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɮɚɤɬɨɪ ɨɛɨɫɨɛɥɟɧɢɹ ɚɧɚɞɵɪɫɤɨɣ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɛɟɥɭɯɢ
(ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɝɟɧɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ)
ɍɬɨɱɧɟɧɢɟ ɫɬɚɬɭɫɚ ɚɧɚɞɵɪɫɤɨɣ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɛɵɥɨ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɟɧɨ ɩɭɬɟɦ
ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ
ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥɹɪɧɨ-ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ
ɛɟɥɭɯ
ɬɢɯɨɨɤɟɚɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɟɤɬɨɪɚ Ⱥɪɤɬɢɤɢ (ɬɚɛɥ. 1) [14]. Ɉɤɚɡɚɥɨɫɶ, ɱɬɨ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ
ɝɟɧɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɞɢɫɬɚɧɰɢɣ ɞɥɹ ɜɵɛɨɪɨɤ ɛɟɥɭɯ ɢɡ ɡɚɩɚɞɧɵɯ ɢ ɜɨɫɬɨɱɧɵɯ
ɛɟɪɟɝɨɜ Ɍɢɯɨɝɨ ɨɤɟɚɧɚ ɨɬɥɢɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɢ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɫɬɚɬɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɜɵɫɨɤɨ
ɞɨɫɬɨɜɟɪɧɵɦɢ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɷɬɢɯ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɣ ɧɟɨɞɢɧɚɤɨɜɚ: ɧɚɢɦɟɧɶɲɟɟ
ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɩɚɪɧɵɯ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɣ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɨ ɞɥɹ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ ɛɟɥɭɯ ɢɡ Ⱥɧɚɞɵɪɫɤɨɝɨ
ɥɢɦɚɧɚ ɢ ɦɨɪɹ Ȼɨɮɨɪɬɚ, ɬɨ ɟɫɬɶ ɚɤɜɚɬɨɪɢɣ, ɪɚɡɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɧɨ 2500 ɤɦ
89
(ɪɢɫ.2). ɇɢɡɤɢɣ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɣ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɧɢɟɦ ɜ ɨɛɨɢɯ
ɪɚɣɨɧɚɯ ɝɚɩɥɨɬɢɩɚ hp9 ɢ ɛɥɢɡɤɢɯ ɤ ɧɟɦɭ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɨɜ. Ɉɬɥɢɱɢɹ ɠɟ
ɚɧɚɞɵɪɫɤɨɣ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ, ɨɛɢɬɚɸɳɟɣ ɜ ɡɚɩɚɞɧɨɣ Ȼɟɪɢɧɝɨɜɚ ɦɨɪɹ, ɨɬ ɛɨɥɟɟ
ɛɥɢɡɤɢɯ ɪɚɣɨɧɨɜ – ɜɨɫɬɨɱɧɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɨɜ ɚɤɜɚɬɨɪɢɣ Ȼɟɪɢɧɝɨɜɚ ɢ ɑɭɤɨɬɫɤɨɝɨ
ɦɨɪɟɣ ɨɤɚɡɚɥɢɫɶ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɜɵɫɨɤɢɦɢ [18]. Ⱦɢɫɬɚɧɰɢɹ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɧɫɤɢɦɢ
ɥɢɧɢɹɦɢ ɛɟɥɭɯ ɋɚɯɚɥɢɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɡɚɥɢɜɚ ɢ ɡɚɩɚɞɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɛɟɪɟɠɶɹ Ʉɚɦɱɚɬɤɢ
ɛɨɥɟɟ ɱɟɦ ɜɞɜɨɟ ɩɪɟɜɵɲɚɟɬ ɚɧɚɥɨɝɢɱɧɵɣ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶ ɞɥɹ ɡɚɩɚɞɧɨɝɨ
ɩɨɛɟɪɟɠɶɹ Ʉɚɦɱɚɬɤɢ ɜ Ɉɯɨɬɫɤɨɦ ɢ Ⱥɧɚɞɵɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɥɢɦɚɧɚ ɜ Ȼɟɪɢɧɝɨɜɨɦ
ɦɨɪɹɯ (ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɜ ɧɢɯ ɝɚɩɥɨɬɢɩɚ K357). ɉɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ
ɦɨɝɭɬ ɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ ɨ ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɧɨɣ ɢ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɣ ɮɢɥɨɩɚɬɪɢɢ ɛɟɥɭɯ
[15].
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 1
Ɉɛɴɟɦ ɝɟɧɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɚ ɩɨ ɛɟɥɭɯɟ, ɫɨɛɪɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɜ Ȼɟɪɢɧɝɨɜɨɦ ɢ
Ɉɯɨɬɫɤɨɦ ɦɨɪɹɯ ɜ 2004-2010 ɝɝ. [14]
Ɋɟɝɢɨɧ ɢ ɝɨɞɵ ɫɛɨɪɚ
ɨɛɪɚɡɰɨɜ
Ⱥɧɚɞɵɪɫɤɢɣ ɥɢɦɚɧ
ɋɚɯɚɥɢɧɫɤɢɣ ɡɚɥɢɜ
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
ȼɫɟɝɨ
2008-2009
2010
ȼɫɟɝɨ
Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ
ɧɭɤɥɟɨɬɢɞɧɨɣ
ɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ
ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚ ɦɬȾɇɄ
497 ɩ.ɧ.
ɫɚɦɰɵ
ɫɚɦɤɢ
ɜɫɟɝɨ
Ȼɟɪɢɧɝɨɜɨ ɦɨɪɟ
30(27)
8
12
4
4
5
7(6)
17
57(56)
Ɂɚɥɢɜ ɇɢɤɨɥɚɹ
8(7)
ɍɞɫɤɚɹ ɝɭɛɚ
4
Ɂɚɩɚɞɧɨɟ ɩɨɛɟɪɟɠɶɟ
Ʉɚɦɱɚɬɤɢ
30(28)
34(32)
10
10
40(37)
Ɉɯɨɬɫɤɨɟ ɦɨɪɟ
2
10
Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɚɥɥɟɥɟɣ 8 ɥɨɤɭɫɨɜ
ɦɢɤɪɨɫɚɬɟɥɥɢɬɧɨɣ
ɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɹȾɇɄ
ɫɚɦɰɵ
ɫɚɦɤɢ
ɜɫɟɝɨ
30(27)
10
40(37)
0
0
0
6
11
6
6
10
9
50
1
1
18
15
10
11
17(16)
26
107(106*)
9 (8)
5
0
4
4
4
6(5)
13
32(31)
8(7)
4
0
11
6
6
10
7
40
1
1
0
15
10
11
16(15)
20
72(71*)
9)8)
5
15(13)
16(14)
4
45(41)
50(46*)
14
29(27)
33(31)
10
15-13
16(14)
4
40
49(45*)
14*
ɉɪɢɦɟɱɚɧɢɟ: ɜ ɫɤɨɛɤɚɯ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɨ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɩɪɨɛ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɢɫɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɹ «ɞɭɛɥɢɤɚɬɨɜ», ɩɨɜɬɨɪɧɨ
ɨɬɨɛɪɚɧɧɵɯ ɭ ɨɞɧɢɯ ɢ ɬɟɯ ɠɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ;
* - ɜɵɛɨɪɤɢ, ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ ɩɪɢ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɢ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɝɨ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ
Ⱥɧɚɥɢɡ ɱɚɫɬɨɬ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɟɦɨɫɬɢ ɞɟɜɹɬɢ ɥɨɤɭɫɨɜ ɹɞɟɪɧɨɣ ȾɇɄ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɦ
ɤɥɚɫɬɟɪɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɜ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ “Admixture-Locprior” ɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɚɟɬ, ɱɬɨ
ɚɧɚɞɵɪɫɤɢɟ ɢ ɨɯɨɬɨɦɨɪɫɤɢɟ ɛɟɥɭɯɢ ɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɚɬ ɤ ɪɚɡɧɵɦ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɹɦ
[15]. ɏɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢ ɧɚɛɨɪɚ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɧɫɤɢɯ ɥɢɧɢɣ ɜ ɤɚɠɞɨɦ ɢɡ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɣ ɛɟɥɭɯ ɫ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶɸ ɞɨɫɬɨɜɟɪɧɨɫɬɢ
ɨɬɥɢɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɤɚɤ ɞɪɭɝ ɨɬ ɞɪɭɝɚ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɨɬ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɣ ɛɟɥɭɯ ɜ
ɫɟɜɟɪɨɚɦɟɪɢɤɚɧɫɤɢɯ ɜɨɞɚɯ
90
Ɋɢɫ. 2. (Ⱥ) Ɇɟɞɢɚɧɧɚɹ ɫɟɬɶ ɝɚɩɥɨɬɢɩɨɜ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚ ɦɬȾɇɄ (409 ɩ.ɧ.),
ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɧɵɯ ɭ ɛɟɥɭɯ ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɝɨ Ⱦɚɥɶɧɟɝɨ ȼɨɫɬɨɤɚ (ɨɪɢɝɢɧɚɥ) ɢ ɫɟɜɟɪɨ-ɡɚɩɚɞɧɨɝɨ
ɩɨɛɟɪɟɠɶɹ ɋɟɜɟɪɧɨɣ Ⱥɦɟɪɢɤɢ [14], 22;
(Ȼ) ɉɪɢɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟ ɝɚɩɥɨɬɢɩɨɜ ɜ ɤɚɠɞɨɦ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɟ (ɨɛɨɡɧɚɱɟɧɨ ɡɚɥɢɜɤɨɣ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɝɨ
ɤɪɭɠɤɚ ɧɚ ɪɢɫɭɧɤɟ ɫɟɬɢ ɱɟɪɧɵɦ ɰɜɟɬɨɦ); ɰɢɮɪɨɜɵɟ ɨɛɨɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ: 1- ɋɚɯɚɥɢɧɫɤɢɣ ɡɚɥɢɜ;
2 – ɍɞɫɤɚɹ ɝɭɛɚ; 3 – ɡɚɩɚɞɧɨɟ ɩɨɛɟɪɟɠɶɟ Ʉɚɦɱɚɬɤɢ; 4- Ⱥɧɚɞɵɪɫɤɢɣ ɥɢɦɚɧ; 5 – ɡɚɥɢɜ
ɇɨɪɬɨɧ ɢ Ȼɪɢɫɬɨɥɶɫɤɢɣ (ɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɟɧɧɚɹ ɜɵɛɨɪɤɚ); 7 – ɜɨɫɬɨɤ ɑɭɤɨɬɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɨɪɹ; 8 – ɦɨɪɟ
Ȼɨɬɮɨɪɬɚ. ȼ ɪɚɦɤɚɯ – ɫɪɟɞɧɟɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɩɚɪɧɵɯ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɣ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɜɵɛɨɪɤɚɦɢ ɝɚɩɥɨɬɢɩɨɜ
ɩɚɪɵ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɨɜ.
Ɉɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɤɨɪɦɨɜɵɦɢ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɚɦɢ ɚɧɚɞɵɪɫɤɨɣ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ
ȼɵɹɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɬɪɨɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɩɟɤɬɪɚ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɜ ɦɟɫɬɚɯ ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ
ɚɧɚɞɵɪɫɤɨɣ ɛɟɥɭɯɢ ɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɨ ɬɨɦ, ɱɬɨ ɤɨɪɦɨɜɵɟ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɵ ɡɞɟɫɶ
ɢɦɟɸɬ ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨ ɲɢɪɨɤɢɣ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɞɢɚɩɚɡɨɧ [11]. ɂɧɞɟɤɫ ɩɥɨɬɧɨɫɬɢ
ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥ, ɱɬɨ ɜ ɮɚɭɧɟ ɝɢɞɪɨɛɢɨɧɬɨɜ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɟɣ ɚɤɜɚɬɨɪɢɢ
Ⱥɧɚɞɵɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɥɢɦɚɧɚ ɜɫɟ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɢ ɢɯɬɢɨɮɚɭɧɵ (12
ɜɢɞɨɜ ɪɵɛ ɢ ɨɞɢɧ ɜɢɞ ɪɚɤɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɯ) ɦɨɝɭɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɵ ɛɟɥɭɯɨɣ ɜ
ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɚ ɩɢɳɢ. ȼ ɥɟɬɧɟ-ɨɫɟɧɧɢɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɭɸ ɱɚɫɬɶ
ɪɚɰɢɨɧɚ ɛɟɥɭɯɢ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɤɟɬɚ, ɝɨɪɛɭɲɚ ɢ ɦɚɥɶɦɚ, ɜ ɦɟɧɶɲɟɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ
ɚɡɢɚɬɫɤɚɹ ɡɭɛɚɫɬɚɹ ɤɨɪɸɲɤɚ, ɧɚɜɚɝɚ, ɛɵɱɨɤ-ɲɢɪɨɤɨɥɨɛɤɚ, ɫɢɝ-ɜɨɫɬɪɹɤ ɢ
ɪɹɩɭɲɤɚ. ȿɫɬɶ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɨɥɚɝɚɬɶ, ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɭɹɫɶ ɧɚ ɫɟɬɧɵɟ ɭɱɟɬɵ, ɱɬɨ ɜ
ɧɚɝɭɥɶɧɵɯ ɪɚɣɨɧɚɯ ɩɢɳɟɜɵɟ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɵ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵ. Ʉ ɱɢɫɥɭ
ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɜɚɠɧɵɯ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɡɞɟɫɶ ɢɡ ɪɵɛ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɨɬɧɟɫɟɧɵ
ɦɢɧɬɚɣ, ɬɢɯɨɨɤɟɚɧɫɤɚɹ ɬɪɟɫɤɚ, ɤɚɦɛɚɥɵ, ɛɵɱɤɢ, ɞɚɥɶɧɟɜɨɫɬɨɱɧɚɹ ɦɨɣɜɚ,
ɫɚɣɤɚ, ɩɚɥɬɭɫɵ, ɫɤɚɬɵ, ɫɟɥɶɞɶ, ɚ ɢɡ ɛɟɫɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ – ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɜɢɞɨɜ
ɞɟɫɹɬɢɧɨɝɢɯ ɪɚɤɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɯ.
91
Ɏɚɤɬɨɪɵ ɷɥɢɦɢɧɚɰɢɢ ɛɟɥɭɯɢ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɟɟ ɚɧɚɞɵɪɫɤɨɣ
ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ
ȿɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɜɪɚɝɚɦɢ ɛɟɥɭɯɢ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɤɨɫɚɬɤɚ, ɛɟɥɵɣ ɦɟɞɜɟɞɶ ɢ
ɯɢɳɧɚɹ ɮɨɪɦɚ ɬɢɯɨɨɤɟɚɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɨɪɠɚ, ɩɨ-ɱɭɤɨɬɫɤɢ - «ɤɟɝɥɸɱɢɧ» [4]. ɂɡ
ɧɢɯ ɫɚɦɵɦ ɨɩɚɫɧɵɦ ɫɱɢɬɚɟɬɫɹ ɤɨɫɚɬɤɚ, ɧɨ ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ ɧɚɩɚɞɟɧɢɹ ɢɯ ɧɚ ɛɟɥɭɯ ɜ
ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɟɟ ɞɟɫɹɬɢɥɟɬɢɟ ɧɚ ɑɭɤɨɬɤɟ ɧɟ ɨɬɦɟɱɚɥɨɫɶ. ɇɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɭɪɨɧ
ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɛɟɥɭɯ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɧɚɧɟɫɬɢ ɛɟɥɵɣ ɦɟɞɜɟɞɶ, ɞɨɛɵɜɚɹ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɟ
ɷɤɡɟɦɩɥɹɪɵ ɜ ɪɚɣɨɧɟ ɩɨɥɵɧɟɣ ɢ ɥɟɞɨɜɵɯ ɥɨɜɭɲɟɤ, ɤɭɞɚ ɩɨɩɚɞɚɸɬ ɛɟɥɭɯɢ,
ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɜ Ȼɟɪɢɧɝɨɜɨɦ, ɑɭɤɨɬɫɤɨɦ ɢ Ȼɨɮɨɪɬɨɜɨɦ ɦɨɪɹɯ. Ʉɚɫɚɹɫɶ ɷɬɨɝɨ
ɮɚɤɬɨɪɚ, ɨɬɦɟɬɢɦ, ɱɬɨ ɨɧ ɧɚɧɨɫɢɬ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɛɟɥɭɯɢ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɡɧɚɱɢɦɵɣ ɭɪɨɧ.
Ɂɚ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ 30 ɥɟɬ ɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɨ ɬɪɢ ɫɥɭɱɚɹ ɩɨɩɚɞɚɧɢɹ ɛɟɥɭɯ ɜ ɥɟɞɨɜɵɣ «ɩɥɟɧ»
ɭ ɛɟɪɟɝɨɜ ɑɭɤɨɬɤɢ. Ɉɧɢ ɡɚɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɵ ɜ ɪɚɣɨɧɟ ɋɟɧɹɜɢɧɫɤɨɝɨ
ɚɪɯɢɩɟɥɚɝɚ, ɝɞɟ ɩɨɝɢɛɥɨ ɨɤɨɥɨ 2000 ɨɫɨɛɟɣ ɜ 1986 ɝ. [16], 200 - ɜ 2001 ɝ., ɢ
ɨɤɨɥɨ ɫɨɬɧɢ ɨɫɨɛɟɣ ɜ 2012 ɝ. ɋɪɟɞɧɟɝɨɞɨɜɨɟ ɷɥɢɦɢɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɡɚ ɫɱɟɬ
ɥɟɞɨɜɨɝɨ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɚ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɨɤɨɥɨ 80 ɡɜɟɪɟɣ, ɱɬɨ ɩɪɟɜɵɲɚɟɬ ɨɛɴɟɦ ɢɯ
ɚɛɨɪɢɝɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɚ ɩɨ ɜɫɟɣ ɑɭɤɨɬɤɟ ɜ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɪɚɡ [12].
ɇɟɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵ ɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ, ɤɚɫɚɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚɪɧɵɯ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɣ (ɢɥɢ
ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɮɚɤɬɨɜ ɡɚɪɚɠɟɧɢɹ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦɚɦɢ): ɜ
ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɯ ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɛɟɥɭɯɢ ɡɚɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɨ 13 ɜɢɞɨɜ ɝɟɥɶɦɢɧɬɨɜ: ɬɪɢ ɜɢɞɚ
ɬɪɟɦɚɬɨɞ, 8 ɜɢɞɨɜ ɧɟɦɚɬɨɞ ɢ ɩɨ ɨɞɧɨɦɭ ɜɢɞɭ ɰɟɫɬɨɞ ɢ ɫɤɪɟɛɧɟɣ [4], ɧɨ
ɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɦɢ ɨ ɝɢɛɟɥɢ ɛɟɥɭɯ ɨɬ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚɪɧɵɯ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɣ ɜ ɦɟɫɬɚɯ
ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɦɵ ɧɟ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɦ. ɉɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɮɚɭɧɚ ɚɧɚɞɵɪɫɤɨɣ
ɛɟɥɭɯɢ ɨɫɬɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɟɢɡɭɱɟɧɧɨɣ ɢ ɬɪɟɛɭɟɬ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ
ɧɚɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɣ. ɇɟ ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɵ ɜ Ⱥɧɚɞɵɪɫɤɨɦ ɡɚɥɢɜɟ ɢ ɫɥɭɱɚɢ ɷɩɢɡɨɨɬɢɣ ɛɟɥɭɯ.
Ɂɚɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟ
ȼɵɫɨɤɚɹ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɮɢɥɨɩɚɬɪɢɢ ɚɧɚɞɵɪɫɤɨɣ ɛɟɥɭɯɢ, ɟɟ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ
ɩɪɟɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɹ Ⱥɧɚɞɵɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɥɢɦɚɧɚ ɢ Ⱥɧɚɞɵɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɡɚɥɢɜɚ ɜ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ
ɪɚɣɨɧɨɜ ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɨɛɴɹɫɧɹɸɬɫɹ ɨɩɬɢɦɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɞɥɹ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɜɢɞɚ ɝɟɨɝɪɚɮɨɝɢɞɪɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ
ɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɚɦɢ
ɞɚɧɧɨɝɨ
ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚ
ɜ
ɁɚɩɚɞɧɨȻɟɪɢɧɝɨɜɨɦɨɪɫɤɨɣ ɡɨɧɟ ɢ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɣ ɤɨɪɦɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɧɚɝɭɥɶɧɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɨɜ.
ȼɟɫɨɦɵɦ ɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɟɧɢɟɦ ɨɛɨɫɨɛɥɟɧɢɹ ɚɧɚɞɵɪɫɤɨɣ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɛɟɥɭɯɢ
ɫɥɭɠɚɬ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɝɟɧɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ (ɧɟɨɞɧɨɬɢɩɧɨɟ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ
ɝɚɩɥɨɬɢɩɨɜ ɛɟɥɭɯ ɜ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɪɚɣɨɧɚɯ ɋɟɜɟɪɧɨɣ ɉɚɰɢɮɢɤɢ, ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɸɳɟɟ
ɪɚɫɫɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɜɢɞɚ ɜ ɩɨɫɬɥɟɞɧɢɤɨɜɨɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ). Ɂɧɚɱɢɦɵɦ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɦ ɫɥɭɠɢɬ
ɬɚɤɠɟ ɧɢɡɤɢɣ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɨɣ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ ɧɚ ɚɧɚɞɵɪɫɤɭɸ ɛɟɥɭɯɭ, ɚ
ɬɚɤɠɟ ɜɵɫɨɤɚɹ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɚɞɚɩɬɚɰɢɢ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɡɜɟɪɹ ɤ ɫɪɟɞɟ ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ, ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ
ɫɨɩɪɹɠɟɧɚ ɢ ɫ ɬɚɤɢɦ ɟɟ ɭɧɢɤɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɨɦ ɤɚɤ ɭɥɶɬɪɚɡɜɭɤɨɜɚɹ
ɜɨɤɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ, ɜɟɫɶɦɚ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɣ ɦɭɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɜɨɞɵ
ɜ ɦɟɫɬɚɯ ɤɨɪɦɨɜɵɯ ɭɝɨɞɢɣ ɛɟɥɭɯɢ.
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. Ȼɚɪɚɛɚɲ-ɇɢɤɢɮɨɪɨɜ ɂ.ɂ. Ɇɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɵ ɤ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤɟ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ
ɦɟɥɤɢɯ ɤɢɬɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɯ / ɂ. ɂ. Ȼɚɪɚɛɚɲ-ɇɢɤɢɮɨɪɨɜ. - Ɂɨɨɥ. ɠɭɪɧ. - 1938. - Ɍ.6.- ʋ5. - ɋ1091-1104.
92
2. Ȼɟɥɶɤɨɜɢɱ ȼ. Ɇ. ɂɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɛɟɥɭɯ Ȼɟɥɨɝɨ ɦɨɪɹ/ /ȼ.Ɇ.
Ȼɟɥɶɤɨɜɢɱ // Ɇɟɠɞɭɧɚɪ. ɤɨɧɮ. ɩɨ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɸ ɢ ɨɯɪɚɧɟ ɦɨɪɫɤɢɯ
3. Ɇɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ: ɩɨɫ. Ƚɨɥɢɰɵɧɨ Ɇɨɫɤɨɜɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥ., 11-12 ɨɤɬɹɛɪɹ 1995. Ɍɟɡɢɫɵ
ɞɨɤɥɚɞɨɜ.ɞɨɤɥ. Ɇ., - 1995. ɫ 10 -11.
4. Ȼɟɥɭɯɚ (ɨɩɵɬ ɦɨɧɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɜɢɞɚ) / ɋ. ȿ. Ʉɥɟɣɧɟɧɛɟɪɝ [ɢ ɞɪ.]. Ɇ.: ɇɚɭɤɚ. - 1964. - ɋ. 350-370.
5. Ƚɟɧɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ ɥɟɬɧɢɯ ɫɤɨɩɥɟɧɢɣ ɛɟɥɭɯɢ (Delphinapterus leucas: Cetacea,
Monodontidae) ɧɚ Ⱦɚɥɶɧɟɦ ȼɨɫɬɨɤɟ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ / ɂ. Ƚ. Ɇɟɳɟɪɫɤɢɣ [ɢ ɞɪ.] // Ȼɢɨɥɨɝɢɹ ɦɨɪɹ. 2013. - Ɍ. 39, ʋ 2. - ɋ. 126-135.
6. Ƚɟɩɬɧɟɪ ȼ. Ƚ. Ɇɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɵ ɤ ɩɨɡɧɚɧɢɸ ɝɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɢ
ɛɟɥɭɯɢ / ȼ.Ƚ. Ƚɟɩɬɧɟɪ // Ɍɪ. ɧɚɭɱɧɨ-ɢɫɫɥɟɞ. ɢɧ-ɬɚ ɡɨɨɥɨɝɢɢ.1930. Ɍ.4.- ȼɵɩ.21. - ɋ.75.
7. Ⱦɚɬɫɤɢɣ Ⱥ. ȼ. ɂɯɬɢɨɰɟɧ ɜɟɪɯɧɟɝɨ ɲɟɥɶɮɚ ɫɟɜɟɪɨ-ɡɚɩɚɞɧɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ Ȼɟɪɢɧɝɜɚ ɦɨɪɹ /
Ⱥ. ȼ. Ⱦɚɬɫɤɢɣ, ɉ.ɘ. Ⱥɧɞɪɨɧɨɜ // Ɇɚɝɚɞɚɧ: ɋȼɇɐ ȾȼɈ ɊȺɇ. - 2007. - 261 ɫ.
8. ɂɨɪɞɚɧɫɤɢɣ ɇ.ɇ. ɗɜɨɥɸɰɢɹ ɠɢɡɧɢ: ɍɱɟɛɧɨɟ ɩɨɫɨɛɢɟ ɞɥɹ ɫɬɭɞɟɧɬɨɜ ɜɵɫɲɢɯ
ɩɟɞɚɝɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɭɱɟɛɧɵɯ ɡɚɜɟɞɟɧɢɣ. — Ɇ.:Ⱥɤɚɞɟɦɢɹ, 2001, 426 ɫ.
9. Ʉɥɭɦɨɜ ɋ. Ʉ. Ɍɢɯɨɨɤɟɚɧɫɤɚɹ ɮɨɪɦɚ ɛɟɥɭɯɢ / ɋ. Ʉ. Ʉɥɭɦɨɜ, ɂ. ɂ. Ȼɚɪɚɛɚɲɇɢɤɢɮɨɪɨɜ. Ɋɵɛɧɨɟ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɨ ɋɋɋɊ.1935.- ʋ11.- ɋ-24.
10. Ʌɢɬɨɜɤɚ Ⱦ.ɂ. Ɋɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɛɟɥɭɯɢ Delphinapterus leucas ɜ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɟ
Ⱥɧɚɞɵɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɥɢɦɚɧɚ ɜ 2000 ɝɨɞɭ / Ⱦ. ɂ. Ʌɢɬɨɜɤɚ // Ȼɢɨɥɨɝɢɹ ɦɨɪɹ. – 2002. – Ɍ. 28. – ʋ 4.
– ɋ. 291-293.
11. Ʌɢɬɨɜɤɚ Ⱦ.ɂ. Ɉɰɟɧɤɚ ɫɟɡɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɛɟɥɭɯɢ Delphinapterus leucas ɢ
ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ɟɟ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɜ ɩɪɢɛɪɟɠɧɵɯ ɜɨɞɚɯ ɫɟɜɟɪɨ-ɡɚɩɚɞɧɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ Ȼɟɪɢɧɝɨɜɚ ɦɨɪɹ / Ⱦ.ɂ.
Ʌɢɬɨɜɤɚ, ɉ.ɘ. Ⱥɧɞɪɨɧɨɜ, Ɋ.Ʌ. Ȼɚɬɚɧɨɜ // ɂɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɛɢɨɥ. ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ Ʉɚɦɱɚɬɤɢ
ɢ ɫɟɜɟɪɨ-ɡɚɩɚɞɧɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ Ɍɢɯɨɝɨ ɨɤɟɚɧɚ. ɋɛ. ɧɚɭɱ. ɬɪɭɞɨɜ ɄɚɦɱɚɬɇɂɊɈ. - 2013. - ȼɵɩ.
28. - ɋ. 50-71.
12. Ʌɢɬɨɜɤɚ Ⱦ.ɂ. ɗɤɨɥɨɝɢɹ ɚɧɚɞɵɪɫɤɨɣ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɛɟɥɭɯɢ Delphinapterus leucas
(Pallas, 1778) // Ⱦɢɫɫ. ɤɚɧɞ. ɛɢɨɥ. ɧɚɭɤ - ȼȽɍ: ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ. - 2013. - 149 ɫ.
13. Ɇɚɬɢɲɨɜ Ƚ. Ƚ. Ȼɟɥɭɯɚ Delphinapterus leucas Ⱥɪɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɦɨɪɟɣ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ:
ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɹ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɹ, ɨɯɪɚɧɚ ɢ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ / Ƚ. Ƚ. Ɇɚɬɢɲɨɜ, Ƚ. ɇ. Ɉɝɧɟɬɨɜ. Ⱥɩɚɬɢɬɵ: ɂɡɞ. Ʉɇɐ ɊȺɇ. - 2006. - 295 ɫ.
14. Ɇɟɳɟɪɫɤɢɣ ɂ. Ƚ. Ɇɨɥɟɤɭɥɹɪɧɨ-ɝɟɧɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɚ ɛɟɥɭɯɢ
Delphinapterus leucas: Cetacea, Monodontidae, ɥɟɬɭɸɳɟɣ ɜ ɸɠɧɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ Ɉɯɨɬɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɨɪɹ,
ɜ ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɢ ɫ ɫɟɜɟɪɨɚɦɟɪɢɤɚɧɫɤɢɦɢ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɹɦɢ / ɂ. Ƚ. Ɇɟɳɟɪɫɤɢɣ, Ɇ. ȼ. ɏɨɥɨɞɨɜɚ, ȿ.
ɘ. Ɂɜɵɱɚɣɧɚɹ. Ƚɟɧɟɬɢɤɚ. 2008.- T 44. (9) 1.–C. 1268- 1274.
15. Ɇɨɥɟɤɭɥɹɪɧɨ-ɝɟɧɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɫɚɯɚɥɢɧɨ-ɚɦɭɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɢ ɲɚɧɬɚɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɥɟɬɧɢɯ
ɫɤɨɩɥɟɧɢɣ ɛɟɥɭɯɢ (Delphinapterus leucas) ɜ Ɉɯɨɬɫɤɨɦ ɦɨɪɟ / Ɇ. Ƚ. əɡɵɤɨɜɚ [ɢ ɞɪ.] //
Ɇɨɪɫɤɢɟ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɟ Ƚɨɥɚɪɤɬɢɤɢ. ɋɛ. ɧɚɭɱ. ɬɪɭɞɨɜ ɩɨ ɦɚɬɟɪ. ɋɟɞɶɦɨɣ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪ.
ɤɨɧɮ. (ɋɭɡɞɚɥɶ, Ɋɨɫɫɢɹ, 24-28 ɫɟɧɬɹɛɪɹ 2012 ɝ.). - Ɇ.: ɄɆɄ. - 2012. - ɋ. 761-767.
16. Ɇɵɦɪɢɧ ɇ.ɂ. Ȼɟɥɭɯɢ (Delphinapterus leucas P.) ɜ ɥɟɞɨɜɨɦ ɩɥɟɧɭ. Ʉɚɤ ɷɬɨ ɛɵɥɨ.
Ȼɟɪɢɧɝɨɜ ɩɪɨɥɢɜ ɑɭɤɨɬɤɚ // Ɇɨɪɫɤɢɟ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɟ Ƚɨɥɚɪɤɬɢɤɢ. ɋɛ. ɧɚɭɱ. ɬɪɭɞɨɜ ɩɨ
ɦɚɬɟɪ. ɱɟɬɜɟɪɬɨɣ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪ. ɤɨɧɮ. (ɋɚɧɤɬ-ɉɟɬɟɪɛɭɪɝ, Ɋɨɫɫɢɹ, 10-14 ɫɟɧɬɹɛɪɹ 2006 ɝ.). Ɇ.: ɄɆɄ. - 2006. - ɋ. 377-380.
17. Ɉɫɬɪɨɭɦɨɜ ɇ. Ⱥ. Ʉ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɬɢɤɟ ɢ ɪɚɡɦɟɳɟɧɢɸ ɛɟɥɭɯɢ ɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɋɟɜɟɪɚ ɢ
Ʉɚɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɨɪɹ / ɇ. Ⱥ.Ɉɫɬɪɨɭɦɨɜ // Ɂɚ ɪɵɛɧɭɸ ɢɧɞɭɫɬɪɢɸ ɋɟɜɟɪɚ. - 1935. - ʋ11. - ɋ-28-35.
18. Ɉɰɟɧɤɚ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɝɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɢɡɨɥɹɰɢɢ ɧɚ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɝɟɧɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɨɛɨɫɨɛɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɜ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɹɯ ɛɟɥɭɯɢ (Delphinapterus leucas) ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɝɨ Ⱦɚɥɶɧɟɝɨ
ȼɨɫɬɨɤɚ / ȿ. Ⱥ.Ȼɨɪɢɫɨɜɚ [ɢ ɞɪ.] // Ɇɨɪɫɤɢɟ ɦɥɟɤ-ɳɢɟ Ƚɨɥɚɪɤɬɢɤɢ. ɋɛ. ɧɚɭɱ. ɬɪɭɞɨɜ ɩɨ
ɦɚɬɟɪ. ɋɟɞɶɦɨɣ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪ. ɤɨɧɮ. (ɋɭɡɞɚɥɶ, Ɋɨɫɫɢɹ, 24-28 ɫɟɧɬɹɛɪɹ 2012 ɝ.). - Ɇ.: ɄɆɄ. 2012. - ɋ. 104-109.
19. Ɍɨɦɢɥɢɧ Ⱥ. Ƚ. Ʉɢɬɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɟ ɮɚɭɧɵ ɦɨɪɟɣ ɋɋɋɊ- Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟɥɶ ɩɨ ɮɚɭɧɟ ɋɋɋɊ
/ Ⱥ. Ƚ. Ɍɨɦɢɥɢɧ. Ɇ.: ɂɡɞ-ɜɨ Ⱥɇ ɋɋɋɊ, - 1962. - 212ɫ.
93
20. əɛɥɨɤɨɜ Ⱥ. ȼ. ɑɬɨ ɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɨ ɢ ɱɬɨ ɧɟɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɨ ɨ ɦɨɪɫɤɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ / Ⱥ. ȼ.
əɛɥɨɤɨɜ. Ɇɨɪɫɤɢɟ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɟ Ƚɨɥɚɪɤɬɢɤɢ. Ɍɟɡ. ɞɨɤɥ. ɜɬɨɪɨɣ Ɇɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɣ
ɤɨɧɮ. Ɇ.: ɄɆɄ, 2002. – ɋ.291-292.
21. Hoffecker J.F., Elias S.A. 2007. Human Ecology of Beringia. - Columbia University
Press. - ISBN 978-0-231-13060-8 - P. 3.
22. Phylogeography, population structure and dispersal patterns of the beluga whale
Delphinapterus leucas in the western Nearctic revealed by mitochondrial DNA / G. M.
O’Corry-Crowe [et al.] // Molecular Ecology. - 1997. - V. 6. - P. 955–970.
23. Richard P. R. Summer and autumn movements of belugas of the eastern Beaufort sea
stock / P. R. Richard, A. R. Martin, J. R. Orr // Arctic. - 2001. - Vol. 54. - P. 223-236.
FACTORS OF SEPARATION OF ANADYR POPULATION OF
DELPHINAPTERUS LEUCAS (PALLAS, 1776) IN THE WEST ZONE OF THE
BERING SEA
D.I. Litovka*, L.N. Khitsova**
* Chukchi Peninsula TINRO, Anadyr,
**Voronezh State University, Voronezh
ɍȾɄ 591.619:597.423(597.3)
ɎȺɍɇȺ ɉȺɊȺɁɂɌɈȼ ɊɍɋɋɄɈȽɈ ɈɋȿɌɊȺ (ACIPENSER
GULDENSTAEDTII, BRANDT 1833), ɂɇɌɊɈȾɍɐɂɊɈȼȺɇɇɈȽɈ
ȼ ȺɄȼȺɄɍɅɖɌɍɊɍ ȼɖȿɌɇȺɆȺ
ȼ.ɇ. Ʌɵɫɟɧɤɨ, Ʌ.ə. Ʉɭɪɨɜɫɤɚɹ, ɋ.ɂ. ɇɟɛɨɪɚɱɟɤ
ɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ɡɨɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɢɦ. ɂ.ɂ. ɒɦɚɥɶɝɚɭɡɟɧɚ ɇȺɇ ɍɤɪɚɢɧɵ, ɝ. Ʉɢɟɜ
E-mail: [email protected]
ɉɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɵ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɨɛɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɪɭɫɫɤɨɝɨ ɨɫɟɬɪɚ,
ɢɧɬɪɨɞɭɰɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɜ ɚɤɜɚɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɭ ȼɶɟɬɧɚɦɚ. ɍ ɪɭɫɫɤɨɝɨ ɨɫɟɬɪɚ,
ɜɵɪɚɳɢɜɚɟɦɨɝɨ ɜ ɩɪɭɞɨɜɵɯ, ɫɚɞɤɨɜɵɯ ɢ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɨɜɵɯ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚɯ,
ɡɚɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɨ 24 ɜɢɞɚ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ, ɜ ɬɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟ ɩɪɨɫɬɟɣɲɢɯ – 12 , ɧɟɦɚɬɨɞ
– 2, ɤɨɥɶɱɚɬɵɯ ɱɟɪɜɟɣ – 3, ɫɤɪɟɛɧɟɣ – 1, ɩɢɹɜɨɤ – 2 ɢ ɪɚɤɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɯ – 4 ɜɢɞɚ.
ɉɪɨɚɧɚɥɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɨ ɷɩɢɡɨɨɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɟɝɨ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ
ȼɶɟɬɧɚɦɚ.
Ɋɵɛɵ ɫɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɚ ɨɫɟɬɪɨɜɵɯ (Acipenseridae) – ɜ ɩɪɨɲɥɨɦ ɰɟɧɧɵɟ
ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɵɟ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɵ, ɚ ɫɟɝɨɞɧɹ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɜɫɟ ɜɢɞɵ ɢɯ ɡɚɧɟɫɟɧɵ ɜ
Ʉɪɚɫɧɭɸ ɤɧɢɝɭ ɦɧɨɝɢɯ ɫɬɪɚɧ ɦɢɪɚ. ɂɧɬɟɪɟɫ ɤ ɬɨɜɚɪɧɨɦɭ ɜɵɪɚɳɢɜɚɧɢɸ
ɷɬɢɯ ɪɵɛ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚɟɬ ɩɪɨɩɨɪɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨ ɫɨɤɪɚɳɟɧɢɸ ɢɯ ɡɚɩɚɫɨɜ ɜ
ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɜɨɞɨɺɦɚɯ. Ʉɭɥɶɬɢɜɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɰɟɧɧɵɯ ɪɵɛ ɜ ɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ
ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɩɨɥɭɱɚɟɬ ɜɫɺ ɛɨɥɶɲɟɟ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ ɢ ɧɚ ɞɚɧɧɵɣ ɦɨɦɟɧɬ ɱɚɫɬɶ
ɦɢɪɨɜɨɣ ɚɤɜɚɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵ ɫɨɫɪɟɞɨɬɨɱɟɧɚ ɧɚ ɜɵɪɚɳɢɜɚɧɢɢ ɪɵɛɵ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ,
94
ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɨɬɥɢɱɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɨɬ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ ɢɯ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɚɪɟɚɥɚ ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ.
Ɉɞɧɢɦ ɢɡ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɨɜ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɭɫɩɟɲɧɨɟ ɤɭɥɶɬɢɜɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɨɫɟɬɪɨɜɵɯ ɧɚ
ɪɵɛɧɵɯ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚɯ ɫɬɪɚɧ ɂɧɞɨɤɢɬɚɹ. Ɍɚɤɚɹ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɚ ɜɩɨɥɧɟ ɨɩɪɚɜɞɵɜɚɟɬ
ɫɟɛɹ ɜ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɜɵɫɨɤɢɦ ɬɟɦɩɨɦ ɪɨɫɬɚ ɪɵɛɵ, ɨɞɧɚɤɨ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɹ,
ɜɵɡɵɜɚɟɦɵɟ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦɚɦɢ, ɦɨɝɭɬ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬɶ ɤ
ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦ ɩɨɬɟɪɹɦ ɪɵɛɧɨɣ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɢ. ȼ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɷɬɢɦ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɟɬ
ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɶ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ
ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɮɚɭɧɵ
ɨɫɟɬɪɨɜɵɯ
ɪɵɛ,
ɜɵɪɚɳɢɜɚɟɦɵɯ ɜ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ. Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɚ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ
ɪɭɫɫɤɨɝɨ ɨɫɟɬɪɚ, ɢɧɬɪɨɞɭɰɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɜ ɚɤɜɚɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɭ ȼɶɟɬɧɚɦɚ, ɛɵɥɨ
ɰɟɥɶɸ ɧɚɲɟɝɨ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ.
ɂɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɢ ɜ 2009–2012 ɝɝ. ɧɚ ɜɶɟɬɧɚɦɫɤɢɯ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚɯ,
ɡɚɧɢɦɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɜɵɪɚɳɢɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɨɫɟɬɪɨɜɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɪɵɛ, ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɜ
ɝɨɪɧɵɯ ɪɚɣɨɧɚɯ ɩɪɨɜɢɧɰɢɣ Ʉɨɧ Ɍɭɦ (ɪɚɣɨɧ Ʉɨɧ ɉɥɨɧɝ) ɢ Ʌɚɦ Ⱦɨɧɝ
(ɨɤɪɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɝ. Ⱦɚɥɚɬ). Ɇɟɬɨɞɨɦ ɩɨɥɧɨɝɨ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɫɤɪɵɬɢɹ
ɛɵɥɨ ɨɛɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɨ 200 ɷɤɡ. ɪɭɫɫɤɨɝɨ ɨɫɟɬɪɚ, ɢɡ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɦɚɥɶɤɨɜ – 50,
ɦɨɥɨɞɢ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɨɦ 1 ɝɨɞ – 100, ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɨɦ 1,5 ɝɨɞɚ – 50 ɷɤɡɟɦɩɥɹɪɨɜ.
Ɇɚɬɟɪɢɚɥ ɫɨɛɢɪɚɥɢ ɢ ɨɛɪɚɛɚɬɵɜɚɥɢ ɩɨ ɨɛɳɟɩɪɢɧɹɬɵɦ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤɚɦ.
ȼɢɞɨɜɭɸ ɢɞɟɧɬɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɸ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɢ ɩɨ «Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟɥɸ
ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ ɩɪɟɫɧɨɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɪɵɛ ɮɚɭɧɵ ɋɋɋɊ, 1984, 1985, 1987». ɇɚɡɜɚɧɢɹ
ɬɚɤɫɨɧɨɜ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ ɤɨɪɪɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɥɢ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ ɋ. Ȼɪɚɧɞɫɭ.
ɉɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɮɚɭɧɚ ɪɭɫɫɤɨɝɨ ɨɫɟɬɪɚ ɜ ɚɪɟɚɥɚɯ ɟɝɨ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ
ɢɡɭɱɟɧɚ ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨ ɯɨɪɨɲɨ. ȼ ɜɨɞɨɺɦɚɯ Ⱥɡɨɜɫɤɨɝɨ ɢ ȼɨɥɝɨ-Ʉɚɫɩɢɣɫɤɨɝɨ
ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɨɜ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɨ 76 ɜɢɞɨɜ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ ɞɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɜɢɞɚ ɨɫɟɬɪɨɜɵɯ.
Ⱦɨɦɢɧɢɪɭɸɬ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɵ, ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɫ ɭɱɚɫɬɢɟɦ ɩɪɨɦɟɠɭɬɨɱɧɵɯ ɯɨɡɹɟɜ
(58,1%) – ɩɪɨɫɬɟɣɲɢɟ ɢ ɝɟɥɶɦɢɧɬɵ: ɬɪɟɦɚɬɨɞɵ, ɧɟɦɚɬɨɞɵ, ɫɤɪɟɛɧɢ,
ɰɟɫɬɨɞɵ, ɚɦɮɢɥɢɧɵ. Ɍɚɤɠɟ ɨɩɢɫɚɧɵ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɵ ɪɭɫɫɤɨɝɨ ɨɫɟɬɪɚ, ɨɛɢɬɚɸɳɟɝɨ
ɜ ɜɨɞɨɺɦɚɯ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɚ ɑɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɦɨɪɹ [1]. ɉɪɢ ɜɵɪɚɳɢɜɚɧɢɢ ɷɬɢɯ ɪɵɛ ɜ
ɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɨɬɦɟɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɨɛɟɞɧɟɧɢɟ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɚ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ,
ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɭɸɬ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɵ, ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɛɟɡ ɭɱɚɫɬɢɹ ɩɪɨɦɟɠɭɬɨɱɧɵɯ ɯɨɡɹɟɜ
[3].
ɍ ɪɭɫɫɤɨɝɨ ɨɫɟɬɪɚ, ɜɵɪɚɳɢɜɚɟɦɨɝɨ ɜ ɚɤɜɚɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɟ ȼɶɟɬɧɚɦɚ, ɧɚɦɢ
ɛɵɥɨ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɨ 24 ɜɢɞɚ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ, ɨɬɧɨɫɹɳɢɯɫɹ ɤ 7 ɬɢɩɚɦ [2].
Ɍɢɩ Euglenozoa: Cryptobia acipenseris Joff, Lewaschow, Boschenko,
1926; Costia necatrix Henneguy,1884. Ɍɢɩ Ciliophora: Ichthyophthirius
multifiliis Fouquet, 1876; Apiosoma piscicolum typica Blanchard, 1885;
Trichodina acuta Lom, 1961; T. domerguei domerguei Wallengren, 1897; T.
mutabilis Kazubski et Migala, 1968; T. nigra Lom, 1960; T. pediculus Ehrenberg,
1838; Trichodinella epizootica Raabe, 1950. Ɍɢɩ Platyhelminthes: Gyrodactylus
elegans Nordmann, 1832; Nicolla skrjabini Iwanitzky,1928; Diplostomum
spathaceum Rudolphi, 1819; Posthodiplostomum cuticola Nordmann, 1832. Ɍɢɩ
Nematoda: Cystoopsis acipenseris Wagener, 1867; Contracaecum bidentatum
Linstow, 1899. Ɍɢɩ Acanthocephala: Pomphorhynchus laevis Muller, 1776. Ɍɢɩ
Annelida: Piscicola geometra Linnaeus,1761, Caspiobdella fadejewi Epstein,
1961. Ɍɢɩ Arthropoda: Ergasilus sieboldi Nordman, 1832; Lernaea cyprinacea
95
Linnaeus, 1758; Caligus lacustris Steenstrup et Lutken, 1861; Argulus foliaceus
Linnaeus, 1758.
ɋɨɫɬɚɜ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧ ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦ ɲɢɪɨɤɨ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɧɵɦɢ
ɜɢɞɚɦɢ, ɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɬɺɧɧɵɦɢ ɨɬ ɦɟɫɬɧɵɯ ɪɵɛ (Labeo rohita Hamilton,1822;
Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758; Channa Seopoli,1777 ɢ ɞɪ). Ɉɬɦɟɱɚɥɨɫɶ
ɡɚɪɚɠɟɧɢɟ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɦɢ ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹɦɢ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ, ɫɪɟɞɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ
ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨ ɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɥɢ ɪɟɫɧɢɱɧɵɟ ɢɧɮɭɡɨɪɢɢ ɢ ɪɚɤɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɟ.
ɉɪɢ ɜɵɪɚɳɢɜɚɧɢɢ ɪɭɫɫɤɨɝɨ ɨɫɟɬɪɚ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɞɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚ ɱɚɳɟ
ɜɫɟɝɨ ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɦɟɲɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɬɢɩɚ, ɜɵɡɜɚɧɧɵɟ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟɦ
ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɜɨɡɛɭɞɢɬɟɥɟɣ [3]. ɇɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɨ ɬɚɤɨɣ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ
ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɤɨɧɰɟ ɫɭɯɨɝɨ ɫɟɡɨɧɚ, ɤɨɝɞɚ ɭɯɭɞɲɚɟɬɫɹ ɪɟɠɢɦ
ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɹ ɪɵɛɵ ɢɡ-ɡɚ ɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨɝɨ ɨɛɴɺɦɚ ɜɨɞɵ, ɩɨɞɚɜɚɟɦɨɣ ɢɡ
ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɪɟɡɟɪɜɭɚɪɨɜ [3].
ɍɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɮɚɭɧɵ ɢɧɬɪɨɞɭɰɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɝɨ
ɪɭɫɫɤɨɝɨ ɨɫɟɬɪɚ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ ɨɬ ɜɢɞɨɜɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ ɦɟɫɬɧɵɯ ɪɵɛ,
ɧɚɥɢɱɢɹ ɩɪɨɦɟɠɭɬɨɱɧɵɯ ɢ ɨɤɨɧɱɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɯɨɡɹɟɜ, ɫɩɟɤɬɪɚ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɢ
ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɪɟɠɢɦɨɜ ɜ ɫɚɞɤɨɜɵɯ, ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɨɜɵɯ ɢ ɩɪɭɞɨɜɵɯ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚɯ.
ɗɩɢɡɨɨɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɨɩɚɫɧɵɦɢ ɧɚɦɢ ɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɵ ɬɚɤɢɟ ɜɢɞɵ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ: Costia
necatrix, Apiosoma piscicolum, Trichodina acuta, T. nigra, T. pediculus,
Trichodinella epizootica, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Ergasilus sieboldi, Lernaea
cyprinacea, Argulus foliaceus.
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. Ƚɚɟɜɫɤɚɹ Ⱥ.ȼ. ɉɚɪɚɡɢɬɵ ɢ ɛɨɥɟɡɧɢ ɪɵɛ ɑɺɪɧɨɝɨ ɢ Ⱥɡɨɜɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɨɪɟɣ: Ɍ. 1 Ɇɨɪɫɤɢɟ,
ɫɨɥɨɧɨɜɚɬɨɜɨɞɧɵɟ ɢ ɩɪɨɯɨɞɧɵɟ ɪɵɛɵ. – ɋɟɜɚɫɬɨɩɨɥɶ: ɗɤɨɫɢ, 2012. – 380 ɫ.
2. Ⱦɚɜɵɞɨɜ Ɉ.ɇ., Ʌɵɫɟɧɤɨ ȼ.ɇ., Ʉɭɪɨɜɫɤɚɹ Ʌ.ə. ɋɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɟ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ
ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɮɚɭɧɵ ɨɫɟɬɪɨɜɵɯ ɪɵɛ ɍɤɪɚɢɧɵ // Ɇɟɠɞɭɧɚɪ. ɤɨɧɮ. «Ɉɫɟɬɪɨɜɵɟ ɪɵɛɵ ɢ ɢɯ
ɛɭɞɭɳɟɟ». – Ȼɟɪɞɹɧɫɤ, 2011. – ɋ. 113–117.
3. Ⱦɚɜɵɞɨɜ Ɉ.ɇ., Ʌɵɫɟɧɤɨ ȼ.ɇ., ɇɟɛɨɪɚɱɟɤ ɋ.ɂ., Ʉɭɪɨɜɫɤɚɹ Ʌ.ə. ɉɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ
ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥ ɨɫɟɬɪɨɜɵɯ ɪɵɛ, ɢɧɬɪɨɞɭɰɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɢɡ ɍɤɪɚɢɧɵ ɜ ɚɤɜɚɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɭ ȼɶɟɬɧɚɦɚ //
ȼɟɬ. ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɚ ɍɤɪɚʀɧɢ. – ʋ 11 (201). – 2013. – ɋ. 28–30.
4. Ʌɵɫɟɧɤɨ ȼ.ɇ. ɉɚɪɚɡɢɬɚɪɧɵɟ ɛɨɥɟɡɧɢ ɨɫɟɬɪɨɜɵɯ ɢ ɦɟɪɵ ɢɯ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɢɹ ɜ
ɚɤɜɚɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɟ ȼɶɟɬɧɚɦɚ // ȼɟɬ. ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɚ ɍɤɪɚʀɧɢ. – ʋ 2 (204). – 2013. – ɋ. 13–16.
PARASITIC FAUNA OF ACIPENSER GULDENSTAEDTII, BRANDT 1833
INTRODUCED IN AQUACULTURE IN VIETNAM
V.N. Lysenko, L.Ya. Kurovskaya, S.I. Neborachek
Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology, NAS of Ukraine, Kiev
Results of parasitological research of Acipenser gueldenstaedtii introduced to
aquaculture farms in Vietnam are presented. Altogether in A. gueldenstaedtii 24
species of parasites have been discovered, including Protozoa – 12,
Platyhelminthes – 3, Nematoda – 2, Annelida – 2, Acanthocephala – 1, and
Crustacea – 4. Epizootic significance of the parasites of this species in Vietnam
was discussed.
96
ɍȾɄ 574.34
ɋȿɁɈɇɇȺə ȾɂɇȺɆɂɄȺ ɑɂɋɅȿɇɇɈɋɌɂ ɋɈɈȻɓȿɋɌȼ ɆȿɅɄɂɏ
ɆɅȿɄɈɉɂɌȺɘɓɂɏ ɈɄɋɄɈȽɈ ɁȺɉɈȼȿȾɇɂɄȺ
Ɍ.Ⱥ. Ɇɚɪɤɢɧɚ
Ɉɤɫɤɢɣ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɣ ɛɢɨɫɮɟɪɧɵɣ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤ, ɝ. Ɋɹɡɚɧɶ
E-mail: [email protected]
ȼ ɫɬɚɬɶɟ ɨɛɫɭɠɞɚɸɬɫɹ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɟɡɨɧɧɨɣ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɢ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ
ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜ ɦɟɥɤɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ ɸɝɨ-ɜɨɫɬɨɤɚ Ɇɟɳɟɪɵ.
ɋɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ ɦɟɥɤɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ (Micromammalia) – ɧɟɨɬɴɟɦɥɟɦɚɹ
ɢ ɜɚɠɧɚɹ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɜɫɟɯ ɥɟɫɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ. Ɂɚ ɨɞɢɧ ɫɟɡɨɧ ɨɧɢ ɦɨɝɭɬ, ɤɚɤ ɪɟɡɤɨ
ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɬɶ ɱɢɫɥɨ ɨɫɨɛɟɣ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɢɬɶ ɫɜɨɸ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ. Ʉɨɥɟɛɚɧɢɹ
ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɦɟɥɤɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɟɬɫɹ, ɩɨ ɦɧɟɧɢɸ ɇ.ɉ.
ɇɚɭɦɨɜɚ [6], ɷɮɟɦɟɪɧɵɦ ɬɢɩɨɦ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɢ, ɜɵɪɚɠɚɸɳɟɣɫɹ ɪɟɡɤɨ
ɧɟɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɣ ɩɥɨɬɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ: ɪɟɡɤɨɟ ɩɚɞɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɢ ɝɥɭɛɨɤɢɯ
ɞɟɩɪɟɫɫɢɹɯ ɢ ɪɨɫɬ ɜɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɜɫɩɵɲɟɤ «ɦɚɫɫɨɜɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɟɧɢɹ».
Ⱦɥɹ Ɉɤɫɤɨɝɨ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɚ, ɝɞɟ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɢɫɶ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ
ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɵ ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɵ ɦɟɠɞɭɪɟɱɶɹ ɢ ɞɨɥɢɧɵ, ɤɥɢɦɚɬ ɬɢɩɢɱɧɵɣ ɞɥɹ
ɫɪɟɞɧɟɣ ɩɨɥɨɫɵ ȿɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ. ɉɨɥɨɜɨɞɶɟ ɪɟɤ ɉɪɚ ɢ Ɉɤɚ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɫɨɛɨɣ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɡɧɚɱɢɦɨɟ ɞɥɹ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɨɜ ɹɜɥɟɧɢɟ
ɢ ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɨɛɢɬɚɬɟɥɟɣ ɩɨɣɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɨɜ.
ȼ ɪɚɛɨɬɟ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɵ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɵ ɭɱɟɬɨɜ 1952-2009 ɝɝ. (2005-2009 ɝɝ.
ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɵ ɚɜɬɨɪɚ) ɞɚɜɢɥɤɚɦɢ Ƚɟɪɨ ɧɚ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɵɯ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɹɯ,
ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɜ ɥɟɫɧɵɯ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɚɯ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɚ ɫ ɪɚɡɧɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶɸ
ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɩɨɥɨɜɨɞɶɹ. ɍɱɟɬɵ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɜ ɞɜɭɯ ɩɨɣɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɞɭɛɪɚɜɚɯ
(ɩɨɥɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɢ ɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɨ ɡɚɥɢɜɚɟɦɵɟ ɜɟɲɧɢɦɢ ɜɨɞɚɦɢ) ɢ ɜɨ ɜɧɟɩɨɣɦɟɧɧɨɦ
ɫɨɫɧɹɤɟ ɡɟɥɟɧɨɦɨɲɧɨɦ: ɜ ɤɨɧɰɟ ɦɚɹ - ɧɚɱɚɥɟ ɢɸɧɹ (ɜɟɫɟɧɧɢɟ) ɩɨɫɥɟ
ɨɤɨɧɱɚɧɢɹ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɝɨ ɜɟɫɟɧɧɟɝɨ ɪɚɡɥɢɜɚ ɢ ɜ ɤɨɧɰɟ ɫɟɧɬɹɛɪɹ - ɧɚɱɚɥɟ ɨɤɬɹɛɪɹ
(ɨɫɟɧɧɢɟ). Ɂɚ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɨɬɪɚɛɨɬɚɧɨ 138163 ɥɨɜɭɲɤɨ-ɫɭɬɨɤ ɢ
ɨɬɥɨɜɥɟɧ 19201 ɡɜɟɪɟɤ.
ɉɪɢ ɨɛɪɚɛɨɬɤɟ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɥɢ ɢɧɞɟɤɫ ɨɛɢɥɢɹ - ɱɢɫɥɨ
ɷɤɡɟɦɩɥɹɪɨɜ ɧɚ 100 ɥɨɜɭɲɤɨ-ɫɭɬɨɤ (ɷɤɡ.100/ɥ.ɫ). Ⱦɥɹ ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɢɹ
ɫɢɧɯɪɨɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɫɟɡɨɧɚɦɢ, ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɥɢ
ɧɟɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɤɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬ ɤɨɪɪɟɥɹɰɢɢ ɋɩɢɪɦɟɧɚ ɢ ɨɰɟɧɨɱɧɭɸ
ɲɤɚɥɭ ɫɜɹɡɢ, ɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɫɜɹɡɶ ɫɱɢɬɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɢ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹɯ r<0,30 ɫɥɚɛɨɣ, r=0,30-0,49 - ɭɦɟɪɟɧɧɨɣ, r=0,50-0,69 -ɡɚɦɟɬɧɨɣ, ɝ>0,70 ɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɧɚ
ɬɟɫɧɭɸ (ɫɢɥɶɧɭɸ) ɫɜɹɡɶ [1]. Ⱦɥɹ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢ ɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɢ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ
ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɥɚɫɶ ɲɤɚɥɚ: ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɧɚɹ ɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɹ (r=0,70-1,00);
ɧɟɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɚɹ ɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɹ (r=0,30-0,69); ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟ ɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɢ (r=0,00-0,29)
(Ɉɫɧɨɜɵ ɷɩɢɞɟɦɢɨɥɨɝɢɢ..., 2003). Ɂɚɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɹ ɞɟɥɚɥɢ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ
97
ɫɬɚɬɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɡɧɚɱɢɦɵɯ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɜ ɫ ɭɪɨɜɧɟɦ ɪ”0,05.
Ɏɚɭɧɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫ ɦɟɥɤɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ ɩɨ ɞɚɧɧɵɦ ɭɱɟɬɨɜ
ɞɚɜɢɥɤɚɦɢ ɫɨɫɬɨɢɬ ɢɡ 17 ɜɢɞɨɜ: 6 - ɧɚɫɟɤɨɦɨɹɞɧɵɟ ɢ 11 - ɝɪɵɡɭɧɵ [4].
ɇɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɦɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɟ: ɛɭɪɨɡɭɛɤɢ - ɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɚɹ (Sorex araneus) ɢ
ɦɚɥɚɹ (S. minutus); ɦɵɲɢ - ɦɚɥɚɹ ɥɟɫɧɚɹ (Apodemus uralensis), ɠɟɥɬɨɝɨɪɥɚɹ
(A. flavicollis) ɢ ɩɨɥɟɜɚɹ (A. agrarius); ɩɨɥɟɜɤɢ – ɪɵɠɚɹ (Clethrionomys
glareolus) ɢ ɬɟɦɧɚɹ (Microtus ɚgrestis). ɉɨ ɜɫɟɦ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɚɦ ɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɸɬ
ɦɵɲɟɜɢɞɧɵɟ ɝɪɵɡɭɧɵ (94,25-98,28% ɜɟɫɧɨɣ ɢ 71,01-91,88% ɨɫɟɧɶɸ) ɫ
ɧɚɢɦɟɧɶɲɟɣ ɞɨɥɟɣ ɢ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɜɨ ɜɧɟɩɨɣɦɟɧɧɨɦ ɫɨɫɧɹɤɟ. ɇɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɟɟ
ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɫɭɦɦɚɪɧɭɸ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɚɹ ɪɵɠɚɹ ɩɨɥɟɜɤɚ.
Ⱦɥɹ ɫɟɡɨɧɧɨɣ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɢ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɵ ɝɨɞɨɜɵɟ ɜɚɪɢɚɰɢɢ, ɬɚɤ ɤɚɤ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ
ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɤɚɠɞɨɝɨ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɚ ɝɨɞɚ ɨɬɥɢɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɜ ɬɨɣ ɢɥɢ ɢɧɨɣ ɦɟɪɟ. ɇɚ
ɝɪɚɮɢɤɟ ɜɢɞɧɚ ɫɢɧɯɪɨɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɩɢɤɨɜ ɢ ɦɢɧɢɦɭɦɨɜ ɜɟɫɟɧɧɟɣ ɢ
ɨɫɟɧɧɟɣ ɨɛɳɟɣ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ (ɫɪɟɞɧɹɹ ɩɨ ɬɪɟɦ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɚɦ) ɡɚ ɬɟɤɭɳɢɣ ɝɨɞ. ȼɨ
ɜɫɟɯ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɚɯ ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɚ ɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ ɫɨɩɪɹɠɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɨɛɳɟɝɨ ɨɛɢɥɢɹ
ɦɟɥɤɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɫɟɡɨɧɚɦɢ ɧɚ ɜɵɫɨɤɨ ɡɧɚɱɢɦɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ (rɜɟɫɧɚɨɫɟɧɶ=0,50-0,61 ɩɪɢ p”0,0001). ɇɟ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɨ ɞɨɫɬɨɜɟɪɧɨɣ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɦɟɠɞɭ
ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɨɫɟɧɶɸ ɩɪɟɞɵɞɭɳɟɝɨ ɝɨɞɚ ɢ ɜɟɫɧɨɣ ɬɟɤɭɳɟɝɨ ɝɨɞɚ
(ɢɫɤ. ɫɬɚɬɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɡɧɚɱɢɦɚɹ ɫɜɹɡɶ ɜ ɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɨ ɡɚɥɢɜɚɟɦɨɣ ɞɭɛɪɚɜɟ ɩɨ
ɝɪɭɩɩɟ ɧɚɫɟɤɨɦɨɹɞɧɵɯ rɨɫɟɧɶ-ɜɟɫɧɚ=0,31 ɩɪɢ p=0,023, ɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɨ, ɷɬɨ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɨ ɫ
ɧɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɦɢɝɪɚɰɢɢ ɷɬɢɯ ɡɜɟɪɶɤɨɜ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɡɚɥɢɬɵɟ ɩɨɧɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɢ
ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɩɨɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɷɬɨɣ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ).
Ɋɢɫ. Ⱦɢɧɚɦɢɤɚ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɦɟɥɤɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ (ɫɪɟɞɧɹɹ ɩɨ ɬɪɟɦ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɚɦ).
Ɇɵ ɩɪɨɜɟɥɢ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɦɧɨɝɨɥɟɬɧɢɯ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɣ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɦɟɠɞɭ
ɫɟɡɨɧɚɦɢ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɨ ɞɥɹ ɥɟɬ, ɤɨɝɞɚ ɜɟɫɧɨɣ ɛɵɥɢ ɩɨɣɦɚɧɵ ɡɜɟɪɶɤɢ, ɢ ɤɨɝɞɚ ɜ
ɥɨɜɭɲɤɢ ɧɟ ɩɨɩɚɥɨɫɶ ɧɢ ɨɞɧɨɣ ɨɫɨɛɢ. ɇɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɚɹ ɪɚɡɧɢɰɚ ɦɟɠɞɭ
ɩɥɨɬɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ, ɜɵɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɚɹ ɩɨ ɫɪɟɞɧɢɦ ɦɧɨɝɨɥɟɬɧɢɦ ɫɟɡɨɧɧɵɦ
ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɹɦ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɦɟɥɤɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ ɫɪɟɞɢ ɬɪɟɯ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɨɜ,
ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɫɨɫɧɹɤɟ ɡɟɥɟɧɨɦɨɲɧɨɦ ɢ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ 6,27 ɪɚɡɚ (ɞɭɛɪɚɜɵ:
ɩɨɥɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɡɚɥɢɜɚɟɦɚɹ -3,94, ɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɨ ɡɚɥɢɜɚɟɦɨɣ - 3,57). Ⱦɥɹ ɥɟɬ, ɤɨɝɞɚ
98
ɜɟɫɧɨɣ ɛɵɥɢ ɨɬɥɨɜɥɟɧɵ ɡɜɟɪɶɤɢ, ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɪɨɫɬ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɡɚ ɬɟɩɥɵɣ
ɫɟɡɨɧ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɜ ɩɨɥɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɡɚɥɢɜɚɟɦɨɣ ɞɭɛɪɚɜɟ (12,87 ɪɚɡ), ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ
ɬɚɤɢɟ ɠɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ ɜ ɫɨɫɧɹɤɟ (12,20 ɪɚɡ). ȼ ɫɨɫɧɹɤɟ ɡɟɥɟɧɨɦɨɲɧɨɦ ɜ 1971
ɝɨɞɭ ɡɚɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɧ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɢɣ ɪɨɫɬ ɩɥɨɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ - ɜ 72 ɪɚɡɚ, ɫ
0,20 ɞɨ 14,40 ɷɤɡ./100 ɥ.ɫ. ɇɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɨɬɦɟɬɢɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɨɫɟɧɧɟɟ
ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɟɞɵɞɭɳɟɝɨ ɝɨɞɚ, ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɟɟ 14,20 ɷɤɡ./100 ɥ.ɫ., ɫɨɤɪɚɬɢɥɨɫɶ
ɜ 71 ɪɚɡ. Ɇɚɤɫɢɦɭɦ ɪɨɫɬɚ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɦɟɥɤɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ ɡɚ ɬɟɩɥɵɣ
ɫɟɡɨɧ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɥɫɹ ɧɚ ɩɟɪɜɨɣ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɤɟ - ɜ 55 ɪɚɡ (1954 ɝ.), ɧɚ ɜɬɨɪɨɣ - ɜ 50
ɪɚɡ (1953 ɝ.).
ɋɚɦɚɹ ɦɨɳɧɚɹ ɚɦɩɥɢɬɭɞɚ ɤɨɥɟɛɚɧɢɣ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɚ ɞɥɹ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ
ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɡɚ ɯɨɥɨɞɧɵɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɝɨɞɚ. ȼ ɫɨɫɧɹɤɟ ɤɪɚɬɧɨɫɬɶ ɷɬɨɝɨ
ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɹ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɬɶ136 ɪɚɡ (1979 ɝɨɞ), ɜ ɩɨɥɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɡɚɥɢɜɚɟɦɨɣ
ɞɭɛɪɚɜɟ – 81,50 (1985 ɝ.) ɢ ɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɨ ɡɚɥɢɜɚɟɦɨɣ – 99,00 (1963 ɝ.). Ɍɚɤɨɦɭ
ɫɨɤɪɚɳɟɧɢɸ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɧɟɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɡɢɦɨɜɤɢ ɢ
ɧɚɱɚɥɚ ɫɟɡɨɧɚ ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɟɧɢɹ. ȼ ɩɨɣɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɚɯ ɜɚɠɧɭɸ ɪɨɥɶ ɬɚɤɠɟ
ɢɝɪɚɸɬ ɜɟɫɟɧɧɢɟ ɢ ɨɫɟɧɧɢɟ ɩɚɜɨɞɤɢ [2, 5]. ɉɪɢ ɨɫɨɛɨ ɜɵɫɨɤɢɯ ɢ
ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɨɥɨɜɨɞɶɹɯ ɢ (ɢɥɢ) ɛɟɡɤɨɪɦɧɵɯ ɫɭɪɨɜɵɯ ɡɢɦɨɜɤɚɯ ɜ
ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɜɟɫɟɧɧɢɟ ɭɱɟɬɵ ɧɟ ɛɵɥɨ ɩɨɣɦɚɧɨ ɧɢ ɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɡɜɟɪɶɤɚ.
Ɇɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɞɥɹ ɩɨɣɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɞɭɛɪɚɜ,
ɤɚɤ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɹ ɟɟ ɡɚ ɯɨɥɨɞɧɵɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɝɨɞɚ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɹ ɡɚ ɫɟɡɨɧ
ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɟɧɢɹ, ɫɜɹɡɚɧɵ ɫ ɜɵɫɨɤɢɦ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦ ɩɨɥɨɜɨɞɶɟɦ 1970,
1979 ɢ 2001 ɝɝ. Ɍɚɤ ɜ 2001 ɝ. ɜ ɩɨɥɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɡɚɥɢɜɚɟɦɨɣ ɞɭɛɪɚɜɟ ɫ 42,80
ɷɤɡ./100ɥ.ɫ. ɨɫɟɧɶɸ 2000 ɝɨɞɚ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɤ ɜɟɫɧɟ ɭɩɚɥɚ ɞɨ 0 ɷɤɡ./100ɥ.ɫ. ɢ
ɡɚ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɥɚɫɶ ɞɨ 12,80 ɷɤɡ./100ɥ.ɫ. ȼ ɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɨ
ɡɚɥɢɜɚɟɦɨɣ ɞɭɛɪɚɜɟ ɤ ɜɟɫɧɟ 1979 ɝɨɞɚ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɫɨɤɪɚɬɢɥɨɫɶ ɞɨ 0 ɫ 61,00
ɷɤɡ./100ɥ.ɫ., ɚ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɩɨɥɨɜɨɞɶɹ 1970 ɝɨɞɚ ɜɵɪɨɫɥɨ ɤ ɨɫɟɧɢ ɞɨ 16,60
ɷɤɡ./100ɥ.ɫ.
Ɉɛɵɱɧɨ ɜ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɬɟɩɥɨɝɨ ɫɟɡɨɧɚ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ, ɚ ɡɚ
ɯɨɥɨɞɧɵɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ – ɭɦɟɧɶɲɚɟɬɫɹ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɛɵɜɚɸɬ ɢɫɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɹ, ɤɨɝɞɚ ɜ
ɫɜɹɡɢ, ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɫ ɩɨɞɫɧɟɠɧɵɦ ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɟɧɢɟɦ ɜ ɡɢɦɧɢɣ ɫɟɡɨɧ (ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ,
1967/1968 ɝɝ. ɢ ɬ.ɞ.), ɩɥɨɬɧɨɫɬɶ ɡɜɟɪɶɤɨɜ ɤ ɜɟɫɧɟ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ [3]. ȼ
ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɷɬɚ ɛɨɥɶɲɚɹ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɭɠɟ ɜ ɧɚɱɚɥɟ ɫɟɡɨɧɚ
ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɧɟ ɞɚɟɬ ɩɨɥɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥ
ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ (ɪɵɠɟɣ ɩɨɥɟɜɤɢ) ɞɥɹ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ, ɜ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɪɨɫɬɚ
ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɧɟ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɬɶɫɹ ɢɥɢ ɞɚɠɟ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɩɚɞɟɧɢɟ
ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɤ ɤɨɧɰɭ ɜɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɚ.
Ⱥɧɚɥɢɡɢɪɭɹ ɦɧɨɝɨɥɟɬɧɢɟ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɦɟɠɞɭ
ɫɟɡɨɧɧɵɦɢ ɭɱɟɬɚɦɢ, ɦɵ ɫɦɨɝɥɢ ɜɵɹɫɧɢɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɜ ɩɨɥɧɨɫɬɶɸ
ɡɚɥɢɜɚɟɦɨɣ ɞɭɛɪɚɜɟ ɨɬɦɟɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɟɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɚɹ, ɧɨ ɫɬɚɬɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɡɧɚɱɢɦɚɹ
ɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɹ ɤ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɸ: ɪɨɫɬɚ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɡɚ ɬɟɩɥɵɣ ɫɟɡɨɧ (r=-0,36 ɩɪɢ
p=0,007) ɢ ɩɚɞɟɧɢɹ ɩɥɨɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɡɚ ɯɨɥɨɞɧɵɣ (r=-0,30 ɩɪɢ p=0,031).
Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɜ ɷɬɨɦ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɟ ɩɪɨɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɹ ɤ ɫɬɚɛɢɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ
ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɫɟɡɨɧɚɦɢ. ȼ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɦɟɫɬɨɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹɯ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ
ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɧɵɯ, ɧɨ ɞɚɠɟ ɢ ɧɟɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɵɯ ɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɣ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɨɛɢɥɢɹ ɧɚ
99
ɫɬɚɬɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɡɧɚɱɢɦɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɜɟɫɟɧɧɢɦ ɢ ɨɫɟɧɧɢɦ ɫɟɡɨɧɚɦɢ ɧɟ
ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɨ.
ȼ ɯɨɞɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɜɵɹɫɧɢɥɨɫɶ, ɱɬɨ ɩɪɢ ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨ ɛɨɥɶɲɨɣ
ɚɦɩɥɢɬɭɞɟ ɤɨɥɟɛɚɧɢɣ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɦɟɥɤɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ ɜ
ɬɪɟɯ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɚɯ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɫɟɡɨɧɚɦɢ, ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɨɛɢɥɢɹ ɜ ɩɨɣɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɚɯ
(ɪɨɫɬ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɨɬ ɜɟɫɧɵ ɤ ɨɫɟɧɢ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɩɚɞɟɧɢɟ ɡɚ ɯɨɥɨɞɧɵɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ) ɢɞɟɬ
ɨɛɵɱɧɨ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɭɦɟɪɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɬɟɦɩɚɦɢ, ɱɟɦ ɜɨ ɜɧɟɩɨɣɦɟɧɧɨɦ ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɟ.
ɋɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɨɫɟɧɧɟɣ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜ ɨɬ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ
ɜɟɫɟɧɧɟɣ. Ɍɨɥɶɤɨ ɞɥɹ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜ ɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɨ ɡɚɥɢɜɚɟɦɨɣ ɞɭɛɪɚɜɵ ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɚ
ɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɹ ɤ ɫɬɚɛɢɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɫɟɡɨɧɚɦɢ.
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. ɂɜɚɧɬɟɪ ɗ.ȼ., Ʉɨɪɨɫɨɜ Ⱥ.ȼ. Ɉɫɧɨɜɵ ɛɢɨɦɟɬɪɢɢ: ɜɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɫɬɚɬɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ
ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɹɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɢ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɜ. - ɉɟɬɪɨɡɚɜɨɞɫɤ: ɂɡɞ-ɜɨ "Ʉɚɪɟɥɢɹ", 1992. - 168 ɫ.
2. Ʉɨɥɱɟɜɚ ɇ.ȿ. ɋɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ ɢ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɚ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɦɵɲɟɜɢɞɧɵɯ ɝɪɵɡɭɧɨɜ ɜ
ɩɨɣɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɦɟɫɬɨɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹɯ // ɉɨɜɨɥɠɫɤɢɣ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɠɭɪɧɚɥ. - 2004. - ɜɵɩ. 3. - ɋ.
285-294.
3. Ʉɭɞɪɹɲɨɜɚ Ʌ.Ɇ. ɉɨɞɫɧɟɠɧɨɟ ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɪɵɠɟɣ ɩɨɥɟɜɤɢ ɜ ɩɨɣɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɞɭɛɪɚɜɚɯ
Ɉɤɫɤɨɝɨ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɚ ɡɢɦɨɣ 1967/68 ɝɝ. // ɗɤɨɥɨɝɢɹ. - 1971. - ɜɵɩ. 2. - ɋ. 84-87.
4. Ɇɚɪɤɢɧɚ Ɍ.Ⱥ. ɏɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɚ ɥɟɫɧɵɯ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜ ɦɟɥɤɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ ɸɝɨɜɨɫɬɨɤɚ Ɇɟɳɟɪɵ // ȼɟɫɬɧɢɤ Ɉɯɨɬɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ. - 2010ɚ. - Ɍ. 7. ʋ 1. - ɋ. 35-41.
5. Ɇɚɪɤɢɧɚ Ɍ.Ⱥ. ȼɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɩɨɥɨɜɨɞɶɹ ɧɚ ɫɟɡɨɧɧɭɸ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɭ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ
ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɭ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɦɟɥɤɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ ɸɝɨ-ɜɨɫɬɨɤɚ Ɇɟɳɟɪɵ // ɂɡɜɟɫɬɢɹ
ɋɚɦɚɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɧɚɭɱɧɨɝɨ ɰɟɧɬɪɚ ɊȺɇ. - 2010ɛ. - Ɍ. 12. ʋ 1. - ɋ. 147-152.
6. ɇɚɭɦɨɜ ɇ. ɉ. ɗɤɨɥɨɝɢɹ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ. ɂɡɞ.2-ɟ. - Ɇ.: ȼɵɫɲɚɹ ɲɤɨɥɚ, 1963. - 618 ɫ.
7. Ɉɫɧɨɜɵ ɷɩɢɞɟɦɢɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɢ ɫɬɚɬɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ ɜ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɦ ɡɞɨɪɨɜɶɟ ɢ
ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ ɡɞɪɚɜɨɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟɦ. ɍɱ. ɩɨɫɨɛɢɟ ɞɥɹ ɨɪɞɢɧɚɬɨɪɨɜ ɢ ɚɫɩɢɪɚɧɬɨɜ. -Ɇ.: 2003. 91 ɫ.
SEASONAL DYNAMICS OF THE NUMBER OF SMALL MAMMAL COMMUNITIES
IN THE OKSKY RESERVE
Ɍ.Ⱥ. Markina
Oksky State Nature Biosphere Reserve, Ryazan
The article discusses the features of the seasonal dynamics of number of
assemblages of small mammals in the southeast Meshchery.
100
ɍȾɄ 597.554.3
ɆɈɊɎɈɅɈȽɂɑȿɋɄɂɃ ȺɇȺɅɂɁ ɌɂȻȿɌɋɄɈȽɈ ȽɈɅɖɐȺ
TRIPLOPHYSA STOLICZKAI (CYPRINIFORMES, BALITORIDAE)
ȼɈȾɈȿɆɈȼ ɍɁȻȿɄɂɋɌȺɇȺ
ɍ.Ɍ. Ɇɢɪɡɚɟɜ
ɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ɝɟɧɨɮɨɧɞɚ ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɨɝɨ ɦɢɪɚ Ⱥɤɚɞɟɦɢɢ ɧɚɭɤ
Ɋɟɫɩɭɛɥɢɤɢ ɍɡɛɟɤɢɫɬɚɧ, Ɍɚɲɤɟɧɬ, ɍɡɛɟɤɢɫɬɚɧ
E-mail: [email protected]
ȼ ɫɬɚɬɶɟ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɦɨɪɮɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɬɢɛɟɬɫɤɨɝɨ ɝɨɥɶɰɚ ɝɨɪɧɵɯ ɢ
ɩɪɟɞɝɨɪɧɵɯ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɨɜ ɍɡɛɟɤɢɫɬɚɧɚ. ȼ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɨ,
ɱɬɨ ɤɚɠɞɨɟ ɫɬɚɞɨ – ɫɜɨɟɨɛɪɚɡɧɨ ɢ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɫɨɛɨɣ ɩɨ
ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɦ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɚɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɳɢɟ ɫɩɟɤɬɪ ɦɟɠɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ
ɢɡɦɟɧɱɢɜɨɫɬɢ.
Ɍɢɛɟɬɫɤɢɣ ɝɨɥɟɰ Triplophysa stoliczkai (Steindachner, 1866) – ɲɢɪɨɤɨ
ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɧɵɣ ɜɢɞ. ȿɝɨ ɚɪɟɚɥ ɨɯɜɚɬɵɜɚɟɬ ɜɫɟ ɝɨɪɧɵɟ ɜɨɞɧɵɟ
ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɐɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɣ Ⱥɡɢɢ ɨɬ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɨɜ Ⱥɦɭɞɚɪɶɢ ɢ ɋɵɪɞɚɪɶɢ ɧɚ
ɡɚɩɚɞɟ ɢ ɞɨ ɏɭɚɧɯɷ ɢ əɧɰɡɵ ɧɚ ɜɨɫɬɨɤɟ, ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɚ Ȼɚɥɯɚɲɚ ɧɚ ɫɟɜɟɪɟ ɢ
ɂɧɞɢɢ ɧɚ ɸɝɟ [1, 3]. ȼ ɍɡɛɟɤɢɫɬɚɧɟ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɨɜɫɟɦɟɫɬɧɨ ɜ ɝɨɪɧɵɯ ɡɨɧɚɯ
ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɨɜ ɪɟɤ Ⱥɦɭɞɚɪɶɢ, ɋɵɪɞɚɪɶɢ, Ʉɚɲɤɚɞɚɪɶɢ, Ɂɚɪɚɮɲɚɧɚ ɢ ɋɚɧɡɚɪɚ.
ɋɬɚɰɢɹɦɢ ɟɝɨ ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɤɚɦɟɧɢɫɬɨ-ɝɚɥɟɱɧɢɤɨɜɨɟ ɞɧɨ ɛɵɫɬɪɵɯ
ɩɨɬɨɤɨɜ.
ȼ ɞɚɧɧɨɣ ɪɚɛɨɬɟ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɫɪɚɜɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɩɥɚɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ
ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɨɜ ɬɢɛɟɬɫɤɨɝɨ ɝɨɥɶɰɚ ɢɡ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɨɜ ɍɡɛɟɤɢɫɬɚɧɚ.
Ɇɨɪɮɨɦɟɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɢɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɢ ɩɨ ɨɛɳɟɩɪɢɧɹɬɨɣ ɫɯɟɦɟ [5].
Ʉɥɚɫɬɟɪɧɵɣ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɦɚɬɪɢɰ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɥɫɹ ɩɨ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɭ “ɛɥɢɠɚɣɲɟɝɨ
ɫɨɫɟɞɚ”, ɝɞɟ ɜ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɦɟɪɵ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɹ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɨ ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ȿɜɤɥɢɞɚ
[4]. ȼɵɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɝɪɭɩɩ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɣ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɥɨɫɶ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɦ ɝɥɚɜɧɵɯ
ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬ [2].
ɉɨ Ʌ.ɋ.Ȼɟɪɝɭ [3] ɭ ɬɢɛɟɬɫɤɨɝɨ ɝɨɥɶɰɚ ɥɭɱɟɣ ɜ ɫɩɢɧɧɨɦ ɩɥɚɜɧɢɤɟ III (6)
7-8 (9), ɜ ɚɧɚɥɶɧɨɦ III 5.
ɂɡɭɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɧɚɦɢ ɷɤɡɟɦɩɥɹɪɵ ɪɵɛ ɢɡ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɚ ɪɟɤɢ Ⱥɦɭɞɚɪɶɢ (ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧ
ɪ.ɋɭɪɯɚɧɞɚɪɶɢ: ɋɚɧɝɚɪɞɚɤ, Ɍɭɩɚɥɚɧɝ, ɏɨɧɠɢɡɚ; ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧ ɪ.ɒɟɪɚɛɚɞɞɚɪɶɢ;
ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧ ɪ.Ʉɚɲɤɚɞɚɪɶɢ: Ɍɚɧɯɨɡɞɚɪɶɹ, əɤɤɚɛɚɝɞɚɪɶɹ, Ⱦɠɢɧɵɞɚɪɶɹ, Ⱥɤɫɭ)
ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɸɬɫɹ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ: ɥɭɱɟɣ ɜ ɫɩɢɧɧɨɦ ɩɥɚɜɧɢɤɟ (D) III 7-8
(9), ɜ ɚɧɚɥɶɧɨɦ (A) III 5 (6), ɜ ɝɪɭɞɧɨɦ (P) I 9-10, ɜ ɛɪɸɲɧɨɦ (V) II 6-7.
ɇɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɟɟ ɱɢɫɥɨ ɦɹɝɤɢɯ ɥɭɱɟɣ ɜ ɫɩɢɧɧɨɦ (7-9) ɢ ɚɧɚɥɶɧɨɦ (5-6)
ɩɥɚɜɧɢɤɚɯ ɨɬɦɟɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɭ ɝɨɥɶɰɚ ɪ.ɒɟɪɚɛɚɞɞɚɪɶɹ.
Ɉɫɨɛɢ ɢɡ ɪɟɤ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɨɜ Ɂɚɪɚɮɲɚɧɚ ɢ ɋɚɧɡɚɪɚ ɫɯɨɞɧɵ ɩɨ
ɦɟɪɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɚɦ: D III 7-8 (9); A III 5; P I (8) 9-10; V II 6-7 (8).
Ɍɨɥɶɤɨ ɭ ɞɜɭɯ ɷɤɡɟɦɩɥɹɪɚɯ ɜɵɥɨɜɥɟɧɧɵɯ 2001 ɝɨɞɭ ɢɡ ɤɚɧɚɥɚ
101
ɂɫɤɢɬɭɹɬɨɪɬɚɪ (ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧ ɪ.Ɂɚɪɚɮɲɚɧ) ɜ ɛɪɸɲɧɨɦ ɩɥɚɜɧɢɤɟ ɛɵɥɨ 8 ɦɹɝɤɢɯ
ɥɭɱɟɣ.
Ƚɨɥɶɰɵ ɢɡ ɪɟɤ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɚ ɋɵɪɞɚɪɶɢ (ɇɚɪɵɧ, Ʉɚɪɚɞɚɪɶɹ, ɑɚɬɤɚɥ, Ʉɨɤɫɭ,
ɉɫɤɟɦ, ɍɝɚɦ) ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɸɬɫɹ: D III (6) 7-8 (9); A III 5-6; P I 9-10; V II 6.
ɗɬɢ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢ ɛɥɢɡɤɢ ɤ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɹɦ ɝɨɥɶɰɨɜ ɢɡ ɪɟɤ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɚ
Ⱥɦɭɞɚɪɶɢ. ɋɭɞɹ ɩɨ ɧɚɲɢɦ ɞɚɧɧɵɦ, 7-8 ɦɹɝɤɢɯ ɥɭɱɟɣ ɜ ɫɩɢɧɧɨɦ ɩɥɚɜɧɢɤɟ
ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɭ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɚ ɝɨɥɶɰɨɜ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɧɵɯ ɪɟɤ. ȼ ɪɟɤɚɯ ɑɚɬɤɚɥ, Ʉɨɤɫɭ,
ɉɫɤɟɦ ɢ ɍɝɚɦ, ɟɞɢɧɢɱɧɨ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɨɫɨɛɢ ɫ 6 ɢ 9 ɦɹɝɤɢɦɢ ɥɭɱɚɦɢ ɜ
ɫɩɢɧɧɨɦ ɩɥɚɜɧɢɤɟ. ɍ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɚɦɢ ɝɨɥɶɰɨɜ ɢɡ ɷɬɢɯ ɪɟɤ ɜ ɛɪɸɲɧɨɦ
ɩɥɚɜɧɢɤɟ ɛɵɥɨ ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦ ɩɨ 6 ɦɹɝɤɢɯ ɥɭɱɟɣ. ȼ ɬɨ ɠɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ 7 ɦɹɝɤɢɯ ɥɭɱɟɣ
ɜ ɛɪɸɲɧɨɦ ɩɥɚɜɧɢɤɟ ɦɵ ɧɟ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɢɥɢ.
Ɍɟɥɨ ɝɨɥɶɰɚ ɧɟɜɵɫɨɤɨɟ, ɧɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɚɹ ɜɵɫɨɬɚ ɟɝɨ ɭɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ 5,2-7,7
ɪɚɡ ɜ ɞɥɢɧɟ ɬɟɥɚ, ɦɢɧɢɦɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɜɵɫɨɬɚ – 2,8-3,5 ɪɚɡɚ ɜ ɞɥɢɧɟ ɯɜɨɫɬɨɜɨɝɨ
ɫɬɟɛɥɹ. Ȼɪɸɲɧɵɟ ɩɥɚɜɧɢɤɢ ɞɨɯɨɞɹɬ ɞɨ ɚɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɹ.
Ⱥɧɬɟɞɨɪɫɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɩɪɟɜɵɲɚɟɬ ɩɨɫɬɞɨɪɫɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɜ 1,4 ɪɚɡɚ. Ⱦɥɢɧɚ
ɝɨɥɨɜɵ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦ 19,9% ɞɥɢɧɵ ɬɟɥɚ ɩɪɢ ɚɦɩɥɢɬɭɞɟ ɤɨɥɟɛɚɧɢɣ
ɨɬ 17,8-23,8%. Ⱦɥɢɧɚ ɪɵɥɚ ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɟɬ 43% ɞɥɢɧɵ ɝɨɥɨɜɵ.
Ɋɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥɢ, ɱɬɨ ɤɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬɵ ɜɚɪɶɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ
ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɚ ɦɨɪɮɨɦɟɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɨɜ ɝɨɥɶɰɚ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɟɬɫɹ
ɞɨɜɨɥɶɧɨ ɭɦɟɪɟɧɧɨɣ ɢɡɦɟɧɱɢɜɨɫɬɶɸ. ɂɡ 19 ɩɥɚɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɨɜ
ɨɬɧɟɫɟɧɧɵɯ ɤ ɞɥɢɧɟ ɬɟɥɚ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɟɣ ɜɚɪɢɚɛɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɨɬɥɢɱɚɥɢɫɶ
ɧɚɢɦɟɧɶɲɚɹ ɜɵɫɨɬɚ ɬɟɥɚ, ɞɥɢɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɚɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɩɥɚɜɧɢɤɚ.
ɇɚɢɦɟɧɶɲɢɦ ɜɚɪɢɚɰɢɹɦ ɩɨɞɜɟɪɠɟɧɵ ɞɥɢɧɚ ɝɨɥɨɜɵ, ɧɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɚɹ ɜɵɫɨɬɚ
ɬɟɥɚ, ɞɥɢɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɩɢɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɥɚɜɧɢɤɚ. ɂɡ 5 ɩɥɚɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɨɜ
ɝɨɥɨɜɵ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɟɣ ɜɚɪɢɚɛɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɨɬɥɢɱɚɥɢɫɶ ɞɢɚɦɟɬɪ ɝɥɚɡɚ,
ɡɚɝɥɚɡɧɢɱɧɵɣ ɨɬɞɟɥ ɝɨɥɨɜɵ ɢ ɲɢɪɢɧɚ ɥɛɚ, ɧɚɢɦɟɧɶɲɟɣ – ɞɥɢɧɚ ɪɵɥɚ ɢ
ɜɵɫɨɬɚ ɝɨɥɨɜɵ.
Ɋɚɡɦɟɪɧɨ-ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɚɹ ɢɡɦɟɧɱɢɜɨɫɬɶ ɭ ɬɢɛɟɬɫɤɨɝɨ ɝɨɥɶɰɚ ɩɪɨɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɜ
ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɩɥɚɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɚɯ. ɋ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɨɦ ɭ ɬɢɛɟɬɫɤɨɝɨ ɝɨɥɶɰɚ
ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɚɧɬɟɞɨɪɫɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɢ ɩɨɫɬɞɨɪɫɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ,
ɞɥɢɧɚ ɯɜɨɫɬɨɜɨɝɨ ɫɬɟɛɥɹ ɢ ɩɟɤɬɨɜɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ, ɧɨ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɚɟɬɫɹ
ɞɥɢɧɚ ɢ ɜɵɫɨɬɚ ɝɨɥɨɜɵ.
ɋɬɚɬɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɡɧɚɱɢɦɵɯ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɣ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɫɚɦɰɚɦɢ ɢ ɫɚɦɤɚɦɢ ɩɨ
ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɦ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɦɵɦ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɚɦ ɧɚɦɢ ɧɟ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɨ.
Ɇɚɬɪɢɰɚ ɫɯɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɜɵɛɨɪɨɤ ɬɢɛɟɬɫɤɨɝɨ ɝɨɥɶɰɚ ɩɨ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɭ ɢɡ 24
ɩɥɚɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɨɜ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɜ ɬɚɛɥ. 1. Ⱥɧɚɥɢɡ ɬɚɛɥ. 1 ɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ,
ɱɬɨ ɧɚɢɦɟɧɶɲɟɟ ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɜɵɛɨɪɤɚɦ ɝɨɥɶɰɨɜ ɢɡ ɪɟɤ
ɏɨɧɞɠɢɡɚ ɢ Ɍɭɩɨɥɚɧɝɞɚɪɶɹ (DE =2,53), ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɏɨɧɞɠɢɡɚ ɢ ɋɚɧɝɚɪɞɚɤɞɚɪɶɹ
(DE = 2,66), ɧɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɟɟ – ɝɨɥɶɰɚɦ ɢɡ ɪɟɤ ɋɚɧɝɚɪɞɚɤɞɚɪɶɹ ɢ ɇɚɪɵɧ (DE =
9,44).
Ɋɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɤɥɚɫɬɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɣ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɵ
ɧɚ ɪɢɫ. 1. Ʉɚɤ ɜɢɞɧɨ ɢɡ ɪɢɫ. 1, ɜɵɛɨɪɤɢ ɬɢɛɟɬɫɤɨɝɨ ɝɨɥɶɰɚ ɩɨ ɝɪɭɩɩɟ
ɩɥɚɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɨɜ ɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɹɸɬɫɹ ɜ ɞɜɚ ɤɪɭɩɧɵɯ ɯɨɪɨɲɨ
ɨɛɨɫɨɛɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɮɟɧɨɧɚ, ɨɞɢɧ ɢɡ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɜɵɛɨɪɤɢ ɢɡ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɚ ɪ.
102
Ⱥɦɭɞɚɪɶɢ (ɪɟɤɢ Ⱦɠɢɧɢɞɚɪɶɹ, Ɍɚɧɯɨɡɞɚɪɶɹ, ɒɟɪɚɛɚɞɞɚɪɶɹ, ɏɨɧɞɠɢɡɚ,
Ɍɭɩɨɥɚɧɝɞɚɪɶɹ, ɋɚɧɝɚɪɞɚɤɞɚɪɶɹ), ɜɤɥɸɱɚɹ ɜɵɛɨɪɤɢ ɪɟɤ Ɂɚɪɚɮɲɚɧ ɢ ɋɚɧɡɚɪ,
ɚ ɜɬɨɪɭɸ – ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɚ ɪ. ɋɵɪɞɚɪɶɢ (Ʉɚɪɚɞɚɪɶɹ, ɇɚɪɵɧ, ɑɚɬɤɚɥ, Ʉɨɤɫɭ,
ɉɫɤɟɦ). ȼɧɭɬɪɢ ɧɢɯ ɨɫɨɛɢ ɬɢɛɟɬɫɤɨɝɨ ɝɨɥɶɰɚ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɹɜɧɭɸ ɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɸ ɤ
ɝɪɭɩɩɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɸ ɩɨ ɝɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɭ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɭ. ȼɵɛɨɪɤɢ ɢɡ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɛɥɢɡɤɨ
ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɣ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɫɯɨɞɧɵ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɫɨɛɨɣ, ɱɟɦ ɫ ɜɵɛɨɪɤɚɦɢ ɢɡ
ɝɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɭɞɚɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɣ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɪɟɤ. ɋ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟɦ
ɝɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɢ ɦɨɪɮɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɹ.
ɋɯɨɞɧɚɹ ɤɚɪɬɢɧɚ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɚ ɢ ɩɪɢ ɨɰɟɧɤɟ ɞɢɮɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɚɰɢɢ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɣ
ɬɢɛɟɬɫɤɨɝɨ ɝɨɥɶɰɚ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɦ ɝɥɚɜɧɵɯ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬ (ɪɢɫ. 2). ȼ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟ
ɝɥɚɜɧɵɯ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɜɵɞɟɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɞɜɚ ɮɟɧɨɬɢɩɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɫɯɨɞɧɵɟ
ɫɨɜɨɤɭɩɧɨɫɬɢ ɜɵɛɨɪɨɤ ɩɨ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɭ ɢɯ ɝɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ.
ɉɟɪɜɭɸ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɢ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɢɡ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɨɜ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɚ ɪ. Ⱥɦɭɞɚɪɶɢ (ɜɤɥɸɱɚɹ
ɜɵɛɨɪɤɢ ɪɟɤ Ɂɚɪɚɮɲɚɧ ɢ ɋɚɧɡɚɪ), ɚ ɜɬɨɪɭɸ – ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɚ ɪ. ɋɵɪɞɚɪɶɢ.
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 1.
Ɇɚɬɪɢɰɚ ɫɯɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɜɵɛɨɪɨɤ ɬɢɛɟɬɫɤɨɝɨ ɝɨɥɶɰɚ ɩɨ ɟɜɤɥɢɞɨɜɵɦ ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɹɦ
ɉɨɩɭɉɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɹ
ɥɹɰɢɹ*
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
1
3,70 6,44 5,26 5,63 6,46 6,73 7,59 7,77 8,65 8,35 8,62
2
4,91 4,31 4,40 5,04 5,57 6,95 7,18 8,11 7,99 8,36
3
4,14 4,43 5,35 4,81 6,92 7,76 8,64 8,75 8,33
4
2,53 2,66 5,55 6,67 8,14 8,76 8,32 7,93
5
3,20 5,97 6,37 7,82 8,57 7,94 7,47
6
6,40 7,34 8,97 9,44 8,73 8,70
7
4,73 6,79 7,63 7,21 7,83
8
7,53 8,22 7,36 7,80
9
3,37 5,40 4,91
10
6,62 6,48
11
4,28
12
13
8,19
8,03
8,05
6,81
6,58
7,55
8,12
7,82
6,11
6,67
5,97
3,84
* ɉɪɢɦɟɱɚɧɢɟ: 1. – Ⱦɠɢɧɢɞɚɪɶɹ, 2. – Ɍɚɧɯɨɡɞɚɪɶɹ, 3. – ɒɟɪɚɛɚɞɞɚɪɶɹ, 4. – ɏɨɧɞɠɢɡɚ, 5. –
Ɍɭɩɨɥɚɧɝɞɚɪɶɹ, 6. – ɋɚɧɝɚɪɞɚɤɞɚɪɶɹ, 7. – Ɂɚɪɚɮɲɚɧ, 8. – ɋɚɧɡɚɪ, 9. – Ʉɚɪɚɞɚɪɶɹ, 10. – ɇɚɪɵɧ, 11.
– ɑɚɬɤɚɥ, 12. – Ʉɨɤɫɭ, 13. – ɉɫɤɟɦ.
ɉɟɪɜɵɟ ɞɜɟ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɵ ɜ ɫɭɦɦɟ ɫɜɹɡɵɜɚɸɬ 60,2% ɨɛɳɟɣ ɞɢɫɩɟɪɫɢɢ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɨɜ. ɇɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɢɣ ɜɟɫɨɜɨɣ ɜɤɥɚɞ ɜ ɩɟɪɜɭɸ ɝɥɚɜɧɭɸ
ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɭ ɜɧɨɫɹɬ ɧɚɢɦɟɧɶɲɚɹ ɜɵɫɨɬɚ ɬɟɥɚ (0,660), ɜɵɫɨɬɚ ɚɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɩɥɚɜɧɢɤɚ (0,842), ɩɟɤɬɨɜɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ (0,844), ɞɥɢɧɚ ɪɵɥɚ (0,898),
ɞɢɚɦɟɬɪ ɝɥɚɡɚ (0,646), ɡɚɝɥɚɡɧɢɱɧɵɣ ɨɬɞɟɥ ɝɨɥɨɜɵ (0,876), ɜɵɫɨɬɚ ɝɨɥɨɜɵ
(0,917) ɢ ɲɢɪɢɧɚ ɥɛɚ (0,873), ɚ ɜɨ ɜɬɨɪɭɸ – ɚɧɬɟɞɨɪɫɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ
(0,506), ɩɨɫɬɞɨɪɫɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ (0,607), ɞɥɢɧɚ ɯɜɨɫɬɨɜɨɝɨ ɫɬɟɛɥɹ (0,824),
ɜɵɫɨɬɚ ɫɩɢɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɥɚɜɧɢɤɚ (0,751) ɢ ɞɥɢɧɚ ɝɪɭɞɧɨɝɨ ɩɥɚɜɧɢɤɚ (0,900).
103
Ⱦɠɢɧɢɞɚɪɶɹ
Ɍɚɧɯɨɡɞɚɪɶɹ
ɒɟɪɚɛɚɞɞɚɪɶɹ
ɏɨɧɞɠɢɡɚ
Ɍɭɩɨɥɚɧɝɞɚɪɶɹ
ɋɚɧɝɚɪɞɚɤɞɚɪɶɹ
Ɂɚɪɚɮɲɚɧ
ɋɚɧɡɚɪ
Ʉɚɪɚɞɚɪɶɹ
ɇɚɪɵɧ
ɑɚɬɤɚɥ
Ʉɨɤɫɭ
ɉɫɤɟɦ
2,0
2,5
3,0
3,5
4,0
4,5
5,0
5,5
6,0
6,5
7,0
ȿɜɤɥɢɞɨɜɨ ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ
Ɋɢɫ. 1. Ⱦɟɧɞɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɚ ɫɯɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɣ ɬɢɛɟɬɫɤɨɝɨ ɝɨɥɶɰɚ ɩɨ ɫɨɜɨɤɭɩɧɨɫɬɢ
ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɦɵɯ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɨɜ. Ɇɟɬɨɞ ɛɥɢɠɚɣɲɢɯ ɫɨɫɟɞɟɣ.
5
4
7
3
8
Ʉɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɚ 2: 15,94%
2
9
3
1
2
10
1
11
0
-1
6
-2
4 5
12
-3
13
-4
-5
-6
-8
-6
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
8
Ʉɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɚ 1: 44,33%
Ɋɢɫ. 2. ȼɡɚɢɦɨɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɜɵɛɨɪɨɤ ɬɢɛɟɬɫɤɨɝɨ ɝɨɥɶɰɚ ɧɚ ɩɥɨɫɤɨɫɬɢ ɩɟɪɜɵɯ ɞɜɭɯ
ɝɥɚɜɧɵɯ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬ. ɇɭɦɟɪɚɰɢɹ ɜɵɛɨɪɨɤ ɤɚɤ ɜ ɬɚɛɥ. 1.
104
Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɫɪɚɜɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɬɢɛɟɬɫɤɨɝɨ ɝɨɥɶɰɚ ɝɨɪɧɵɯ ɢ
ɩɪɟɞɝɨɪɧɵɯ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɨɜ ɍɡɛɟɤɢɫɬɚɧɚ ɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ, ɱɬɨ ɛɥɢɡɤɨɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɟ
ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɸɬɫɹ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɫɯɨɞɧɵɦɢ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɚɦɢ ɜɧɟɲɧɟɣ
ɦɨɪɮɨɥɨɝɢɢ, ɱɟɦ ɭɞɚɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɨ ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɢ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɢ ɨɬɪɚɠɚɸɬ
ɩɪɢɭɪɨɱɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɢɯ ɤ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɦ ɝɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɦ (ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɚɦ)
– Ⱥɦɭɞɚɪɶɢɧɫɤɨɦɭ ɢ ɋɵɪɞɚɪɶɢɧɫɤɨɦɭ.
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. Ⱥɦɚɧɨɜ Ⱥ.Ⱥ. ɗɤɨɥɨɝɢɹ ɪɵɛ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɨɜ ɸɝɚ ɍɡɛɟɤɢɫɬɚɧɚ ɢ ɫɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɪɟɫɩɭɛɥɢɤ.
- Ɍɚɲɤɟɧɬ: Ɏɚɧ, 1985. - 160 ɫ.
2. Ⱥɧɞɟɪɫɨɧ Ɍ. ȼɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɦɧɨɝɨɦɟɪɧɵɣ ɫɬɚɬɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ. – Ɇ.: Ɏɢɡɦɚɬɝɢɡ,
1963. – 500 ɫ.
3. Ȼɟɪɝ Ʌ.ɋ. Ɋɵɛɵ ɩɪɟɫɧɵɯ ɜɨɞ ɋɋɋɊ ɢ ɫɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɬɪɚɧ. – Ɇ.-Ʌ.: ɂɡɞ. Ⱥɇ ɋɋɋɊ,
1949. ɑɚɫɬɶ 2. – ɋ. 467-925.
4. Ⱦɸɪɚɧ Ȼ., Ɉɞɟɥɥ ɇ. Ʉɥɚɫɬɟɪɧɵɣ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ. – Ɇ.: Ɇɢɪ, 1977. – 126 ɫ.
5. ɉɪɚɜɞɢɧ ɂ.Ɏ. Ɋɭɤɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ ɩɨ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɸ ɪɵɛ. 4-ɟ ɢɡɞ. Ɇ.: ɉɢɳɟɜɚɹ
ɩɪɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ. 1966. – 376 ɫ.
MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF TRIPLOPHYSA STOLICZKAI
(CYPRINIFORMES, BALITORIDAE) IN WATER BODIES OF UZBEKISTAN
U.T. Mirzaev
Institute of the Gene Pool of Plants and Animals of Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Tashkent,
Uzbekistan
The article describes the morphological analysis of Triplophysa stoliczkai
inhabiting plain and foothill waterbodies of Uzbekistan. The study revealed that
each population had peculiar features differing between one another in certain
traits, which formed a range of interpopulation variability.
ɍȾɄ 632.937.12
ȼɅɂəɇɂȿ ɄɈɊɆɈȼɈȽɈ ɋɍȻɋɌɊȺɌȺ ȾɅə ȼɕɄȺɊɆɅɂȼȺɇɂə
Ƚɍɋȿɇɂɐ ɆȿɅɖɇɂɑɇɈɃ ɈȽɇȿȼɄɂ ɇȺ ȻɂɈɅɈȽɂɑȿɋɄɂȿ
ɉɈɄȺɁȺɌȿɅɂ ȻɊȺɄɈɇȺ
ȿ.Ⱦ. Ɇɨɥɱɚɧɨɜɚ, Ⱥ.ȼ. Ʌɟɲɢɲɚɤ, ȿ.Ȼ. ɒɟɣɤɢɧɚ
ɂɧɠɟɧɟɪɧɨ-ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ "Ȼɢɨɬɟɯɧɢɤɚ" ɇȺȺɇ ɍɤɪɚɢɧɵ,
Ɉɞɟɫɫɤɚɹ ɨɛɥ., Ȼɟɥɹɟɜɫɤɢɣ ɪɚɣɨɧ, ɩɝɬ ɏɥɟɛɨɞɚɪɫɤɨɟ
ɉɪɢ ɪɚɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɢ ɛɪɚɤɨɧɚ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɥɢ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɧɚ
ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ ɷɧɬɨɦɨɮɚɝɚ ɤɨɪɦɨɜɨɝɨ ɫɭɛɫɬɪɚɬɚ, ɜ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɦ
ɪɚɡɜɨɞɹɬ ɟɝɨ ɯɨɡɹɢɧɚ. Ⱦɚɧɧɵɣ ɜɨɩɪɨɫ ɫɥɚɛɨ ɢɡɭɱɟɧ. ɇɢ ɜ ɨɬɟɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ, ɧɢ
ɜ ɡɚɪɭɛɟɠɧɨɣ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɟ ɧɟɬ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ ɨɛ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹɯ ɜ ɷɬɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ.
105
ȼɟɫɶɦɚ ɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɚ ɩɢɬɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ (ɉɋ) ɦɨɝɭɬ
ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɩɨɜɥɢɹɬɶ ɤɚɤ ɧɚ ɩɪɢɜɥɟɤɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɝɭɫɟɧɢɰ ɦɟɥɶɧɢɱɧɨɣ
ɨɝɧɟɜɤɢ ɞɥɹ ɢɦɚɝɨ ɛɪɚɤɨɧɚ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɧɚ ɟɝɨ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ [1].
Ȼɪɚɤɨɧ (Habrobracon hebetor Say.) – ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɚ ɫɨɜɨɤ
(ɦɚɥɶɜɨɜɨɣ, ɤɚɩɭɫɬɧɨɣ, ɯɥɨɩɤɨɜɨɣ), ɫɬɟɛɥɟɜɨɝɨ ɦɨɬɵɥɶɤɚ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ
ɜɪɟɞɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɩɪɨɩɚɲɧɵɯ ɢ ɨɜɨɳɧɵɯ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪ (ɜɫɟɝɨ ɨɤɨɥɨ 60 ɜɢɞɨɜ ɝɭɫɟɧɢɰ
ɱɟɲɭɟɤɪɵɥɵɯ). ɋɚɦɤɢ ɛɪɚɤɨɧɚ ɨɬɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɸɬ ɹɣɰɚ ɧɚ ɝɭɫɟɧɢɰɚɯ ɮɢɬɨɮɚɝɚɜɪɟɞɢɬɟɥɹ, ɩɪɟɞɜɚɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɩɪɨɤɚɥɵɜɚɹ ɩɨɤɪɨɜ ɠɟɪɬɜɵ ɹɣɰɟɤɥɚɞɨɦ ɢ ɜɜɨɞɹ
ɜ ɧɟɟ ɬɨɤɫɢɧ. ɗɬɨ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ ɤ ɩɪɟɤɪɚɳɟɧɢɸ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɢ, ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ,
ɩɪɟɤɪɚɳɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɨɜɪɟɠɞɟɧɢɟ ɜɪɟɞɢɬɟɥɟɦ ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɣ [3].
Ɇɟɥɶɧɢɱɧɚɹ ɨɝɧɟɜɤɚ (Ephestia küchniella Zell.) – ɚɦɛɚɪɧɵɣ ɜɪɟɞɢɬɟɥɶ,
ɩɨɜɪɟɠɞɚɸɳɢɣ ɮɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɜɫɟ ɡɟɪɧɨɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɵ – ɦɭɤɭ, ɤɪɭɩɭ, ɨɬɪɭɛɢ ɢ ɬ.ɞ.
ɉɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ ɚɦɛɚɪɵ - ɡɚɤɪɵɬɵɟ ɩɨɦɟɳɟɧɢɹ ɫɨ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ
ɦɢɤɪɨɤɥɢɦɚɬɨɦ, ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɜɵɪɚɳɢɜɚɧɢɟ ɦɟɥɶɧɢɱɧɨɣ ɨɝɧɟɜɤɢ ɜ
ɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɦ ɰɟɧɨɡɟ, ɦɚɥɨ ɱɟɦ ɨɬɥɢɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɨɬ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ ɟɟ
ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ [2, 4, 5].
ɉɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɵ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɰɟɥɶɸ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɛɵɥɨ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɟ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ
ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɨɜ ɤɨɪɦɨɜɵɯ ɫɪɟɞ ɞɥɹ ɜɵɤɚɪɦɥɢɜɚɧɢɹ ɝɭɫɟɧɢɰ ɮɢɬɨɮɚɝɚ ɧɚ
ɢɯ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ ɢ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɪɚɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɛɪɚɤɨɧɚ. ȼ
ɨɩɵɬɚɯ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɥɢ ɥɚɛɨɪɚɬɨɪɧɵɟ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɦɟɥɶɧɢɱɧɨɣ ɨɝɧɟɜɤɢ ɢ
ɛɪɚɤɨɧɚ. Ⱦɥɹ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɚ ɛɪɚɥɢ ɝɭɫɟɧɢɰ ɦɟɥɶɧɢɱɧɨɣ ɨɝɧɟɜɤɢ ɫɬɚɪɲɢɯ
ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɨɜ, ɜɵɪɚɳɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɚ ɫɪɟɞɚɯ ɪɚɡɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɚ - ɦɭɤɚ ɩɲɟɧɢɱɧɚɹ (70 %)
+ ɦɨɥɨɬɚɹ ɫɨɹ (30 %); ɦɨɥɨɬɵɣ ɹɱɦɟɧɶ (90 %) + ɦɭɤɚ ɩɲɟɧɢɱɧɚɹ (10 %);
ɦɨɥɨɬɵɣ ɹɱɦɟɧɶ; ɦɭɤɚ ɩɲɟɧɢɱɧɚɹ; ɦɨɥɨɬɚɹ ɤɭɤɭɪɭɡɚ.
ɂɡɭɱɟɧɵ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ: ɫɪɟɞɧɹɹ ɦɚɫɫɚ ɝɭɫɟɧɢɰ
ɦɟɥɶɧɢɱɧɨɣ ɨɝɧɟɜɤɢ, ɩɪɨɰɟɧɬ ɡɚɪɚɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɦ ɝɭɫɟɧɢɰ,
ɜɵɠɢɜɚɟɦɨɫɬɶ ɥɢɱɢɧɨɤ ɛɪɚɤɨɧɚ; ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɥɨɜ ɜ ɩɨɬɨɦɫɬɜɟ ɢ ɱɢɫɬɚɹ
ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɶ ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚ - R0 (ƂƂ/Ƃ). ɑɢɫɬɭɸ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɶ ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɟɧɢɹ
ɜɵɱɢɫɥɢɥɢ ɩɨ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤɟ ɋ.Ʉ. Ȼɟɪɱɚ [6].
ɉɚɪɚɡɢɬɚ ɪɚɡɜɨɞɢɥɢ ɜ ɱɚɲɤɚɯ ɉɟɬɪɢ ɩɪɢ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨɣ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɟ
ɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ 27±1°ɋ ɢ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɜɥɚɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ 80±5 %.
Ɉɞɧɨɞɧɟɜɧɵɯ ɢɦɚɝɨ ɛɪɚɤɨɧɚ ɩɨɦɟɳɚɥɢ ɧɚ 1 ɫɭɬɤɢ ɜ ɯɨɪɨɲɨ
ɨɫɜɟɳɟɧɧɨɟ ɦɟɫɬɨ (ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟ ɨɫɜɟɳɟɧɢɟ) ɞɥɹ ɫɬɢɦɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɫɩɚɪɢɜɚɧɢɹ
ɧɚɫɟɤɨɦɵɯ ɢ ɤɨɪɦɢɥɢ 30% ɫɚɯɚɪɧɵɦ ɫɢɪɨɩɨɦ. ɋɩɚɪɟɧɧɵɯ ɫɚɦɨɤ ɩɨ ɨɞɧɨɣ
ɨɫɨɛɢ ɩɨɦɟɳɚɥɢ ɜ ɱɚɲɤɢ ɉɟɬɪɢ ɫ ɝɭɫɟɧɢɰɚɦɢ ɦɟɥɶɧɢɱɧɨɣ ɨɝɧɟɜɤɢ
ɫɬɚɪɲɟɝɨ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚ, ɜɵɪɚɳɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɚ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɩɢɬɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɪɟɞɚɯ.
ɋɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬ-ɯɨɡɹɢɧ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɥɨ 1:10. Ƚɭɫɟɧɢɰ ɞɥɹ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɚ
ɩɨɫɥɟ ɢɡɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɢɡ ɩɢɬɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɫɭɛɫɬɪɚɬɚ ɜɡɜɟɲɢɜɚɥɢ ɩɨ 10 ɲɬ. ɧɚ
ɬɨɪɫɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɜɟɫɚɯ, ɡɚɬɟɦ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɥɢ ɫɪɟɞɧɸɸ ɦɚɫɫɭ ɨɞɧɨɣ ɝɭɫɟɧɢɰɵ.
Ɉɩɵɬɵ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɢ ɜ ɬɪɟɯɤɪɚɬɧɨɣ ɩɨɜɬɨɪɧɨɫɬɢ.
ɑɟɪɟɡ 4 ɞɧɹ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɥɢ ɩɪɨɰɟɧɬ ɩɚɪɚɥɢɡɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɢ ɡɚɪɚɠɟɧɧɵɯ
ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɦ ɝɭɫɟɧɢɰ. ɉɨɫɥɟ ɱɟɝɨ ɩɨɞɫɱɢɬɵɜɚɥɢ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɥɢɱɢɧɨɤ
ɛɪɚɤɨɧɚ ɧɚ ɨɞɧɨɣ ɝɭɫɟɧɢɰɟ. ȼɵɠɢɜɚɟɦɨɫɬɶ ɥɢɱɢɧɨɤ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɥɢ
ɩɨɫɥɟ ɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɫɬɚɞɢɢ ɤɭɤɨɥɤɢ.
106
Ʉɨɪɦɨɜɨɣ ɫɭɛɫɬɪɚɬ (ɩɢɬɚɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ ɫɪɟɞɚ) ɞɥɹ ɦɟɥɶɧɢɱɧɨɣ ɨɝɧɟɜɤɢ
ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ ɟɺ ɝɭɫɟɧɢɰ. ɉɪɢ ɪɚɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɢ
ɮɢɬɨɮɚɝɚ ɧɚ ɦɨɥɨɬɨɣ ɤɭɤɭɪɭɡɟ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɫɨɤɪɚɳɚɸɬɫɹ ɫɪɨɤɢ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɨɬ
ɫɬɚɞɢɢ ɹɣɰɚ ɞɨ ɫɬɚɞɢɢ ɝɭɫɟɧɢɰɵ ɫɬɚɪɲɟɝɨ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚ (27 ɞɧɟɣ) ɢ ɨɬ ɫɬɚɞɢɢ
ɹɣɰɚ ɞɨ ɫɬɚɞɢɢ ɢɦɚɝɨ (35 ɞɧɟɣ). ɋɪɟɞɧɹɹ ɦɚɫɫɚ ɝɭɫɟɧɢɰ ɫɬɚɪɲɟɝɨ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚ
ɜɵɤɨɪɦɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɦɨɥɨɬɨɣ ɤɭɤɭɪɭɡɨɣ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɥ 28,9 ɦɝ, ɚ ɦɨɥɨɬɵɦ ɹɱɦɟɧɟɦ 27,9 ɦɝ. Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɜ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɤɨɪɦɨɜɨɝɨ ɫɭɛɫɬɪɚɬɚ
ɦɨɥɨɬɨɣ ɤɭɤɭɪɭɡɵ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɢɥɨ ɫɨɤɪɚɬɢɬɶ ɫɪɨɤ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɝɭɫɟɧɢɰ ɧɚ 5 ɞɧɟɣ, ɚ
ɞɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɸɜɟɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɜ ɰɟɥɨɦ ɧɚ 7 ɞɧɟɣ. Ɍɚɤɠɟ ɢ
ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɡɚɪɚɠɟɧɢɟ ɯɨɡɹɢɧɚ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɦ (72 %) ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɥɨɫɶ, ɤɨɝɞɚ
ɝɭɫɟɧɢɰ ɜɵɤɚɪɦɥɢɜɚɥɢ ɦɨɥɨɬɨɣ ɤɭɤɭɪɭɡɨɣ (ɬɚɛɥ. 1).
Ɉɬɥɢɱɢɹ ɜ ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢ ɩɨɥɨɜ ɩɨɬɨɦɫɬɜɚ ɜ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɚ
ɫɪɟɞɵ ɛɵɥɢ ɧɟɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɢ. Ȼɨɥɶɲɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɥɢɱɢɧɨɤ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚ ɜɵɠɢɜɚɥɨ,
ɤɨɝɞɚ ɝɭɫɟɧɢɰ ɨɝɧɟɜɨɤ ɤɨɪɦɢɥɢ ɦɨɥɨɬɨɣ ɤɭɤɭɪɭɡɨɣ.
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 1
ȼɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɩɢɬɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ ɦɟɥɶɧɢɱɧɨɣ ɨɝɧɟɜɤɢ ɧɚ
ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ ɛɪɚɤɨɧɚ
ɋɨɫɬɚɜ ɉɋ
Ɇɭɤɚ
Ɇɨɥɨɬɵɣ
Ȼɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɲɟɧɢɱɧɚɹ ɹɱɦɟɧɶ (90
Ɇɨɥɨɬɚɹ
Ɇɨɥɨɬɵɣ
Ɇɭɤɚ
ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ
(70 %),
%), ɦɭɤɚ
ɤɭɤɭɪɭɡɚ ɇɋɊ0,5
ɹɱɦɟɧɶ ɩɲɟɧɢɱɧɚɹ
ɦɨɥɨɬɚɹ
ɩɲɟɧɢɱɧɚɹ
ɫɨɹ (30 %)
(10 %)
ɋɪɟɞɧɹɹ ɦɚɫɫɚ
18,9
24,8
27,9
16,6
28,9
0,9
ɝɭɫɟɧɢɰ, ɦɝ
ɑɚɫɬɶ ɝɭɫɟɧɢɰ,
ɡɚɪɚɠɟɧɧɵɯ
69
62
65
27
72
3
ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɦ
,%
ɋɪɟɞɧɹɹ
ɜɵɠɢɜɚɟɦɨɫɬɶ
73
70
71
70
76
4
ɥɢɱɢɧɨɤ, %
ɋɚɦɨɤ, %.
50
51
52
51
55
3
ɋɪɟɞɧɟɟ
ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ
ɢɦɚɝɨ,
ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɯ ɫ
1 ɝɭɫɟɧɢɰɵ,
ɷɤɡ.
1,16
1,37
3,01
1,01
3,97
0,1
ɇɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɭɸ ɡɚɪɚɠɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɝɭɫɟɧɢɰ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɦ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɥɢ ɜ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɟ,
ɝɞɟ ɝɭɫɟɧɢɰ ɜɵɪɚɳɢɜɚɥɢ ɧɚ ɦɨɥɨɬɨɣ ɤɭɤɭɪɭɡɟ – 72%. Ɍɚɤɠɟ ɢ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɟ
ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɢɦɚɝɨ ɛɪɚɤɨɧɚ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɯ ɫ ɨɞɧɨɣ ɝɭɫɟɧɢɰɵ ɜ ɷɬɨɦ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɟ
ɛɵɥɨ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɩɨ ɨɩɵɬɭ ɢ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɥɨ 3,79 ɨɫɨɛɢ.
107
Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɚ ɫɪɟɞɧɹɹ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɚ ɱɢɫɬɨɣ ɪɟɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɢ ɫɚɦɨɤ ɛɪɚɤɨɧɚ. ȼ
ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɟ ɫ ɝɭɫɟɧɢɰɚɦɢ, ɜɵɪɚɳɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɧɚ ɦɨɥɨɬɨɣ ɤɭɤɭɪɭɡɟ, ɨɧɚ ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɥɚ
ɧɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɟɝɨ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ 28, 6 ɢɦɚɝɨ/ɢɦɚɝɨ (ɪɢɫ. 1).
Ɋɢɫ. 1. ȼɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɩɢɬɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ ɦɟɥɶɧɢɱɧɨɣ ɨɝɧɟɜɤɢ ɧɚ ɱɢɫɬɭɸ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɶ
ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɛɪɚɤɨɧɚ (R0) (1 – ɦɭɤɚ ɩɲɟɧɢɱɧɚɹ (70 %) + ɦɨɥɨɬɚɹ ɫɨɹ (30 %); 2 - ɦɨɥɨɬɵɣ
ɹɱɦɟɧɶ (90 %), ɦɭɤɚ ɩɲɟɧɢɱɧɚɹ (10 %); 3- ɦɨɥɨɬɵɣ ɹɱɦɟɧɶ; 4 - ɦɭɤɚ ɩɲɟɧɢɱɧɚɹ; 5ɦɨɥɨɬɚɹ ɤɭɤɭɪɭɡɚ).
ɂɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥɢ, ɱɬɨ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɚ R0 ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɩɪɹɦɭɸ
ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɨɬ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɣ ɦɚɫɫɵ ɝɭɫɟɧɢɰ ɮɢɬɨɮɚɝɚ. Ʉɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬ ɤɨɪɪɟɥɹɰɢɢ
ɜ ɞɚɧɧɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ 0,97. Ɍɚɤɠɟ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɦɵɣ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ
ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ ɢ ɨɬ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɚ ɤɨɪɦɚ ɞɥɹ ɝɭɫɟɧɢɰ ɦɟɥɶɧɢɱɧɨɣ ɨɝɧɟɜɤɢ.
ɉɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɣ ɨɩɵɬ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɢɥ ɜɵɹɜɢɬɶ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɚ ɩɢɬɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ
ɫɪɟɞɵ ɧɚ ɪɟɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɢ ɷɧɬɨɦɨɮɚɝɚ. Ɇɢɧɢɦɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ
ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɥɨɫɶ ɧɚ ɝɭɫɟɧɢɰɚɯ, ɜɵɪɚɳɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɚ ɩɲɟɧɢɱɧɨɣ ɦɭɤɟ (ɫɪɟɞɧɹɹ ɦɚɫɫɚ
ɝɭɫɟɧɢɰ 16,6 ɦɝ) – 11,1 ɫɚɦɨɤ ɨɬ ɨɞɧɨɣ ɫɚɦɤɢ; ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɧɚ ɦɨɥɨɬɨɣ
ɤɭɤɭɪɭɡɟ (ɜɟɫ ɝɭɫɟɧɢɰɵ - 28,9 ɦɝ) – 28,6 ɢɦɚɝɨ ɨɬ ɨɞɧɨɣ ɫɚɦɤɢ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɧɫɤɨɝɨ
ɩɨɤɨɥɟɧɢɹ.
ɉɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɢɥɢ ɜɵɞɟɥɢɬɶ ɦɨɥɨɬɭɸ ɤɭɤɭɪɭɡɭ, ɤɚɤ
ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɧɭɸ ɤɨɪɦɨɜɭɸ ɫɪɟɞɭ ɞɥɹ ɜɵɪɚɳɢɜɚɧɢɹ ɝɭɫɟɧɢɰ
ɦɟɥɶɧɢɱɧɨɣ ɨɝɧɟɜɤɢ ɜ ɩɪɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɦɚɫɲɬɚɛɚɯ ɩɪɢ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɟ
ɷɧɬɨɦɨɮɚɝɚ.
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. ȼɢɤɬɨɪɨɜ, Ƚ.Ⱥ. ɗɤɨɥɨɝɢɹ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ-ɷɧɬɨɦɨɮɚɝɨɜ / Ƚ.Ⱥ. ȼɢɤɬɨɪɨɜ; Ⱥɤɚɞɟɦɢɹ
ɧɚɭɤ ɋɋɋɊ ɨɬɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɨɛɳɟɣ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɢ. – Ɇ.: ɇɚɭɤɚ, 1976. – 152 ɫ.
2. Ɂɚɝɭɥɹɜ, Ⱥ. Ʉ. Ɇɨɥɢ ɢ ɨɝɧɺɜɤɢ – ɜɪɟɞɢɬɟɥɢ ɡɟɪɧɚ ɢ ɩɪɨɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɡɚɩɚɫɨɜ /
Ⱥ. Ʉ Ɂɚɝɭɥɹɜ; ɇɚɭɤɚ. – Ɇ.: ɇ, 1965.-271ɫ.
3. Ɋɟɤɨɦɟɧɞɚɰɢɢ ɩɨ ɦɚɫɫɨɜɨɦɭ ɪɚɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɸ ɢ ɉɨɥɟɜɨɦɭ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɸ ɝɚɛɪɨɛɪɚɤɨɧɚ
/ ɉɨɞ ɪɟɞ. ȼ.Ƚ. Ʉɨɜɚɥɟɧɤɨɜɚ. ɋɬɚɜɪɨɩɨɥɶɫɤɚɹ ɤɪɚɟɜɚɹ ɫɬɚɧɰɢɹ ɡɚɳɢɬɚ ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɣ. – ɋ.:
ɋɄɋɁɊ, 1991. – 16ɫ.
4. ɉɟɪɟɝɨɧɱɟɧɤɨ, Ȼ.Ɇ. Ɇɟɬɨɞɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɦɚɫɫɨɜɨɦɭ ɪɚɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɸ ɢ
ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɸ ɝɚɛɪɨɛɪɚɤɨɧɚ / Ȼ.Ɇ. ɉɟɪɟɝɨɧɱɟɧɤɨ, Ⱥ. ɋ. Ȼɨɝɨɥɸɛɨɜɚ; ɍɡɛɟɤɢɫɬɚɧ. - Ɍ: ɍ,
1976. – 20 ɫ.
108
5. ɐɵɛɭɥɶɫɤɚɹ, Ƚ.ɇ. Ɇɟɬɨɞɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɪɚɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɸ ɢ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɸ ɹɢɰ
ɦɟɥɶɧɢɱɧɨɣ ɨɝɧɟɜɤɢ / Ƚ.ɇ. ɐɵɛɭɥɶɫɤɚɹ, ɇ.ɇ. Ʉɨɲɟɜɫɤɚɹ, ȼ.Ⱥ. Ɍɨɩɱɢɣ; ɍɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ
ɡɚɳɢɬɵ ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɣ. – Ɇ.:, 1984. – 17 ɫ.
6. Birch S.C. The intrinsic rate of natural increase of an insect population / S.C. Birch //
J. Anim. Ecol. – 1948. – No 17. – P. 15-26.
IMPACT OF EPHESTIA KUEHNIELLA FEEDING ON THE BIOLOGICAL
INDEXES OF HABROBRACON HEBETOR
E.D. Molchanova, Ⱥ.V. Leshishak, ȿ.B. Sheykina
Ingeneering and technological institute “Biotechnica” NAAS
Impact of the host feeding diet on rearing of Habrobracon hebetor is studied. It is
shown that the best substrate for Ephestia kuehniela feeding is milled corn.
ɍȾɄ 619:639.1. 091 (476)
ɂɇȼȺɁɂə ɄȺɄ ɋɉɈɋɈȻɋɌȼɍɘɓɂɃ ɎȺɄɌɈɊ
ȼɈɁɇɂɄɇɈȼȿɇɂə ȻȺɄɌȿɊɂȺɅɖɇɕɏ ɂɇɎȿɄɐɂɃ ɋɊȿȾɂ
ɊȿɋɍɊɋɇɕɏ ȼɂȾɈȼ ɀɂȼɈɌɇɕɏ
Ⱥ.ȼ. Ɇɨɪɨɡɨɜ, ɘ.Ƚ. Ʌɹɯ
ȽɇɉɈ «ɇɉɐ ɇȺɇ Ȼɟɥɚɪɭɫɢ ɩɨ ɛɢɨɪɟɫɭɪɫɚɦ», ɝ. Ɇɢɧɫɤ
E-mail: [email protected]
ȼ ɫɬɚɬɶɟ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɫɜɹɡɶ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚɪɧɵɯ ɢ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ
ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɣ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɧɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ. ɉɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɵ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ
ɤɨɩɪɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɨɯɨɬɧɢɱɶɢɯ
ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ.
Ȼɚɤɬɟɪɢɨɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ
ɫɪɟɞɢ
ɪɟɫɭɪɫɧɵɯ
ɜɢɞɨɜ
ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ
ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ
ɞɨɜɨɥɶɧɨ
ɱɚɫɬɨ.
Ȼɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɨ
ɜɵɞɟɥɹɟɦɵɯ
ɦɢɤɪɨɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɭɫɥɨɜɧɨ-ɩɚɬɨɝɟɧɧɵɦɢ, ɢ ɩɪɢ ɧɟɛɥɚɝɨɩɨɥɭɱɧɵɯ
ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɜɵɡɵɜɚɸɬ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɹ. Ɏɚɤɬɨɪɵ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɦɨɝɭɬ
ɨɫɥɚɛɢɬɶ ɡɚɳɢɬɧɵɟ
ɫɢɥɵ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦ, ɫɧɢɡɢɬɶ ɟɝɨ ɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɬɧɨɫɬɶ ɤ
ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢɨɧɧɵɦ ɚɝɟɧɬɚɦ ɢ ɩɪɢɜɟɫɬɢ ɤ ɤɥɢɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɩɪɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɹɦ
ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɹ, ɞɨɜɨɥɶɧɨ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵ. ɋɪɟɞɢ ɬɚɤɢɯ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɨ
ɦɨɠɧɨ ɜɵɞɟɥɢɬɶ ɝɟɥɶɦɢɧɬɧɭɸ ɢɧɜɚɡɢɸ. Ⱦɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ ɝɟɥɶɦɢɧɬɨɜ ɧɚ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦ
ɯɨɡɹɢɧɚ ɧɟ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɟɝɨ ɩɢɳɢ ɜ ɩɪɨɫɜɟɬɟ
ɠɟɥɭɞɨɱɧɨ-ɤɢɲɟɱɧɨɝɨ ɬɪɚɤɬɚ. ȼ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɩɚɬɨɝɟɧɟɡɚ ɝɟɥɶɦɢɧɬɨɡɨɜ –
ɫɟɧɫɢɛɢɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦɚ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɚɦɢ ɨɛɦɟɧɚ ɢ ɪɚɫɩɚɞɚ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ
ɦɟɯɚɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɨɜɪɟɠɞɟɧɢɹ. ɇɚɪɹɞɭ ɫɨ ɫɬɢɦɭɥɹɰɢɟɣ ɢɦɦɭɧɧɨɝɨ ɨɬɜɟɬɚ
ɝɟɥɶɦɢɧɬɵ ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɬ ɢɦɦɭɧɨɫɭɩɪɟɫɫɢɜɧɨɟ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ, ɱɬɨ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɢɯ
ɜɵɠɢɜɚɧɢɸ ɜ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦɟ ɯɨɡɹɢɧɚ. ɋɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɢɦɦɭɧɨɞɟɮɢɰɢɬɚ ɩɪɢ
ɝɟɥɶɦɢɧɬɨɡɚɯ ɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɜɥɢɹɟɬ ɧɚ ɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɬɧɨɫɬɶ ɤ ɜɨɡɛɭɞɢɬɟɥɹɦ
109
ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɣ, ɚ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɵ ɦɟɬɚɛɨɥɢɡɦɚ ɝɟɥɶɦɢɧɬɨɜ
ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɸ ɛɢɨɰɟɧɨɡɚ ɤɢɲɟɱɧɢɤɚ ɢ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɸ ɞɨɥɢ
ɭɫɥɨɜɧɨ-ɩɚɬɨɝɟɧɧɨɣ ɢ ɩɚɬɨɝɟɧɧɨɣ ɦɢɤɪɨɮɥɨɪɵ.
Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɩɨɪɚɠɟɧɧɵɟ ɝɟɥɶɦɢɧɬɚɦɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɟ ɛɨɥɟɟ
ɩɨɞɜɟɪɠɟɧɵ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢɨɧɧɵɦ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɹɦ ɢ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɫɬɚɬɶ ɢɯ
ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɢɬɟɥɹɦɢ ɫɪɟɞɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ. Ƚɟɥɶɦɢɧɬɵ, ɩɪɢ
ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ, ɦɨɝɭɬ ɹɜɥɹɬɶɫɹ ɨɞɧɢɦ ɢɡ ɝɥɚɜɧɵɯ ɪɟɝɭɥɹɬɨɪɨɜ
ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɞɢɱɢ.
ɉɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ
ɪɟɫɭɪɫɧɵɯ
ɜɢɞɨɜ
ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ
ɜɨɜɥɟɱɟɧɵ
ɜ
ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɭɸɳɢɟ
ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚɪɧɵɟ
ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ,
ɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɹ
ɯɨɡɹɟɜɚɦɢ
ɜɨɡɛɭɞɢɬɟɥɟɣ. Ƚɟɥɶɦɢɧɬɵ ɧɚɧɨɫɹɬ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɜɪɟɞ ɡɞɨɪɨɜɶɸ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ,
ɚ ɜɵɞɟɥɹɹɫɶ ɜɨ ɜɧɟɲɧɸɸ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɭɸ ɫɪɟɞɭ, ɫɨɡɞɚɸɬ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɢɯ
ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ, ɱɬɨ ɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɨ ɜɥɢɹɟɬ ɧɚ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ
ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɨɯɨɬɧɢɱɶɟɝɨ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚ.
ɉɪɢ ɨɰɟɧɤɟ ɫɚɧɢɬɚɪɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ ɭɝɨɞɢɣ ɨɯɨɬɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚ ɈȺɈ
«Ƚɚɡɩɪɨɦ ɬɪɚɧɫɝɚɡ Ȼɟɥɚɪɭɫɶ» ɜ Ɉɫɢɩɨɜɢɱɫɤɨɦ ɪɚɣɨɧɟ Ɇɨɝɢɥɟɜɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ
ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɢɫɶ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɪɟɞɢ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɨɯɨɬɧɢɱɶɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɧɚ
ɩɪɟɞɦɟɬ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚɪɧɨɣ ɢɧɜɚɡɢɢ.
ɂɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɤɨɩɪɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɚ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɢɫɶ ɜ Ƚȼɋɍ
«Ɇɢɧɫɤɚɹ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɧɚɹ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɧɚɹ ɥɚɛɨɪɚɬɨɪɢɹ», ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɜ ɥɚɛɨɪɚɬɨɪɢɢ
ɫɟɤɬɨɪɚ ɨɯɨɬɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ ɨɯɨɬɧɢɱɶɟɣ ɮɚɭɧɵ ȽɇɉɈ «ɇɉɐ ɇȺɇ
Ȼɟɥɚɪɭɫɢ ɩɨ ɛɢɨɪɟɫɭɪɫɚɦ».
ɉɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹɦ ɛɵɥ ɩɨɞɜɟɪɝɧɭɬ ɤɨɩɪɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ
ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥ ɨɥɟɧɹ ɛɥɚɝɨɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ (5 ɩɪɨɛ), ɥɨɫɹ (3 ɩɪɨɛɵ), ɤɨɫɭɥɢ (5 ɩɪɨɛ),
ɡɚɣɰɚ-ɪɭɫɚɤɚ (2 ɩɪɨɛɵ) ɢ ɟɧɨɬɨɜɢɞɧɨɣ ɫɨɛɚɤɢ (1 ɩɪɨɛɚ).
Ɋɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥɢ, ɱɬɨ ɫɪɟɞɢ ɨɥɟɧɟɣ ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ
ɧɚɥɢɱɢɟ ɜɨɡɛɭɞɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɦɸɥɟɪɢɨɡɚ (ɧɟɦɚɬɨɞɚ Muellerius capillaris, Mueller),
ɫɬɪɨɧɝɢɥɹɬɨɡɨɜ ɀɄɌ, ɮɚɫɰɢɨɥɟɡɚ (Fasciola hepatica, Linnaeus). ȼ ɩɪɨɛɚɯ
ɮɟɤɚɥɢɣ ɥɨɫɹ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɵ ɜɨɡɛɭɞɢɬɟɥɢ ɫɬɪɨɧɝɢɥɹɬɨɡɨɜ ɀɄɌ (ɧɟɦɚɬɨɞ ɢɡ
ɩɨɞɨɬɪɹɞɚ Strongylata). ɂɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɛ ɮɟɤɚɥɢɣ ɤɨɫɭɥɢ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɢɥɢ
ɡɚɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɜɨɡɛɭɞɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɮɚɫɰɢɨɥɟɡɚ ɢ ɫɬɪɨɧɝɢɥɹɬɨɡɨɜ ɀɄɌ. ȼ
ɩɪɨɛɚɯ ɮɟɤɚɥɢɣ ɡɚɣɰɚ-ɪɭɫɚɤɚ ɹɢɰ ɢ ɥɢɱɢɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɫɬɚɞɢɣ ɝɟɥɶɦɢɧɬɨɜ ɧɟ
ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɨ. ȼ ɩɪɨɛɟ ɮɟɤɚɥɢɣ ɟɧɨɬɨɜɢɞɧɨɣ ɫɨɛɚɤɢ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɵ ɱɥɟɧɢɤɢ
ɰɟɫɬɨɞɵ Taenia hyditigena, Linnaeus.
Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɧɚɦɢ ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚɪɧɨɣ
ɢɧɜɚɡɢɢ ɫɪɟɞɢ ɨɛɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɨɯɨɬɧɢɱɶɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ. ɉɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ
ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɸɬ ɫɜɨɟɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨ ɩɥɚɧɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɢ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɬɶ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫ
ɩɪɨɮɢɥɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɦɟɪ ɩɨ ɨɡɞɨɪɨɜɥɟɧɢɸ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɧɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɧɚ
ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɨɯɨɬɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚ.
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. Ⱥɤɛɚɟɜ, Ɇ. ɒ. ɉɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɥɨɝɢɹ ɢ ɢɧɜɚɡɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɛɨɥɟɡɧɢ ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ
ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ: ɭɱɟɛɧɢɤ / Ɇ.ɒ. Ⱥɤɛɚɟɜ, Ⱥ.Ɋ. Ɋɨɫɫɢɣɰɟɜɚ, Ɏ.ɂ. ȼɚɫɢɥɟɜɢɱ - Ɇɨɫɤɜɚ:
Ⱥɝɪɨɩɪɨɦɢɡɞɚɬ, 1992. - 447 ɫ.
110
2. ɍɪɤɯɚɪɬ, Ƚ.Ɇ. ȼɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɧɚɹ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɥɨɝɢɹ: ɦɨɧɨɝɪɚɮɢɹ / Ƚ.Ɇ. ɍɪɤɯɚɪɬ, Ⱦɠ.
ɗɪɦɭɪ, Ⱦɠ. Ⱦɭɧɤɚɧ ɢ ɞɪ.; ɉɟɪ. ɫ ɚɧɝɥ. Ȼɨɥɞɵɪɟɜɚ ȿ., Ɇɢɧɚɟɜɚ ɋ. - 2-ɟ ɢɡɞ. - Ɇɨɫɤɜɚ:
Ⱥɤɜɚɪɢɭɦ, 2000. - 352 ɫ.
3. əɬɭɫɟɜɢɱ, Ⱥ. ɂ. ɉɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɥɨɝɢɹ ɢ ɢɧɜɚɡɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɛɨɥɟɡɧɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ : ɭɱɟɛɧɢɤ ɞɥɹ
ɫɬɭɞɟɧɬɨɜ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ «ȼɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɧɚɹ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɚ» / Ⱥ. ɂ. əɬɭɫɟɜɢɱ, ɇ. Ɏ. Ʉɚɪɚɫɟɜ,
əɤɭɛɨɜɫɤɢɣ Ɇ.ȼ.; ɩɨɞ ɨɛɳ. ɪɟɞ. Ⱥ. ɂ. əɬɭɫɟɜɢɱɚ. - 2-ɟ ɢɡɞ., ɞɨɩ. ɢ ɩɟɪɟɪɚɛ. - Ɇɢɧɫɤ:
ɂȼɐ Ɇɢɧɮɢɧɚ, 2007. - 580 ɫ.
INVASION AS A CONTRIBUTING FACTOR OF BACTERIAL INFECTIONS
AMONG HUNTING ANIMALS
A. Morozov, Y. Lyakh
Centre for Bioresources of National Academy of Science of Belarus
The interrelation of parasitic and infectious diseases of resource species are
considered. The results of coprological material research of basic hunting animal
species are given.
ɍȾɄ 903.4:51
ɄɈɋɌɇɕȿ ɈɋɌȺɌɄɂ ɉɈɁȼɈɇɈɑɇɕɏ
ɂɁ ɋɄɂɎɋɄɈȽɈ ɋȼəɌɂɅɂɓȺ
ɘ.ə. Ɇɹɝɤɨɜɚ
ɘɠɧɵɣ Ɏɟɞɟɪɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ,ɝ. Ɋɨɫɬɨɜ-ɧɚ-Ⱦɨɧɭ
E-mail: [email protected]
Ⱥɧɚɥɢɡ
ɨɫɬɟɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ
ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɚ
ɢɡ
ɫɤɢɮɫɤɨɝɨ
ɫɜɹɬɢɥɢɳɚ,
ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɫɬɚɧɢɰɵ Ȼɟɫɥɟɧɟɟɜɫɤɚɹ, ɜ Ʉɪɚɫɧɨɞɚɪɫɤɨɦ
ɤɪɚɟ. ɂɡɭɱɟɧɨ 6196 ɤɨɫɬɧɵɯ ɮɪɚɝɦɟɧɬɨɜ, ɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɚɜɲɢɯ ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦ
ɞɨɦɚɲɧɟɣ ɥɨɲɚɞɢ ɢ ɞɨɦɚɲɧɟɦɭ ɛɵɤɭ.
ȼ ɫɬɚɬɶɟ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɤɨɫɬɧɨɝɨ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɚ
(6196 ɮɪɚɝɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɢ ɰɟɥɵɯ ɤɨɫɬɟɣ), ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɢ ɪɚɫɤɨɩɤɚɯ ɫɤɢɮɫɤɨɝɨ
ɫɜɹɬɢɥɢɳɚ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɫɬɚɧɢɰɵ Ȼɟɫɥɟɧɟɟɜɫɤɚɹ Ɇɨɫɬɨɜɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ
Ʉɪɚɫɧɨɞɚɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɤɪɚɹ. Ɋɭɤɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɶ ɷɤɫɩɟɞɢɰɢɢ ɘ.Ʉ.Ƚɭɝɭɟɜ. Ʉɨɫɬɢ
ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɥɢɫɶ ɜ ɪɨɜɢɤɚɯ ɜɨɤɪɭɝ ɤɚɠɞɨɝɨ ɢɡ ɩɹɬɢ, ɪɹɞɨɦ
ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɫɜɹɬɢɥɢɳ. ɋɨɯɪɚɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɤɨɫɬɟɣ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɚɹ. ɑɟɪɟɩɚ ɢ ɪɹɞ
ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɤɨɫɬɟɣ ɪɚɡɞɪɨɛɥɟɧɵ ɜɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɥɟɠɚɳɟɝɨ ɫɜɟɪɯɭ
ɩɨɱɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɫɥɨɹ. Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɺɧɧɨɣ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɡɚɯɨɪɨɧɟɧɢɹ
ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɧɟ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɨ. Ʉɪɨɦɟ ɤɨɫɬɟɣ ɞɨɦɚɲɧɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ,
ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɵ 6 ɮɪɚɝɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɪɨɝɚ ɨɥɟɧɹ ɫɨ ɫɥɟɞɚɦɢ ɨɛɪɚɛɨɬɤɢ ɢ 1 ɮɪɚɝɦɟɧɬ
ɩɥɟɱɟɜɨɣ ɤɨɫɬɢ ɩɬɢɰɵ ɩɨ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɚɦ ɛɥɢɡɤɨɣ ɤ ɤɭɪɢɧɨɣ.
111
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 1
ȼɢɞɨɜɨɣ ɫɨɫɬɚɜ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ ɚɪɯɟɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɚɦɹɬɧɢɤɚ Ȼɟɫɥɟɧɟɟɜɫɤɚɹ
Ʉɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ
ȼɢɞɵ
ɤɨɫɬɟɣ
ɨɫɨɛɟɣ
Ʌɨɲɚɞɶ ɞɨɦɚɲɧɹɹ
5219
90
Ȼɵɤ ɞɨɦɚɲɧɢɣ
767
40
Ɉɜɰɚ ɞɨɦɚɲɧɹɹ
25
4
Ʉɨɡɚ ɞɨɦɚɲɧɹɹ
6
4
ɋɜɢɧɶɹ ɞɨɦɚɲɧɹɹ
36
3
ɋɨɛɚɤɚ
136
5
Ʉɨɲɤɚ
1
1
Ɉɥɟɧɶ ɛɥɚɝɨɪɨɞɧɵɣ
6
1
ȼɫɟɝɨ
6196
148
ɋɨɛɚɤɚ. Ɉɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɨ ɞɜɚ ɩɨɱɬɢ ɰɟɥɵɯ ɫɤɟɥɟɬɚ ɫɨɛɚɤ ɢ ɪɹɞ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ
ɮɪɚɝɦɟɧɬɨɜ, ɪɚɡɛɪɨɫɚɧɧɵɯ ɜ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɦɟɫɬɚɯ. Ʉɨɫɬɢ ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦ ɰɟɥɵɟ, ɧɟ
ɪɚɡɪɭɛɥɟɧɵ. ȼɫɟ ɤɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɚɥɢ ɜɡɪɨɫɥɵɦ ɨɫɨɛɹɦ, ɛɥɢɡɤɢɦ ɩɨ ɪɨɫɬɭ ɤ
ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɦ ɨɜɱɚɪɤɚɦ. Ɋɨɫɬ ɜ ɯɨɥɤɟ 58-60 ɫɦ.
Ʉɨɲɤɚ. ɇɚɣɞɟɧɚ ɨɞɧɚ ɩɥɟɱɟɜɚɹ ɤɨɫɬɶ, ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɧɟ ɨɬɥɢɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɨ ɫɜɨɢɦ
ɩɪɨɩɨɪɰɢɹɦ ɨɬ ɩɥɟɱɟɜɨɣ ɤɨɫɬɢ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɣ ɞɨɦɚɲɧɟɣ ɤɨɲɤɢ.
ɋɟɥɶɫɤɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɟ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵ ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦ ɞɜɭɦɹ
ɜɢɞɚɦɢ: ɥɨɲɚɞɶ ɞɨɦɚɲɧɹɹ ɢ ɛɵɤ ɞɨɦɚɲɧɢɣ. Ʉɨɫɬɢ ɤɨɡ, ɫɜɢɧɟɣ ɢ ɨɜɟɰ
ɟɞɢɧɢɱɧɵ ɢ ɮɪɚɝɦɟɧɬɚɪɧɵ. ɍ ɦɟɥɤɨɝɨ ɪɨɝɚɬɨɝɨ ɫɤɨɬɚ ɩɨɥɨɜɢɧɚ ɤɨɫɬɟɣ ɨɬ
ɜɡɪɨɫɥɵɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ, ɩɨɥɨɜɢɧɚ ɨɬ ɨɫɨɛɟɣ ɦɨɥɨɠɟ 2ɯ ɥɟɬ. ɋɜɢɧɟɣ ɬɚɤɠɟ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵ ɮɪɚɝɦɟɧɬɚɦɢ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɤɨɫɬɟɣ, ɩɨɱɬɢ ɜɫɟ ɨɬ ɦɨɥɨɞɵɯ
ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ, ɞɨ 2ɯ ɥɟɬ. Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɤɨɫɬɢ ɦɟɥɤɨɝɨ ɪɨɝɚɬɨɝɨ ɫɤɨɬɚ ɢ
ɫɜɢɧɟɣ ɜɵɝɥɹɞɹɬ, ɤɚɤ ɨɛɵɱɧɵɟ ɩɢɳɟɜɵɟ ɨɬɯɨɞɵ.
Ɂɚɯɨɪɨɧɟɧɢɹ ɥɨɲɚɞɟɣ ɢ ɛɵɤɚ ɞɨɦɚɲɧɟɝɨ – ɷɬɨ ɹɜɧɨ ɧɟ ɩɢɳɟɜɵɟ
ɨɬɯɨɞɵ. ɉɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɥɨ ɡɚɯɨɪɨɧɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦ ɰɟɥɵɯ ɨɫɨɛɟɣ, ɧɨ ɬɚɤɠɟ
ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɨ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɦɧɨɝɨ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɨɫɬɟɣ ɢ ɢɯ ɮɪɚɝɦɟɧɬɨɜ.
ɀɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ, ɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɨ, ɤɥɚɥɢ ɜ ɪɨɜɢɤɢ ɛɟɡ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɺɧɧɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ, ɱɚɫɬɨ ɞɪɭɝ
ɧɚ ɞɪɭɝɚ, ɚ ɫɜɟɪɯɭ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɥɫɹ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɩɥɚɫɬ ɡɟɦɥɢ. ɉɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɤɨɫɬɢ
ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɨɫɨɛɟɣ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɲɚɧɵ ɢ ɧɟ ɜɫɟɝɞɚ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɛɵɥɨ ɱɺɬɤɨ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɬɶ
ɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɺɧɧɨɣ ɤɨɫɬɢ ɤ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɨɣ ɨɫɨɛɢ. ɋɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ
ɷɬɢɯ ɞɜɭɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɧɨ ɧɚ ɪɢɫɭɧɤɚɯ. ɇɚ ɪɢɫɭɧɤɟ 1
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɨ ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɤɨɫɬɟɣ, ɧɚ ɪɢɫɭɧɤɟ 2 - ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ
ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɨɫɨɛɟɣ.
112
4500
ʶ̸̨̨̛̣̖̭̯̏ ̡̨̭̯̖̜
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
ʸ̨̨̹̥̹̦̌̔̽̔̌́́
1500
ʥ̡̨̛̼̥̹̦̜̔̌
1000
500
0
1
2
3
4
5
ˁ̛̛̯̣̺̏́̌
Ɋɢɫ. 1. ɋɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɤɨɫɬɟɣ ɥɨɲɚɞɢ ɢ ɛɵɤɚ.
ȼ ɫɜɹɬɢɥɢɳɟ 1 ɢ 3 ɹɜɧɨ ɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɥɢ ɥɨɲɚɞɢ, ɜ ɫɜɹɬɢɥɢɳɟ 2
ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ, ɤɚɤ ɨɫɨɛɟɣ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɤɨɫɬɟɣ ɨɛɨɢɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɛɵɥɨ ɩɨɱɬɢ ɨɞɢɧɚɤɨɜɵɦ,
ɜ ɫɜɹɬɢɥɢɳɟ 4 ɢ 5 ɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɥɢ ɛɵɤɢ.
70
ʶ̸̨̨̛̣̖̭̯̏ ̨̨̭̖̜̍
60
50
40
ʸ̨̨̹̥̹̦̌̔̽̔̌́́
30
ʥ̡̨̛̼̥̹̦̜̔̌
20
10
0
1
2
3
4
5
ˁ̛̛̯̣̺̏́̌
Ɋɢɫ. 2. ɋɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɨɫɨɛɟɣ ɛɵɤɚ ɢ ɥɨɲɚɞɢ.
Ʌɨɲɚɞɶ ɞɨɦɚɲɧɹɹ. Ɋɨɫɬ ɨɫɨɛɟɣ ɛɵɥ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɦ: ɦɟɥɤɢɟ (120-128 ɫɦ
ɜ ɯɨɥɤɟ) – 21 %, ɧɢɡɤɨɪɨɫɥɵɟ (130-135 ɫɦ ɜ ɯɨɥɤɟ) – 35%, ɫɪɟɞɧɟɪɨɫɥɵɟ
(136-143 ɫɦ ɜ ɯɨɥɤɟ) - 40%, ɤɪɭɩɧɵɟ (154 ɫɦ ɜ ɯɨɥɤɟ) – 2%. ɉɨ ɝɪɚɞɚɰɢɢ
ȼɢɬɬɚ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɬɨɧɤɨɧɨɝɨɫɬɢ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɛɵɥɚ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɨɣ: ɤɪɚɣɧɟɬɨɧɤɨɧɨɝɢɟ –
11%, ɬɨɧɤɨɧɨɝɢɟ – 22%, ɫɪɟɞɧɟɬɨɧɤɨɧɨɝɢɟ – 6 %, ɩɨɥɭɬɨɧɤɨɧɨɝɢɟ – 56%,
ɩɨɥɭɬɨɥɫɬɨɧɨɝɢɟ – 6%. ɋ ɨɞɧɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ ɲɢɪɨɤɨɟ ɜɚɪɶɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɪɨɫɬɚ ɢ
ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɬɨɧɤɨɧɨɝɨɫɬɢ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ ɨ ɲɢɪɨɤɨɦ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɢ
ɥɨɲɚɞɟɣ ɞɥɹ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɧɭɠɞ. ɇɨ ɫ ɞɪɭɝɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ ɷɬɨ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ
ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɦ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɹ ɩɥɚɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɨɬɛɨɪɚ ɥɨɲɚɞɟɣ.
113
ȼ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɨɦ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɧɨ ɜ ɪɚɜɧɨɦ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɛɵɥɢ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵ ɜɫɟ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɵɟ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ: ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɦɟɧɶɲɟ ɦɨɥɨɞɵɯ (ɞɨ ɩɹɬɢ
ɥɟɬ) – 36 ɨɫɨɛɟɣ ɢ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɛɨɥɶɲɟ ɫɬɚɪɲɟ ɩɹɬɢ ɥɟɬ – 54 ɨɫɨɛɢ
(ɬɚɛɥɢɰɚ 2).
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 2
ȼɨɡɪɚɫɬ ɥɨɲɚɞɟɣ
ɋɜɹɬɢɥɢ
ɳɟ
ʋ
Ɇɟɫɹɰ
ɟɜ
ɞɨ 3
1,5
3-4
4-5
ɨɤɨɥɨ
5
ɫɬɚɪɲɟ
5
5-7
8-10
10-12
1215
1
2
3
4
5
ȼɫɟɝɨ
1
1
5
1
2
1
1
6
4
1
3
11
9
12
3
5
25
2
1
36
1
6
3
1
8
1
2
2
2
5
3
8
5
2
1
Ʌɟɬ
ȼɫɟ
ɝɨ
19
9
59
2
1
90
ɉɨɥ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɶ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɥɨɫɶ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɦ ɭ 29 ɨɫɨɛɟɣ, ɫɪɟɞɢ ɧɢɯ 12 –
ɫɚɦɰɵ (ɤɨɧɢ), 17– ɫɚɦɤɢ (ɤɨɛɵɥɵ). Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɞɥɹ ɡɚɯɨɪɨɧɟɧɢɹ ɨɫɨɛɢ
ɨɬɛɢɪɚɥɢɫɶ ɧɟ ɩɨ ɷɤɫɬɟɪɶɟɪɭ, ɧɟ ɩɨ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɭ ɢɥɢ ɩɨɥɭ. Ʌɢɛɨ ɤɪɢɬɟɪɢɟɜ ɧɟ
ɛɵɥɨ, ɥɢɛɨ ɩɪɢ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɢ ɨ ɡɚɛɨɟ ɬɨɣ ɢɥɢ ɢɧɨɣ ɨɫɨɛɢ ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɥɢɫɶ ɜɨ
ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɞɪɭɝɢɟ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɢ (ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɜɵɧɨɫɥɢɜɨɫɬɶ, ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɶ ɛɟɝɚ ɢɥɢ
ɞɪɭɝɢɟ).
Ȼɵɤ ɞɨɦɚɲɧɢɣ. ȼ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɩɥɨɯɨɣ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɤɨɫɬɟɣ ɪɨɫɬ ɛɵɤɨɜ
ɭɞɚɥɨɫɶ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɶ ɞɥɹ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɯ ɨɫɨɛɟɣ: 103, 105, 106, 107, 109,109, 110
ɫɦ ɜ ɯɨɥɤɟ. Ȼɵɤɢ ɛɵɥɢ, ɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ, ɦɟɥɤɢɦɢ. ȼɫɟ ɨɧɢ ɛɵɥɢ ɤɨɦɨɥɵɦɢ.
ɇɢ ɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɮɪɚɝɦɟɧɬɚ ɪɨɝɚ ɧɟ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɨ. Ɍɚɤɨɣ ɪɨɝɚɬɵɣ ɫɤɨɬ ɛɵɥ
ɦɚɥɨɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɵɦ.
ȼ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɨɦ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɥɢɫɶ ɜɫɟ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ: ɨɬ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɯ
ɦɟɫɹɰɟɜ ɞɨ ɜɡɪɨɫɥɵɯ. ȼ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɟ ɞɨ 1 ɝɨɞɚ – 7 ɨɫɨɛɟɣ, 1-2 ɝɨɞɚ – 13, 3-4,5
ɝɨɞɚ – 5 ɨɫɨɛɟɣ, 5-7 ɥɟɬ – 4 ɨɫɨɛɢ, 7-8 ɥɟɬ – 4, ɫɬɚɪɲɟ 10-12 ɥɟɬ – 7 ɨɫɨɛɟɣ.
ɂɡɦɟɪɹɟɦɵɯ ɤɨɫɬɟɣ ɛɵɤɚ ɞɨɦɚɲɧɟɝɨ ɦɚɥɨ, ɩɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɝɨɜɨɪɢɬɶ ɨ
ɩɨɥɨɜɨɦ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɟ ɫɬɚɞɚ ɧɟ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɦ.
BONE REMAINS OF THE VERTEBRATES FROM THE SCYTHIAN SANCTUARY
Ju.Ya. Myagkova
Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don
E-mail: [email protected]
Analysis of the osteological material from Scythian sanctuary, located on the
territory of the village Besleneevskoe, in the Krasnodar region. 6196 bone
fragments belonging mainly domestic horse and domestic bull were studied.
114
ɍȾɄ 619:616.995.428:636.8
ɉɊɈȻɅȿɆȺ ȺɄȺɊɈɁɈȼ ɄɈɒȿɄ ȼ ɍɋɅɈȼɂəɏ ȿɊȿȼȺɇȺ
Ɉ.Ɂ. ɇɚɝɚɲɹɧ, Ɉ.ȼ. ɓɟɪɛɚɤɨɜ
ɇɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɚɝɪɚɪɧɵɣ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ Ⱥɪɦɟɧɢɢ, Ɋɟɫɩɭɛɥɢɤɚ Ⱥɪɦɟɧɢɹ, ȿɪɟɜɚɧ,
0009, ɭɥ. Ɍɟɪɹɧɚ, 74; ɬɟɥ: +(37410) 451601
E-mail: [email protected]
Ⱥɤɚɪɨɡɵ ɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹ ɤ ɱɢɫɥɭ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɧɵɯ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ
ɦɟɝɚɩɨɥɢɫɚ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚɪɧɵɯ ɛɨɥɟɡɧɟɣ ɤɨɲɟɤ. ɂɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɵ ɤɨɠɧɵɟ ɫɨɫɤɨɛɵ ɢ
ɤɨɪɤɢ ɫ ɩɨɪɚɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɨɜ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɭɲɧɚɹ ɫɟɪɚ ɤɨɲɟɤ. Ⱥɤɚɪɢɮɨɪɦɧɵɦɢ
ɤɥɟɳɚɦɢ ɨɤɚɡɚɥɢɫɶ ɡɚɪɚɠɟɧɧɵɦɢ 55% ɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɨɣ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɤɨɲɟɤ ɜ
ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ȿɪɟɜɚɧɚ. ɇɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɱɚɫɬɨ ɭ ɤɨɲɟɤ ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɥɫɹ ɧɨɬɨɷɞɪɨɡ
(45%), ɝɨɪɚɡɞɨ ɪɟɠɟ – ɨɬɨɞɟɤɬɨɡ (5%) ɢ ɞɟɦɨɞɟɤɨɡ (5%). ɍ ɜɫɟɯ ɡɚɪɚɠɟɧɧɵɯ
ɤɨɲɟɤ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɢɜɚɥɢ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɜɨɡɛɭɞɢɬɟɥɹ. ɇɟ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɨ ɬɚɤɠɟ
ɡɞɨɪɨɜɨɝɨ ɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ. ɍ ɤɨɲɟɤ ɤɨɦɧɚɬɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɩɨɥɭɤɨɦɧɚɬɧɨɝɨ
ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɹ ɚɤɚɪɨɡɵ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɥɢɫɶ ɝɨɪɚɡɞɨ ɪɟɠɟ (22,7%), ɱɟɦ ɭ ɛɪɨɞɹɱɢɯ
ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ (77,3% ɡɚɪɚɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ). Ⱥɤɚɪɨɡɵ, ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɧɨɬɨɷɞɪɨɡ,
ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɥɢɫɶ ɭ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɵɯ ɝɪɭɩɩ. Ⱦɥɹ ɚɤɚɪɨɡɨɜ
ɤɨɲɟɤ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɚ ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɧɚɹ ɫɟɡɨɧɧɚɹ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɚ: ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦ ɨɧɢ
ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɥɢɫɶ ɜ ɨɫɟɧɧɟ-ɡɢɦɧɢɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ. Ʉɚɤ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥɢ ɧɚɲɢ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɧɨɬɨɷɞɪɨɡ ɤɨɲɟɤ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɡɨɨɧɨɡɨɦ. ȼɨɩɪɨɫɚɦ ɩɪɨɮɢɥɚɤɬɢɤɢ
ɢ ɥɢɤɜɢɞɚɰɢɢ ɚɤɚɪɨɡɨɜ ɤɨɲɟɤ ɜ Ⱥɪɦɟɧɢɢ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɭɞɟɥɹɬɶ ɫɟɪɶɟɡɧɨɟ
ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ.
Ⱥɤɚɪɨɡɵ ɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹ ɤ ɱɢɫɥɭ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɧɵɯ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ
ɦɟɝɚɩɨɥɢɫɚ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚɪɧɵɯ ɛɨɥɟɡɧɟɣ ɤɨɲɟɤ [4, 6]. ɋɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɧɵɦ
ɞɚɧɧɵɦ, ɭ ɤɨɲɟɤ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɱɚɫɬɨ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɧɨɬɨɷɞɪɨɡ ɢ ɨɬɨɞɟɤɬɨɡ.
ɇɨɬɨɷɞɪɨɡ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɩɪɨɬɟɤɚɬɶ ɤɚɤ ɦɟɫɬɧɨ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɝɟɧɟɪɚɥɢɡɨɜɚɧɧɨ, ɜɵɡɵɜɚɹ
ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɟ ɨɫɥɨɠɧɟɧɢɹ, ɜɩɥɨɬɶ ɞɨ ɥɟɬɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɢɫɯɨɞɚ. Ɉɬɨɞɟɤɬɨɡ
ɫɨɩɪɨɜɨɠɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɨɬɢɬɚɦɢ, ɜ ɪɹɞɟ ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ ɛɨɥɟɡɧɶ ɨɫɥɨɠɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɮɚɬɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ
ɦɟɧɢɧɝɢɬɚɦɢ ɢ ɷɧɰɟɮɚɥɢɬɚɦɢ [2]. Ʉɪɨɦɟ ɬɨɝɨ, ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɚ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ
ɩɟɪɟɞɚɱɢ ɜɨɡɛɭɞɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɧɨɬɨɷɞɪɨɡɚ ɢ ɨɬɨɞɟɤɬɨɡɚ ɨɬ ɩɥɨɬɨɹɞɧɵɯ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɭ
[5].
ɇɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ
ɚɜɬɨɪɵ
ɫɨɨɛɳɚɸɬ,
ɱɬɨ
ɚɤɚɪɨɡɵ,
ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ
ɝɟɧɟɪɚɥɢɡɨɜɚɧɧɵɣ ɞɟɦɨɞɟɤɨɡ ɢ ɧɨɬɨɷɞɪɨɡ, ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɱɚɫɬɨ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɭ
ɤɨɲɟɤ ɫ ɢɦɦɭɧɨɞɟɮɢɰɢɬɨɦ ɬɨɣ ɢɥɢ ɢɧɨɣ ɷɬɢoɥɨɝɢɢ [1, 3].
ɋɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɨɬɦɟɬɢɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɜ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɜ Ⱥɪɦɟɧɢɢ ɪɟɡɤɨ ɜɨɡɪɨɫ
ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫ ɤ ɤɨɲɤɚɦ, ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɩɨɪɨɞɢɫɬɵɦ; ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɥɨɫɶ
ɩɨɝɨɥɨɜɶɟ ɷɬɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ, ɩɨɜɵɫɢɥɚɫɶ ɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɨɫɬɶ ɢɯ ɬɟɫɧɵɯ ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɨɜ ɫ
ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɨɦ, ɢ, ɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ, ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚ ɡɚɪɚɠɧɟɧɢɹ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ ɚɤɚɪɨɡɚɦɢɡɨɨɧɨɡɚɦɢ ɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɥɚ ɨɫɨɛɭɸ ɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ. Ɍɟɦ ɧɟ ɦɟɧɟɟ, ɜ Ⱥɪɦɟɧɢɢ
ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɞɚɧɧɨɣ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɨɣ ɞɨ ɫɢɯ ɩɨɪ ɧɢɤɬɨ ɧɟ ɡɚɧɢɦɚɥɫɹ.
ɂɫɯɨɞɹ ɢɡ ɜɵɲɟɢɡɥɨɠɟɧɧɨɝɨ, ɦɵ ɡɚɞɚɥɢɫɶ ɰɟɥɶɸ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɶ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ
ɡɚɪɚɠɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɨɣ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɤɨɲɟɤ ȿɪɟɜɚɧɚ ɚɤɚɪɨɡɚɦɢ, ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɶ
115
ɫɟɡɨɧɧɵɟ ɤɨɥɟɛɚɧɢɹ ɢɧɜɚɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɤɨɲɟɤ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ
ɡɞɨɪɨɜɨɝɨ ɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ ɜɨɡɛɭɞɢɬɟɥɟɣ.
ɂɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɢ ɫ ɧɨɹɛɪɹ 2002 ɝ ɩɨ ɞɟɤɚɛɪɶ 2012 ɝ
ɜɤɥɸɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɜ Ʌɚɛɨɪɚɬɨɪɢɢ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɩɪɢ ɤɚɮɟɞɪɟ ɷɩɢɡɨɨɬɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɢ
ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɇɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɚɝɪɚɪɧɨɝɨ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬɚ Ⱥɪɦɟɧɢɢ.
Ɇɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɨɦ ɞɥɹ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɥɭɠɢɥɢ ɤɨɠɧɵɟ ɫɨɫɤɨɛɵ ɢ ɤɨɪɤɢ ɫ
ɩɨɪɚɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɨɜ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɭɲɧɚɹ ɫɟɪɚ ɤɚɤ ɛɨɥɶɧɵɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɫ
ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɵɦɢ ɩɨɪɚɠɟɧɢɹɦɢ ɭɲɧɵɯ ɪɚɤɨɜɢɧ ɢ ɧɚɪɭɠɧɨɝɨ ɫɥɭɯɨɜɨɝɨ
ɩɪɨɯɨɞɚ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɤɥɢɧɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɡɞɨɪɨɜɵɯ ɤɨɲɟɤ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɩɨɥɨɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɵɯ ɢ
ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɝɪɭɩɩ. ɉɪɢɦɟɧɹɥɢ ɦɨɪɬɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɦɟɬɨɞ ɚɤɚɪɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɫ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ 10%-ɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɫɬɜɨɪɚ ɟɞɤɨɝɨ ɤɚɥɢɹ ɫ ɰɟɥɶɸ
ɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɜɨɡɛɭɞɢɬɟɥɹ ɢɡ ɩɚɬɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɚ ɢ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɦ
ɦɢɤɪɨɫɤɨɩɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɩɪɢ ɦɚɥɨɦ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɢ ɦɢɤɪɨɫɤɨɩɚ.
ɂɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɢ ɜ ɫɟɡɨɧɧɨɣ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɟ, ɜɟɫɧɨɣ, ɥɟɬɨɦ, ɨɫɟɧɶɸ ɢ
ɡɢɦɨɣ.
ȼ ɨɛɳɟɣ ɫɥɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɛɵɥɢ ɨɛɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɵ ɩɪɨɛɵ ɨɬ 480 ɤɨɲɟɤ.
ɂɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥɢ, ɱɬɨ 55% ɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɨɣ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɤɨɲɟɤ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ
ȿɪɟɜɚɧɚ ɡɚɪɚɠɟɧɵ ɚɤɚɪɢɮɨɪɦɧɵɦɢ ɤɥɟɳɚɦɢ. ɇɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɱɚɫɬɨ ɭ ɤɨɲɟɤ
ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɧɨɬɨɷɞɪɨɡ (45%), ɝɨɪɚɡɞɨ ɪɟɠɟ – ɨɬɨɞɟɤɬɨɡ (5%) ɢ
ɞɟɦɨɞɟɤɨɡ (5%). ɋɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɨɬɦɟɬɢɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɜɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɦɵ ɧɟ
ɜɵɹɜɢɥɢ ɧɢ ɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɫɥɭɱɚɹ ɚɤɚɪɨɡɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɢɢɧɜɚɡɢɢ – ɭ ɜɫɟɯ ɡɚɪɚɠɟɧɧɵɯ
ɤɨɲɟɤ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɢɜɚɥɢ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɜɨɡɛɭɞɢɬɟɥɹ. Ɂɞɨɪɨɜɨɝɨ ɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ
ɤɥɟɳɟɣ ɭ ɤɨɲɟɤ ɧɚɦɢ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɧɟ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɨ.
ɍ ɤɨɲɟɤ ɤɨɦɧɚɬɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɩɨɥɭɤɨɦɧɚɬɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɹ ɚɤɚɪɨɡɵ
ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɥɢɫɶ ɝɨɪɚɡɞɨ ɪɟɠɟ (22,7%), ɱɟɦ ɭ ɛɪɨɞɹɱɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ (77,3%
ɡɚɪɚɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ). Ⱥɤɚɪɨɡɵ, ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɧɨɬɨɷɞɪɨɡ, ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɥɢɫɶ ɭ
ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɵɯ ɝɪɭɩɩ, ɧɚɱɢɧɚɹ ɫ ɩɨɥɭɬɨɪɚɦɟɫɹɱɧɵɯ
ɤɨɬɹɬ.
Ɂɚɪɚɠɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɚɦɰɨɜ ɚɤɚɪɨɡɚɦɢ ɨɤɚɡɚɥɚɫɶ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɜɵɲɟ (62,12%),
ɱɟɦ ɫɚɦɨɤ (37,88% ɡɚɪɚɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ), ɱɬɨ, ɩɨ ɜɫɟɣ ɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɨɫɬɢ,
ɫɜɹɡɚɧɨ ɫ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɵɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ ɠɢɡɧɢ ɫɚɦɰɨɜ ɢ ɢɯ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɬɟɫɧɵɦɢ ɢ
ɦɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɚɦɢ ɫ ɞɪɭɝɢɦɢ ɤɨɲɤɚɦɢ.
ȼɫɟ ɡɚɪɚɠɟɧɧɵɟ ɚɤɚɪɢɮɨɪɦɧɵɦɢ ɤɥɟɳɚɦɢ ɤɨɲɤɢ ɛɵɥɢ ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɵ ɜ
ɨɫɟɧɧɟ-ɡɢɦɧɢɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ, ɱɬɨ ɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɨ ɹɪɤɨ ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɧɨɣ ɫɟɡɨɧɧɨɫɬɢ
ɞɚɧɧɨɣ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɣ, ɩɪɢɭɪɨɱɟɧɧɵɯ ɤ ɩɪɨɯɥɚɞɧɨɦɭ ɢ ɜɥɚɠɧɨɦɭ
ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɝɨɞɚ. ɉɨ ɜɫɟɣ ɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɨɫɬɢ, ɷɬɨ ɨɛɴɹɫɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟɦ
ɫɧɢɠɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɢɦɦɭɧɧɨɝɨ ɮɨɧɚ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ, ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɩɨɪɨɞɢɫɬɵɯ, ɜ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɣ
ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɝɨɞɚ, ɜ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɣ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɸ ɢ
ɝɟɧɟɪɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɱɟɫɨɬɨɱɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚ.
ɋɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɨɬɦɟɬɢɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɭ ɦɧɨɝɢɯ ɜɥɚɞɟɥɶɰɟɜ ɡɚɪɚɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɨɬɨɷɞɪɨɡɨɦ
ɤɨɲɟɤ ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɥɢɫɶ ɤɨɠɧɵɣ ɡɭɞ, ɩɚɩɭɥɟɡɧɨ-ɧɨɞɭɥɟɡɧɵɟ ɜɵɫɵɩɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ
ɬɟɥɟ, ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɧɚ ɪɭɤɚɯ ɢ ɧɨɝɚɯ, ɩɨɡɠɟ ɫɦɟɧɹɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ
ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɢɯ ɤɨɪɨɤ, ɜ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɫɥɭɱɚɹɯ ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɥɚɫɶ ɤɚɪɬɢɧɚ,
ɧɚɩɨɦɢɧɚɸɳɚɹ ɛɪɨɧɯɢɚɥɶɧɭɸ ɚɫɬɦɭ. ȼ ɫɨɫɤɨɛɚɯ ɤɨɠɢ ɜɥɚɞɟɥɶɰɟɜ ɢɧɨɝɞɚ
116
ɭɞɚɜɚɥɨɫɶ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɢɬɶ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ Notoedres cati Hering 1838 ɧɚ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɫɬɚɞɢɹɯ
ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ, ɡɚ ɢɫɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɢɦɚɝɢɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɮɨɪɦ. Ɉɩɢɫɚɧɧɵɣ ɫɢɧɞɪɨɦ ɭ
ɜɥɚɞɟɥɶɰɟɜ ɤɨɲɟɤ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɩɟɪɫɢɫɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɞɨ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɯ ɦɟɫɹɰɟɜ, ɯɨɬɹ
ɨɛɵɱɧɨ ɩɪɨɯɨɞɢɬ ɫɚɦɨɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɧɟɞɟɥɶ ɛɟɡ ɤɚɤɨɝɨ-ɥɢɛɨ
ɬɟɪɚɩɟɜɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɦɟɲɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ.
Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɜ ȿɪɟɜɚɧɟ ɜ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɵ
ɚɤɚɪɨɡɵ ɤɨɲɟɤ, ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɧɨɬɨɷɞɪɨɡ. ɍɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɟ ɚɤɚɪɨɡɵ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ
ɪɟɚɥɶɧɭɸ ɭɝɪɨɡɭ ɡɞɨɪɨɜɶɸ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ. ɗɬɨɦɭ ɜɨ ɦɧɨɝɨɦ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɟɬ
ɧɚɪɭɲɟɧɢɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɹ ɤɨɲɟɤ, ɛɟɫɩɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɵ
ɞɨɦɚɲɧɢɯ ɤɨɲɟɤ ɫ ɛɪɨɞɹɱɢɦɢ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɧɟɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɵɣ ɜɵɛɨɪ ɚɤɚɪɢɰɢɞɧɵɯ
ɩɪɟɩɚɪɚɬɨɜ ɢ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɥɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɚɤɚɪɨɡɨɜ. ɋɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ,
ɜɨɩɪɨɫɚɦ ɩɪɨɮɢɥɚɤɬɢɤɢ ɢ ɥɢɤɜɢɞɚɰɢɢ ɚɤɚɪɨɡɨɜ ɤɨɲɟɤ ɜ Ⱥɪɦɟɧɢɢ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ
ɭɞɟɥɹɬɶ ɫɟɪɶɟɡɧɨɟ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ.
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. Ʌɢɩɢɧ Ⱥ. ȼɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɧɵɣ ɫɩɪɚɜɨɱɧɢɤ ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɢ ɧɟɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɜ
ɥɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɤɨɲɟɤ. - Ɇ., 2005. – ɋ. 258-259.
2. ɉɚɲɤɢɧ ɉ.ɂ.; ɒɭɫɬɪɨɜɚ Ɇ.ȼ. ɇɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɵ ɜɢɞɨɜɨɣ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɧɨɫɬɢ
ɱɟɫɨɬɨɱɧɵɯ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ ɩɭɲɧɵɯ ɡɜɟɪɟɣ // ɋɛ. ɧɚɭɱ. ɬɪ. Ʌɟɧɢɧɝɪɚɞɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɟɬ. ɢɧ-ɬɚ. – 1988, Ɍ.
94. - ɋ. 63-69.
3. Allen D. et al. Small animal medicine. Philadelphia: J.F. Lippincott, 1991. – P. 659-732.
4. Curtis CF. Current trends in the treatment of Sarcoptes, Cheyletiella and Otodectes mite
infestations in dogs and cats // Vet Dermatol. – 2004, vol.15, No 2. – Ɋ. 108-114.
5. Eckert J. Zur Bedeutung von Hund und Katze in den Infektketten parasitarer Zoonosen in
Europa // Wien. tierarztl. Mschr. – 1988, bd. 75., N 12. - S. 457-465.
6. Ghubash R. Parasitic miticidal therapy // Clin Tech Small Anim Pract. – 2006, vol. 21,
No3. – P. 135-144.
PROBLEM OF THE FELINE ACARIASES IN YEREVAN
H. Z. Naghashyan, O. V. Shcherbakov
Armenian National Agrarian University
Acariases are of the most prevalent parasitic diseases of cats in megalopolises.
Skin scrapings and crusts, as well as ear wax taken from cats have been examined.
Mite infection has been detected in 55% of city population of cats in Yerevan.
Notoedric mange in cats occurs more frequently (in 45% of cats), otodectic mange
(5%) and demodicosis (5%) are registered rarely. All the examined cats were
infected with one species of mite only. Latent mite carrying has not been also
detected in cats.
In domestic cats mites occur more rarely (detected in 22.7% of the examined cats)
than in stray animals (77.3%). Acariases, especially notoedric mange, affect the
cats of different age groups.
Expressed seasonal dynamics is characteristic of mite diseases in cats, and they
generally occur in cold and humid seasons. As for our research, notoedric mange
has also particular zoonotic significance. Serious attention should be paid to the
aspects of prevention and liquidation of feline acariases in Armenia.
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ɍȾɄ 598.265
Ʉ ȼɈɉɊɈɋɍ ɈȻ ɂɁɆȿɇɑɂȼɈɋɌɂ ɂ ɇȺɋɅȿȾɈȼȺɇɂɂ ɈɄɊȺɋɄɂ
ɍ ȽɈɊɈȾɋɄɂɏ ɋɂɁɕɏ ȽɈɅɍȻȿɃ
ȼ.ɘ. ɇɟɞɨɫɟɤɢɧ
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɢɣ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ, ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤ «Ƚɚɥɢɱɶɹ ɝɨɪɚ»
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ȼ ɫɬɚɬɶɟ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɵ ɢɡɦɟɧɱɢɜɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɧɚɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɨɤɪɚɫɤɢ
ɨɩɟɪɟɧɢɹ ɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɢɯ ɫɢɡɵɯ ɝɨɥɭɛɟɣ. ȼ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɟ ɢɡɭɱɚɥɢɫɶ ɬɪɢ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ
ɦɨɪɮɨɬɢɩɚ ɝɨɥɭɛɟɣ: ɫɢɡɵɟ, ɫɢɡɨ-ɱɟɤɚɧɧɵɟ ɢ ɱɟɪɧɨ-ɱɟɤɚɧɧɵɟ
Ɉɛɴɟɤɬɨɦ ɧɚɲɟɝɨ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɛɵɥ ɜɵɛɪɚɧ ɫɢɧɚɧɬɪɨɩɧɵɣ ɫɢɡɵɣ
ɝɨɥɭɛɶ Columba livia livia Gm., ɞɥɹ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ ɯɨɪɨɲɨ ɢɡɜɟɫɬɟɧ
ɩɨɥɢɦɨɪɮɢɡɦ ɩɨ ɨɤɪɚɫɤɟ ɨɩɟɪɟɧɢɹ. Ɉɤɪɚɫɤɚ ɞɢɤɢɯ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɣ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɜɢɞɚ
ɫɜɟɬɥɨ-ɫɢɡɚɹ, ɲɟɹ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɬɟɦɧɚɹ, ɫ ɫɢɥɶɧɵɦ ɦɟɬɚɥɥɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɡɟɥɟɧɵɦ ɢ
ɩɭɪɩɭɪɧɵɦ ɨɬɥɢɜɨɦ. ɇɚ ɤɪɵɥɶɹɯ ɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɩɪɢɫɭɬɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ 2
ɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɩɨɥɨɫɵ, ɢɫɩɨɞ ɤɪɵɥɶɟɜ ɫɜɟɬɥɵɣ, ɯɜɨɫɬ ɫ ɬɟɦɧɨɣ ɜɟɪɲɢɧɧɨɣ
ɩɨɥɨɫɨɣ; ɭ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɚ ɩɨɞɜɢɞɨɜ ɧɚ ɫɩɢɧɟ ɢɦɟɟɬɫɹ ɛɨɥɶɲɨɟ ɛɟɥɨɟ ɩɹɬɧɨ.
Ⱥɪɟɚɥ ɞɢɤɨɝɨ ɫɢɡɨɝɨ ɝɨɥɭɛɹ ɨɛɲɢɪɟɧ ɢ ɬɹɧɟɬɫɹ ɩɨɥɨɫɨɣ, ɧɚɱɢɧɚɹ ɨɬ ɫɬɪɚɧ
Ⱥɡɢɢ ɢ Ⱥɮɪɢɤɢ ɫɟɜɟɪɧɟɟ ɷɤɜɚɬɨɪɚ ɢ ɡɚɤɚɧɱɢɜɚɹ ɲɢɪɨɬɚɦɢ ɧɚ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ
ɒɨɬɥɚɧɞɢɢ ɢ ɂɪɥɚɧɞɢɢ (Goodwin, 1983). ȼɵɞɟɥɹɸɬ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ
ɝɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɨɞɜɢɞɨɜ ɫɢɡɨɝɨ ɝɨɥɭɛɹ, ɨɬɥɢɱɚɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɚɦɢ ɢ
ɜɚɪɢɚɰɢɹɦɢ ɨɤɪɚɫɤɢ. Ɉɤɪɚɫɤɚ ɨɩɟɪɟɧɢɹ ɜɚɪɶɢɪɭɟɬ ɨɬ ɬɢɩɢɱɧɨɣ ɫɢɡɨɣ
(Columba livia livia) ɞɨ ɩɚɥɟɜɨɣ – C. livia schimperi ɢ C. livia daklae (ɞɨɥɢɧɚ
ɇɢɥɚ) ɞɨ ɬɟɦɧɨɣ ɢ ɤɚɲɬɚɧɨɜɨɣ – C. livia atlantis (Ⱥɡɨɪɫɤɢɟ ɨɫɬɪɨɜɚ, ɨ.
Ɇɚɞɟɣɪɚ ɢ ɨɫɬɪɨɜɚ Ɂɟɥɟɧɨɝɨ ɦɵɫɚ) [4]. Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɢɡɦɟɧɱɢɜɨɫɬɶ
ɨɤɪɚɫɤɢ ɞɢɤɢɯ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɣ ɫɢɡɨɝɨ ɝɨɥɭɛɹ ɫɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɥɢɛɨ ɤ ɩɨɬɟɦɧɟɧɢɸ
ɨɛɳɟɝɨ ɮɨɧɚ, ɥɢɛɨ ɡɚɦɟɧɵ ɫɢɡɨɣ ɨɤɪɚɫɤɢ ɧɚ ɩɚɥɟɜɭɸ. ȼ ɨɫɬɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɠɟ
ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ ɨɤɪɚɫɤɢ ɨɫɬɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɟɢɡɦɟɧɧɨɣ: ɯɨɪɨɲɨ ɜɢɞɧɵ ɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɩɨɥɨɫɵ ɧɚ
ɤɪɵɥɶɹɯ ɢ ɜɟɪɲɢɧɟ ɯɜɨɫɬɚ. ɋɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɞɜɚ ɩɭɬɢ ɫɢɧɚɧɬɪɨɩɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɫɢɡɨɝɨ
ɝɨɥɭɛɹ – ɩɪɨɧɢɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɭɪɛɚɧɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɣ ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬ ɞɢɤɢɯ ɩɬɢɰ ɢ
ɨɞɢɱɚɧɢɟ ɞɨɦɚɲɧɢɯ ɮɨɪɦ. ɋɢɧɚɧɬɪɨɩɧɵɣ ɫɢɡɵɣ ɝɨɥɭɛɶ (C. livia var.
domestica) ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɢɥɫɹ ɜɫɥɟɞ ɡɚ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɨɦ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɩɨ ɜɫɟɦɭ
ɡɟɦɧɨɦɭ ɲɚɪɭ. ɉɨ ɞɚɧɧɵɦ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɚɜɬɨɪɨɜ ɫɢɧɚɧɬɪɨɩɧɵɟ ɫɢɡɵɟ ɝɨɥɭɛɢ
ɨɬɥɢɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɟɣ ɜɚɪɢɚɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɨɤɪɚɫɤɢ ɨɩɟɪɟɧɢɹ, ɱɟɦ ɤɚɤɨɣ-ɥɢɛɨ
ɞɪɭɝɨɣ ɜɢɞ ɫɜɨɛɨɞɧɨɠɢɜɭɳɢɯ ɩɬɢɰ [3]. Ɋɚɧɟɟ, ɩɪɢ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɢ ɩɨɥɢɦɨɪɮɢɡɦɚ
ɨɤɪɚɫɤɢ ɫɢɧɚɧɬɪɨɩɧɵɯ ɫɢɡɵɯ ɝɨɥɭɛɟɣ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ Ʌɢɩɟɰɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ, ɦɵ
ɜɵɞɟɥɹɥɢ 4 ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɟ ɦɨɪɮɵ [2]. Ɂɚɦɟɬɢɦ, ɱɬɨ ɫɚɦɵɦɢ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɦɢ
ɚɛɟɪɪɚɰɢɹɦɢ, ɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɸɳɢɦɢ ɥɢɛɨ ɜ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɦɭɬɚɰɢɣ, ɥɢɛɨ
ɩɪɢɜɧɟɫɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɝɟɧɚɦɢ, ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɝɪɭɩɩɚ ɝɢɛɪɢɞɵ (ɢɥɢ ɚɛɟɪɪɚɧɬɵ).
Ʉɚɤ ɪɚɡ ɷɬɚ, ɯɨɬɹ ɢ ɞɨɜɨɥɶɧɨ ɧɟɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ ɜ ɩɪɨɰɟɧɬɧɨɦ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢ
ɝɪɭɩɩɚ, ɢ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɟɬ ɬɭ ɫɚɦɭɸ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɭɸ ɜɚɪɢɚɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɨ ɨɤɪɚɫɤɟ
ɨɩɟɪɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɹɯ ɫɢɡɨɝɨ ɝɨɥɭɛɹ.
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ɇɚɞɨ ɨɬɦɟɬɢɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɟɫɬɶ, ɩɨ ɦɟɧɶɲɟɣ ɦɟɪɟ, ɞɜɚ ɩɭɬɢ ɦɟɥɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ.
ɉɟɪɜɵɣ ɡɚɤɥɸɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɩɨɬɟɦɧɟɧɢɢ ɨɛɳɟɝɨ ɮɨɧɚ ɨɤɪɚɫɤɢ. ɂɦɟɧɧɨ ɬɚɤɨɣ ɬɢɩ
ɦɟɥɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɟɧ ɞɥɹ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɩɨɞɜɢɞɨɜ: C. livia intermedia, C.
livia gymnocyclus. ȼ ɷɬɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɛɟɥɨɝɨ ɩɹɬɧɚ ɧɚ ɩɨɹɫɧɢɰɟ ɧɟɬ. ȼ
ɫɢɧɚɧɬɪɨɩɧɵɯ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɹɯ ɫɢɡɨɝɨ ɝɨɥɭɛɹ ɨɧ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɫɪɚɜɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ
ɪɟɞɤɨ. ȼɨ ɜɬɨɪɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɩɢɝɦɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɢ ɱɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɰɜɟɬɚ
ɩɨɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɨɛɳɟɦ ɫɢɡɨɦ ɮɨɧɟ ɨɩɚɯɚɥɚ ɩɟɪɚ. ɑɢɫɥɨ ɢ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɵ ɷɬɢɯ
ɩɢɝɦɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɩɹɬɟɧ, ɨɛɭɫɥɨɜɥɢɜɚɸɬ ɩɹɬɧɢɫɬɨɫɬɶ ɨɤɪɚɫɤɢ ɨɩɟɪɟɧɢɹ ɢ
ɧɚɥɢɱɢɟ ɧɟɩɪɟɪɵɜɧɨɝɨ ɪɹɞɚ ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɧɵɯ ɮɨɪɦ – ɨɬ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɫɢɡɵɯ
ɝɨɥɭɛɟɣ ɞɨ ɩɨɱɬɢ ɱɟɪɧɵɯ.
ɂɞɟɹ ɞɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɥɚ ɤɚɤ ɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ,
ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ ɜ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɨ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɝɢɩɨɬɟɡ ɢ
ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɣ, ɩɵɬɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɨɛɴɹɫɧɢɬɶ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɟ ɢ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ
ɩɨɥɢɦɨɪɮɢɡɦɚ ɩɨ ɨɤɪɚɫɤɟ ɨɩɟɪɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɹɯ ɫɢɧɚɧɬɪɨɩɧɨɝɨ ɫɢɡɨɝɨ
ɝɨɥɭɛɹ. Ʉɪɨɦɟ ɬɨɝɨ, ɧɚɦɢ ɛɵɥɚ ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɧɹɬɚ ɩɨɩɵɬɤɚ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ
ɝɟɧɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ ɜ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ, ɫ ɰɟɥɶɸ ɜɵɹɫɧɟɧɢɹ
ɡɚɤɨɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɧɚɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɬɟɦɧɨɣ ɨɤɪɚɫɤɢ ɨɩɟɪɟɧɢɹ ɭ ɫɢɡɵɯ ɝɨɥɭɛɟɣ.
ȼ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɢ ɫ ɷɬɢɦ ɛɵɥɢ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵ ɡɚɞɚɱɢ:
1. ɂɡɭɱɢɬɶ ɦɨɪɮɨɦɟɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ ɫɢɡɨɝɨ ɝɨɥɭɛɹ ɧɚ ɩɪɟɞɦɟɬ ɢɯ
ɤɨɪɪɟɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫ ɨɤɪɚɫɤɨɣ ɨɩɟɪɟɧɢɹ.
2. ɂɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɶ ɡɚɤɨɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɚɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɬɟɦɧɨɣ ɨɤɪɚɫɤɢ ɨɩɟɪɟɧɢɹ
ɫɢɡɨɝɨ ɝɨɥɭɛɹ.
Ⱦɥɹ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɝɟɧɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ ɛɵɥɢ ɩɨɞɨɛɪɚɧɵ 8 ɩɚɪ ɝɨɥɭɛɟɣ.
ȼ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɟ (ɫ 2001 ɩɨ 2003 ɝɨɞɵ) ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɥɢɫɶ ɝɨɥɭɛɢ 3-ɯ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ
ɦɨɪɮɨɬɢɩɨɜ: ɫɢɡɵɟ, ɫɢɡɨ-ɱɟɤɚɧɧɵɟ ɢ ɱɟɪɧɨ-ɱɟɤɚɧɧɵɟ. ɉɚɪɵ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɥɢɫɶ
ɬɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɱɬɨɛɵ ɛɵɥɚ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɨɜɟɪɢɬɶ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ
ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɨɞɧɨɣ ɨɤɪɚɫɤɢ ɧɚɞ ɞɪɭɝɨɣ, ɧɨ ɢ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɧɚɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ
ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɫɤɪɟɳɢɜɚɧɢɹ.
ȼ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɜ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɹɯ
ɫɢɧɚɧɬɪɨɩɧɨɝɨ ɫɢɡɨɝɨ ɝɨɥɭɛɹ ɩɨɞɚɜɥɹɸɳɟɟ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɨ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ
ɦɟɥɚɧɢɫɬɵ, ɱɬɨ ɩɨɥɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɭɟɬɫɹ ɫ ɞɚɧɧɵɦɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɟɣ,
ɨɬɦɟɱɚɜɲɢɯ ɦɧɨɝɨɥɟɬɧɸɸ ɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɸ ɤ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɸ ɬɟɦɧɨɨɤɪɚɲɟɧɧɵɯ
ɨɫɨɛɟɣ. Ɂɚɦɟɬɢɦ, ɱɬɨ ɜ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɟ ɢɦɟɸɬɫɹ ɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɨ ɬɨɦ, ɱɬɨ ɩɪɨɰɟɧɬɧɨɟ
ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɦɨɪɮ ɢɡɦɟɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɲɢɪɨɬɧɨɦ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ. ɇɚɲɢ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ
ɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɚɸɬ ɷɬɢ ɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ.
ȼ ɞɨɥɝɨɬɧɨɦ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɢ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɬɢɩɨɜ ɨɤɪɚɫɤɢ ɝɨɥɭɛɟɣ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɟɫɬɶ
ɫɜɨɹ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ. ɇɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɚɹ ɞɨɥɹ ɝɨɥɭɛɟɣ ɫɢɡɨɣ ɦɨɪɮɵ ɨɬɦɟɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ
ɫɚɦɵɯ ɡɚɩɚɞɧɵɯ ɪɚɣɨɧɚɯ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ. ɇɚɛɥɸɞɚɟɦɵɟ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɹ ɜ ɱɚɫɬɨɬɚɯ
ɚɛɟɪɪɚɧɬɧɨɣ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵ ɩɨ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɦ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɚɦ. ɉɪɢ ɛɨɥɟɟ
ɞɟɬɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɨɛɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɝɨɥɭɛɟɣ (ɨɫɦɨɬɪɟ ɩɨɣɦɚɧɧɵɯ ɢɥɢ ɩɨɝɢɛɲɢɯ ɩɬɢɰ)
ɱɚɫɬɨɬɚ ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɭɟɦɵɯ ɚɛɟɪɪɚɧɬɨɜ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɬɶɫɹ, ɬɚɤ
ɤɚɤ ɜ ɷɬɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɜɧɟɲɧɟ ɧɟɡɚɦɟɬɧɵɯ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɣ
ɨɤɪɚɫɤɢ ɢɥɢ ɨɩɟɪɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɰɟɜɤɢ. ɍɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟ ɞɨɥɢ ɚɛɟɪɪɚɧɬɧɵɯ ɨɫɨɛɟɣ
ɦɨɠɟɬ ɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ ɨ ɧɟɛɥɚɝɨɩɨɥɭɱɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɟ. ȼ
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ɬɨ ɠɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ, ɝɢɛɪɢɞɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɫ ɞɨɦɚɲɧɢɦɢ ɝɨɥɭɛɹɦɢ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ ɤ ɬɚɤɨɦɭ ɠɟ
ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɭ.
ȼ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɟ ɩɨ ɝɟɧɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɭ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɭ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɧɚɦɢ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ
ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɸɬ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɨ ɭɬɜɟɪɠɞɚɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɫɤɪɟɳɢɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɟ
ɜɥɢɹɟɬ ɧɚ ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɱɚɫɬɨɬ ɦɨɪɮɨɬɢɩɨɜ ɜ ɩɨɬɨɦɫɬɜɟ. Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ,
ɝɟɧɵ, ɫɰɟɩɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɫ ɩɨɥɨɦ, ɧɟ ɢɝɪɚɸɬ ɪɨɥɢ ɜ ɧɚɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɞɚɧɧɨɣ ɨɤɪɚɫɤɢ.
ɑɬɨ ɤɚɫɚɟɬɫɹ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɚ ɨ ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɨɞɧɨɣ ɨɤɪɚɫɤɢ ɧɚɞ ɞɪɭɝɨɣ, ɬɨ
ɡɞɟɫɶ ɥɨɝɢɱɧɨ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɶ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɯ ɝɟɧɨɜ,
ɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɡɚ ɬɨɬ ɢɥɢ ɢɧɨɣ ɬɢɩ ɨɤɪɚɫɤɢ. ȼɫɟ ɚɜɬɨɪɵ, ɬɚɤ ɢɥɢ ɢɧɚɱɟ
ɡɚɬɪɚɝɢɜɚɸɳɢɟ ɜ ɫɜɨɢɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹɯ ɷɬɭ ɬɟɦɭ, ɞɟɥɚɸɬ ɜɵɜɨɞ ɨ ɧɚɥɢɱɢɢ
ɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɢ ɤ ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɸ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɬɟɦɧɨɣ ɨɤɪɚɫɤɢ ɧɚɞ ɫɜɟɬɥɨɣ, ɱɬɨ
ɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɟɧɨ ɩɪɢ ɝɢɛɪɢɞɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɞɨɦɚɲɧɢɯ ɩɨɪɨɞ ɝɨɥɭɛɟɣ [1]. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ
ɢɦɟɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɭ ɧɚɫ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɧɟ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɸɬ ɩɨɤɚ ɨɞɧɨɡɧɚɱɧɨ ɝɨɜɨɪɢɬɶ ɨ
ɩɪɨɫɬɨɦ ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɝɟɧɚ ɧɚɞ ɞɪɭɝɢɦ. ȿɫɥɢ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɶ, ɱɬɨ
ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɬ, ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɞɜɚ ɞɨɦɢɧɚɧɬɧɵɯ ɝɟɧɚ, ɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɡɚ ɪɚɡɧɭɸ
ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɩɨɬɟɦɧɟɧɢɹ ɨɤɪɚɫɤɢ ɨɩɟɪɟɧɢɹ (ɱɟɪɧɨ-ɱɟɤɚɧɧɚɹ ɢ ɫɢɡɨ-ɱɟɤɚɧɧɚɹ), ɬɨ
ɷɬɨ ɥɟɝɤɨ ɨɛɴɹɫɧɹɟɬ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ, ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɪɢ ɫɤɪɟɳɢɜɚɧɢɢ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ
ɩɚɪ ɜ ɧɚɲɟɦ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɟ. Ⱦɥɹ ɨɛɴɹɫɧɟɧɢɹ ɠɟ ɨɫɬɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ ɷɬɨ
ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɟɫɨɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɧɵɦ. Ⱥɧɚɥɢɡ ɨɫɬɚɥɶɧɵɯ
ɫɤɪɟɳɢɜɚɧɢɣ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɶ ɥɢɛɨ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ ɝɟɧɨɜ ɫɢɡɨɱɟɤɚɧɧɨɣ ɢ ɱɟɪɧɨ-ɱɟɤɚɧɧɨɣ ɨɤɪɚɫɤɢ, ɥɢɛɨ ɧɚɥɢɱɢɟ ɤɚɤɨɝɨ-ɬɨ
ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɚ (ɝɟɧɚ) ɜɥɢɹɸɳɟɝɨ ɧɚ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ ɧɚɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɱɬɨ
ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɨ.
Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɩɪɢ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɢ ɩɨɥɢɦɨɪɮɢɡɦɚ ɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɢɯ ɫɢɡɵɯ ɝɨɥɭɛɟɣ
ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɜ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɜɢɞɚ ɜ Ʌɢɩɟɰɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɸɬ
ɦɟɥɚɧɢɫɬɵ.
ɍɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟ ɞɨɥɢ ɚɛɟɪɪɚɧɬɧɵɯ ɨɫɨɛɟɣ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ ɤɚɤ ɨ
ɧɟɛɥɚɝɨɩɨɥɭɱɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɟ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɣ
ɝɢɛɪɢɞɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɫ ɞɨɦɚɲɧɢɦɢ ɝɨɥɭɛɹɦɢ.
ɍɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɫɤɪɟɳɢɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɟ ɜɥɢɹɟɬ ɧɚ ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ
ɱɚɫɬɨɬ ɦɨɪɮɨɬɢɩɨɜ ɜ ɩɨɬɨɦɫɬɜɟ.
Ⱥɧɚɥɢɡ ɫɤɪɟɳɢɜɚɧɢɣ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɶ ɥɢɛɨ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ
ɝɟɧɨɜ ɫɢɡɨ-ɱɟɤɚɧɧɨɣ ɢ ɱɟɪɧɨ-ɱɟɤɚɧɧɨɣ ɨɤɪɚɫɤɢ, ɥɢɛɨ ɧɚɥɢɱɢɟ ɤɚɤɨɝɨ-ɬɨ
ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɚ (ɝɟɧɚ) ɜɥɢɹɸɳɟɝɨ ɧɚ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ ɧɚɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ.
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. Ⱥɤɫɟɧɨɜ Ȼ.ɒ., Ɍɢɦɨɲɟɜɫɤɢɣ ɇ.Ⱦ. Ʌɟɬɢɬɟ ɝɨɥɭɛɢ, ɥɟɬɢɬɟ… – Ʉɚɡɚɧɶ, 1994. – 268 ɫ.
2. ɇɟɞɨɫɟɤɢɧ ȼ.ɘ. ɋɪɚɜɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɹ ɝɨɥɭɛɟɣ (ɧɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɟ ɐɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɑɟɪɧɨɡɟɦɶɹ) // Ⱥɜɬɨɪɟɮ. ɞɢɫɫ… ɤɚɧɞ. ɛɢɨɥ. ɧɚɭɤ. – Ɇ, 1998. – 17 ɫ.
3. Ɉɛɭɯɨɜɚ ɇ.ɘ. ɂɡɦɟɧɱɢɜɨɫɬɶ ɨɤɪɚɫɤɢ ɨɩɟɪɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɹɯ ɫɢɡɵɯ ɝɨɥɭɛɟɣ ɢ
ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɵ ɟɟ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɹ // Ⱥɜɬɨɪɟɮ. ɞɢɫɫ... ɤɚɧɞ. ɛɢɨɥ. ɧɚɭɤ. – Ɇ, 1987. – 24 ɫ.
4. Goodwin D. Pigeons and doves of the world. Third edition. – Ithaca, New York, 1983. –
363 p.
120
THE PROBLEM OF VARIABILITY AND HERITABILITY OF PLUMAGE COLOR
IN FERAL PIGEONS
V.U. Nedosekin
Voronezh State University, reserve “Galichia Gora”
The article is devoted to the problems of variability and heritability of plumage
colour of feral Pigeons. In the experiment three main morphotypes of pigeons
(blue, blue checker, black or “spread” pattern) are studied.
ɍȾɄ 619:616.995.132Ⱦɢ:636.7(477.52)
ɗɉɂɁɈɈɌɈɅɈȽɂɑȿɋɄɂȿ ɈɋɈȻȿɇɇɈɋɌɂ ɂ ɗɎɎȿɄɌɂȼɇɈɋɌɖ
ɉɊɂɆȿɇȿɇɂə ɉɈɅɂɆȿɊȺɁɇɈɃ ɐȿɉɇɈɃ ɊȿȺɄɐɂɂ ȼ
ȾɂȺȽɇɈɋɌɂɄȿ ȾɂɊɈɎɂɅəɊɂɈɁȺ ɋɈȻȺɄ ȼ ɝ. ɋɍɆɕ, ɍɄɊȺɂɇȺ
Ɉ.ȼ. ɇɢɤɢɮɨɪɨɜɚ1, Ⱥ.ɂ. Ɋɟɲɟɬɢɥɨ2, ȿ.ɇ. Ɇɢɯɚɣɥɢɱɟɧɤɨ2
1
ɏɚɪɶɤɨɜɫɤɚɹ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɚɹ ɡɨɨɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɧɚɹ ɚɤɚɞɟɦɢɹ, ɝ. ɏɚɪɶɤɨɜ, ɍɤɪɚɢɧɚ
Email: [email protected]
2
ɋɭɦɫɤɨɣ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɚɝɪɚɪɧɵɣ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ, ɝ. ɋɭɦɵ,
ɍɤɪɚɢɧɚ
E-mail: [email protected]
Ⱦɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡ ɫɨɛɚɤ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɺɧ ɜ ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɢ ɛɥɢɡɥɟɠɚɳɢɯ
ɦɢɤɪɨɪɚɣɨɧɚɯ ɝ. ɋɭɦɵ. ɑɚɳɟ ɛɨɥɟɸɬ ɫɨɛɚɤɢ ɜ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɟ ɨɬ 4 ɞɨ 10 ɥɟɬ –
60,6%, ɩɨɪɨɞɵ ɧɟɦɟɰɤɚɹ ɨɜɱɚɪɤɚ – 49,5%, ɚ ɬɚɤ ɠɟ ɛɟɫɩɨɪɨɞɧɵɟ – 28,4%.
ɉɨɥɢɦɟɪɚɡɧɚɹ ɰɟɩɧɚɹ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɹ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɱɭɜɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɦ
ɞɢɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɤɢ ɞɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡɚ ɫɨɛɚɤ, ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɞɢɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɟ
ɩɪɢ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɢ ɦɢɤɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɣ ɜ ɧɚɬɢɜɧɨɦ ɦɚɡɤɟ ɤɪɨɜɢ ɢ ɢɞɟɧɬɢɮɢɰɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ
ɜɢɞɨɜɭɸ ɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɜɨɡɛɭɞɢɬɟɥɹ.
Ⱦɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡ (Dirofilariosis) – ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɧɨɟ ɢɧɜɚɡɢɨɧɧɨɟ
ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɟ ɫɨɛɚɤ, ɤɨɬɨɜ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɩɥɨɬɨɹɞɧɵɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ,
ɤɨɬɨɪɨɟ ɜɵɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɟɦɚɬɨɞɚɦɢ Dirofilaria immitis Leidy, 1856 ɢ Dirofilaria
repens Railliet et Henry, 1911. D. repens – ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɢɪɭɟɬ ɜ ɩɨɞɤɨɠɧɨɣ
ɤɥɟɬɱɚɬɤɟ, ɚ D. immitis – ɜ ɫɟɪɞɰɟ, ɥɟɝɨɱɧɨɣ ɚɪɬɟɪɢɢ, ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɤɪɨɜɟɧɨɫɧɵɯ
ɫɨɫɭɞɚɯ. Ɋɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɜɨ ɦɧɨɝɢɯ ɫɬɪɚɧɚɯ ɦɢɪɚ [4].
ȼ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ ɝɨɞɵ ɨɬɦɟɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɛɵɫɬɪɨɟ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɞɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡɚ,
ɜɵɡɜɚɧɧɨɝɨ D. repens, ɫɪɟɞɢ ɫɨɛɚɤ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɜ ɸɠɧɵɯ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɯ ɍɤɪɚɢɧɵ, ɧɨ ɢ ɧɚ
ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹɯ ɫ ɭɦɟɪɟɧɧɵɦ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɨɦ, ɝɞɟ ɦɧɨɝɨ ɪɟɤ ɢ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɨɜ – ɦɟɫɬ ɜɵɩɥɨɞɚ
ɩɪɨɦɟɠɭɬɨɱɧɨɝɨ ɯɨɡɹɢɧɚ [3].
ȼ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɞɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡ ɫɨɛɚɤ ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɝ. Ʉɢɟɜɟ,
Ɉɞɟɫɫɟ, ɏɚɪɶɤɨɜɫɤɨɣ, ɉɨɥɬɚɜɫɤɨɣ ɢ ɜ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɹɯ ɍɤɪɚɢɧɵ ɢ ȺɊ Ʉɪɵɦ
[1,2].
121
ɐɟɥɶ
ɪɚɛɨɬɵ.
ɂɡɭɱɢɬɶ
ɷɩɢɡɨɨɬɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ
ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ
ɞɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡɚ ɫɨɛɚɤ ɜ ɝ. ɋɭɦɵ, ɫɪɚɜɧɢɬɶ ɦɟɬɨɞɵ ɞɢɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɤɢ
ɞɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡɚ, ɚ ɢɦɟɧɧɨ ɦɟɬɨɞ ɧɚɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɦɚɡɤɚ ɢ ɩɨɥɢɦɟɪɚɡɧɨɣ ɰɟɩɧɨɣ
ɪɟɚɤɰɢɢ (ɉɐɊ).
Ɇɟɬɨɞɵ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ. ɂɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɞɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɢ ɧɚ
ɛɚɡɟ ɱɚɫɬɧɨɣ ɤɥɢɧɢɤɢ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɧɨɣ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɵ “ȼɟɬɫɟɪɜɢɫ”, ɝ. ɋɭɦɵ ɢ ɧɚ
ɛɚɡɟ ɥɚɛɨɪɚɬɨɪɢɢ ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥɹɪɧɨɣ ɞɢɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɤɢ ɢ ɤɥɟɬɨɱɧɵɯ ɛɢɨɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɣ
«ȼɢɪɨɥɚ» ɏɚɪɶɤɨɜɫɤɨɣ ɚɤɚɞɟɦɢɢ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɢɩɥɨɦɧɨɝɨ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɜ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ
2010 – 2012 ɝɝ. Ɉɛɴɟɤɬɨɦ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɛɵɥɢ ɤɥɢɧɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɛɨɥɶɧɵɟ ɫɨɛɚɤɢ
ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɩɨɪɨɞ ɢ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɵɯ ɝɪɭɩɩ. Ⱦɢɚɝɧɨɡ ɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɚɥɢ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɦ ɩɪɹɦɨɝɨ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɚɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɦɚɡɤɚ ɤɪɨɜɢ ɢ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɦ ɉɐɊ. Ʉɪɨɜɶ ɛɪɚɥɢ ɭ ɫɨɛɚɤ
ɢɡ ɝɨɥɨɜɧɨɣ ɩɨɞɤɨɠɧɨɣ ɜɟɧɵ ɩɪɟɞɩɥɟɱɶɹ ɜ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɫ 19 ɞɨ 22 ɱɚɫɚ ɢ
ɡɚɦɨɪɚɠɢɜɚɥɢ.
Ɋɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ. ȼ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ
ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɞɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡ ɫɨɛɚɤ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɧɵɦ
ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɜ ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɢ ɛɥɢɡɥɟɠɚɳɢɯ ɦɢɤɪɨɪɚɣɨɧɚɯ ɝ. ɋɭɦɵ. ȼɫɟɝɨ
ɤɥɢɧɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɨ 1932 ɫɨɛɚɤɢ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɨɦ ɨɬ 6 ɦɟɫɹɰɟɜ ɞɨ 15 ɥɟɬ,
ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɨ 172 ɛɨɥɶɧɵɟ ɞɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡɨɦ ɫɨɛɚɤɢ. Ɍɚɤ ɜ 2010 ɝɨɞɭ
ɞɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡ ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɥɢ ɭ 47 ɫɨɛɚɤ, ɜ 2011 – ɭ 64 ɫɨɛɚɤ, ɜ 2012 – ɭ 61
ɫɨɛɚɤɢ.
Ⱥɧɚɥɢɡɢɪɭɹ, ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɭɸ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɭ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɟɦɨɫɬɢ ɫɨɛɚɤ ɧɚ
ɞɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡ
ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɨ,
ɱɬɨ
ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ
ɱɚɫɬɨ
ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɟ
ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɥɢ ɭ ɫɨɛɚɤ ɜ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɟ 4-10 ɥɟɬ – 104 ɫɥɭɱɚɹ, ɱɬɨ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ
60,5% ɨɬ ɨɛɳɟɝɨ ɱɢɫɥɚ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɲɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ. Ⱦɨɜɨɥɶɧɨ ɱɚɫɬɨ ɛɨɥɟɥɢ
ɫɨɛɚɤɢ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɨɦ 1-4 ɝɨɞɚ – 39 ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ (22,6%) ɢ ɫɨɛɚɤɢ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɨɦ ɛɨɥɶɲɟ
10 ɥɟɬ – 27 ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ (15,7%). ȼ ɟɞɢɧɢɱɧɵɯ ɫɥɭɱɚɹɯ, ɛɨɥɟɡɧɶ ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɥɢ
ɭ ɫɨɛɚɤ ɜ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɟ ɞɨ ɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɝɨɞɚ – 2 ɫɥɭɱɚɹ (1,2 %). Ⱦɚɧɧɵɟ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɨɣ
ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɢ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɵ ɜ ɬɚɛɥ. 1.
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 1
ȼɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɚɹ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɚ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɟɦɨɫɬɢ ɫɨɛɚɤ ɧɚ ɞɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡ ɜ ɝ. ɋɭɦɵ ɡɚ 2010-2012 ɝɝ.
Ƚɨɞɚ
ȼɫɟɝɨ ɡɚ
ʋ
2010-2012 ɝɝ.
ȼɨɡɪɚɫɬ ɫɨɛɚɤɢ
2010
2011
2012
ɩ/ɩ
Ƚɨɥ.
%
Ƚɨɥ.
%
Ƚɨɥ.
%
Ƚɨɥ.
%
1.
Ⱦɨ ɝɨɞɚ
1
1,6
1
1,6
2
1,2
2.
1-4 ɝɨɞɚ
9
19,2
13
20,3
17
27,9
39
22,6
3.
4-10 ɥɟɬ
29
61,6
43
67,2
32
52,5 104
60,5
4.
ɋɬɚɪɲɟ 10 ɥɟɬ
9
19,2
7
10,9
11
18
27
15,7
5.
47
100
64
100
61
100
172
100
ȼɫɟɝɨ
ɍɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɚ ɩɨɪɨɞɧɚɹ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɟɦɨɫɬɢ ɫɨɛɚɤ ɧɚ ɞɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡ.
Ⱦɚɧɧɵɟ ɩɨɪɨɞɧɨɣ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵ ɜ ɬɚɛɥ. 2.
122
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 2
ɉɨɪɨɞɧɚɹ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɚ ɞɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡɚ ɫɨɛɚɤ ɜ ɝ. ɋɭɦɵ ɡɚ 2010-2012 ɝɝ.
ʋ ɩ/ɩ ɉɨɪɨɞɚ
Ƚɨɥɨɜ
%
1.
ɇɟɦɟɰɤɚɹ ɨɜɱɚɪɤɚ
79
45,9
2.
Ȼɟɫɩɨɪɨɞɧɵɟ
49
28,4
3.
Ʉɚɜɤɚɡɫɤɚɹ ɨɜɱɚɪɤɚ
12
6,8
4.
ɋɪɟɞɧɟɚɡɢɚɬɫɤɚɹ ɨɜɱɚɪɤɚ
7
4,1
5.
Ʌɚɣɤɚ
7
4,1
6.
Ʌɚɛɪɚɞɨɪ-ɪɟɬɪɢɜɟɪ
4
2,4
7.
ɋɬɚɮɮɨɪɞɲɢɪɫɤɢɣ ɬɟɪɶɟɪ
4
2,4
8.
Ɍɚɤɫɚ
4
2,4
9.
Ɋɨɬɜɟɣɥɟɪ
3
1,7
10.
Ȼɨɤɫɟɪ
2
1,2
11.
ɉɭɞɟɥɶ
1
0,6
ȼɫɟɝɨ:
172
100
ɋɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ ɞɚɧɧɵɦ ɬɚɛɥ. 2 ɜɢɞɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɫɨɛɚɤɢ ɩɨɪɨɞɵ ɧɟɦɟɰɤɚɹ ɨɜɱɚɪɤɚ
ɛɨɥɟɟ ɜɨɫɩɪɢɢɦɱɢɜɵ ɤ ɞɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡɭ: ɡɚɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɨ 79 ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ
ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɨɛɚɤ ɷɬɨɣ ɩɨɪɨɞɵ, ɱɬɨ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ 45,9% ɨɬ ɨɛɳɟɝɨ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɚ
ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɲɢɯ. ɑɚɫɬɨ ɛɨɥɟɥɢ ɛɟɫɩɨɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɫɨɛɚɤɢ – 49 ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ (28,4%).
Ȼɨɥɟɡɧɶ ɭ ɫɨɛɚɤ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɩɨɪɨɞ ɞɢɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɪɨɜɚɥɢ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɪɟɠɟ.
ɉɪɢ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɢ ɫɟɡɨɧɧɨɣ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɢ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɨɛɚɤ ɧɚ ɞɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡ
ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɥɢ, ɱɬɨ ɦɢɤɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɢ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɜ ɤɪɨɜɢ ɫɨɛɚɤ ɧɚ
ɩɪɨɬɹɠɟɧɢɢ ɝɨɞɚ, ɧɨ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɟɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɫɨɛɚɤ, ɢɧɜɚɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ
ɦɢɤɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɹɦɢ, ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɥɢ ɜ ɜɟɫɟɧɧɟ-ɥɟɬɧɟ-ɨɫɟɧɧɢɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ.
Ɍɚɤ ɤɚɤ ɤɥɢɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɢ ɞɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡɚ ɫɨɛɚɤ ɦɚɥɨ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɧɵ
ɢ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵ, ɩɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɪɟɲɚɸɳɟɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɞɥɹ ɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɞɢɚɝɧɨɡɚ
ɢɦɟɟɬ ɥɚɛɨɪɚɬɨɪɧɚɹ ɞɢɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɤɚ ɛɨɥɟɡɧɢ.
Ɇɢɤɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɣ ɜ ɤɪɨɜɢ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɢɜɚɥɢ ɦɢɤɪɨɫɤɨɩɢɟɣ ɧɚɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɦɚɡɤɚ
ɢɥɢ ɤɚɩɥɢ ɤɪɨɜɢ. Ɇɚɡɤɢ ɤɪɨɜɢ ɨɤɪɚɲɢɜɚɥɢ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɦ Ɋɨɦɚɧɨɜɫɶɤɨɝɨ ɤɪɚɫɤɨɣ
Ƚɢɦɡɟ (ɪɢɫ. 1). Ⱦɥɹ ɞɢɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɤɢ ɞɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡɚ ɢ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɜɢɞɨɜɨɝɨ
ɫɨɫɬɚɜɚ ɜɨɡɛɭɞɢɬɟɥɹ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɥɢ ɦɟɬɨɞ ɉɐɊ.
Ɂɚ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɫ 2010 ɩɨ 2012 ɝɨɞɚ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɚ ɤɪɨɜɶ 1932 ɝɨɥɨɜ ɫɨɛɚɤ
ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɩɨɪɨɞ ɢ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɵɯ ɝɪɭɩɩ. Ɇɢɤɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɢ ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɵ ɭ 172 ɝɨɥɨɜ
ɫɨɛɚɤ. ɗɤɫɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɢɧɜɚɡɢɢ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɚ 8,9% (ɬɚɛɥ.2).
Ⱦɥɹ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɫɪɚɜɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɞɜɭɯ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɜ
ɞɢɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɤɢ ɞɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡɚ ɫɨɛɚɤ: ɦɢɤɪɨɫɤɨɩɢɢ ɧɚɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɦɚɡɤɚ ɢɥɢ
ɤɚɩɥɢ ɤɪɨɜɢ ɢ ɦɟɬɨɞɚ ɩɨɥɢɦɟɪɚɡɧɨɣ ɰɟɩɧɨɣ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɢ ɤɪɨɜɶ ɨɬ 75 ɝɨɥɨɜ ɛɵɥɚ
ɩɚɪɚɥɥɟɥɶɧɨ ɩɪɨɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɚ ɞɜɭɦɹ ɦɟɬɨɞɚɦɢ.
123
Ɋɢɫ. 1. Ɇɢɤɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɹ ɜ ɦɚɡɤɟ ɤɪɨɜɢ, ɨɤɪɚɲɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɦ Ɋɨɦɚɧɨɜɫɤɨɝɨ, 15ɯ90
Ɋɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɧɚɲɢɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵ ɜ ɬɚɛɥɢɰɟ 3.
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 3
Ɋɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɫɪɚɜɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɜ ɞɢɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɤɢ ɫɨɛɚɤ ɧɚ ɞɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡ
Ɇɟɬɨɞɵ ɞɢɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɤɢ
Ɇɢɤɪɨɫɤɨɩɢɹ ɧɚɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɦɚɡɤɚ ɢɥɢ
ɂɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɨ,
ɉɐɊ
ɤɚɩɥɢ ɤɪɨɜɢ
ɝɨɥ
ɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ,
ɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ, ɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ, ɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ,
ɝɨɥ
ɝɨɥ
ɝɨɥ
ɝɨɥ
75
19
56
24
51
ɉɪɢ ɦɢɤɪɨɫɤɨɩɢɢ ɧɚɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɦɚɡɤɚ ɢɥɢ ɤɚɩɥɢ ɤɪɨɜɢ ɦɢɤɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɢ
ɛɵɥɢ ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɵ ɜ 19 ɫɥɭɱɚɹɯ, ɚ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɦ ɉɐɊ ɞɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡ
ɞɢɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɪɨɜɚɥɢ ɭ 24 ɫɨɛɚɤ, ɱɬɨ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɨ 25,34 ɢ 32,0% ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ.
ɉɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɦ ɉɐɊ ɛɵɥɨ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɨ ɜɢɞɨɜɭɸ ɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɧɨɫɬɶ
ɜɨɡɛɭɞɢɬɟɥɹ, ɚ ɢɦɟɧɧɨ ɱɬɨ ɜɨ ɜɫɟɯ ɫɥɭɱɚɹɯ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɟ ɛɵɥɨ ɜɵɡɜɚɧɨ
Dirofilaria repens. ɍɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɶ ɜɢɞɨɜɭɸ ɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɜɨɡɛɭɞɢɬɟɥɹ
ɞɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡɚ
ɩɪɢ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɢ
ɦɟɬɨɞɨɦ
ɧɚɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ
ɦɚɡɤɚ
ɡɚɬɪɭɞɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ. Ⱦɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡ ɫɨɛɚɤ, ɜɵɡɜɚɧɧɵɣ Dirofilaria immitis, ɦɵ ɧɟ
ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɥɢ.
ȼɵɜɨɞɵ
1. Ⱦɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡ ɫɨɛɚɤ – ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɧɨɟ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɟ ɜ ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɦ
ɢ ɛɥɢɡɥɟɠɚɳɢɯ ɦɢɤɪɨɪɚɣɨɧɚɯ ɝ. ɋɭɦɵ: ɜ 2010 ɝɨɞɭ ɡɚɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɨ 47
ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ, ɜ 2011 – 64 ɫɥɭɱɚɹ, ɜ 2012 – 61 ɫɥɭɱɚɣ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɨɛɚɤ ɧɚ
ɞɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡ.
2. ɇɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɟɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɫɨɛɚɤ ɢɧɜɚɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɞɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡɨɦ
ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɥɢ ɜ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɟ 4-10 ɥɟɬ – 60,5%, ɚ ɜ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɟ ɞɨ 1 ɝɨɞɚ
124
ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɥɢɫɶ ɟɞɢɧɨɱɧɵɟ ɫɥɭɱɚɢ – 2%. ɗɤɫɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɢɧɜɚɡɢɢ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɚ
8,9%.
3. Ȼɨɥɟɟ ɜɨɫɩɪɢɢɦɱɢɜɵɟ ɤ ɞɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡɭ ɫɨɛɚɤɢ ɩɨɪɨɞɵ ɧɟɦɟɰɤɚɹ
ɨɜɱɚɪɤɚ – 49,5% ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ, ɱɚɫɬɨ ɛɨɥɟɡɧɶ ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɥɢ ɭ ɛɟɫɩɨɪɨɞɧɵɯ
ɫɨɛɚɤ – 28,4% ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ. Ɇɢɤɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɟɦɢɸ ɭ ɫɨɛɚɤ ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɥɢ ɧɚ
ɩɪɨɬɹɠɟɧɢɢ ɜɟɫɟɧɧɟ-ɥɟɬɧɟ-ɨɫɟɧɧɟɝɨ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɚ.
4. ɉɐɊ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɱɭɜɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɦ ɞɢɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɤɢ
ɞɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡɚ ɫɨɛɚɤ. ɗɬɨɬ ɦɟɬɨɞ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɞɢɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɟ
ɞɚɠɟ ɩɪɢ ɧɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɢɹ ɦɢɤɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɣ ɜ ɧɚɬɢɜɧɨɦ ɦɚɡɤɟ
ɤɪɨɜɢ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɢɞɟɧɬɢɮɢɰɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɜɢɞɨɜɭɸ ɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɜɨɡɛɭɞɢɬɟɥɹ,
ɱɬɨ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɨɱɟɧɶ ɜɚɠɧɵɦ ɦɨɦɟɧɬɨɦ.
5. ȼ ɝ. ɋɭɦɵ ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɞɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡ ɫɨɛɚɤ, ɜɨɡɛɭɞɢɬɟɥɟɦ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ
ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ Dirofilaria repens. ȼɨɩɪɨɫ ɰɢɪɤɭɥɹɰɢɢ D. immitis ɨɫɬɚɟɬɫɹ
ɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɦ.
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. Ȼɨɞɧɹ Ʉ.ȱ. Ⱦɢɪɨɮɿɥɹɪɿɨɡ ɜ ɍɤɪɚʀɧɿ (2006) [ȿɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɢɣ ɪɟɫɭɪɫ]: ȼɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɧɿ ɫɬɚɬɬɿ.
– ɏɚɪɤɿɜɫɶɤɚ ɦɟɞɢɱɧɚ ɚɤɚɞɟɦɿɹ ɩɿɫɥɹɞɢɩɥɨɦɧɨʀ ɨɫɜɿɬɢ, 2006. – 14ɫ. – Ɋɟɠɢɦ ɞɨɫɬɭɩɭ:
http://likar.org.ua/content/view/5324/9/lang,uk/
2. ȼɟɥɢɱɤɨ ɋ.ȼ. Ʉ ɞɢɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɤɟ ɞɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡɚ ɫɨɛɚɤ ɜ ɍɤɪɚɢɧɟ / ɋ.ȼ.ȼɟɥɢɱɤɨ, ɇ.ɋ.
ȼɚɫɢɥɢɤ, Ⱥ.ȼ. Ɇɢɫɸɪɢɧ //36. ɦɚɬɟɪ. ɍȱ Ɇɿɠɧ. ɧɚɭɤ.-ɩɪɚɤɬ. ɤɨɧɮ. – Ʉ.,2001. –ɋ.15–18.
3. Ⱦɚɯɧɨ ɂ.ɋ. Ⱦɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡ ɫɨɛɚɤ ɜ ɘɝɨ-ȼɨɫɬɨɱɧɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɍɤɪɚɢɧɵ / ɂ.ɋ.Ⱦɚɯɧɨ,
ɘ.ɉ.ɇɟɦɚɲɤɚɥɨ, Ƚ.Ɏ. Ⱦɚɯɧɨ ɢ ɞɪ. // 36. ɦɚɬɟɪ. III Ɇɟɠɞɭɧɚɪ. ɧɚɭɤ.-ɩɪɚɤɬ. ɤɨɧɮ. – Ʉɢɟɜ,
1998. –ɋ.97–99.
4. əɫɬɪɟɛ ȼ.Ȼ. Ɉɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɚɬɨɝɟɧɟɡɚ ɩɪɢ ɞɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡɚɯ ɫɨɛɚɤ, ɜɵɡɵɜɚɜɚɟɦɵɯ
Dirofilaria immitis ɢ D. repens / əɫɬɪɟɛ ȼ.Ȼ. // Ɇɚɬɟɪ. ɞɨɤɥ. ɧɚɭɱ. ɤɨɧɮ. «Ɍɟɨɪɢɹ ɢ
ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɚ ɛɨɪɶɛɵ ɫ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚɪɧɵɦɢ ɛɨɥɟɡɧɹɦɢ». – Ɇ., 2009. – ɋ. 448 – 452.
EPIZOOTOLOGY PECULIARITIES AND EFFICIENCY APPLICATION OF PCR IN
DIAGNOSTICS OF DOG’S DIROFILARIOSIS IN SUMY, UKRAINE
1
1
O.V. Nikiforova, 2A.I. Reshetilo, 2 E.N. Mikhaylichenko
Kharkov State Zooveterinary Academy, Kharkov, Ukraine [email protected]
2Sumy National Agrarian University, Sumy, Ukraine, [email protected]
Dog’s dirofilariosis has been disseminated in central and nearby urban districts in
Sumy. More often be ailing dogs from 4 to 10 years old – 60,6%, breed German
shepherd – 49,5% and also mongrel dogs – 28,4%. PCR has been more sensible
method for diagnostics of dog’s dirofilariosis. PCR has been allowed to make a
diagnosis of dirofilariosis in the absence of microfilaria in the native blood film
and identify species of invasion agent.
125
ɍȾɄ 595.429.2
ɗɇȾɈɉȺɊȺɁɂɌɂɁɆ ɗɊɂɈɎɂɈɂȾȿɃ: ɇɈȼɕȿ ȼɂȾɕ ɄɅȿɓȿɃ
ɊɈȾȺ NOVOPHYTOPTUS (ACARIFORMES, ERIOPHYOIDEA)
C ɋɂɌɇɂɄɈȼɕɏ
T.ɘ. ɉɟɬɪɭɲɟɧɤɨ1, ȼ.Ⱥ. Ɋɹɡɚɧɰɟɜɚ1, Ɏ.ȿ. ɑɟɬɜɟɪɢɤɨɜ1,2
1
Ⱥɤɚɞɟɦɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɝɢɦɧɚɡɢɹ ɋɚɧɤɬ-ɉɟɬɟɪɛɭɪɝɫɤɨɝɨ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ
ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬɚ (ȺȽɋɉɛȽɍ), ɝ. ɋɚɧɤɬ-ɉɟɬɟɪɛɭɪɝ, [email protected]
2
Ɂɨɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ɊȺɇ, ɝ. ɋɚɧɤɬ-ɉɟɬɟɪɛɭɪɝ
Ʉɥɟɳɢ ɪɨɞɚ Novophytoptus ɠɢɜɭɬ ɜ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɧɨɫɧɵɯ ɩɨɥɨɫɬɹɯ ɬɪɚɜɹɧɢɫɬɵɯ
ɨɞɧɨɞɨɥɶɧɵɯ. Ɍɪɢ ɧɨɜɵɯ ɜɢɞɚ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɪɨɞɚ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɵ ɧɚ ɫɢɬɧɢɤɨɜɵɯ.
Ɇɟɬɨɞɨɦ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɧɨɝɨ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɜɢɞɵ ɪɨɞɚ Novophytoptus ɫɨ
ɡɥɚɤɨɜɵɯ, ɨɫɨɤɨɜɵɯ ɢ ɫɢɬɧɢɤɨɜɵɯ ɧɟ ɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɬ ɤɨɦɩɚɤɬɧɵɟ ɨɛɨɫɨɛɥɟɧɧɵɟ
ɝɪɭɩɩɵ.
Ʉɪɚɬɤɨ
ɨɛɫɭɠɞɚɸɬɫɹ
ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ
ɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɹ
ɤɥɟɳɟɣ,
ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɟ ɫ ɷɧɞɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɢɡɦɨɦ.
ɗɪɢɨɮɢɨɢɞɟɢ – ɦɢɤɪɨɫɤɨɩɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɟɨɛɢɬɚɸɳɢɟ ɤɥɟɳɢ.
Ɉɩɢɫɚɧɨ ɩɨɪɹɞɤɚ 5000 ɜɢɞɨɜ; ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɨ ɢɡ ɧɢɯ ɜɟɞɟɬ ɫɜɨɛɨɞɧɵɣ ɨɛɪɚɡ
ɠɢɡɧɢ ɧɚ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɚɡɟɦɧɵɯ ɱɚɫɬɟɣ ɜɵɫɲɢɯ ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɣ. ɗɪɢɨɮɢɨɢɞɟɢ
ɩɪɨɤɚɥɵɜɚɸɬ ɯɟɥɢɰɟɪɚɦɢ ɨɛɨɥɨɱɤɢ ɤɥɟɬɨɤ ɢ ɜɵɫɚɫɵɜɚɸɬ ɢɡ ɧɢɯ ɫɨɤ.
ɇɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɜɢɞɵ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɵ ɜɵɡɵɜɚɬɶ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɝɚɥɥɨɜ, ɜɧɭɬɪɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ
ɤɥɟɳɢ ɩɢɬɚɸɬɫɹ ɢ ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɚɸɬɫɹ [1]. ɍɧɢɤɚɥɶɧɭɸ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɧɢɲɭ ɧɚ
ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɹɯ ɡɚɧɢɦɚɸɬ ɤɥɟɳɢ ɪɨɞɚ Novophytoptus Roivainen, 1947 [4]. ɂɫɯɨɞɧɨ
ɢɯ ɫɱɢɬɚɥɢ ɪɟɞɤɢɦɢ ɫɜɨɛɨɞɧɨɠɢɜɭɳɢɦɢ ɨɛɢɬɚɬɟɥɹɦɢ ɨɫɨɤ, ɨɞɧɚɤɨ
ɜɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɢ ɜɵɹɫɧɢɥɨɫɶ, ɱɬɨ ɛɨɥɶɲɭɸ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɠɢɡɧɢ ɷɬɢ ɤɥɟɳɢ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɹɬ
ɜɧɭɬɪɢ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɧɨɫɧɵɯ ɩɨɥɨɫɬɟɣ ɥɢɫɬɶɟɜ ɢ ɫɬɟɛɥɟɣ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɯ
ɬɪɚɜɹɧɢɫɬɵɯ ɨɞɧɨɞɨɥɶɧɵɯ, ɝɞɟ ɨɧɢ ɩɢɬɚɸɬɫɹ ɫɨɤɨɦ ɤɥɟɬɨɤ ɩɚɪɟɧɯɢɦɵ,
ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɚɸɬɫɹ ɢ ɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɬ ɤɪɭɩɧɵɟ ɤɨɥɨɧɢɢ [2]. ɂɧɬɟɪɟɫ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɟɣ ɜ
ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɫɬɪɚɧɚɯ ɤ ɷɬɢɦ ɧɟɨɛɵɱɧɵɦ ɷɧɞɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɤɥɟɳɚɦ ɩɪɢɜɟɥ ɤ
ɧɚɯɨɞɤɚɦ ɧɨɜɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɧɨɜɨɮɢɬɨɩɬɭɫɨɜ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɧɚ ɨɫɨɤɚɯ, ɧɨ ɢ ɧɚ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ
ɨɞɧɨɞɨɥɶɧɵɯ ɬɪɚɜɚɯ – ɫɢɬɧɢɤɚɯ ɢ ɡɥɚɤɚɯ. Ʉ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɦɭ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɪɨɞ
Novophytoptus ɧɚɫɱɢɬɵɜɚɟɬ 7 ɜɢɞɨɜ, ɨɩɢɫɚɧɧɵɯ ɢɡ ȿɜɪɨɩɵ, ɋɟɜɟɪɧɨɣ ɢ
ɘɠɧɨɣ Ⱥɦɟɪɢɤɢ [3].
ȼ ɞɚɧɧɨɣ ɪɚɛɨɬɟ ɛɵɥɚ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɚ ɰɟɥɶ ɩɪɨɚɧɚɥɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɢ ɨɛɨɛɳɢɬɶ
ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɩɨ ɤɥɟɳɚɦ ɪɨɞɚ Novophytoptus ɫ ɭɱɟɬɨɦ ɢɯ ɷɧɞɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ
ɨɛɪɚɡɚ ɠɢɡɧɢ. Ⱦɥɹ ɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɷɬɨɣ ɰɟɥɢ ɛɵɥɢ ɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɵ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ
ɡɚɞɚɱɢ: 1) ɫɨɛɪɚɬɶ ɧɨɜɵɣ ɢ ɨɛɪɚɛɨɬɚɬɶ ɤɨɥɥɟɤɰɢɨɧɧɵɣ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥ ɩɨ ɤɥɟɳɚɦ
ɪɨɞɚ Novophytoptus; 2) ɫɪɚɜɧɢɬɶ ɜɢɞɵ ɪɨɞɚ Novophytoptus ɦɟɠɞɭ ɫɨɛɨɣ ɢ
ɜɵɹɜɢɬɶ ɢɯ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ; 3) ɨɛɨɛɳɢɬɶ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɩɨ ɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɸ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ ɪɨɞɚ
Novophytoptus, ɢɯ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹɦ ɫ ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɹɦɢ-ɯɨɡɹɟɜɚɦɢ ɢ
ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɹɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɚ ɠɢɡɧɢ.
126
Ɇɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɨɦ ɞɥɹ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɩɨɫɥɭɠɢɥɢ ɩɪɟɩɚɪɚɬɵ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ ɢɡ ɤɨɥɥɟɤɰɢɢ
Ɂɨɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬɚ (Ɂɂɇ ɊȺɇ), ɫɨɛɪɚɧɧɵɯ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɋɟɜɟɪɨɁɚɩɚɞɚ ɊɎ, ɜ ɋɟɪɛɢɢ ɢ ɋɒȺ. ɑɚɫɬɶ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɚ ɨɤɚɡɚɥɚɫɶ
ɧɟɭɞɨɜɥɟɬɜɨɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ, ɜ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɷɬɢɦ ɧɚɦɢ ɛɵɥ ɫɨɛɪɚɧ ɧɨɜɵɣ
ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥ ɜ Ⱥɪɯɚɧɝɟɥɶɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ. Ʉɥɟɳɟɣ ɢɡɜɥɟɤɚɥɢ ɢɡ-ɩɨɞ ɷɩɢɞɟɪɦɢɫɚ
ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɣ ɩɪɟɩɚɪɨɜɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɢɝɥɨɣ, ɩɨɦɟɳɚɥɢ ɜ ɤɚɩɥɸ ɠɢɞɤɨɫɬɢ ɏɨɣɟɪɚ ɧɚ
ɩɪɟɞɦɟɬɧɨɦ ɫɬɟɤɥɟ ɢ ɩɪɨɫɜɟɬɥɹɥɢ ɧɚ ɧɚɝɪɟɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɦ ɫɬɨɥɢɤɟ (85°ɋ).
ɉɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɵɟ ɩɪɟɩɚɪɚɬɵ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɥɢɫɶ ɧɚ ɦɢɤɪɨɫɤɨɩɟ Leica
DM5000B, ɨɫɧɚɳɟɧɧɨɦ ɜɢɞɟɨɤɚɦɟɪɨɣ, ɩɨ ɦɟɬɨɞɭ ɮɚɡɨɜɨɝɨ ɤɨɧɬɪɚɫɬɚ ɢ
ɤɨɧɬɪɚɫɬɚ ɇɨɦɚɪɫɤɨɝɨ. ɉɪɨɦɟɪɵ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɢɫɶ ɜ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɟ ToupCam. ɑɚɫɬɶ
ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɚ ɛɵɥɚ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɚ ɧɚ ɪɚɫɬɪɨɜɨɦ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɨɦ ɦɢɤɪɨɫɤɨɩɟ
QUANTA 250 ɜ ɥɚɛɨɪɚɬɨɪɢɢ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɨɣ ɦɢɤɪɨɫɤɨɩɢɢ Ɂɂɇ ɊȺɇ.
ȼ ɯɨɞɟ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɫ ɤɨɥɥɟɤɰɢɨɧɧɵɦ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɨɦ ɛɵɥɚ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɚ ɛɚɡɚ
ɞɚɧɧɵɯ, ɜ ɤɨɬɨɪɭɸ ɜɨɲɥɢ ɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɩɨ 158 ɩɪɟɩɚɪɚɬɚɦ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ ɪɨɞɚ
Novophytoptus, ɫɨɛɪɚɧɧɵɯ ɫ 2004 ɩɨ 2013 ɝɝ. ɫ 6 ɜɢɞɨɜ ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɣ ɫɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɚ
ɫɢɬɧɢɤɨɜɵɟ. ȼ ɯɨɞɟ ɨɛɪɚɛɨɬɤɢ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɚ ɛɵɥɢ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɵ ɬɪɢ ɧɨɜɵɯ
ɜɢɞɚ: ɨɞɢɧ (Nov. sp. 1) ɧɚ ɫɟɜɟɪɨ-ɚɦɟɪɢɤɚɧɫɤɨɦ ɫɢɬɧɢɤɟ Juncus tenuis,
ɞɪɭɝɨɣ (Nov. sp. 2) ɧɚ ɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɦ ɫɢɬɧɢɤɟ Juncus conglomeratus ɢ ɬɪɟɬɢɣ
(Nov. sp. 3) – ɧɚ ɨɠɢɤɟ Luzula pilosa, ɫɨɛɪɚɧɧɨɣ ɜ Ⱥɪɯɚɧɝɟɥɶɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ.
Ȼɵɥɢ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɵ ɩɪɨɦɟɪɵ 10 ɫɚɦɨɤ ɤɚɠɞɨɝɨ ɜɢɞɚ ɩɨ 76 ɦɨɪɮɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ
ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɚɦ, ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɵ ɦɢɤɪɨɮɨɬɨɝɪɚɮɢɢ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɵɯ ɞɟɬɚɥɟɣ
ɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵ ɦɨɪɮɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɹ. ȼ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɹ
ɧɨɜɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɫ ɭɠɟ ɨɩɢɫɚɧɧɵɦɢ ɦɵ ɩɪɢɲɥɢ ɤ ɜɵɜɨɞɭ, ɱɬɨ ɞɥɹ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɟɧɢɹ
ɜɢɞɨɜ ɪɨɞɚ Novophytoptus ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɩɪɢɝɨɞɧɵ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɢ:
ɪɢɫɭɧɨɤ ɞɨɪɡɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɳɢɬɤɚ, ɮɨɪɦɚ ɤɨɝɨɬɤɨɜ ɢ ɷɦɩɨɞɢɟɜ, ɞɥɢɧɚ ɢ ɬɨɥɳɢɧɚ
ɨɩɢɫɬɨɫɨɦɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɳɟɬɢɧɨɤ, ɪɚɡɦɟɪɵ ɬɟɥɚ ɢ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɤɨɥɟɰ ɨɩɢɫɬɨɫɨɦɵ.
ɇɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɣ ɩɨ ɷɬɢɦ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɚɦ ɛɵɥɢ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵ
ɞɢɮɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɞɢɚɝɧɨɡɵ ɧɨɜɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ (Nov. sp. 1, 2, 3), ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɬɚɛɥɢɰɚ
ɞɥɹ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɪɨɞɚ Novophytoptus.
C ɭɱɟɬɨɦ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɚɦɢ ɬɪɟɯ ɧɨɜɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ, ɨɛɴɟɦ ɪɨɞɚ
Novophytoptus ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɥɫɹ ɞɨ 10 ɜɢɞɨɜ: ɢɡ ɧɢɯ 4 ɜɢɞɚ ɨɛɢɬɚɸɬ ɧɚ
ɫɢɬɧɢɤɨɜɵɯ, 3 ɜɢɞɚ ɧɚ ɨɫɨɤɨɜɵɯ ɢ ɟɳɟ 3 ɜɢɞɚ ɧɚ ɡɥɚɤɨɜɵɯ (ɪɢɫ. 1, ɬɚɛɥ.).
Ɇɵ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɨɠɢɥɢ, ɱɬɨ ɜɢɞɵ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ, ɠɢɜɭɳɢɟ ɧɚ ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɹɯ ɢɡ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ
ɫɟɦɟɣɫɬɜ, ɦɨɝɭɬ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɚɬɶɫɹ ɩɨ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɧɵɦ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɚɦ. Ⱦɥɹ ɩɪɨɜɟɪɤɢ ɷɬɨɣ
ɝɢɩɨɬɟɡɵ ɜ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɟ Excel ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɧɵɯ ɢ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɯ ɜ
ɞɚɧɧɨɣ ɪɚɛɨɬɟ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ ɛɵɥɚ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɚ ɦɚɬɪɢɰɚ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɣ ɜɫɟɯ ɞɨɫɬɭɩɧɵɯ
ɞɥɹ ɨɛɪɚɛɨɬɤɢ (26) ɦɨɪɮɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɨɜ ɞɟɫɹɬɢ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ ɪɨɞɚ
Novophytoptus. Ⱥɧɚɥɢɡ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ ɩɨ ɦɟɬɨɞɭ ɝɥɚɜɧɵɯ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬ ɜ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɟ
Statistica 10 ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥ, ɱɬɨ ɩɨ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɦɨɦɭ ɧɚɛɨɪɭ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɨɜ ɤɥɟɳɢ ɫɨ
ɡɥɚɤɨɜ, ɨɫɨɤ ɢ ɫɢɬɧɢɤɨɜ ɧɟ ɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɬ ɬɪɟɯ ɤɨɦɩɚɤɬɧɵɯ ɨɛɨɫɨɛɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɝɪɭɩɩ
(ɪɢɫ. 2).
127
Ɋɢɫ. 1. Ɇɟɫɬɚ ɧɚɯɨɞɨɤ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ ɪɨɞɚ
Novophytoptus: 1 – Nov sp. 2; 2 – Nov. sp. 1; 3
– Nov. sp. 3; 4 – N. aculeatus; 5 – N. glyceriae;
6 – N. stipae; 7 – N. ammophilae; 8 – N.
tauricus; 9 – N. rostratae; 10 – N. silvai
Ɋɢɫ. 2. Ɋɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ
ɪɨɞɚ Novophytoptus ɫ ɫɢɬɧɢɤɨɜɵɯ (1-4,
Ŷ), ɡɥɚɤɨɜɵɯ (5-7, Ɣ) ɢ ɨɫɨɤɨɜɵɯ (8-10,
Ÿ) ɩɨ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹɦ ɬɪɟɯ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ.
ɇɭɦɟɪɚɰɢɹ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ ɤɚɤ ɧɚ ɪɢɫ. 1.
Ʉɥɟɳɢ ɪɨɞɚ Novophytoptus ɨɛɥɚɞɚɸɬ ɪɹɞɨɦ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɹ,
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɵ ɫ ɢɯ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ ɠɢɡɧɢ, ɜ ɩɟɪɜɭɸ ɨɱɟɪɟɞɶ – ɫ
ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɶɸ ɩɪɨɧɢɤɚɬɶ ɩɨɞ ɷɩɢɞɟɪɦɢɫ ɢ ɩɟɪɟɞɜɢɝɚɬɶɫɹ ɜɧɭɬɪɢ
ɩɚɪɟɧɯɢɦɵ. Ɉɧɢ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɭɞɥɢɧɟɧɧɭɸ ɝɧɚɬɨɫɨɦɭ ɫ ɦɨɳɧɵɦɢ ɧɨɠɟɜɢɞɧɵɦɢ
ɯɟɥɢɰɟɪɚɦɢ, ɩɪɢɫɩɨɫɨɛɥɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɞɥɹ ɚɤɤɭɪɚɬɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɪɟɡɚɧɢɹ ɷɩɢɞɟɪɦɢɫɚ.
ɏɨɬɹ ɧɚɦ ɧɢ ɪɚɡɭ ɧɟ ɭɞɚɥɨɫɶ ɭɜɢɞɟɬɶ, ɤɚɤ ɤɥɟɳɢ ɩɪɨɧɢɤɚɸɬ ɜɧɭɬɪɶ
ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɹ, ɦɵ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɦ, ɱɬɨ ɨɧɢ ɞɟɥɚɸɬ ɷɬɨ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɢɟ ɤɪɭɝɥɵɟ
ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɹ ɜ ɷɩɢɞɟɪɦɢɫɟ. Ɍɚɤɢɟ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɹ ɦɵ ɧɟɨɞɧɨɤɪɚɬɧɨ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɥɢ ɧɚ
ɬɟɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ ɷɩɢɞɟɪɦɢɫɚ, ɩɨɞ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɦɢ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɥɢɫɶ ɤɪɭɩɧɵɟ ɤɨɥɨɧɢɢ
ɤɥɟɳɟɣ. ɉɪɢ ɩɟɪɟɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɢ ɜ ɭɡɤɢɯ ɦɟɠɤɥɟɬɨɱɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚɯ ɤɥɟɳɢ
ɫɨɜɟɪɲɚɸɬ ɢɡɜɢɜɚɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹ, ɱɟɦɭ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɫɜɨɟɨɛɪɚɡɧɚɹ
ɮɨɪɦɚ ɢɯ ɬɟɥɚ (ɜɵɬɹɧɭɬɚɹ ɜɩɟɪɟɞ, ɤɚɩɥɟɨɛɪɚɡɧɚɹ). ȿɳɟ ɨɞɧɚ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ
ɧɨɜɨɮɢɬɨɩɬɭɫɨɜ – ɧɟɨɛɵɱɧɨ ɞɥɢɧɧɵɟ ɞɥɹ ɞɚɧɧɨɣ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ
ɫɤɚɩɭɥɹɪɧɵɟ ɳɟɬɢɧɤɢ ɞɨɪɡɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɳɢɬɤɚ (sc). Ɇɵ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɦ, ɱɬɨ ɷɬɢ
ɳɟɬɢɧɤɢ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɬɶ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɸ ɫɟɧɫɨɪɨɜ, ɪɟɚɝɢɪɭɸɳɢɯ ɧɚ
ɫɨɩɪɢɤɨɫɧɨɜɟɧɢɟ ɫ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɤɥɟɬɨɤ ɩɚɪɟɧɯɢɦɵ, ɜɵɫɬɢɥɚɸɳɟɣ
ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɧɨɫɧɵɟ ɩɨɥɨɫɬɢ ɜɧɭɬɪɢ ɥɢɫɬɶɟɜ ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɣ-ɯɨɡɹɟɜ, ɢ ɬɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ
ɫɢɝɧɚɥɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɨɛ «ɭɡɨɫɬɢ» ɦɟɠɤɥɟɬɨɱɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜ, ɩɨ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɦ
ɩɟɪɟɞɜɢɝɚɟɬɫɹ ɤɥɟɳ.
128
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ
ȼɢɞɵ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ ɪɨɞɚ Novophytoptus ɦɢɪɨɜɨɣ ɮɚɭɧɵ
ȼɢɞ ɤɥɟɳɚ
Ɋɚɫɬɟɧɢɟ-ɯɨɡɹɢɧ, ɥɨɤɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ
Ⱦɚɬɚ ɢ ɦɟɫɬɨ ɧɚɯɨɞɤɢ
N. aculeatus Pye 2012
Juncus squarrosus L.; ɜɧɭɬɪɢ
26.06.2009; Ⱥɧɝɥɢɹ
ɥɢɫɬɨɜɵɯ ɜɥɚɝɚɥɢɳ
Ammophila arenaria (L.) Link; ɧɚ 21.07.1999; ɉɨɥɶɲɚ
N. ammophilae
Skoracka, Boczek 2000 ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ ɥɢɫɬɚ
N. glyceriae Skoracka,
Glyceria maxima (Hartm.)
27.07.1999; ɉɨɥɶɲɚ
Boczek 2000
Holmb.; ɧɚ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ ɥɢɫɬɚ
N. rostratae Roivainen
Carex rostrata Stokes; ɜ
16.08.1944;
1947
ɫɪɟɞɢɧɧɨɣ ɛɨɪɨɡɞɤɟ ɥɢɫɬɚ
Ɏɢɧɥɹɧɞɢɹ
N. silvai Flechtmann
Cyperus giganteus Vahl.; ɧɚ
07.10.2003; Ȼɪɚɡɢɥɢɹ
2004
ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɜɧɭɬɪɢ ɥɢɫɬɶɟɜ
N. stipae Keifer 1962
Carex inflate Stokes; ɧɚ
11.04. 1962; ɋɒȺ
ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɜɧɭɬɪɢ ɥɢɫɬɶɟɜ
Ʉɚɥɢɮɨɪɧɢɹ
N. tauricus Mitrofanov, Carex sp.; ɧɟ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɨ
20.01.1977; Ʉɪɵɦ,
Sharonov, Sekerskaja,
ɍɤɪɚɢɧɚ
1983
Novophytoptus sp. 1
Juncus tenuis Willd.; ɜɧɭɬɪɢ
12.02.2013; ɋɒȺ,
ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɧɨɫɧɵɯ ɩɨɥɨɫɬɟɣ
Ɂɚɩɚɞɧɚɹ ȼɢɪɞɠɢɧɢɹ,
ɫɬɟɛɥɟɣ
Ɇɨɪɝɚɧɬɚɭɧ
Novophytoptus sp. 2
Juncus conglomeratus L.; ɜɧɭɬɪɢ 08.06.2012; ɝɨɪɵ Ɍɚɪɚ,
ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɧɨɫɧɵɯ ɩɨɥɨɫɬɟɣ
ɋɟɪɛɢɹ
ɫɬɟɛɥɟɣ
Novophytoptus sp. 3
Luzula pilosa (L.) Willd.; ɉɨɞ
21.08.2013; ɉɥɟɫɟɰɤ,
ɷɩɢɞɟɪɦɢɫɨɦ ɜɧɭɬɪɢ
Ⱥɪɯɚɧɝɟɥɶɫɤɚɹ ɨɛɥ.,
ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɧɨɫɧɵɯ ɩɨɥɨɫɬɟɣ
Ɋɨɫɫɢɹ
ɉɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɧɚɦɢ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɢ ɜɵɫɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɟ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɛɭɞɭɬ
ɞɨɩɨɥɧɟɧɵ ɧɨɜɵɦɢ ɞɚɧɧɵɦɢ ɜ ɯɨɞɟ ɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɢɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ
ɩɥɚɧɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɨɜɟɫɬɢ ɜ 2014 ɝɨɞɭ. ɂɬɨɝɢ ɪɚɛɨɬ ɩɨɫɥɭɠɚɬ ɨɫɧɨɜɨɣ ɞɥɹ
ɪɚɡɜɟɪɧɭɬɨɣ ɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɰɢɢ, ɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɧɨɣ ɪɟɜɢɡɢɢ ɪɨɞɚ Novophytoptus.
Ⱥɜɬɨɪɵ ɛɥɚɝɨɞɚɪɧɵ ɩɪɨɮ. Ⱦɠ. ɗɦɪɚɣɧɭ (ɋɒȺ) ɢ ɩɪɨɮ. Ɋ. ɉɟɬɚɧɨɜɢɱ
(ɋɟɪɛɢɹ) ɡɚ ɩɪɟɞɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɣ ɫɪɚɜɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɞɢɪɟɤɬɨɪɭ
ȺȽɋɉɛȽɍ ɇ.ȼ. ɋɟɪɨɜɨɣ ɡɚ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɭ ɜ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɷɤɫɩɟɞɢɰɢɢ.
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. Amrine J.W.Jr., Stasny T.A.H., Flechtmann C.H.W. (2003) Revised keys to world
genera of Eriophyoidea (Acari: Prostigmata) Indira publishing house, USA, 228 pp.
2. Chetverikov Ph.E., Sukhareva S.I. (2007) Supplementary descriptions and biological
notes on eriophyid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea) of the genus Novophytoptus Roivainen, 1947.
Acarina, 15 (2): 261-268
3. Pye D. (2012) New eriophyoid mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea) in Britain: one
new genus, four new species, 19 new records and two incursions. Zootaxa, 3578: 43-68
4. Roivainen H. (1947) Eriophyid news from Finland. Acta Entomologica Fennica 3, 49 pp.
129
ENDOPARASITISM OF ERIOPHYOIDS: THREE NEW SPECIES
OF THE GENUS NOVOPHYTOPTUS (ACARIFORMES, ERIOPHYOIDEA)
FROM RUSHES (JUNCACEAE)
T.J. Petrushenko1, V.A. Ryazantzeva1, P.E. Chetverikov1,2
2
1
Academic Gymnasium of Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg
Zoological institute of Russian Academy of Science, [email protected]
Mites of the genus Novophytoptus live inside air cavities of leaves and stems of
herbaceous monocots. Up to now ten species of the genus Novophytoptus have
been found in Europe (7 species), North America (2 species) and South America
(1 species) on plants from the order Poales (families Poaceae, Juncaceae and
Cyperaceae). Three new species of this genus were found on rushes (Juncaceae) in
North-West Russia, Serbia and USA. Principal Component analysis of
morphological traits shows that Novophytoptus mite species living on grasses,
sedges and rushes do not form three separate groups. Morphological adaptations
of Novophytoptus mites presumably connected with their endoparasitic life style
are briefly discussed.
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ɗɄɈɅɈȽɂɑȿɋɄɈɃ ɄɍɅɖɌɍɊɕ ɋɊȿȾɋɌȼȺɆɂ ɁɈɈɉȺɊɄȺ
Ɇ.ɘ. ɉɥɟɬɧɟɜ*, Ʌ.ɇ. ɏɢɰɨɜɚ**
*ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɢɣ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɡɨɨɩɚɪɤ
**ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɢɣ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ
ȼ ɢɫɬɟɤɲɟɦ ɞɟɫɹɬɢɥɟɬɢɢ 21 ɜɟɤɚ ɩɨɥɭɱɢɥɚ ɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɶ
ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɡɨɨɩɚɪɤɨɜ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɧɵɯ ɰɟɧɬɪɚɯ Ȼɟɥɝɨɪɨɞɚ, ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɚ,
Ʌɢɩɟɰɤɚ, Ɍɚɦɛɨɜɚ (ɐɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɑɟɪɧɨɡɟɦɶɟ), ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɭɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɜ ɫɜɨɟɣ
ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɚ ɋɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɸ WAZA (ȼɫɟɦɢɪɧɚɹ ɚɫɫɨɰɢɚɰɢɹ ɡɨɨɩɚɪɤɨɜ ɢ
ɚɤɜɚɪɢɭɦɨɜ - The World Zoo - and Aquarium ).
ɋɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɹ ȼɫɟɦɢɪɧɨɣ ɚɫɫɨɰɢɚɰɢɢ ɡɨɨɩɚɪɤɨɜ ɢ ɚɤɜɚɪɢɭɦɨɜ ɩɪɢɡɵɜɚɟɬ
ɩɪɢɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɧɨɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɨɯɪɚɧɧɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ, ɫɬɪɟɦɥɟɧɢɹ
ɤ
ɝɪɚɦɨɬɧɨɦɭ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɸ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ, ɫɨɱɟɬɚɸɳɟɦɭ
ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɨ ɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɭɸ
ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɸ
ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɟɣ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɫ
ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɨ ɩɨɥɧɨɰɟɧɧɵɦ ɫɨɬɪɭɞɧɢɱɟɫɬɜɨɦ ɫ ɞɪɭɝɢɦɢ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹɦɢ, ɡɚɥɨɝ ɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɜɵɫɨɱɚɣɲɟɣ ɰɟɥɢ - ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɝɨ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɨɯɪɚɧɧɨɝɨ
ɪɚɜɧɨɜɟɫɢɹ, ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɸɳɟɝɨ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɶ ɢ ɛɥɚɝɨɩɨɥɭɱɢɟ ɧɚɯɨɞɹɳɢɦɫɹ
ɩɨɞ ɭɝɪɨɡɨɣ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɜɢɞɚɦ, ɦɟɫɬɚɦ ɢɯ ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɥɸɞɹɦ, ɠɢɜɭɳɢɦ
ɬɚɦ, ɝɞɟ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɵ ɚɪɟɚɥɵ ɬɚɤɢɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ.
Ɉɞɧɨɣ ɢɡ ɜɚɠɧɟɣɲɢɯ ɡɚɞɚɱ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɰɢɭɦɚ, ɪɟɲɟɧɢɟ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ
ɩɨɡɜɨɥɢɬ ɩɨɜɵɫɢɬɶ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ
130
ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɵɯ ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɣ ɢ ɦɟɫɬ ɩɪɨɠɢɜɚɧɢɹ,
ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɚ
ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɢ ɜ ɷɬɨɦ ɚɫɩɟɤɬɟ, ɨ ɱɟɦ ɫɩɪɚɜɟɞɥɢɜɨ ɢ ɭɛɟɞɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ
ɩɨɤɚɡɚɧɨ ȼ.Ⱥ.əɫɜɢɧɨɦ (2010). ɋɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ, ɤɚɤ ɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ
ɫɨ ɜɫɟɣ ɨɱɟɜɢɞɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɧɟɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɚɹ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɡɚɩɪɟɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɚɤɬɨɜ,
ɞɨɥɠɧɨ ɛɵɬɶ ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɨ ɧɚ ɫɦɟɧɭ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɣ, ɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɟ
ɢɧɵɯ ɦɢɪɨɜɨɡɡɪɟɧɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɨɜ, ɨɫɨɡɧɚɧɢɹ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɨɦ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɢ
ɷɬɨɝɨ, ɱɬɨ ɩɨ ɦɧɟɧɢɸ ɧɚɡɜɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɭɱɟɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬ «ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ
ɧɨɜɨɣ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵ, ɤɚɤ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɨɛɳɟɣ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ».
Ɉɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ ɩɭɬɟɦ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ
ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɣ
ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɢ, ɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɦɨɣ ȼ.Ⱥ.əɫɜɢɧɵɦ. ɉɨ ɟɝɨ ɦɧɟɧɢɸ,
ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɨɛ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɦ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɢ ɢ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɢ
ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ ɜ ɰɟɥɨɦ ɢ ɛɢɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɜ ɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ,
ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɹ «ɡɞɨɪɨɜɶɹ ɫɪɟɞɵ» (ɩɨ ȼ.Ɇ.Ɂɚɯɚɪɨɜɭ), ɚ ɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɢ
ɡɞɨɪɨɜɶɹ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ, ɬɪɟɛɭɟɬ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɡɧɚɧɢɣ, ɧɨ ɢ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ
ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɰɟɥɟɫɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɨɫɬɢ, ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɬɨɝɨ, ɱɬɨ
ɜ
ɫɥɨɠɧɨɣ
ɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɹɸɳɟɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ «ɩɪɢɪɨɞɚ ɢ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤ» ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɣ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬ –
ɞɭɯɨɜɧɚɹ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ.
Ɋɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɹ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɟ «ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬɵ» ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ
ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵ, ȼ.Ⱥ. əɫɜɢɧ ɧɚɪɹɞɭ ɫ ɞɪɭɝɢɦɢ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ
ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɢ ɢ ɡɨɨɩɚɪɤɢ. ɗɬɨ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɧɚɦ ɫ ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɵɦ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ
ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɧɵɣ ɜ ɝ. ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɟ ɡɨɨɩɚɪɤ ɜɧɟɫɟɬ ɫɜɨɣ ɜɤɥɚɞ ɜ
ɪɟɲɟɧɢɟ ɜɵɲɟɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɨɣ ɡɚɞɚɱɢ.
ɋɨɡɞɚɧɧɵɣ ɜ 1994 ɝ. ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɢɣ ɡɨɨɫɚɞ ɫ 2005 ɝ. ɫɨɫɬɨɢɬ ɧɚ ɭɱɟɬɟ ɜ
ɜɟɞɨɦɫɬɜɟ Ɉɛɥɚɫɬɧɨɝɨ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵ, ɱɬɨ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬ ɟɝɨ ɫɬɚɬɭɫ, ɤɚɤ
ɭɱɪɟɠɞɟɧɢɹ, ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɸɳɟɝɨ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ, ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɟ ɫ ɩɪɢɜɢɬɢɟɦ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɸ
ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵ ɜ ɰɟɥɨɦ, ɚ ɢɫɯɨɞɹ ɢɡ ɟɝɨ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɤɢ - ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ (ɫɬɚɬɭɫ
Ƚɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɭɱɪɟɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵ «ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɢɣ ɡɨɨɩɚɪɤ» ɛɵɥ
ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧ ɜ ɧɨɹɛɪɟ 2009 ɝɨɞɚ ).
Ȼɸɞɠɟɬɧɨɟ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɢɥɨ ɡɨɨɩɚɪɤɭ ɨɛɧɨɜɢɬɶ ɤɨɥɥɟɤɰɢɸ
ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ, ɩɪɨɜɟɫɬɢ ɪɟɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɸ ɩɚɪɤɚ, ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɪɟɦɨɧɬ ɡɞɚɧɢɣ ɢ
ɫɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɣ.
ȼ ɡɨɨɩɚɪɤɟ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɚɬɵɜɚɸɬ ɢ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɭɸɬ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɟ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɵ ɪɚɡɧɨɣ
ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ. ɉɚɦɹɬɭɹ ɨ ɬɨɦ, ɱɬɨ ɜɚɠɧɭɸ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɨ-ɜɨɫɩɢɬɚɬɟɥɶɧɭɸ
ɪɨɥɶ ɢɝɪɚɟɬ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɚɹ ɫɪɟɞɚ, ɝɞɟ ɩɪɨɯɨɞɢɬ ɷɤɫɤɭɪɫɢɨɧɧɵɣ ɨɛɡɨɪ ɢ
ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɵ ɜɨɥɶɟɪɵ, ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ (ɩɪɢ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɟ ɫ 2007 ɝ.
ɍɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ) ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɫɤɭɥɶɩɬɭɪɧɵɯ
ɩɥɟɧɷɪɨɜ.
ɋɬɭɞɟɧɬɚɦɢ
Ɇɨɫɤɨɜɫɤɨɝɨ
ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ
ɚɤɚɞɟɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ
ɯɭɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬɚ ɢɦ. ȼ.ɂ. ɋɭɪɢɤɨɜɚ, Ⱥɛɪɚɦɰɟɜɫɤɨɝɨ
ɯɭɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ-ɩɪɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɥɥɟɞɠɚ ɢɦ. ȼ.Ɇ. ȼɚɫɧɟɰɨɜɚ (Ɇɨɫɤɨɜɫɤɚɹ
ɨɛɥɚɫɬɶ), ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɝɨ ɯɭɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɭɱɢɥɢɳɚ
ɩɨɞɝɨɬɨɜɥɟɧɨ 20
ɫɤɭɥɶɩɬɭɪɧɵɯ ɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɰɢɣ ɢɡ ɞɟɪɟɜɚ ɩɨ ɦɨɬɢɜɚɦ ɪɭɫɫɤɢɯ ɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɫɤɚɡɨɤ
(ɪɢɫ.1).
131
Ɋɢɫ. ɋɤɭɥɶɩɬɭɪɧɵɟ ɮɪɚɝɦɟɧɬɵ ɩɨ ɦɨɬɢɜɚɦ ɫɤɚɡɨɤ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɝɨ ɡɨɨɩɚɪɤɚ (http://zoopark-vrn.ru/http).
Ɋɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɢɦ ɤɥɸɱɟɜɵɟ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚɦɢ ɡɨɨɩɚɪɤɚ:
1.Ʉɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɨ-ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɹ ɡɨɨɩɚɪɤɚ.
ɗɤɫɤɭɪɫɢɨɧɧɵɣ ɨɛɡɨɪ ɩɪɨɯɨɞɢɬ ɩɨ 7 ɨɬɞɟɥɚɦ, ɝɞɟ ɧɚɯɨɞɹɬɫɹ
ɚɤɜɚɪɢɭɦɵ, ɜɨɥɶɟɪɵ ɫ ɪɟɩɬɢɥɢɹɦɢ ɯɢɳɧɢɤɚɦɢ, ɤɪɭɩɧɵɦɢ ɤɨɩɵɬɧɵɦɢ,
ɩɬɢɰɚɦɢ. ȼ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɩɨɫɟɬɢɬɟɥɹɦ ɷɤɫɩɨɧɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ 1197 ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ: 41
ɜɢɞ ɪɵɛ, 21 ɜɢɞ ɩɪɟɫɦɵɤɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ, 36 ɜɢɞɨɜ ɩɬɢɰ, 33 ɜɢɞɨɜ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ
(ɪɢɫ.2), 3 ɜɢɞɚ ɡɟɦɧɨɜɨɞɧɵɯ, 4 ɜɢɞɚ ɛɟɫɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ, ɜ ɬɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟ, ɬɪɢ ɜɢɞɚ
ɩɬɢɰ, ɡɚɧɟɫɟɧɧɵɯ ɜ Ʉɪɚɫɧɭɸ Ʉɧɢɝɭ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ, ɨɞɢɧ ɜɢɞ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ,
ɡɚɧɟɫɟɧɧɵɣ ɜ Ɇɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɭɸ Ʉɪɚɫɧɭɸ Ʉɧɢɝɭ. ȼ 2013 ɝɨɞɭ ɩɪɢ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɟ
ɪɭɤɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɩɚɪɤɚ ɧɚɱɢɧɚɟɬɫɹ ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ ɧɨɜɵɯ,
ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɤɨɪɩɭɫɨɜ ɡɨɨɩɚɪɤɚ ɢ ɜɨɥɶɟɪɨɜ ɞɥɹ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɭɠɟ ɤ
ɤɨɧɰɭ 2014 ɝɨɞɚ ɩɥɚɧɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɜɜɟɫɬɢ ɜ ɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɚɰɢɸ.
ɉɪɢɦɟɪɨɦ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɨ – ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɜ ɡɨɨɩɚɪɤɟ ɦɨɝɭɬ
ɫɥɭɠɢɬɶ ɜɵɟɡɞɧɵɟ ɥɟɤɰɢɢ ɜɤɥɸɱɚɸɳɢɟ ɜɵɫɬɚɜɤɭ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ (ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɡɚ 2013
ɝɨɞ ɧɚɭɱɧɨ – ɩɪɨɫɜɟɬɢɬɟɥɶɫɤɢɦ ɨɬɞɟɥɨɦ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɨ 114 ɬɚɤɢɯ ɥɟɤɰɢɣ ɜ
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɜ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɫɥɭɲɚɬɟɥɟɣ ɜ ɨɛɳɟɣ ɫɭɦɦɟ ɩɪɢɧɹɥɨ ɭɱɚɫɬɢɟ 2940
ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤ - ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɞɟɬɢ ɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɝɨ ɲɤɨɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚ). Ɍɟɦɚɬɢɤɚ ɥɟɤɰɢɣ ɨɯɜɚɬɵɜɚɟɬ ɫɚɦɵɟ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟ ɚɞɚɩɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ
ɞɥɹ ɞɟɬɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɨɫɩɪɢɹɬɢɹ ɚɫɩɟɤɬɵ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ ɢ
ɠɢɜɨɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ: ɤɥɢɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ, ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɡɨɧɵ ɩɥɚɧɟɬɵ ɢ ɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ
ɢɦ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ, ɜɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɨɛɳɭɸ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɸ, ɜɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ ɜ
ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɸ, ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ, ɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ, ɢ
ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɞɪɭɝɢɟ ɬɟɦɵ (ɪɢɫ.3). ȼɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɷɬɢɯ ɫɟɦɢɧɚɪɨɜ ɞɟɬɢ ɢɦɟɸɬ
ɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬ ɫ ɷɬɢɦɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɦɢ, ɬɚɤ ɤɚɤ ɢɦɟɸɬ
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ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ, ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɬɶ ɢɯ ɫ ɛɥɢɡɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ, ɜɡɹɬɶ ɧɚ ɪɭɤɢ,
ɩɨɤɨɪɦɢɬɶ.
Ɋɢɫ.2. ɀɢɜɨɬɧɵɟ ɡɨɨɩɚɪɤɚ: ɫɭɪɢɤɚɬɵ (http://zoopark-vrn.ru/http).
ɉɨɡɧɚɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫ ɜ ɫɚɦɨɦ ɡɨɨɩɚɪɤɟ ɜɵɡɵɜɚɸɬ ɷɤɫɩɨɡɢɰɢɢ ɫ
ɷɤɡɨɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɹɦɢ – ɜ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɩɨɦɟɳɟɧɢɢ ɫɨɛɪɚɧɵ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɢ ɬɪɨɩɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɢ ɫɭɛɬɪɨɩɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɮɚɭɧɵ (ɛɚɧɚɧ, ɝɪɟɣɩɮɪɭɬ,
ɥɢɚɧɵ, ɝɪɚɧɚɬ, ɨɥɟɚɧɞɪ, ɤɪɭɩɧɵɟ ɜɢɞɵ ɤɚɤɬɭɫɨɜ ɢ ɦɧɨɝɢɟ ɞɪɭɝɢɟ).
Ɋɢɫ.3. Ɏɪɚɝɦɟɧɬ ɥɟɤɰɢɢ- ɛɟɫɟɞɵ, ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɣ ɜ ɡɨɨɩɚɪɤɟ.
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2. ɗɥɟɦɟɧɬɵ ɩɫɢɯɨɥɨɝɨ-ɨɡɞɨɪɨɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ.
Ɉɬɤɪɵɬɵɣ ɜ 2012 ɝɨɞɭ «ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɧɵɣ ɡɚɥ», ɝɞɟ ɩɨɫɟɬɢɬɟɥɢ ɦɨɝɭɬ
ɩɨɨɛɳɚɬɶɫɹ ɫ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɦɢ ɜɢɞɚɦɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ (ɜɡɹɬɶ ɧɚ ɪɭɤɢ ɢ ɩɨɤɨɪɦɢɬɶ) –
ɩɨɦɨɝɚɟɬ ɜ ɩɪɨɮɢɥɚɤɬɢɤɟ ɢ ɪɟɚɛɢɥɢɬɚɰɢɢ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɣ ɧɟɪɜɧɨɣ
ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ, ɩɫɢɯɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɪɚɫɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜ (ɜ ɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɪɟɚɛɢɥɢɬɚɰɢɹ ɥɸɞɟɣ
ɩɟɪɟɧɟɫɲɢɯ ɨɫɬɪɨɟ ɧɚɪɭɲɟɧɢɟ ɦɨɡɝɨɜɨɝɨ ɤɪɨɜɨɨɛɪɚɳɟɧɢɹ). ȼ ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɧɨɦ
ɡɚɥɟ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɝɨ ɡɨɨɩɚɪɤɚ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɬɫɹ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɜɢɞɵ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ: ɺɠ
ɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɵɣ, ɤɨɡɵ ɤɚɦɟɪɭɧɫɤɢɟ, ɤɪɨɥɢɤɢ, ɦɨɪɫɤɢɟ ɫɜɢɧɤɢ, ɩɨɩɭɝɚɢ ɠɚɤɨ
ɢ ɤɨɪɟɥɥɚ, ɭɥɢɬɤɢ ɚɯɚɬɢɧɵ, ɞɨɦɚɲɧɢɟ ɤɭɪɵ, ɩɚɜɥɢɧɵ, ɤɪɚɫɧɨɭɯɢɟ ɢ
ɫɪɟɞɧɟɚɡɢɚɬɫɤɢɟ ɱɟɪɟɩɚɯɢ, ɬɨɧɤɨɪɭɧɧɵɟ ɨɜɰɵ, ɤɚɪɥɢɤɨɜɚɹ ɥɨɲɚɞɶ, ɫɨɜɵ
ɧɟɹɫɵɬɢ, ɛɟɥɢɱɶɹ ɨɛɟɡɶɹɧɚ ɫɚɣɦɢɪɢ (ɪɢɫ.4). ȼ ɩɨɥɶɡɟ ɬɚɤɨɝɨ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ
ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ ɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɭɛɟɠɞɚɸɬ ɩɟɪɜɵɟ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ, ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɜ ɯɨɞɟ
ɫɨɬɪɭɞɧɢɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɡɨɨɩɚɪɤɚ ɫ ɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɨɣ ɛɨɥɶɧɢɰɟɣ ʋ 16. ɉɨɞ ɩɚɬɪɨɧɚɬɨɦ
ɡɨɨɩɚɪɤɚ ɧɚɯɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɐɟɧɬɪ ɪɟɚɛɢɥɢɬɚɰɢɢ ɞɥɹ ɞɟɬɟɣ ɢ ɩɨɞɪɨɫɬɤɨɜ ɫ
ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɧɵɦɢ
ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɹɦɢ
«ȺɃȻɈɅɂɌ»,
ɋɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɪɟɚɛɢɥɢɬɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɣ ɰɟɧɬɪ ɞɥɹ ɧɟɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɨɥɟɬɧɢɯ «Ȼɟɪɟɝɢɧɹ», ɲɤɨɥɚɢɧɬɟɪɧɚɬ ʋ 4, Ⱦɨɦ ɪɟɛɟɧɤɚ ʋ1, ɝɞɟ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɩɫɢɯɨɥɨɝɨ –
ɨɡɞɨɪɨɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ ɪɚɛɨɬɚ ɫ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ.
Ɋɢɫ.4. Ɉɛɳɟɧɢɟ ɫ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɦ ɜ «ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɧɨɣ ɤɨɦɧɚɬɟ».
3.Ʉɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɨ-ɞɨɫɭɝɨɜɚɹ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɞɟɬɟɣ.
ɍɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɹ, ɩɨɥɸɛɢɜɲɚɹɫɹ ɜɫɟɦ ɩɨɫɟɬɢɬɟɥɹɦ –
ɩɪɚɡɞɧɢɤɢ ɜ ɡɨɨɩɚɪɤɟ. ɇɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɢɬɚɟɦɵ ɩɨɫɟɬɢɬɟɥɹɦɢ ɇɨɜɨɝɨɞɧɢɟ
ɟɥɤɢ ɫ ɭɱɚɫɬɢɟɦ ɜ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɯ ɠɢɜɵɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ (ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯɫɢɦɜɨɥɨɜ ɝɨɞɚ) ɢ ɩɪɚɡɞɧɢɱɧɵɟ ɝɭɥɹɧɢɹ (ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɩɨ ɪɭɫɫɤɢɦ ɨɛɵɱɚɹɦ - ɧɚ
Ɇɚɫɥɟɧɢɰɭ. Ⱦɟɬɢ ɧɚ ɬɚɤɢɯ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɚɯ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɸɬ ɢ ɜɟɫɟɥɹɬɫɹ,
ɧɨ ɢ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨ, ɜ ɢɝɪɨɜɨɣ ɮɨɪɦɟ ɭɱɚɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɜ ɧɟɮɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɩɪɢɨɛɳɟɧɢɢ ɤ
ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɦ ɫɨɤɪɨɜɢɳɚɦ, ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɧɨɦ ɧɚ ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɢ ɢɝɪɨɜɵɯ ɜɢɤɬɨɪɢɧ ɫ
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ɭɱɚɫɬɢɟɦ ɞɨɫɬɭɩɧɵɯ ɜ ɬɚɤɨɣ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ (ɪɢɫ.5), ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɸɬ
ɩɨɪɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɧɟɨɛɵɱɧɨɣ ɞɥɹ ɧɢɯ ɮɨɪɦɟ. ɉɪɨɜɨɞɢɦɵɟ ɦɟɪɨɩɪɢɹɬɢɹ ɦɨɠɧɨ
ɪɚɡɞɟɥɢɬɶ ɧɚ ɞɜɟ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ:
ɚ) Ɇɟɪɨɩɪɢɹɬɢɹ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɡɨɨɩɚɪɤɚ (ɩɪɚɡɞɧɢɱɧɵɟ ɤɨɧɰɟɪɬɵ, ɞɧɢ
ɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɯ ɞɜɟɪɟɣ, ɪɚɣɨɧɧɚɹ ɡɚɪɹɞɤɚ ɜ ɪɚɦɤɚɯ ɚɤɰɢɢ «ɇɟɞɟɥɹ ɞɨɛɪɚ», 1 ɢɸɧɹ
«Ⱦɟɧɶ ɡɚɳɢɬɵ ɞɟɬɟɣ», «Ⱦɟɧɶ ɥɸɛɜɢ, ɫɟɦɶɢ ɢ ɜɟɪɧɨɫɬɢ» ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɟ).
ɛ) Ɇɟɪɨɩɪɢɹɬɢɹ ɜɧɟ ɡɨɨɩɚɪɤɚ (ɭɱɚɫɬɢɟ ɜ ɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɢɯ ɮɨɪɭɦɚɯ,
ɛɥɚɝɨɬɜɨɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɜɵɫɬɚɜɤɢ ɢ ɜɵɫɬɭɩɥɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɭɱɪɟɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵ
ɢ ɪɚɡɜɥɟɤɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɰɟɧɬɪɚɯ, ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɚɤɰɢɢ, ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɢ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɤɚɡɨɤ ɫ ɭɱɚɫɬɢɟɦ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ).
Ɋɢɫ. 5. Ɉɞɢɧ ɢɡ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ, ɩɪɟɬɟɧɞɟɧɬɨɜ ɧɚ ɪɨɥɶ «ɚɪɬɢɫɬɚ».
ɋ 1 ɦɚɪɬɚ 2006 ɝɨɞɚ ɜɜɟɞɟɧ ɛɟɫɩɥɚɬɧɵɣ ɜɯɨɞ ɜ ɡɨɨɩɚɪɤ ɞɥɹ ɞɟɬɟɣ ɞɨ 16
ɥɟɬ, ɱɬɨ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɢɥɨ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɬɶ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɩɨɫɟɬɢɬɟɥɟɣ, ɧɨ ɢ
ɫɞɟɥɚɬɶ ɞɨɫɬɭɩɧɵɦɢ ɩɪɨɫɦɨɬɪ ɷɤɫɩɨɡɢɰɢɢ ɞɥɹ ɦɚɥɨɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɧɵɯ
ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɥɨɟɜ.
Ⱦɨɫɬɭɩɧɵ ɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɛɨɥɶɲɨɣ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫ ɞɥɹ ɞɟɬɟɣ ɬɚɤɢɟ
ɚɬɬɪɚɤɰɢɨɧɵ ɤɚɤ ɬɢɪ, ɧɚɞɭɜɧɵɟ ɛɚɬɭɬɵ, ɤɚɪɭɫɟɥɶ, ɜɟɥɨɦɚɲɢɧɵ,
ɢɦɢɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɚɹ (ɞɟɬɫɤɚɹ) ɠɟɥɟɡɧɚɹ ɞɨɪɨɝɚ (ɪɢɫ.6). ɉɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ ɡɨɨɩɚɪɤ
ɢɦɟɟɬ ɜ ɫɜɨɟɣ ɤɨɥɥɟɤɰɢɢ ɩɨɧɢ, ɞɟɬɹɦ ɩɪɟɞɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ (ɩɨɞ
ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɟɦ ɫɨɬɪɭɞɧɢɤɨɜ) ɩɨɤɚɬɚɬɶɫɹ ɜ ɤɚɪɟɬɟ, ɢɥɢ ɜɟɪɯɨɦ ɧɚ ɨɫɥɢɤɟ.
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Ɋɢɫ. 6. Ɉɞɢɧ ɢɡ ɢɝɪɨɜɵɯ (ɞɨɫɭɝɨɜɵɯ) ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɨɜ ɞɥɹ
ɞɟɬɟɣ ɜ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɦ ɡɨɨɩɚɪɤɟ http://zoopark-vrn.ru/http
4.Ʉɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɨ – ɞɨɫɭɝɨɜɚɹ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɜɡɪɨɫɥɵɯ
ɉɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɟ ɞɟɤɨɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɦɨɫɬɚ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɜɨɞɨɟɦ ɜ
ɩɚɪɤɨɜɨɣ ɡɨɧɟ ɩɪɢɥɟɝɚɸɳɟɣ ɤ ɡɞɚɧɢɸ ɡɨɨɩɚɪɤɚ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɢɥɨ ɫɞɟɥɚɬɶ
ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɦ ɞɥɹ ɠɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɝɨɪɨɞɚ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ ɬɚɤɨɣ ɰɟɪɟɦɨɧɢɢ ɤɚɤ ɫɜɚɞɟɛɧɚɹ
– ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ ɪɢɬɭɚɥɚ ɩɟɪɟɧɨɫɚ ɧɚ ɪɭɤɚɯ ɧɟɜɟɫɬɵ ɠɟɧɢɯɨɦ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɦɨɫɬ. Ⱥ
ɬɚɤɠɟ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɤɪɚɫɢɜɨɣ ɤɚɪɟɬɵ ɢ ɚɬɬɪɚɤɰɢɨɧɚ «ɜɟɫɺɥɵɣ ɩɚɪɨɜɨɡɢɤ»
ɞɥɹ ɩɪɨɝɭɥɤɢ ɩɨ ɩɚɪɤɨɜɨɣ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ. ȼɨɫɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɨ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ
ɮɨɬɨɫɟɫɫɢɢ ɜ «Ɂɢɦɧɟɦ ɫɚɞɭ» ɡɨɨɩɚɪɤɚ ɫɪɟɞɢ ɷɤɡɨɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɣ.
ȼ 2010 ɝɨɞɭ ɧɚɱɚɬɨ ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ ɮɢɥɢɚɥɚ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɝɨ ɡɨɨɩɚɪɤɚ ɩɨ
ɚɞɪɟɫɭ - ɝɨɪɨɞ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ, ɩɨɫɺɥɨɤ ɋɟɦɢɥɭɤɫɤɢɟ ȼɵɫɟɥɤɢ, ɭɥɢɰɚ
ɋɦɨɪɨɞɢɧɨɜɚɹ, ɞɨɦ 2 ɛ. ɜɛɥɢɡɢ ɥɟɫɧɨɣ ɩɪɢɛɪɟɠɧɨɣ ɡɨɧɵ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɝɨ
ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚ. ɍɠɟ ɫɬɚɥɢ ɟɝɨ ɨɛɢɬɚɬɟɥɹɦɢ ɛɢɡɨɧɵ, ɫɟɜɟɪɧɵɣ ɨɥɟɧɶ, ɹɤɢ,
ɤɚɛɚɧɵ, ɥɨɲɚɞɢ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɟ. ȼ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ
ɷɬɨɝɨ ɮɢɥɢɚɥɚ ɩɥɚɧɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɪɚɡɜɥɟɤɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ – ɞɨɫɭɝɨɜɨɝɨ
ɰɟɧɬɪɚ, ɫ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɟɦ ɬɭɪɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɡɨɧɵ ɨɬɞɵɯɚ, ɝɞɟ ɞɥɹ ɩɨɫɟɬɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɛɭɞɭɬ
ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɨɜɚɧɵ ɤɨɧɧɵɟ ɩɪɨɝɭɥɤɢ, ɪɚɛɨɬɚ ɥɨɞɨɱɧɨɣ ɫɬɚɧɰɢɢ, ɩɚɥɚɬɨɱɧɨɟ ɢ
ɝɨɫɬɢɧɢɱɧɨɟ ɩɪɨɠɢɜɚɧɢɟ. ɉɥɚɧɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɬɪɨɩ, ɝɞɟ
ɥɸɞɢ ɫɦɨɝɭɬ ɫɨɩɪɢɤɨɫɧɭɬɶɫɹ ɫ ɱɚɫɬɢɰɟɣ ɠɢɜɨɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ, ɩɨɥɭɱɚɬ ɡɧɚɧɢɹ ɨ
ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɹɜɥɟɧɢɹɯ ɢ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɚɯ, ɜ ɞɚɧɧɨɣ ɩɪɢɛɪɟɠɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ.
ɋɨɡɞɚɺɬɫɹ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɚɜɵɤɨɜ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɝɪɚɦɨɬɧɨɝɨ
ɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɥɸɞɟɣ ɜ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɟ, ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ.
ɍɠɟ ɦɧɨɝɢɟ ɝɨɞɵ ɪɟɝɭɥɹɪɧɨ ɜɵɩɭɫɤɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɚɫɬɟɧɧɵɣ ɤɚɥɟɧɞɚɪɶ ɫ
ɮɨɬɨɝɪɚɮɢɹɦɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɤɚɤ ɫɢɦɜɨɥ ɝɨɞɚ ɜ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɢ ɫ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɪɧɵɦ
ɤɢɬɚɣɫɤɢɦ ɝɨɪɨɫɤɨɩɨɦ. Ɉɩɭɛɥɢɤɨɜɚɧɨ ɤɪɚɫɨɱɧɨɟ ɤɧɢɠɧɨɟ ɢɡɞɚɧɢɟ
«ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɢɣ ɡɨɨɩɚɪɤ», ɜ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɩɨɦɢɦɨ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɹ ɨɛ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɹ
ɡɨɨɩɚɪɤɚ, ɱɢɬɚɬɟɥɶ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɩɨɥɭɱɢɬɶ ɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ
ɨɛ ɷɤɫɩɨɧɚɬɚɯ,
ɪɚɡɧɨɫɬɨɪɨɧɧɟɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɡɨɨɫɚɞɚ ɢ ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɚɯ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ.
ɉɟɪɢɨɞɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɨɛɧɨɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɪɟɤɥɚɦɧɨ – ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɣ ɛɭɤɥɟɬ.
136
ɇɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɵɯ ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɣ ɝ. ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɚ
ɢɦɟɟɬ
ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ, ɩɨɫɟɬɢɜ ɡɨɨɩɚɪɤ, ɦɨɝɭɬ ɭɜɢɞɟɬɶ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ, ɫɨɛɪɚɧɧɵɯ ɫɨ ɜɫɟɯ
ɭɝɨɥɤɨɜ ɩɥɚɧɟɬɵ, ɜɤɥɸɱɚɹ ɜɢɞɵ, ɡɚɧɟɫɟɧɧɵɟ ɜ Ʉɪɚɫɧɭɸ Ʉɧɢɝɭ. ɋɭɞɹ ɩɨ
ɦɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɦ ɨɬɡɵɜɚɦ, ɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ
ɩɨɡɧɚɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ ɪɨɥɶ ɡɨɨɫɚɞɚ, ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɷɦɨɰɢɢ, ɧɨ ɢ ɟɝɨ
ɭɱɟɛɧɨ-ɜɨɫɩɢɬɚɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ ɢ ɩɪɨɫɜɟɬɢɬɟɥɶɫɤɚɹ ɪɨɥɶ ɜ ɠɢɡɧɢ ɩɨɞɪɚɫɬɚɸɳɟɝɨ
ɩɨɤɨɥɟɧɢɹ, ɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵ.
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. Ɋɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɚ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɢ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɤɭɥɬɭɪɵ
ɧɚɫɟɟɥɟɧɢɹ - ɋɛɨɪɧɢɤ ɧɚɭɱɧɵɯ ɬɪɭɞɨɜ: ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɟ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ.
Ɋɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ . www.eco-oos.ru 2010:.ɑɚɫɬɶ 1,2
2. http://www.waza.org/files/webcontent/1.public_site/5.conservation/conservation_strate
gies/building_a_future_for_wildlife/wzacs_ru.pdf)
ECOLOGICAL CULTURE TRAINING IN ZOOLOGICAL PARKS
M.Yu. Pletnev*, L.N. Khitsova**
*Voronezh State Zoological Park
**Voronezh State University
ɍȾɄ 638.15
Ʉ ɂɁɍɑȿɇɂɘ ɊȺɋɉɊɈɋɌɊȺɇȿɇɂə
ɄɅȿɓȺ VARROA DESTRUCTOR ANDERSON ET TRUEMAN
ɇȺ ɉȺɋȿɄȺɏ ɌɈɆɋɄɈɃ ɈȻɅȺɋɌɂ
ȿ.ɋ. ɉɨɩɨɜɚ, Ɉ.Ʌ. Ʉɨɧɭɫɨɜɚ, ɇ.ȼ. Ɉɫɬɪɨɜɟɪɯɨɜɚ, ȿ.ɉ. Ƚɨɥɭɛɟɜɚ
E-mail: [email protected]
Ɍɨɦɫɤɢɣ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ, ɝ. Ɍɨɦɫɤ, Ɋɨɫɫɢɹ
ɉɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɜɨɡɛɭɞɢɬɟɥɹ
ɜɚɪɪɨɚɬɨɡɚ ɦɟɞɨɧɨɫɧɵɯ ɩɱɺɥ ɤɥɟɳɚ Varroa destructor Anderson et Trueman ɧɚ
ɩɚɫɟɤɚɯ Ɍɨɦɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ, ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɫ 2011 ɩɨ 2013 ɝɨɞɵ.
ɂɡɭɱɟɧɢɟ ɷɩɢɡɨɨɬɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ ɧɚ ɩɚɫɟɤɚɯ Ɍɨɦɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ
ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɨɞɧɨɣ ɢɡ ɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɡɚɞɚɱ, ɜɩɢɫɵɜɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɜ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɭ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ
ɩɱɟɥɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɧɚɲɟɝɨ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚ. ȼ ɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ, ɤɥɸɱɟɜɨɣ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɨɣ ɨɫɬɚɺɬɫɹ
ɩɨɪɚɠɟɧɢɟ ɫɟɦɟɣ ɦɟɞɨɧɨɫɧɨɣ ɩɱɟɥɵ Apis mellifera L. ɤɥɟɳɨɦ Varroa
destructor Anderson et Trueman, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɢɝɪɚɟɬ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɭɸ ɪɨɥɶ ɜ
ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɢ ɫɦɟɲɚɧɧɵɯ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɣ ɩɱɺɥ. Ʉɥɟɳ ȼɚɪɪɨɚ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ
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ɩɟɪɟɧɨɫɱɢɤɨɦ ɪɹɞɚ ɨɩɚɫɧɵɯ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɵɯ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢɣ, ɜɵɯɨɞɹɳɢɯ ɧɚ ɩɟɪɜɵɣ
ɩɥɚɧ ɤɚɤ ɨɞɢɧ ɢɡ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ ɝɢɛɟɥɢ ɩɱɟɥɢɧɵɯ ɫɟɦɟɣ ɜɨ ɜɫɟɦ ɦɢɪɟ.
Ɋɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɤɥɟɳɚ V. destructor ɢ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɟɦɨɫɬɶ ɜɚɪɪɨɚɬɨɡɨɦ
(ɜɚɪɪɨɨɡɨɦ) ɛɵɥɢ ɜɚɠɧɟɣɲɟɣ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɨɣ ɪɟɡɤɨɝɨ ɫɨɤɪɚɳɟɧɢɹ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɚ
ɩɱɟɥɢɧɵɯ ɫɟɦɟɣ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɜ 1980-ɟ ɝɨɞɵ. ȼɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɢ
ɜɟɞɭɳɢɦɢ ɫɬɚɥɢ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɵ ɫɩɚɞɚ ɩɱɟɥɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ. Ʉ
ɧɚɱɚɥɭ 2010-ɯ ɝɝ. ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ Ɍɨɦɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ, ɧɚ ɮɨɧɟ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚɸɳɟɝɨ
ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚ ɤ ɩɱɟɥɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɭ, ɧɚɦɟɬɢɥɨɫɶ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɩɱɟɥɢɧɵɯ
ɫɟɦɟɣ. Ȼɨɥɟɟ 90 % ɢɡ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɧɨ 15 ɬɵɫɹɱ ɩɱɟɥɨɫɟɦɟɣ ɜ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ
ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ
ɜ
ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚɯ
ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ.
Ɉɫɬɚɥɶɧɵɟ
ɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɚɬ
ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹɦ ɢ ɮɟɪɦɟɪɫɤɢɦ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚɦ. ɉɨ ɞɚɧɧɵɦ
ɚɧɤɟɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɱɟɥɨɜɨɞɨɜ, ɩɪɨɜɟɞɺɧɧɨɝɨ ɧɚɦɢ ɜ 2011 ɝɨɞɭ, ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ
ɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɸɬ ɩɚɫɟɤɢ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɚ (ɞɨ 10 ɩɱɟɥɨɫɟɦɟɣ) – 46 %. ɇɚ
ɜɬɨɪɨɦ ɦɟɫɬɟ ɧɚɯɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɩɚɫɟɤɢ, ɝɞɟ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɢɬɫɹ ɨɬ 10 ɞɨ 20 ɩɱɟɥɨɫɟɦɟɣ –
25 %. ɉɚɫɟɤɢ, ɧɚ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɢɦɟɟɬɫɹ ɞɨ 40 ɭɥɶɟɜ, ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ 11 %, ɞɨ 60 – 7
%, ɫɜɵɲɟ 60 – 3 % [1]. ɉɱɟɥɨɜɨɞɚɦ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɚ ɩɨɦɨɳɶ ɜ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɚɯ
ɩɪɨɮɢɥɚɤɬɢɤɢ, ɞɢɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɤɢ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɣ ɢ ɥɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɩɱɺɥ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɜ ɫɮɟɪɟ
ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɩɱɟɥɨɫɟɦɟɣ ɫɨ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɧɨɣ ɥɚɛɨɪɚɬɨɪɢɢ ɢ
ɧɚɭɱɧɨ-ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɫɤɢɯ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɣ.
ɗɩɢɡɨɨɬɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɹ ɧɚ ɩɚɫɟɤɚɯ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɧɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɥɚɫɶ ɜ
ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɞɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ. ɇɚɦɢ ɛɵɥɢ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɡɚɞɚɱɢ:
ɢɡɭɱɢɬɶ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɜɨɡɛɭɞɢɬɟɥɹ ɜɚɪɪɨɚɬɨɡɚ ɧɚ ɩɚɫɟɤɚɯ Ɍɨɦɫɤɨɣ
ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɩɨ ɢɬɨɝɚɦ ɚɧɤɟɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɱɟɥɨɜɨɞɨɜ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɩɨ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɚɦ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɨɛɪɚɡɰɨɜ ɜɡɪɨɫɥɵɯ ɩɱɺɥ ɢ ɪɚɫɩɥɨɞɚ, ɫɨɛɪɚɧɧɵɯ ɧɚ ɩɚɫɟɤɚɯ;
ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɶ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɩɨɪɚɠɟɧɢɹ ɩɱɟɥɨɫɟɦɟɣ ɤɥɟɳɚɦɢ; ɩɨɥɭɱɢɬɶ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɨ ɬɨɦ, ɤɚɤɢɟ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɵ ɡɚɳɢɬɵ ɨɬ ɜɚɪɪɨɚɬɨɡɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɸɬ ɜ
ɫɜɨɟɣ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɟ ɩɱɟɥɨɜɨɞɵ.
ȼ ɨɩɪɨɫɟ ɩɪɢɧɹɥɨ ɭɱɚɫɬɢɟ 320 ɩɱɟɥɨɜɨɞɨɜ ɢɡ ɞɜɟɧɚɞɰɚɬɢ ɪɚɣɨɧɨɜ
ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ. Ȼɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɨ ɢɡ ɧɢɯ (ɛɨɥɟɟ 90 %), ɭɞɟɥɹɹ ɫɟɪɶɺɡɧɨɟ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ
ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɸ ɡɞɨɪɨɜɶɹ ɩɱɺɥ, ɩɪɨɜɨɞɹɬ ɧɚ ɩɚɫɟɤɚɯ ɩɪɨɮɢɥɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɢ
ɥɟɱɟɛɧɵɟ ɦɟɪɨɩɪɢɹɬɢɹ, 58 % ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɸɬ ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬ ɫ ɨɬɞɟɥɚɦɢ
ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɮɢɬɨɫɚɧɢɬɚɪɧɨɝɨ ɧɚɞɡɨɪɚ. ɇɚɥɢɱɢɟ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɣ ɧɚ ɩɚɫɟɤɚɯ
ɭɜɟɪɟɧɧɨ ɨɬɦɟɬɢɥɨ 57 % ɩɱɟɥɨɜɨɞɨɜ, ɨɞɧɚɤɨ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɬɪɟɬɢ ɢɡ ɧɢɯ ɧɟ ɭɤɚɡɚɥɢ
ɜɢɞɵ ɛɨɥɟɡɧɟɣ. ɇɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɵ, ɩɨ ɞɚɧɧɵɦ ɩɱɟɥɨɜɨɞɨɜ,
ɫɭɦɟɜɲɢɯ ɩɪɟɞɨɫɬɚɜɢɬɶ ɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ, ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɹ: ɜɚɪɪɨɚɬɨɡ – 30
%, ɚɫɤɨɫɮɟɪɨɡ – 10 %, ɝɧɢɥɟɰ (ɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɢɣ ɢ ɚɦɟɪɢɤɚɧɫɤɢɣ) – 2,5 %.
ȼɫɬɪɟɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɧɨɡɟɦɚɬɨɡ – 1,3 %. ɇɚ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɩɚɫɟɤɚɯ ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɨ
ɛɨɥɟɟ ɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɹ. ɇɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɟ: ɜɚɪɪɨɚɬɨɡ,
ɧɨɡɟɦɚɬɨɡ ɢ ɚɫɤɨɫɮɟɪɨɡ. Ɉ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɢ ɦɟɪɨɩɪɢɹɬɢɣ, ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɚ
ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɜɨɡɛɭɞɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɜɚɪɪɨɚɬɨɡɚ, ɫɨɨɛɳɢɥɢ ɨɤɨɥɨ 32 %
ɨɩɪɨɲɟɧɧɵɯ. ɉɨɱɬɢ ɜɫɟ ɢɡ ɧɢɯ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬ ɯɢɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚ, ɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ
ɨ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɢ ɛɢɨɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɪɢɺɦɨɜ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɥ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɨɞɢɧ
ɩɱɟɥɨɜɨɞ. ɂɡ ɯɢɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜ ɡɚɳɢɬɵ ɨɬ ɜɚɪɪɨɚɬɨɡɚ ɧɚ ɩɟɪɜɨɦ ɦɟɫɬɟ
ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɩɪɟɩɚɪɚɬ «Ȼɢɩɢɧ». Ɉ ɟɝɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɫɨɨɛɳɢɥɢ 70
138
ɪɟɫɩɨɧɞɟɧɬɨɜ ɢɡ 10 ɪɚɣɨɧɨɜ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ. ȿɞɢɧɢɱɧɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɫɹ «Ȼɢɩɢɧ-Ɍ»,
«Ȼɢɜɚɪɨɨɥ», «Ȼɢɜɚɪ», «ȼɚɪɪɨɚɞɟɡ», «ȼɚɪɪɨɩɥɚɫɢɥ», «ȼɢɫɬɢɧ», «Ɏɭɦɢɫɚɧ»,
«Ɍɚɧɢɫ». ɂɦɟɸɬɫɹ ɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɨ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɢ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɦɢ ɩɱɟɥɨɜɨɞɚɦɢ
ɳɚɜɟɥɟɜɨɣ ɤɢɫɥɨɬɵ, ɨɬɧɨɫɹɳɟɣɫɹ ɤ ɝɪɭɩɩɟ ɥɺɝɤɢɯ ɚɤɚɪɢɰɢɞɨɜ
(ɨɪɝɚɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɤɢɫɥɨɬɵ).
Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɩɱɟɥɨɜɨɞɵ ɨɬɞɚɸɬ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɬɟɧɢɟ ɬɹɠɺɥɵɦ ɚɤɚɪɢɰɢɞɚɦ
ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɚɦɢɬɪɚɡɚ (Ȼɢɩɢɧ, Ȼɢɩɢɧ-Ɍ). ɋɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɟ ɯɢɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɚɤɚɪɢɰɢɞɵ
ɜɵɫɨɤɨɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɵ ɢ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɸɬ ɝɢɛɟɥɶ ɞɨ 99–99,7 % ɤɥɟɳɟɣ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ,
ɧɚɪɹɞɭ ɫ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟɦ ɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ ɤ ɷɬɢɦ ɩɪɟɩɚɪɚɬɚɦ, ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɵ
ɪɚɫɩɚɞɚ ɯɢɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜ ɡɚɳɢɬɵ ɧɚɤɚɩɥɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɜ ɩɱɟɥɢɧɨɦ ɝɧɟɡɞɟ,
ɫɧɢɠɚɸɬ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɶ ɩɱɺɥ ɤ ɞɪɭɝɢɦ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɹɦ ɢ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɜɵɡɜɚɬɶ ɝɢɛɟɥɶ
ɩɱɟɥɨɫɟɦɟɣ ɜ ɡɢɦɧɢɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ [2].
ȼ 2012–2013 ɝɨɞɚɯ, ɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ ɩɥɚɧɭ ɦɨɧɢɬɨɪɢɧɝɨɜɵɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ
ɈȽȻɍ «Ɍɨɦɫɤɚɹ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɧɚɹ ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɧɚɹ ɥɚɛɨɪɚɬɨɪɢɹ», ɛɵɥɨ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɨ 220
ɩɪɨɛ ɩɱɺɥ ɢ ɩɨɞɦɨɪɚ, ɫɨɛɪɚɧɧɵɯ ɜ ɧɚɱɚɥɟ ɩɱɟɥɨɜɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɫɟɡɨɧɚ ɧɚ 40
ɩɚɫɟɤɚɯ 22 ɧɚɫɟɥɺɧɧɵɯ ɩɭɧɤɬɨɜ ɸɠɧɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ Ɍɨɦɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ (ɒɟɝɚɪɫɤɢɣ,
Ɍɨɦɫɤɢɣ, Ʉɨɠɟɜɧɢɤɨɜɫɤɢɣ ɪɚɣɨɧɵ). Ʉɪɨɦɟ ɬɨɝɨ, ɜ 2011–2013 ɝɨɞɚɯ ɩɨ
ɢɧɢɰɢɚɬɢɜɟ ɩɱɟɥɨɜɨɞɨɜ ɛɵɥɨ ɨɛɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɨ ɟɳɺ 17 ɩɚɫɟɤ ɜ 15 ɧɚɫɟɥɺɧɧɵɯ
ɩɭɧɤɬɚɯ (195 ɩɪɨɛ). ɂɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ ɩɚɫɟɤɢ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɥɢɫɶ
ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɜ ɸɠɧɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ, ɨɞɧɚɤɨ ɜ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɥɭɱɚɹɯ
ɨɛɪɚɡɰɵ ɩɱɺɥ ɞɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɥɢɫɶ ɢɡ ɫɟɜɟɪɧɵɯ ɪɚɣɨɧɨɜ. ɉɪɨɛɵ ɩɱɺɥ ɢ ɪɚɫɩɥɨɞɚ
ɨɬɛɢɪɚɥɢɫɶ ɜ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɫɟɡɨɧɚ ɞɥɹ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɹ ɫɚɧɢɬɚɪɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ
ɩɱɟɥɨɫɟɦɟɣ. ɋ ɬɨɣ ɠɟ ɰɟɥɶɸ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɥɢɫɶ ɩɪɨɛɵ ɩɱɺɥ ɜ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ
ɩɨɞɝɨɬɨɜɤɢ ɤ ɡɢɦɨɜɤɟ. ȼ ɪɹɞɟ ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ ɜɵɹɫɧɹɥɢɫɶ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɵ ɨɫɥɚɛɥɟɧɢɹ ɢ
ɝɢɛɟɥɢ ɩɱɟɥɨɫɟɦɟɣ ɜ ɡɢɦɧɢɣ ɢ ɜɟɫɟɧɧɢɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɵ.
Ɂɚɤɥɟɳɺɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɢɦɚɝɨ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɥɚɫɶ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɜɢɡɭɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɩɨɞɫɱɺɬɚ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ ȼɚɪɪɨɚ ɜ ɫɦɵɜɚɯ ɫ ɩɱɺɥ. ɉɪɢ ɨɛɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɢ
ɪɚɫɩɥɨɞɚ ɹɱɟɣɤɢ ɫ ɤɭɤɨɥɤɚɦɢ ɢ ɩɪɟɞɤɭɤɨɥɤɚɦɢ ɜɫɤɪɵɜɚɥɢ ɫɤɚɥɶɩɟɥɟɦ ɢ
ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɢ ɩɨɞɫɱɺɬ ɫɚɦɨɤ ȼɚɪɪɨɚ [3]. ɀɢɡɧɟɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɱɟɥɢɧɵɯ ɫɟɦɟɣ
ɩɪɨɝɧɨɡɢɪɨɜɚɥɚɫɶ ɩɨ ɬɪɟɦ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɹɦ ɩɨɪɚɠɟɧɢɹ: ɫɥɚɛɚɹ – ɞɨ ɞɜɭɯ, ɫɪɟɞɧɹɹ –
ɞɨ ɱɟɬɵɪɟɯ, ɫɢɥɶɧɚɹ – ɫɜɵɲɟ ɱɟɬɵɪɟɯ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ ɧɚ 100 ɩɱɟɥɚɯ ɢ ɜ 100 ɹɱɟɣɤɚɯ
ɬɪɭɬɧɟɜɨɝɨ ɢɥɢ ɩɱɟɥɢɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɫɩɥɨɞɚ ɢɡ ɫɟɪɟɞɢɧɵ ɝɧɟɡɞɚ. ɋɬɟɩɟɧɹɦ
ɩɨɪɚɠɟɧɢɹ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɢɧɞɟɤɫɵ ɨɛɢɥɢɹ (ɂɈ): ɞɨ 0,02, 0,02–0,04 ɢ ɛɨɥɟɟ
0,04.
ȼ ɯɨɞɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ, ɩɪɨɜɟɞɺɧɧɵɯ ɜ ɧɚɱɚɥɟ ɩɱɟɥɨɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɫɟɡɨɧɨɜ 2012
ɢ 2013 ɝɨɞɨɜ, ɧɚ 13 ɩɚɫɟɤɚɯ (32,5 % ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɩɚɫɟɤ) ɜɨɡɛɭɞɢɬɟɥɶ
ɜɚɪɪɨɚɬɨɡɚ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧ ɧɟ ɛɵɥ. ɇɚ 14 ɩɚɫɟɤɚɯ (35 %) ɛɵɥɚ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɚ
ɫɥɚɛɚɹ ɢ ɫɪɟɞɧɹɹ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɩɨɪɚɠɟɧɢɹ ɩɱɟɥɨɫɟɦɟɣ, ɩɪɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ
ɫɚɦɨɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ ɩɱɟɥɨɜɨɞɚɦɢ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ ɞɚɥɟɤɨ ɧɟ
ɜɫɟɝɞɚ. ɇɚɤɨɧɟɰ, ɧɚ 13 ɩɚɫɟɤɚɯ (32,5 %) ɛɵɥɢ ɡɚɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɵ ɩɪɨɛɵ ɩɱɺɥ
ɫ ɫɢɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶɸ ɩɨɪɚɠɟɧɢɹ. Ɇɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɩɨɪɚɠɟɧɢɹ ɩɱɺɥ
ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɚ ɩɨ ɂɈ 0,49. ȼɵɫɨɤɚɹ ɡɚɤɥɟɳɺɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɱɟɥɨɫɟɦɟɣ ɨɬɦɟɱɚɥɚɫɶ ɜ
ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦ ɧɚ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɢɯ (ɞɨ ɞɟɫɹɬɢ ɭɥɶɟɜ) ɩɚɫɟɤɚɯ. ɉɪɨɛɥɟɦɧɨɣ ɨɤɚɡɚɥɚɫɶ ɢ
ɨɞɧɚ ɢɡ ɤɪɭɩɧɵɯ ɬɨɜɚɪɧɵɯ (ɛɨɥɟɟ 60 ɭɥɶɟɜ) ɩɚɫɟɤ.
139
Ɉɛɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɚɫɟɤ ɩɨ ɨɛɪɚɳɟɧɢɹɦ ɜɥɚɞɟɥɶɰɟɜ ɜɵɹɜɢɥɢ 35,3 %
ɛɥɚɝɨɩɨɥɭɱɧɵɯ ɜ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢ ɜɚɪɪɨɚɬɨɡɚ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜ ɢ 41,2 % ɫɨ ɫɥɚɛɨɣ ɢ
ɫɪɟɞɧɟɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶɸ ɩɨɪɚɠɟɧɢɹ ɩɱɟɥɨɫɟɦɟɣ. ɇɚ ɨɫɬɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɚɫɟɤɚɯ (23,5 %)
ɛɵɥɢ ɡɚɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɵ ɩɪɨɛɵ ɩɱɺɥ ɫ ɫɢɥɶɧɵɦ ɩɨɪɚɠɟɧɢɟɦ ɤɥɟɳɨɦ.
Ɉɬɦɟɱɟɧɚ ɝɢɛɟɥɶ ɩɱɟɥɢɧɵɯ ɫɟɦɟɣ ɜɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɡɢɦɨɜɤɢ ɧɚ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɧɨɣ
ɩɚɫɟɤɟ ɜ Ʉɨɠɟɜɧɢɤɨɜɫɤɨɦ ɪɚɣɨɧɟ (ɂɈ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ ɧɚ ɩɱɺɥɚɯ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɥ 0,6–
0,85), ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɧɚ ɞɜɭɯ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɢɯ (0,54–0,78 ɢ 0,66–0,90) ɢ ɧɚ ɨɞɧɨɣ
ɤɪɭɩɧɨɣ ɬɨɜɚɪɧɨɣ (0,02–0,11) ɩɚɫɟɤɚɯ Ɍɨɦɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ. ȼ ɞɜɭɯ ɫɥɭɱɚɹɯ
ɧɟɛɥɚɝɨɩɨɥɭɱɧɨɟ ɫɚɧɢɬɚɪɧɨɟ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɩɚɫɟɤ ɭɫɭɝɭɛɥɹɥɨɫɶ ɩɨɜɪɟɠɞɟɧɢɟɦ
ɫɨɬɨɜ ɛɨɥɶɲɨɣ ɜɨɫɤɨɜɨɣ ɦɨɥɶɸ Galleria mellonella (L.). ɇɚ ɞɜɭɯ ɩɚɫɟɤɚɯ ɢɡ
ɉɚɪɚɛɟɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ ɢ Ɍɨɦɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɣɨɧɨɜ ɛɵɥɢ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɵ ɫɢɥɶɧɨ ɨɫɥɚɛɥɟɧɧɵɟ
ɩɱɟɥɢɧɵɟ ɫɟɦɶɢ ɩɪɢ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹɯ ɩɨɪɚɠɺɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɱɺɥ ɤɥɟɳɚɦɢ 0,0–0,03 ɢ 0,05.
ɋɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɚɦ ɞɢɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɤɢ ɩɱɟɥɨɜɨɞɚɦɢ ɛɵɥɢ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɵ ɦɟɪɵ ɩɨ
ɨɡɞɨɪɨɜɥɟɧɢɸ ɩɚɫɟɤ, ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɚɟɬɫɹ ɨɬɫɥɟɠɢɜɚɧɢɟ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ ɡɞɨɪɨɜɶɹ ɩɱɺɥ.
ɋɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɦ
ɷɬɚɩɨɦ
ɧɚɭɱɧɵɯ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ
ɫɬɚɧɟɬ
ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɢɟ
ɢɧɮɢɰɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɱɺɥ ɜɢɪɭɫɚɦɢ ɫ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟɦ ɦɨɥɟɤɭɥɹɪɧɨɝɟɧɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɜ.
ȼ ɪɚɣɨɧɚɯ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ, ɝɞɟ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɨ ɩɱɟɥɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ, ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɬɶ
ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɧɵɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɤɚɤ ɧɚ ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɨɱɚɝɨɜ
ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɣ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɧɚ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɚ ɩɱɺɥ, ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ
ɢ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɭɸ ɨɰɟɧɤɭ ɩɱɟɥɨɫɟɦɟɣ, ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɟ ɦɟɞɨɧɨɫɧɨɣ ɮɥɨɪɵ ɢ
ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɧɟɤɬɚɪɧɨ-ɩɵɥɶɰɟɜɨɝɨ ɤɨɧɜɟɣɟɪɚ, ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɸɳɟɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ
ɫɢɥɶɧɵɯ, ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɫɬɨɹɬɶ ɢɧɜɚɡɢɹɦ ɢ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢɹɦ ɩɱɟɥɨɫɟɦɟɣ.
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. Ʉɨɧɭɫɨɜɚ Ɉ.Ʌ., Ɉɫɬɪɨɜɟɪɯɨɜɚ ɇ.ȼ., ɉɨɝɨɪɟɥɨɜ ɘ.Ʌ., ɉɨɩɨɜɚ ȿ.ɋ., Ʉɢɪɟɟɜɚ Ɍ.ɇ.
ɉɱɟɥɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ Ɍɨɦɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ // ɉɱɟɥɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ. 2012, ʋ 9. – ɋ. 8–9.
2. Ɇɨɞɢɧ Ɉ.Ⱥ. Ȼɢɨɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɪɢɺɦɵ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɹ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɜɚɪɪɨɨɡɚ
ɦɟɞɨɧɨɫɧɵɯ ɩɱɺɥ ɧɚ ɩɚɫɟɤɚɯ ɋɟɜɟɪɧɨɝɨ Ɂɚɭɪɚɥɶɹ: Ⱥɜɬɨɪɟɮɟɪɚɬ ɞɢɫ… ɤɚɧɞ. ɛɢɨɥ. ɧɚɭɤ. –
Ɍɸɦɟɧɶ, 2005. – 22 ɫ.
3. ɗɩɢɡɨɨɬɨɥɨɝɢɹ ɜɚɪɪɨɨɡɚ ɦɟɞɨɧɨɫɧɵɯ ɩɱɺɥ ɧɚ ɩɚɫɟɤɚɯ ɋɟɜɟɪɧɨɝɨ Ɂɚɭɪɚɥɶɹ,
ɞɢɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɤɚ ɢ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ ɦɟɪ ɛɨɪɶɛɵ ɫ ɟɝɨ ɜɨɡɛɭɞɢɬɟɥɟɦ. Ɍɸɦɟɧɶ, 2005. – 26 ɫ.
DISTRIBUTION OF THE VARROA MITE VARROA DESTRUCTOR ANDERSON ET
TRUEMAN IN TOMSK REGION APIARIES
E.S. Popova, O.L. Konusova, N.V. Ostroverchova, E.P. Golubeva
Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia
The results of the study of distribution of varroa mite Varroa
destructor Anderson et Trueman in Tomsk Region apiaries are given for 20112013.
140
ɍȾɄ 599.742.4 (470.324)
ɄȺɆȿɇɇȺə ɄɍɇɂɐȺ (MARTES FOINA ERST.) ȼ ɍɋɅɈȼɂəɏ
ɋɊȿȾɇȿɊɍɋɋɄɈɃ ɅȿɋɈɋɌȿɉɂ
ɇ.ɂ. ɉɪɨɫɬɚɤɨɜ, ɇ.Ɇ. ȿɪɟɦɢɧɚ
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɢɣ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ, ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ, Ɋɨɫɫɢɹ
Ʉɚɦɟɧɧɚɹ
ɤɭɧɢɰɚ
ɢɥɢ
ɛɟɥɨɞɭɲɤɚ
–
ɨɛɵɱɧɵɣ
ɲɢɪɨɤɨ
ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɧɵɣ ɜɢɞ ɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ. ɇɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɋɪɟɞɧɟɪɭɫɫɤɨɣ ɥɟɫɨɫɬɟɩɢ ɜ
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɷɬɨɬ ɜɢɞ ɧɚɱɚɥɢ ɨɬɦɟɱɚɬɶ ɫ 1919 ɝɨɞɚ [3]. Ɉɧɚ
ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ
ɨɛɢɬɚɬɟɥɟɦ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɨɜ ɤɚɤ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ, ɬɚɤ ɢ
ɭɪɛɚɧɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɣ. Ʉɚɦɟɧɧɚɹ ɤɭɧɢɰɚ ɩɨ ɜɧɟɲɧɢɦ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɚɦ
ɩɪɟɜɨɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɫɜɨɟɝɨ ɛɥɢɠɚɣɲɟɝɨ ɪɨɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɢɤɚ – ɥɟɫɧɭɸ ɤɭɧɢɰɭ ɛɨɥɟɟ
ɤɪɭɩɧɵɦɢ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɚɦɢ ɬɟɥɚ, ɬɢɩɢɱɧɵɦɢ ɞɥɹ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɷɬɨɣ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ [2,
6, 7, 9].
Ɇɵ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɦ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɦɢ ɞɚɧɧɵɦɢ ɨ ɥɢɧɟɣɧɵɯ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɚɯ ɢ ɜɟɫɟ
(ɦɚɫɫɟ) ɬɟɥɚ ɫɚɦɰɨɜ ɢ ɫɚɦɨɤ ɤɚɦɟɧɧɨɣ ɤɭɧɢɰɵ, ɞɨɛɵɬɵɯ ɜ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ
ɛɢɨɬɨɩɚɯ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹɯ ɨɯɨɬɧɢɱɶɢɯ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜ ɢ ɡɚɤɚɡɧɢɤɨɜ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɭɟɦɨɝɨ
ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚ (ɬɚɛɥ.1).
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ. 1
ɋɪɟɞɧɢɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɟ ɦɨɪɮɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɢ ɜɡɪɨɫɥɵɯ ɤɚɦɟɧɧɨɣ ɤɭɧɢɰɵ
ɉɪɢɡɧɚɤ
ɋɚɦɰɵ (n = 22)
ɋɚɦɤɢ (n =19)
Ⱦɥɢɧɚ ɬɟɥɚ ( ɦɦ)
Ⱦɥɢɧɚ ɝɨɥɨɜɵ (ɦɦ)
Ⱦɥɢɧɚ ɯɜɨɫɬɚ (ɦɦ)
Ⱦɥɢɧɚ ɱɟɪɟɩɚ (ɦɦ)
Ⱦɥɢɧɚ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɫɬɟɣ (ɦɦ)
ȼɟɫ (ɦɚɫɫɚ) ɬɟɥɚ (ɤɝ)
522 (420-600)
170,5 (75-96)
290 (230-330)
95 (90-105)
431 (360-480)
165 (74-87)
260 (220-290)
93 (85-105)
12,4 (11-14)
11,8 (10-13)
1,9 (1,6-2,2,)
1,3 (1,0 -1,6)
ȼ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ ɞɟɫɹɬɢɥɟɬɢɹ ɡɜɟɪɟɤ ɨɬɦɟɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɜɨ ɜɫɟɯ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɹɯ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚ,
ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ, ɜ ɡɚɩɚɞɧɵɯ (Ʉɭɪɫɤɚɹ) ɢ ɸɠɧɵɯ (Ȼɟɥɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɚɹ, ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɚɹ). ȼ
ɫɟɜɟɪɨ-ɜɨɫɬɨɱɧɭɸ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚ (Ʌɢɩɟɰɤɚɹ, Ɍɚɦɛɨɜɫɤɚɹ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ) ɤɚɦɟɧɧɚɹ
ɤɭɧɢɰɚ ɧɚɱɚɥɚ ɩɪɨɧɢɤɚɬɶ ɩɨɡɠɟ ɢ ɜ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɟɟ ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɟ
ɨɬɦɟɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɟɝɟɪɹɦɢ ɢ ɨɯɨɬɨɜɟɞɚɦɢ. Ɂɜɟɪɟɤ ɨɛɥɚɞɚɟɬ ɛɨɥɶɲɨɣ
ɩɥɚɫɬɢɱɧɨɫɬɶɸ, ɩɪɢɫɩɨɫɨɛɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɤ ɭɪɛɚɧɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɦ
ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹɦ ɢ, ɩɨ ɦɧɟɧɢɸ ɦɧɨɝɢɯ ɭɱɟɧɵɯ ɟɟ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɨɬɧɟɫɬɢ ɤ
ɫɢɧɚɧɬɪɨɩɧɵɦ ɜɢɞɚɦ.
ȼ 50-ɯ ɝɨɞɚɯ ɏɏ ɫɬɨɥɟɬɢɹ ɛɵɥɢ ɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɵ ɥɢɲɶ ɟɞɢɧɢɱɧɵɟ ɫɥɭɱɚɢ
ɜɫɬɪɟɱ ɫ ɤɚɦɟɧɧɨɣ ɤɭɧɢɰɟɣ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɝɨ ɤɪɚɹ [1, 4]. ɉɨ
141
ɞɚɧɧɵɦ Ʌ.ɋ. Ɋɹɛɨɜɚ [7], ɫ ɧɚɱɚɥɚ 60-ɯ ɝɨɞɨɜ ɤɚɦɟɧɧɚɹ ɤɭɧɢɰɚ ɧɚɱɚɥɚ
ɢɧɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɨ ɩɪɨɧɢɤɚɬɶ ɜ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɭɸ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɶ, ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦ, ɫ ɡɚɩɚɞɚ ɢ
ɸɝɚ. ɇɚɱɢɧɚɹ ɫ 1970 ɝ. ɡɜɟɪɢ ɫɬɚɥɢ ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɩɨ ɜɫɟɣ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ
ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ. ȼɩɟɪɜɵɟ ɷɬɨɬ ɜɢɞ ɛɵɥ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧ ɜ ɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɢɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɧɚ ɱɟɪɞɚɤɟ
9-ɬɢ ɷɬɚɠɧɨɝɨ ɞɨɦɚ ɝ. ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ.
ɍɱɟɬ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɤɭɧɶɢɯ ɜ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɟ ɧɟ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɢ ɩɨɝɨɥɨɜɶɟ, ɜ
ɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɤɚɦɟɧɧɨɣ ɤɭɧɢɰɵ ɧɟ ɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɨ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɨɬɦɟɬɢɬɶ, ɱɬɨ
ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɚ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɡɜɟɪɶɤɚ ɜ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɟ ɤɨɥɟɛɥɟɬɫɹ ɩɨ ɝɨɞɚɦ, ɜ
ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɫɟɡɨɧɵ ɨɧɚ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɬɶ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧ. Ʉ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɦ
ɮɚɤɬɨɪɚɦ, ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɳɢɦ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ, ɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹ ɧɚɥɢɱɢɟ ɤɨɪɦɨɜ,
ɢɯ ɞɨɫɬɭɩɧɨɫɬɶ ɢ ɡɚɳɢɬɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ.
Ʉɚɦɟɧɧɚɹ ɤɭɧɢɰɚ ɢɡɛɟɝɚɟɬ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɯ ɥɟɫɧɵɯ ɦɚɫɫɢɜɨɜ, ɨɱɟɧɶ ɪɟɞɤɨ
ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɛɚɣɪɚɱɧɵɯ ɢ ɩɨɣɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɥɟɫɚɯ [8]. Ɂɜɟɪɟɤ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɢɬɚɟɬ
ɩɨɫɟɥɹɬɶɫɹ ɜɛɥɢɡɢ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɠɢɥɶɹ, ɜ ɨɤɪɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɹɯ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɧɵɯ
ɩɭɧɤɬɨɜ (ɩɨɫɟɥɤɨɜ, ɯɭɬɨɪɨɜ, ɞɟɪɟɜɟɧɶ) ɢ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɯ ɝɨɪɨɞɨɜ ɤɚɤ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ,
Ʌɢɩɟɰɤ, Ȼɟɥɝɨɪɨɞ, Ɍɚɦɛɨɜ, Ɋɹɡɚɧɶ ɢ ɞɪ. Ȼɢɨɬɨɩɚɦɢ ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɭ ɤɚɦɟɧɧɨɣ
ɤɭɧɢɰɵ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɣɤɢ, ɩɪɢɭɫɚɞɟɛɧɵɟ
ɭɱɚɫɬɤɢ ɫɚɞɨɜ, ɡɚɝɨɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɞɚɱɢ. ɂɡɥɸɛɥɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɦɟɫɬɚɦɢ ɩɨɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ
ɡɜɟɪɶɤɚ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɡɟɪɧɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚ, ɫɤɥɚɞɫɤɢɟ ɩɨɦɟɳɟɧɢɹ, ɚɦɛɚɪɵ, ɫɚɪɚɢ ɢ
ɞɪ. ɇɚɦɢ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɨ ɟɟ ɠɢɥɢɳɟ ɜ ɫɟɧɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɟ, ɫɬɨɹɳɟɝɨ ɧɚ ɨɤɪɚɢɧɟ
ɫɟɥɚ ɉɪɨɛɭɠɞɟɧɢɟ ɉɨɞɝɨɪɟɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ..
Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɵɟ ɬɢɩɵ ɦɟɫɬɨɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɣ ɤɚɦɟɧɧɨɣ ɤɭɧɢɰɵ ɜ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɟ ɡɚɫɟɥɹɟɬɫɹ
ɨɱɟɧɶ ɧɟɪɚɜɧɨɦɟɪɧɨ, ɢ ɩɥɨɬɧɨɫɬɶ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɟɟ ɡɚɦɟɬɧɨ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɚɟɬɫɹ
(ɬɚɛɥ. 2).
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 2
ɉɥɨɬɧɨɫɬɶ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɤɚɦɟɧɧɨɣ ɤɭɧɢɰɵ ɜ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɦɟɫɬɨɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹɯ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɢ
ɭɪɛɚɧɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɣ (1990 –2012 ɝɝ.)
Ʉɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ
Ʉɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ
ɑɢɫɥɨ
Ȼɢɨɬɨɩ, ɦɟɫɬɨɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɟ
ɜɫɬɪɟɱ
ɫɥɟɞɨɜ ɧɚ 1
ɨɫɨɛɟɣ ɧɚ
ɤɦ ɦɚɪɲɪɭɬɚ
1000 ɝɚ
ɑɟɪɞɚɤɢ ɞɨɦɨɜ
78
1.7
5
ɉɪɨɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɫɤɥɚɞɵ
66
1.5
4
Ɂɟɪɧɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɟ
52
1.1
2
ɉɨɣɦɚ ɪɟɤ, ɩɪɭɞɵ
22
1.1
2
ɏɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɣɤɢ
94
0,6
1
ɋɚɪɚɢ
34
0,7
1
Ɂɚɝɨɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɞɚɱɢ
12
1,6
2
Ƚɚɪɚɠɢ
7
0,4
1
Ⱦɭɩɥɚ ɫɬɚɪɵɯ ɞɟɪɟɜɶɟɜ
8
0,7
2
ɂɡ ɬɚɛɥ. 2 ɜɢɞɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɟɟ ɱɢɫɥɨ ɨɫɨɛɟɣ ɡɜɟɪɶɤɚ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɨ ɧɚ
ɱɟɪɞɚɤɚɯ ɞɨɦɨɜ (78 ɜɫɬɪɟɱ) ɢ ɧɚɢɦɟɧɶɲɟɟ ɜ ɞɭɩɥɚɯ ɫɬɚɪɵɯ ɞɟɪɟɜɶɟɜ (*
ɜɫɬɪɟɱ). ɇɚɦɢ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɤɚɦɟɧɧɚɹ ɤɭɧɢɰɚ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɢɬɚɟɬ ɡɚɫɟɥɹɬɶ
ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɡɚɛɪɨɲɟɧɧɵɟ ɫɬɚɪɵɟ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɣɤɢ
ɜ ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɣ ɢ ɜ
142
ɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɨɣ ɦɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ, ɱɟɪɞɚɤɢ ɠɢɥɵɯ ɢ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɩɨɦɟɳɟɧɢɣ,
ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟ ɫɤɥɚɞɵ, ɝɚɪɚɠɢ ɢ ɞɭɩɥɚ ɫɬɚɪɵɯ ɞɟɪɟɜɶɟɜ. Ʉɚɦɟɧɧɚɹ ɤɭɧɢɰɚ, ɜ
ɨɬɥɢɱɢɟ ɨɬ ɥɟɫɧɨɣ ɤɭɧɢɰɵ, ɦɟɧɶɲɟ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɚ ɫ ɥɟɫɧɵɦɢ ɧɚɫɚɠɞɟɧɢɹɦɢ, ɯɨɬɹ
ɫɥɟɞɵ ɱɚɫɬɨ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɨɩɭɲɤɚɯ ɫɬɚɪɨ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɨɝɨ ɥɟɫɚ, ɜ ɫɬɚɪɵɯ
ɩɚɪɤɚɯ, ɜ ɛɚɥɤɚɯ ɢ ɨɜɪɚɝɚɯ. Ɉɬɤɪɵɬɵɟ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚ ɤɭɧɢɰɟɣ ɩɨɱɬɢ ɧɟ
ɩɨɫɟɳɚɸɬɫɹ, ɡɚ ɢɫɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɜɡɪɨɫɥɵɯ ɨɫɨɛɟɣ, ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɳɢɯ
ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɸ ɞɥɹ ɠɢɪɨɜɤɢ ɢ ɡɚɥɟɝɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɨɬɞɵɯ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɨɯɨɬɵ ɜ ɨɩɭɲɟɱɧɨɣ
ɡɨɧɟ, ɩɪɢɦɵɤɚɸɳɟɣ ɤ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɧɨɦɭ ɩɭɧɤɬɭ. Ʉɚɤ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ, ɷɬɨ ɤɪɭɩɧɵɟ
ɜɡɪɨɫɥɵɟ ɫɚɦɰɵ ɢ ɫɚɦɤɢ, ɨɱɟɜɢɞɧɨ, ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɡɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɞɨɛɵɱɟ ɦɟɥɤɢɯ
ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ, ɦɵɲɟɜɢɞɧɵɯ ɝɪɵɡɭɧɨɜ.
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 3
ȼɫɬɪɟɱɚɟɦɨɫɬɶ ɢ ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɤɨɪɦɨɜ ɜ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɢ ɤɚɦɟɧɧɨɣ ɤɭɧɢɰɵ ɜ
ɩɨɥɟɜɵɯ ɢ ɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɢɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ.
ȼɢɞɵ ɤɨɪɦɨɜ
Ʉɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɵ
ɋɨɞɟɪɠɢɦɨɟ
ɷɤɫɤɪɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ
ɠɟɥɭɞɤɨɜ
(n =348)
(n = 21)
ɚɛɫ
%
ɚɛɫ
%
Ɇɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɟ:
46
23,5
24
23,7
ɛɟɥɤɚ
3
1,5
ɞɨɦɨɜɚɹ ɦɵɲɶ
37
19,0
17
22,4
ɩɨɥɟɜɤɢ
6
3,0
7
1,3
ɉɬɢɰɵ:
72
36,7
35
34,8
ɝɨɥɭɛɢ
42
21,3
10
20,4
ɜɨɪɨɛɶɢ
11
5,4
8
5,3
ɫɢɧɢɰɵ
4
2,0
ɝɚɥɤɢ
6
4,0
ɹɣɰɚ ɩɬɢɰ
8
4,0
7
4,6
ɩɟɪɶɹ, ɤɨɫɬɢ ɤɭɪ
7
4,0
4
2,5
32
ɇɚɫɟɤɨɦɵɟ:
24,5
24
23,7
ɨɫɵ
8
16,3
9
15,8
ɦɭɪɚɜɶɢ
ɠɭɠɟɥɢɰɵ
ɛɚɛɨɱɤɢ
Ɋɚɫɬɟɧɢɹ:
ɪɹɛɢɧɚ
ɲɢɩɨɜɧɢɤ
ɦɚɥɢɧɚ
ɤɥɭɛɧɢɤɚ
ɂ Ɍ Ɉ Ƚ Ɉ
6
2
30
13
7
7
3
4
348
4,1
3,1
1,0
15,3
6,5
3,6
3,6
1,6
100,0
5
7
3
18
7
5
4
2
101
3,3
4,5
2,1
17,8
6,6
3,3
2,6
1,3
100,0
ɑɟɬɤɨɝɨ ɪɢɬɦɚ ɫɭɬɨɱɧɨɣ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɭ ɤɚɦɟɧɧɨɣ ɤɭɧɢɰɵ ɧɚɦɢ ɧɟ
ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɨ, ɨɞɧɚɤɨ ɨɧɚ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɚ ɜ ɫɭɦɟɪɟɱɧɨɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɢ ɧɨɱɶɸ. ȼ
ɫɜɟɬɥɨɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɫɭɬɨɤ ɡɜɟɪɟɤ ɨɬɞɵɯɚɟɬ ɢ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɟɣ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɟɟ
143
ɩɪɢɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɫɭɦɟɪɟɱɧɨɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɫ 20..00 ɞɨ 23.00, ɜ ɡɢɦɧɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ – ɫ
18.00 ɞɨ 22.00-23.00. Ɋɚɡɦɟɪɵ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚ ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɨɱɟɧɶ ɢɡɦɟɧɱɢɜɵ ɢ ɜ
ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦ ɡɚɜɢɫɹɬ ɨɬ ɨɛɢɥɢɹ ɤɨɪɦɨɜ, ɢɯ ɞɨɫɬɭɩɧɨɫɬɢ. ɋɭɬɨɱɧɵɣ ɯɨɞ
ɤɚɦɟɧɧɨɣ ɤɭɧɢɰɵ ɜ ɥɟɬɧɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɜɚɪɶɢɪɭɟɬ ɨɬ 2 ɞɨ 8-10 ɤɦ, ɡɢɦɨɣ – ɨɬ 1 ɞɨ
3-4 ɤɦ, ɨɧɚ ɨɫɬɨɪɨɠɧɚ ɢ ɤ ɦɟɫɬɭ ɨɬɞɵɯɚ ɩɪɨɛɢɪɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɟɡɚɦɟɬɧɨ.
ɉɨ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɭ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɤɚɦɟɧɧɚɹ ɤɭɧɢɰɚ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɩɥɚɫɬɢɱɧɵɦ
ɜɢɞɨɦ, ɬɢɩɢɱɧɵɦ ɷɜɪɢɮɚɝɨɦ. ɇɚɪɹɞɭ ɫ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɦɢ ɤɨɪɦɚɦɢ ɜ ɟɟ ɪɚɰɢɨɧ
ɜɯɨɞɢɬ ɛɨɥɶɲɨɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɨɪɦɨɜ (ɬɚɛɥ.3).
ȼ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɤɚ ɢɥɢ ɧɟɭɪɨɠɚɹ ɤɚɤɨɝɨ-ɥɢɛɨ ɤɨɪɦɚ ɤɭɧɢɰɚ ɥɟɝɤɨ
ɩɟɪɟɤɥɸɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɟ ɞɪɭɝɢɦ ɜɢɞɨɦ [5, 9].
Ⱦɢɚɩɚɡɨɧ ɞɨɛɵɜɚɟɦɵɯ ɤɨɪɦɨɜ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɨɱɟɧɶ ɜɟɥɢɤ
ɢ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɟɧ – ɨɬ ɛɟɫɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɢ ɦɟɥɤɢɯ ɦɵɲɟɜɢɞɧɵɯ ɝɪɵɡɭɧɨɜ ɞɨ
ɬɚɤɢɯ ɫɪɚɜɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɤɪɭɩɧɵɯ ɩɬɢɰ ɢ ɡɜɟɪɟɣ ɬɚɤɢɯ, ɤɚɤ ɝɨɥɭɛɢ, ɛɟɥɤɢ, ɢɧɨɝɞɚ
ɨɧɢ ɧɚɩɚɞɚɟɬ ɧɚ ɡɚɣɰɟɜ-ɪɭɫɚɤɨɜ. Ɉɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɤ
ɩɨɣɦɚɧɧɨɣ ɞɨɛɵɱɟ
ɞɨɜɨɥɶɧɨ, ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɨ. Ɉɛɵɱɧɨ ɧɚ ɦɟɫɬɟ ɩɨɢɦɤɢ ɦɵɲɟɜɢɞɧɵɯ ɝɪɵɡɭɧɨɜ
ɩɨɱɬɢ ɜɫɟɝɞɚ ɨɫɬɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɤɚɩɟɥɶ ɤɪɨɜɢ, ɨɫɬɚɬɤɢ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɯ ɨɪɝɚɧɨɜ
(ɠɟɥɭɞɤɚ, ɤɢɲɟɱɧɢɤɚ). ȿɫɥɢ ɡɜɟɪɟɤ ɫɵɬɵɣ, ɬɨ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɤ ɩɢɳɟ ɡɚɦɟɬɧɨ
ɦɟɧɹɟɬɫɹ. ȼ ɝɨɞɵ, ɛɨɝɚɬɵɟ ɤɨɪɦɚɦɢ ɩɪɢ ɜɢɡɭɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɢ ɢ
ɬɪɨɩɥɟɧɢɢ ɤɭɧɢɰɵ ɧɚɦ ɭɞɚɜɚɥɨɫɶ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɢɜɚɬɶ ɠɢɪɨɜɤɢ. ȼ 40 % ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ
ɩɨɣɦɚɧɧɚɹ ɞɨɛɵɱɚ ɫɴɟɞɚɥɚɫɶ ɩɨɥɧɨɫɬɶɸ, ɜ 24 % - ɨɫɬɚɜɚɥɢɫɶ ɨɫɬɚɬɤɢ
ɠɟɥɭɞɤɨɜ, ɜ 20 % - ɨɫɬɚɬɤɢ ɠɟɥɭɞɤɨɜ ɢ ɤɢɲɟɱɧɢɤɚ, ɜ 17 % - ɨɫɬɚɜɚɥɢɫɶ ɧɟ
ɫɴɟɞɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɝɨɥɨɜɵ ɢ ɥɢɲɶ ɜ 7 % ɛɵɥɢ ɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵ ɬɭɲɤɢ ɢɥɢ ɟɟ ɱɚɫɬɢ.
Ʉ ɪɟɞɤɢɦ ɤɨɪɦɚɦ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɨɬɧɟɫɬɢ ɡɚɣɰɚ-ɪɭɫɚɤɚ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɛɵɥ ɧɚɣɞɟɧ ɜ
ɮɪɭɤɬɨɜɨɦ ɫɚɞɭ ɱɚɫɬɧɨɝɨ ɫɟɤɬɨɪɚ ɝ. ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɚ. ɂɡ ɧɟɨɛɵɱɧɵɯ ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ ɜ
ɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɢ ɡɜɟɪɶɤɚ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɨɬɦɟɬɢɬɶ ɟɝɨ ɧɚɩɚɞɟɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɥɹɝɭɲɟɤ ɢ ɠɚɛ,
ɠɟɪɬɜɵ ɛɵɥɢ ɡɚɞɭɲɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɢ ɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵ ɧɚ ɦɟɫɬɟ ɩɨɢɦɤɢ. ɋɪɟɞɢ
ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɨɪɦɨɜ ɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɸɬ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟ ɜɢɞɵ ɹɝɨɞ .
ɉɨɬɪɟɛɥɟɧɢɟ ɬɟɯ ɢɥɢ ɢɧɵɯ ɤɨɪɦɨɜ ɢ ɢɯ ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɪɚɰɢɨɧɟ
ɤɭɧɢɰɵ ɡɚɜɢɫɹɬ ɨɬ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɩɪɢɱɢɧ, ɢ ɩɪɟɠɞɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɨɬ ɢɯ ɧɚɥɢɱɢɹ,
ɞɨɫɬɭɩɧɨɫɬɢ ɜ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟ ɫɟɡɨɧɵ ɝɨɞɚ.
ȼ ɜɟɫɟɧɧɟ-ɥɟɬɧɢɣ ɢ ɨɫɟɧɧɢɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɵ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɞɨɫɬɭɩɧɵ
ɛɟɫɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɟ, ɪɚɡɧɵɟ ɦɵɲɟɜɢɞɧɵɟ ɝɪɵɡɭɧɵ, ɝɨɥɭɛɢ ɢ ɹɝɨɞɵ.
ȼ ɡɢɦɧɢɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɤ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɣ ɩɢɳɟ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹ ɦɵɲɟɜɢɞɧɵɟ ɝɪɵɡɭɧɵ
(ɞɨɦɨɜɚɹ ɦɵɲɶ, ɩɨɥɟɜɤɢ), ɢɡ ɩɬɢɰ – ɜɨɪɨɛɶɢ, ɫɢɧɢɰɵ, ɝɨɥɭɛɢ. ɂɡ
ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɨɪɦɨɜ ɜ ɷɬɨɬ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɞɨɫɬɭɩɧɵɦɢ ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɹɦɢ ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦ
ɪɹɛɢɧɚ, ɲɢɩɨɜɧɢɤ.
Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɭɸ ɩɢɳɭ ɤɚɦɟɧɧɨɣ ɤɭɧɢɰɵ ɩɨ ɞɚɧɧɵɦ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ ɷɤɫɤɪɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɢ
ɫɨɞɟɪɠɢɦɨɝɨ ɠɟɥɭɞɤɨɜ (ɫɨɞɟɪɠɢɦɨɟ 21 ɠɟɥɭɞɤɨɜ, 348 ɷɤɫɤɪɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ)
ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɤɚɤ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɟ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɤɨɪɦɚ (ɬɚɛɥ.). ɂɡ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ
ɬɚɛɥɢɰɵ ɜɢɞɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɨɫɧɨɜɭ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɡɜɟɪɶɤɚ ɜɨ ɜɫɟ ɫɟɡɨɧɵ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ
ɩɬɢɰɵ (34,8), ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɟ (23,7%). Ɇɵɲɢ ɢ ɩɨɥɟɜɤɢ ɛɨɥɶɲɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ
ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɜ ɩɢɳɭ ɜɟɫɧɨɣ. Ɂɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɭɸ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɪɚɰɢɨɧɚ ɤɭɧɢɰɵ
ɡɚɧɢɦɚɸɬ ɛɟɫɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɟ (24,5 % ɢ 23,7 %). ɂɡ ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ
ɤɨɪɦɨɜ ɜ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɝɨɞɚ ɯɨɪɨɲɨ ɩɨɟɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɲɢɩɨɜɧɢɤ (9,9 %), ɨɞɧɚɤɨ, ɜ
144
ɡɢɦɧɢɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɬɟɧɢɟ ɨɬɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɪɹɛɢɧɟ. Ʉ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɦ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɚɦ,
ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɳɢɦ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ, ɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹ ɧɚɥɢɱɢɟ ɤɨɪɦɨɜ, ɢɯ
ɞɨɫɬɭɩɧɨɫɬɶ ɢ ɡɚɳɢɬɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ.
Ʉɚɦɟɧɧɚɹ ɤɭɧɢɰɚ ɡɚɧɢɦɚɟɬ ɥɢɞɢɪɭɸɳɟɟ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɩɢɳɟɜɨɣ ɰɟɩɢ ɢ
ɤɨɧɤɭɪɢɪɭɟɬ ɫ ɞɪɭɝɢɦɢ ɜɢɞɚɦɢ ɫɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɚ ɤɭɧɶɢɯ. Ɉɧɚ ɜɵɬɟɫɧɹɟɬ ɢɡ
ɬɪɨɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɰɟɩɢ ɝɨɪɧɨɫɬɚɹ, ɥɚɫɤɭ, ɚ ɢɧɨɝɞɚ ɢ ɥɟɫɧɭɸ ɤɭɧɢɰɭ, ɫɜɨɢɯ
ɝɥɚɜɧɟɣɲɢɯ ɤɨɧɤɭɪɟɧɬɨɜ ɩɨ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɸ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɪɦɚ – ɦɵɲɟɜɢɞɧɵɯ
ɝɪɵɡɭɧɨɜ.
Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɜ ɪɚɰɢɨɧ ɤɚɦɟɧɧɨɣ ɤɭɧɢɰɵ ɜɯɨɞɹɬ ɫɚɦɵɟ
ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɟ ɤɨɪɦɚ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ, ɨɧɚ
ɭɫɩɟɲɧɨ ɡɚɧɢɦɚɟɬ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɢ ɛɨɝɚɬɵɟ ɤɨɪɦɚɦɢ ɢ ɡɚɳɢɬɧɵɦɢ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɦɢ
ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ, ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɰɟɧɧɵɦ ɩɭɲɧɵɦ ɡɜɟɪɟɦ ɢ ɨɞɧɢɦ ɢɡ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ
ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɵɯ ɨɯɨɬɧɢɱɶɢɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ..
Ɋɚɡɦɧɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɤɚɦɟɧɧɨɣ ɤɭɧɢɰɵ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɜɚɠɧɵɦ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɦ ɜ ɠɢɡɧɢ,
ɬɚɤ ɤɚɤ ɷɬɨ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɟɧɢɟ ɪɨɞɚ
ɢ ɢɯ ɞɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɟ.
ɉɨɞɝɨɬɨɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɤ ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɟɧɢɸ, ɟɝɨ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɧɚ
ɩɪɨɬɹɠɟɧɢɢ
ɷɜɨɥɸɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ
ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚ
ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ
ɜɧɭɬɪɢɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɵɦɢ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹɦɢ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɨɫɨɛɹɦɢ ɢ ɜɨ ɦɧɨɝɨɦ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ
ɨɬ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ ɠɢɡɧɢ, ɥɢɦɢɬɢɪɭɸɳɢɯ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ, ɜ ɰɟɥɨɦ ɨɬ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ
ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ [9]. ɍ ɤɚɦɟɧɧɨɣ ɤɭɧɢɰɵ ɝɨɧ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɜ ɜɟɫɟɧɧɟ-ɥɟɬɧɢɣ
ɩɟɪɢɨɞ, ɩɪɢɛɥɢɡɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ, ɫɨ ɜɬɨɪɨɣ ɞɟɤɚɞɵ ɚɩɪɟɥɹ ɩɨ ɢɸɥɶ. ɇɚɦɢ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɵ
ɫɥɭɱɚɢ ɝɨɧɚ ɜ ɩɟɪɜɨɣ ɞɟɤɚɞɟ ɚɜɝɭɫɬɚ.
ɉɨ ɦɧɟɧɢɸ ɦɧɨɝɢɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɟɣ, ɪɚɫɬɹɧɭɬɨɫɬɶ ɫɪɨɤɨɜ ɝɨɧɚ
ɨɛɴɹɫɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɧɟɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɦ ɫɩɚɪɢɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɫɚɦɰɨɜ ɢ ɫɚɦɨɤ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ
ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɦɢ ɮɢɡɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɹɦɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɢ ɩɪɨɬɟɤɚɧɢɟɦ ɢɯ
ɪɟɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɰɢɤɥɨɜ. ȼ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦ, ɛɟɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɞɥɢɬɫɹ ɨɤɨɥɨ 9 ɦɟɫɹɰɟɜ
ɢ ɞɟɬɟɧɵɲɢ ɩɨɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɫɜɟɬ ɜɟɫɧɨɣ ɭɠɟ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɟɝɨ ɝɨɞɚ – ɜ ɚɩɪɟɥɟ ɩɟɪɜɨɣ ɞɟɤɚɞɟ ɦɚɹ. ȼ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɟ ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɭ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɜɵɪɚɛɨɬɚɥɢɫɶ
ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɟ ɪɟɝɭɥɹɬɨɪɧɵɟ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɧɚ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɢ
ɬɟɦɩɵ ɜɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ [2]. ȼɫɟ ɷɬɨ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɪɚɧɧɢɦ ɩɨɥɨɜɵɦ
ɫɨɡɪɟɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɦɨɥɨɞɵɯ ɨɫɨɛɟɣ ɨɛɨɟɝɨ ɩɨɥɚ, ɜɫɬɭɩɥɟɧɢɟɦ ɢɯ ɜ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫ
ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɟɧɢɹ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɡɚ ɫɱɟɬ ɭɱɚɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ ɜɡɪɨɫɥɵɯ ɫɚɦɨɤ ɜ ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɟɧɢɢ
ɢ ɢɯ ɩɪɢɩɥɨɞɚ. ȼ ɜɵɜɨɞɤɟ ɨɛɵɱɧɨ ɢɦɟɟɬɫɹ 2-4 ɞɟɬɟɧɵɲɚ ɢ ɨɱɟɧɶ ɪɟɞɤɨ 5.
Ɂɜɟɪɟɤ ɭɫɬɪɚɢɜɚɟɬ ɫɜɨɢ ɭɛɟɠɢɳɚ ɜ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɦɟɫɬɚɯ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɦɨɠɧɨ
ɪɚɡɞɟɥɢɬɶ ɧɚ ɞɜɟ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ: ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɵɟ ɢ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɟ. Ʉ ɩɟɪɜɨɣ ɝɪɭɩɩɟ
ɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹ ɜɵɜɨɞɤɨɜɵɟ ɝɧɟɡɞɚ, ɝɞɟ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɪɨɠɞɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɬɨɦɫɬɜɚ ɢ ɟɝɨ
ɜɨɫɩɢɬɚɧɢɟ. ɋɟɦɶɢ ɤɭɧɢɰ ɜ ɬɚɤɢɯ ɝɧɟɡɞɚɯ ɧɚɯɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɞɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ.
ȼɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɟ ɭɛɟɠɢɳɚ ɨɛɵɱɧɨ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɩɨɱɬɢ ɤɪɭɝɥɵɣ ɝɨɞ, ɢ ɡɜɟɪɟɤ ɢɦɢ
ɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɩɨ ɦɟɪɟ ɧɚɞɨɛɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɫɪɚɜɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɧɟɞɨɥɝɨ.
ɂɧɮɟɤɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɛɨɥɟɡɧɢ ɭ ɤɚɦɟɧɧɨɣ ɤɭɧɢɰɵ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɵ ɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨ. ȼ
ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɥɭɱɚɹɯ ɤɭɧɢɰɵ ɩɨɞɜɟɪɠɟɧɵ ɜɢɪɭɫɧɵɦɢ ɢɥɢ ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ
ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɹɦɢ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɡɚɪɚɠɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɝɟɥɶɦɢɧɬɚɦɢ.
ȼ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ
ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ
ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢɢ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɬɶ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ ɧɚ
ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɭ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ. ȼ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɥɭɱɚɹɯ, ɡɜɟɪɢ
145
ɦɨɝɭɬ ɝɢɛɧɭɬɶ, ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɦɨɥɨɞɧɹɤ, ɨɬ ɢɫɬɨɳɟɧɢɹ, ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɜ ɡɢɦɧɢɣ
ɩɟɪɢɨɞ, ɤɨɝɞɚ ɬɪɭɞɧɨ ɞɨɛɵɜɚɬɶ ɤɨɪɦ.
ȼɪɚɝɨɜ ɭ ɤɚɦɟɧɧɨɣ ɤɭɧɢɰɵ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɫɱɢɬɚɬɶ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɜɨɥɤɚ, ɜɨɥɤɨɫɨɛɚɱɶɢ ɝɢɛɪɢɞɵ, ɨɞɢɱɚɜɲɢɯ ɫɨɛɚɤ ɢ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɠɢɜɭɬ ɜ ɦɟɫɬɚɯ
ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɡɜɟɪɶɤɨɜ [7]. ɇɚ ɦɨɥɨɞɵɟ ɨɫɨɛɢ ɤɭɧɢɰɵ ɧɚɩɚɞɚɸɬ ɨɞɢɱɚɜɲɢɟ
ɤɨɲɤɢ. Ƚɢɛɧɭɬ ɡɜɟɪɶɤɢ ɨɬ ɬɪɚɜɦ, ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɢ ɧɟɭɞɚɱɧɨɣ ɩɨɩɵɬɤɟ ɢɯ
ɞɨɛɵɱɢ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɨɦ. Ⱦɪɭɝɢɯ ɜɪɚɝɨɜ ɭ ɤɭɧɢɰ ɧɚɦɢ ɧɟ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɨ. Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɵɦɢ
ɤɨɧɤɭɪɟɧɬɚɦɢ ɭ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɯɨɪɶɤɢ, ɨɛɢɬɚɸɳɢɟ ɜ ɬɟɯ ɠɟ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɚɯ.
Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɤɚɦɟɧɧɚɹ ɤɭɧɢɰɚ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɨɞɧɢɦ ɢɡ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ
ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɜ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɟ. ȿɟ ɦɟɯ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɛɨɥɶɲɭɸ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ. ȼ
ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɡɜɟɪɟɤ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɮɨɧɨɜɵɦ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɦ ɢ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ
ɫɬɚɛɢɥɶɧɭɸ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ, ɡɚɝɨɬɨɜɤɢ ɟɟ ɧɟ ɜɟɞɭɬɫɹ, ɟɟ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ
ɤɚɤ ɩɭɲɧɨɝɨ ɡɜɟɪɹ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɨɟ.
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. Ȼɚɪɚɛɚɲ-ɇɢɤɢɮɨɪɨɜ ɂ.ɂ. Ɂɜɟɪɢ ɸɝɨ-ɜɨɫɬɨɱɧɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɑɟɪɧɨɡɟɦɧɨɝɨ ɰɟɧɬɪɚ.
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ: ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ ɤɧ. ɂɡɞ-ɜɨ, 1957. – 370 ɫ.
2. Ƚɟɩɬɧɟɪ ȼ.Ƚ., ɇɚɫɢɦɨɜɢɱ Ⱥ.Ⱥ., Ȼɚɧɧɢɤɨɜ Ⱥ.Ƚ. Ɇɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɟ
ɋɨɜɟɬɫɤɨɝɨ
ɋɨɸɡɚ. Ɇ. : ȼɵɫɲ. ɲɤ., 1961. 776 ɫ.
3. Ɉɝɧɟɜ ɋ.ɂ., ȼɨɪɨɛɶɟɜ Ʉ.Ⱥ. Ɏɚɭɧɚ ɧɚɡɟɦɧɵɯ ɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ
ɝɭɛɟɪɧɢɢ. – Ɇ.: ɇɨɜɚɹ ɞɟɪɟɜɧɹ, 1923. – 78 ɫ.
4. ɉɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɵ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ. ɉɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɟ. Ʉɚɞɚɫɬɪ.ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ: Ȼɢɨɧɢɤ, 1996. – 225 ɫ.
5. ɉɪɨɫɬɚɤɨɜ ɇ.ɂ., Ɉɛɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɧɫɤɢɣ ɋ.ɂ. ɉɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɟ ɸɝɨ-ɡɚɩɚɞɧɨɣ
ɱɚɫɬɢ ɍɫɦɚɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɛɨɪɚ ɢ ɢɯ ɨɯɪɚɧɚ //ɋɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɢ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɍɫɦɚɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɛɨɪɚ. –
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ, 1992. – ɋ. 6-18 (Ɍɪ. ɛɢɨɥ. ɭɱɟɛ.-ɧɚɭɱɧ. ɛɚɡɵ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ. ɝɨɫ. ɭ-ɬɚ
«ȼɟɧɟɧɜɢɬɢɧɨɜɨ»; ȼɵɩ 1).
6. ɉɪɨɫɬɚɤɨɜ ɇ.ɂ. ɇɨɜɵɟ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɩɨ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɸ ɢ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɸ ɤɚɦɟɧɧɨɣ
ɤɭɧɢɰɵ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ // ɋɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɢ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ
ɋɪɟɞɧɟɪɭɫɫɤɨɣ ɥɟɫɨɫɬɟɩɢ. – ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ, 2001. – ɋ. 38-41. – (Ɍɪ. ɛɢɨɥ. ɭɱɟɛ.-ɧɚɭɱ. ɰɟɧɬɪɚ
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ. ɝɨɫ. ɭ-ɬɚ "ȼɟɧɟɜɢɬɢɧɨɜɨ"; ȼɵɩ. ɏɍ).
7. Ɋɹɛɨɜ Ʌ.ɋ. Ʉɚɦɟɧɧɚɹ ɢ ɥɟɫɧɚɹ ɤɭɧɢɰɵ ɜ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ. – Ȼɢɥɥ.Ɇɨɫɤ. ɨɜɚ ɢɫɩɵɬ. ɉɪɢɪɨɞɵ. Ɉɬɞ. Ȼɢɨɥɨɝɢɢ. – 1976. - ʋ 4. – ɫ. 24-37.
8. Ɋɭɤɨɜɫɤɢɣ ɇ.ɇ. ɍɛɟɠɢɳɟ ɱɟɬɜɟɪɨɧɨɝɢɯ. – Ɇ.: Ⱥɝɪɨɩɪɨɦɢɡɞɚɬ, 1991. – 141 ɫ.
9. ɋɢɞɨɪɨɜɢɱ ȼ.ȿ. ɇɨɪɤɢ, ɜɵɞɪɚ, ɥɚɫɤɚ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɟ ɤɭɧɶɢ. – Ɇɢɧɫɤ: ɍɪɚɞɠɚɣ, 1995. 191 ɫ.
THE STONE MARTEN (MARTES FOINA ERST.) IN THE MIDDLE
RUSSIAN FOREST-STEPPE
N.I. Prostakov, N.M. Yeriomina
Voronezh State University, Voronezh, Russia
Ecology and biology of the stone marten stuided in conditions of forest-steppe
146
ɍȾɄ 574.5
ɈɐȿɇɄȺ ɋɈȼɊȿɆȿɇɇɈȽɈ ɗɄɈɅɈȽɂɑȿɋɄɈȽɈ ɋɈɋɌɈəɇɂə
ɈɁ. ȻȺɅɏȺɒ ɉɈ ɁɈɈɉɅȺɇɄɌɈɇɍ
ɇ.ɇ. ɋɚɞɵɪɛɚɟɜɚ
Ȼɚɥɯɚɲɫɤɢɣ ɮɢɥɢɚɥ ɌɈɈ «Ʉɚɡɚɯɫɤɨɝɨ ɧɚɭɱɧɨ-ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ
ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬɚ ɪɵɛɧɨɝɨ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚ», ɝ. Ȼɚɥɯɚɲ, Ɋɟɫɩɭɛɥɢɤɚ Ʉɚɡɚɯɫɬɚɧ
E-mail: [email protected])
ȼ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɣ ɪɚɛɨɬɟ ɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɜɨɞɵ ɨɡ. Ȼɚɥɯɚɲ ɩɨ
ɡɨɨɩɥɚɧɤɬɨɧɭ ɧɚ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɦ ɷɬɚɩɟ ɫ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟɦ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ
ɢɧɞɟɤɫɚ ɜɢɞɨɜɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɒɟɧɧɨɧɚ ɢ ɢɧɞɟɤɫ ɫɚɩɪɨɛɧɨɫɬɢ.
Ⱥɤɜɚɬɨɪɢɹ ɨɡɟɪɚ Ȼɚɥɯɚɲ ɭɫɥɨɜɧɨ ɪɚɡɞɟɥɟɧɚ ɧɚ 5 ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ,
ɨɬɥɢɱɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ
ɞɪɭɝ
ɨɬ
ɞɪɭɝɚ
ɪɹɞɨɦ
ɮɢɡɢɤɨ-ɝɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ,
ɝɢɞɪɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢ ɝɢɞɪɨɯɢɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɱɟɪɬ, ɜɥɢɹɸɳɢɯ ɧɚ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟ
ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ ɢ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɝɢɞɪɨɮɚɭɧɵ ɢ ɮɥɨɪɵ (ɪɢɫ. 1) [1].
Ɋɢɫ. 1. ȿɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɪɚɣɨɧɵ ɨɡ. Ȼɚɥɯɚɲ (ɩɨ ɉ.Ɏ. Ⱦɨɦɪɚɱɟɜɭ).
Ɉɰɟɧɤɚ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɜɨɞɵ ɩɨ ɝɢɞɪɨɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɪɚɣɨɧɚɦ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɚɫɶ
ɩɨ ɢɧɞɢɤɚɬɨɪɧɵɦ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦɚɦ ɩɨ ɦɟɬɨɞɚɦ ɉɚɧɬɥɟ-Ȼɭɤɚ ɜ ɦɨɞɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢ ȼ.
ɋɥɚɞɟɱɟɤɚ [4, 6, 7, 8] ɫ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟɦ ɫɪɟɞɧɢɯ ɢɧɞɟɤɫɨɜ ɫɚɩɪɨɛɧɨɫɬɢ, ɚ
ɬɚɤɠɟ ɢɧɞɟɤɫɨɜ ɜɢɞɨɜɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɒɟɧɧɨɧɚ.
ȼ ɜɟɝɟɬɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ 2013 ɝ. ɡɨɨɩɥɚɧɤɬɨɧ ɨɡ. Ȼɚɥɯɚɲ ɛɵɥ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧ 51 ɬɚɤɫɨɧɨɦ, ɢɡ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɤɨɥɨɜɪɚɬɤɢ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɢ 29 ɜɢɞɨɜ ɢ
ɩɨɞɜɢɞɨɜ, ɜɟɬɜɢɫɬɨɭɫɵɟ ɪɚɤɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɟ – 10, ɜɟɫɥɨɧɨɝɢɟ – 12.
ɇɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɟɟ ɱɢɫɥɨ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɛɵɥɨ ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɨ ɜ I ɪɚɣɨɧɟ (41 ɬɚɤɫɨɧ),
ɧɚɢɦɟɧɶɲɟɟ ɜ IV ɢ V ɪɚɣɨɧɚɯ (ɩɨ 8 ɬɚɤɫɨɧɨɜ). Ʉ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɦ ɜɢɞɚɦ,
ɩɨɥɭɱɢɜɲɢɦ ɲɢɪɨɤɨɟ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɩɨ ɜɫɟɣ ɚɤɜɚɬɨɪɢɢ ɨɡɟɪɚ, ɜɤɥɸɱɚɹ
ɥɢɬɨɪɚɥɶɧɭɸ ɢ ɩɟɥɚɝɢɚɥɶɧɭɸ ɡɨɧɭ, ɨɬɧɟɫɟɧɵ 5 ɜɢɞɨɜ – Diaphanosoma
147
lacustris Korinek, Daphnia galeata Sars, Arctodiaptomus salinus Baird,
Mesocyclops leuckarti Claus ɢ Thermocyclops crassus Fischer. ɑɚɫɬɨɬɚ ɢɯ
ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɟɦɨɫɬɢ ɜ ɩɪɨɛɚɯ ɨɬ 70 ɞɨ 100 %, ɡɚ ɢɫɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟɦ D. galeata, ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ
ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɪɚɣɨɧɚɯ ȼɨɫɬɨɱɧɨɝɨ Ȼɚɥɯɚɲɚ (54,8 %).
ɂɡ ɤɨɥɨɜɪɚɬɨɤ ɜ ɡɚɥɢɜɚɯ Ɂɚɩɚɞɧɨɝɨ Ȼɚɥɯɚɲɚ (I ɢ II ɝɢɞɪɨɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ
ɪɚɣɨɧɵ) ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɱɚɳɟ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɥɢɫɶ ɤɨɥɨɜɪɚɬɤɢ Polyarthra dolichoptera
dolichoptera Idelson, Euchlanis dilatata dilatata Leydig ɢ Brachionus angularis
bidens Plate (16,7 % ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɟɦɨɫɬɢ).
ȿɫɥɢ
ɜ
ɩɪɨɲɥɵɟ
ɝɨɞɵ
ɬɚɤɫɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ
ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟ
ɝɢɞɪɨɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɪɚɣɨɧɨɜ ȼɨɫɬɨɱɧɨɝɨ Ȼɚɥɯɚɲɚ ɫɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɥɨɫɶ ɡɚ ɫɱɟɬ
ɩɪɢɭɫɬɶɟɜɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɨɜ ɪɟɤ Ʉɚɪɚɬɚɥ, Ʌɟɩɫɵ, Ⱥɤɫɭ ɢ Ⱥɹɝɨɡ, ɬɨ ɜ 2013 ɝ. ɬɚɤɨɝɨ
ɧɟ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɥɨɫɶ. Ʉ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɦ ɜɢɞɚɦ ɡɞɟɫɶ ɞɨɛɚɜɢɥɢɫɶ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɞɜɚ ɬɚɤɫɨɧɚ
ɤɨɥɨɜɪɚɬɨɤ, ɩɨɥɭɱɢɜɲɢɦ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɟɟ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ – Keratella
cochlearis cochlearis Gosse (20,7 %) ɢ Hexarthra oxyuris Zernov (24,1 %). ȼ
ɜɢɞɨɜɨɦ
ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢ
ɢɡ
ɜɨɫɬɨɱɧɵɯ
ɪɚɣɨɧɨɜ
ɜɵɞɟɥɢɥɫɹ
III
ɝɢɞɪɨɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɪɚɣɨɧ – ɡɞɟɫɶ ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɨ 12 ɬɚɤɫɨɧɨɜ.
ɂɡ ɨɛɳɟɝɨ ɱɢɫɥɚ ɡɨɨɩɥɚɧɤɬɨɧɧɵɯ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ ɨɡ. Ȼɚɥɯɚɲ ɜ 2013 ɝ.
ɛɵɥɨ ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɨ 39 ɜɢɞɨɜ-ɢɧɞɢɤɚɬɨɪɨɜ ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɟɧɢɹ ɜɨɞɵ, ɢɡ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ
ɧɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɟɟ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ ɩɨɥɭɱɢɥɢ ɜɢɞɵ-ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ ɨ (ɨɥɢɝɨ) – 33,3 %, ȕ (ɛɟɬɚ)
– 19,6 % ɫɚɩɪɨɛɧɨɫɬɟɣ, ɨ-ȕ (ɨɥɢɝɨ-ɛɟɬɚ) – 17,6 % ɦɟɡɨɫɚɩɪɨɛɧɨɫɬɟɣ.
ɂɧɞɟɤɫ ɫɚɩɪɨɛɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɨ ɝɢɞɪɨɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɪɚɣɨɧɚɦ ɜɚɪɶɢɪɨɜɚɥ ɨɬ
1,04 ɞɨ 1,26, ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɹ ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦ ɩɨ ɡɚɩɚɞɧɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɨɡɟɪɚ 1,25, ɩɨ
ɜɨɫɬɨɱɧɨɣ 1,09 ɢ ɩɨ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɭ ɜ ɰɟɥɨɦ 1,15, ɱɬɨ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɟɬ
ɨɥɢɝɨɫɚɩɪɨɛɧɵɦ ɱɢɫɬɵɦ ɜɨɞɚɦ (ɬɚɛɥ. 1).
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 1
Ƚɢɞɪɨɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɪɚɣɨɧ
Ɉɰɟɧɤɚ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ ɨɡ. Ȼɚɥɯɚɲ ɩɨ ɡɨɨɩɥɚɧɤɬɨɧɭ 2013 ɝ.
ɂɧɞɟɤɫɵ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ ɡɨɨɩɥɚɧɤɬɨɧɚ
ɢɧɞɟɤɫ ɒɟɧɧɨɧɚɍɢɜɟɪɚ (H), ɛɢɬ/ɷɤɡ.
ɢɧɞɟɤɫ ɫɚɩɪɨɛɧɨɫɬɢ (i)
min-max
I
II
1,09-1,58
1,13-1,41
III
IV
V
1,0-1,18
1,07-1,21
1,0-1,11
ɋɪɟɞɧɢɟ
Ɂɚɩɚɞɧɵɣ Ȼɚɥɯɚɲ
1,24
1,26
ȼɨɫɬɨɱɧɵɣ Ȼɚɥɯɚɲ
1,10
1,12
1,04
min-max
ɫɪɟɞɧɢɟ
0,27-1,93
0,82-1,91
1,32
1,31
0,64-1,89
1,12-2,02
1,23-1,75
1,57
1,60
1,46
ɡɨɧɚ
ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɟɧɢɹ
ɨ-ɨɥɢɝɨɫɚɩɪɨɛɧɚɹ,
ɱɢɫɬɚɹ
ɋɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɨɬɦɟɬɢɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɫɪɟɞɧɢɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ ɢɧɞɟɤɫɚ ɫɚɩɪɨɛɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɨ
Ɂɚɩɚɞɧɨɦɭ Ȼɚɥɯɚɲɭ (I ɢ II ɪɚɣɨɧɵ) ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɜɵɲɟ ɬɚɤɨɜɵɯ ȼɨɫɬɨɱɧɨɝɨ
Ȼɚɥɯɚɲɚ (III, IV ɢ V ɪɚɣɨɧɵ), ɱɬɨ ɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɧɚ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɟ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ
148
ɨɪɝɚɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɟɳɟɫɬɜɚ ɜ ɜɨɞɟ ɡɚɩɚɞɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɨɜɢɧɵ ɨɡɟɪɚ. ɂɧɞɟɤɫ
ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɒɟɧɧɨɧɚ-ɍɢɜɟɪɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɧɚ ɷɬɭ ɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɸ,
ɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɹ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɧɢɡɤɢɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɡɚɩɚɞɧɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɨɡ. Ȼɚɥɯɚɲ.
ȼ 2012 ɝ., ɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ ɢɧɞɟɤɫɚ ɫɚɩɪɨɛɧɨɫɬɢ, ɧɚ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɟ ɛɵɥɨ ɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɨ
ɩɹɬɶ ɭɦɟɪɟɧɧɨ-ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɟɧɧɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɨɜ: ɩɨ Ɂɚɩɚɞɧɨɦɭ Ȼɚɥɯɚɲɭ – ɡɚɥɢɜɵ
Ȼɟɪɬɵɫ (1,55), ɒɭɛɚɪɬɸɛɟɤ (1,55) ɢ ɭɫɬɶɟ ɪ. ɂɥɟ (2,1), ɩɨ ȼɨɫɬɨɱɧɨɦɭ –
ɍɡɵɧɚɪɚɥɶɫɤɢɟ ɩɪɨɬɨɤɢ (1,6) ɢ ɭɫɬɶɟ ɪ. Ʌɟɩɫɵ (1,6). ȼ 2013 ɝ. ɥɢɲɶ ɨɞɢɧ
ɭɱɚɫɬɨɤ ɢɡ ɡɚɩɚɞɧɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɨɡɟɪɚ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɨɜɚɥ ɭɦɟɪɟɧɧɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ
ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɜɨɞɵ – ɩɪɨɬɢɜ ɩɪɨɬɨɤɚ ɂɣɪ (1,58). ɂɧɞɟɤɫ ɒɟɧɧɨɧɚ ɧɚ ɷɬɨɦ
ɭɱɚɫɬɤɟ ɨɤɚɡɚɥɫɹ ɫɚɦɵɦ ɧɢɡɤɢɦ ɩɨ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɭ – 0,27 ɛɢɬ.
Ɉɫɧɨɜɭ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɟɣ ɩɨ ɝɢɞɪɨɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɪɚɣɨɧɚɦ
ɫɨɡɞɚɜɚɥɢ ɪɚɤɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɟ. ɉɨ ɱɢɫɥɭ ɷɤɡɟɦɩɥɹɪɨɜ ɩɨ ɜɫɟɦ ɪɚɣɨɧɚɦ
ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɨɜɚɥɢ ɜɟɫɥɨɧɨɝɢɟ ɪɚɱɤɢ – 51,4-63,4-64,7-54,8-63,2 %%, ɚ ɩɨ
ɛɢɨɦɚɫɫɟ ɜɟɬɜɢɫɬɨɭɫɵɟ – 64,5-56,6-57,9-59,9-51,1 %% (ɬɚɛɥ. 2).
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 2
Ʉɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ ɡɨɨɩɥɚɧɤɬɨɧɚ ɩɨ ɝɢɞɪɨɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɪɚɣɨɧɚɦ ɨɡ. Ȼɚɥɯɚɲ ɜ
ɢɸɥɟ-ɚɜɝɭɫɬɟ 2013 ɝ., ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ (ɚ) – ɬɵɫ. ɷɤɡ./ɦ3, ɛɢɨɦɚɫɫɚ (ɛ) – ɝ/ɦ3
Ƚɢɞɪɨɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɪɚɣɨɧ
Ƚɪɭɩɩɚ
ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡ
I
II
III
IV
V
ɦɨɜ
ɚ
Ȼ
ɚ
ɛ
ɚ
ɛ
Ⱥ
ɛ
ɚ
ɛ
Ʉɨɥɨɜɪɚɬ
0,001 2,236
0,001
0,132 <0,001 7,017 0,003 1,542 0,001
ɤɢ
1,704
ȼɟɬɜɢɫɬɨɭ
2,573 52,345 2,345 39,337 2,253 40,081 1,935 19,280 0,742
ɫɵɟ
60,462
ȼɟɫɥɨɧɨɝ
1,594 66,767 1,253 72,515 1,635 57,065 1,291 35,823 0,708
ɢɟ
71,755
ȼɫɟɝɨ
133,921 4,168 121,348 3,599 111,984 3,888 104,163 3,229 56,645 1,451
ɉɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ ɡɨɨɩɥɚɧɤɬɨɧɚ ɩɨ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɭ ɜɚɪɶɢɪɨɜɚɥɢ ɜ
ɛɨɥɶɲɢɯ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɯ – ɜ I-ɨɦ ɪɚɣɨɧɟ ɨɬ 0,317 ɝ/ɦ3 ɞɨ 13,606 ɝ/ɦ3, ɜɨ II-ɨɦ – ɨɬ
0,740 ɝ/ɦ3 ɞɨ 13,440 ɝ/ɦ3, ɜ III-ɟɦ ɛɢɨɦɚɫɫɵ ɤɨɥɟɛɚɥɢɫɶ ɨɬ 1,002 ɞɨ 8,779
ɝ/ɦ3, ɜ IV-ɨɦ ɢ V-ɨɦ ɪɚɣɨɧɚɯ ɞɢɚɩɚɡɨɧ ɛɢɨɦɚɫɫ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɫɨɤɪɚɬɢɥɫɹ – ɜ IV
– 0,755-6,026 ɝ/ɦ3, ɜ V – 0,306-2,838 ɝ/ɦ3.
ɉɨ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɧɵɦ ɞɚɧɧɵɦ (Ȼɟɫɫɨɧɨɜ, 1987; ɋɟɦɟɪɧɨɣ, 2006) ɤɚɠɞɨɦɭ
ɤɥɚɫɫɭ ɫɚɩɪɨɛɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɤɥɚɫɫɵ ɭɪɨɜɧɟɣ
ɬɪɨɮɧɨɫɬɢ. ɋɪɟɞɧɢɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɡɨɨɩɥɚɧɤɬɨɧɚ ɨɡ. Ȼɚɥɯɚɲ ɩɨ
ɝɢɞɪɨɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɪɚɣɨɧɚɦ ɜ 2013 ɝ. ɜɚɪɶɢɪɨɜɚɥ ɨɬ ɦɟɡɨɬɪɨɮɧɨɝɨ ɞɨ
ɟɜɬɨɪɨɮɧɨɝɨ ɬɢɩɚ (1,451-4,168 ɝ/ɦ3), ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɹ ɦɟɡɨɬɪɨɮɧɨɦɭ
ɬɢɩɭ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɚ (3,363 ɝ/ɦ3).
ɂɫɯɨɞɹ ɢɡ ɜɵɲɟɢɡɥɨɠɟɧɧɨɝɨ, ɦɨɠɧɨ ɫɞɟɥɚɬɶ ɜɵɜɨɞ, ɱɬɨ ɨɡ. Ȼɚɥɯɚɲ ɧɚ
ɫɟɝɨɞɧɹɲɧɢɣ ɦɨɦɟɧɬ ɩɨ ɫɜɨɢɦ ɫɚɩɪɨɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɢ ɬɪɨɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ
ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɹɦ ɛɥɢɠɟ ɤ ɨɥɢɝɨɫɚɩɪɨɛɧɨɦɭ ɤɥɚɫɫɭ ɱɢɫɬɵɯ ɜɨɞ ɦɟɡɨɬɪɨɮɧɨɝɨ
ɬɢɩɚ [2, 3, 5].
149
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. Ⱥɦɛɪɨɫɨɜ ȼ.ɇ. Ɉɡɟɪɨ Ȼɚɥɯɚɲ. – Ʌ.: ɇɚɭɤɚ, 1973. – 180 ɫ.
2. Ȼɟɫɫɨɧɨɜ ɇ.Ɇ., ɉɪɢɜɟɡɟɧɰɟɜ ɘ.Ⱥ. Ɋɵɛɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɚɹ ɝɢɞɪɨɯɢɦɢɹ. – Ɇ.: ȼɈ
Ⱥɝɪɨɩɪɨɦɢɡɞɚɬ, 1987. – 160 ɫ.
3. Ʉɢɬɚɟɜ ɋ. ɉ. ɗɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɵ ɛɢɨɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɡɟɪ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ
ɡɨɧ. – Ɇ.: ɇɚɭɤɚ, 1984. – ɋ. 129-131.
4. Ɇɚɤɪɭɲɢɧ Ⱥ. ȼ. Ȼɢɛɥɢɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɭɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶ ɩɨ ɬɟɦɟ «Ȼɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ
ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɜɨɞ» ɫ ɩɪɢɥɨɠɟɧɢɟɦ ɫɩɢɫɤɚ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ-ɢɧɞɢɤɚɬɨɪɨɜ ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɟɧɢɹ. – Ʌ.: ɂɡɞ-ɜɨ
Ɂɂɇ, 1974. – 53 ɫ.
5. ɋɟɦɟɪɧɨɣ ȼ. ɉ. ɋɚɧɢɬɚɪɧɚɹ ɝɢɞɪɨɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɹ. ɍɱɟɛɧɨɟ ɩɨɫɨɛɢɟ. – əɪɨɫɥɚɜɥɶ, 2006.
- ɋ. 35.
6. Sladecek V. System of water quality from the biological point of view // Archiv
Hydrobiol. Ergebnisse der Limnologie. 1973. Ht. 7. P. 1-218.
7. ɍɧɢɮɢɰɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ ɦɟɬɨɞɵ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɜɨɞ. Ɇɟɬɨɞɵ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ
ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ ɜɨɞ. – Ɇ.: ɂɡɞ. ɋɗȼ, 1976, – ɑɚɫɬɶ III. – 185 ɫ.
8. ɍɧɢɮɢɰɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ ɦɟɬɨɞɵ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɜɨɞ. ɂɧɞɢɤɚɬɨɪɵ
ɫɚɩɪɨɛɧɨɫɬɢ. – Ɇ.: ɂɡɞ. ɋɗȼ, 1977, – ɉɪɢɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ 1. – 88 ɫ.
ASSESSMENT OF THE CURRENT ECOLOGICAL STATE
THE LAKE BALKHASH ON THE ZOOPLANKTON
N.N. Sadyrbayeva
Balkhash branch of LLP "The Kazakh research
fishery institute", Balkhash, Republic of Kazakhstan
E-mail: [email protected]
In the real work the assessment of quality of water of the lake Balkhash on a
zooplankton at the present stage with application of information index of a
specific variety of Shannon and a saprobnost index is given.
ɍȾɄ: 639.11(571.56-14)
ɋɈɋɌɈəɇɂȿ ɉɍɒɇɈɉɊɈɆɕɋɅɈȼɕɏ ɀɂȼɈɌɇɕɏ
ȼ ɘȽɈ-ɁȺɉȺȾɇɈɃ əɄɍɌɂɂ
ȼ.Ɍ. ɋɟɞɚɥɢɳɟɜ, ȼ.Ⱥ. Ɉɞɧɨɤɭɪɰɟɜ
ɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ ɤɪɢɨɥɢɬɨɡɨɧɵ ɋɈ ɊȺɇ
677891 ɝ. əɤɭɬɫɤ, ɩɪ. Ʌɟɧɢɧɚ 41, E-mail: [email protected]
ɉɪɢɜɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɩɨ ɩɨɫɥɟɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɨɣ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ 8 ɜɢɞɨɜ
ɩɭɲɧɨɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɵɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɢ ɭɱɺɬɭ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɦɵɲɟɜɢɞɧɵɯ ɝɪɵɡɭɧɨɜ.
ɇɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɢɣ ɭɞɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɜɟɫ ɜ ɡɚɝɨɬɨɜɤɚɯ ɩɭɲɧɢɧɵ ɩɪɢɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɫɨɛɨɥɹ
(98,9% ɨɬ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɜɫɟɣ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɨɣ ɩɭɲɧɢɧɵ ɡɚɝɨɬɨɜɥɟɧɧɨɣ ɘɝɨɁɚɩɚɞɧɨɣ əɤɭɬɢɢ). ɋɧɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɡɚɝɨɬɨɜɨɤ ɲɤɭɪɨɤ ɛɟɥɤɢ, ɝɨɪɧɨɫɬɚɹ, ɤɨɥɨɧɤɚ ɢ
ɚɦɟɪɢɤɚɧɫɤɨɣ ɧɨɪɤɢ, ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦ ɜɵɡɜɚɧɨ ɫ ɧɢɡɤɢɦɢ ɡɚɤɭɩɨɱɧɵɦɢ ɰɟɧɚɦɢ ɢ
ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɨɦ ɨɯɨɬɧɢɤɨɜ ɧɚ ɞɨɛɵɱɭ ɫɨɛɨɥɹ.
150
ɘɝɨ-Ɂɚɩɚɞɧɚɹ əɤɭɬɢɹ (Ʌɟɧɫɤɢɣ ɢ Ɉɥɺɤɦɢɧɫɤɢɣ ɪɚɣɨɧɵ) ɡɚɧɢɦɚɸɬ
ɸɝɨ-ɡɚɩɚɞɧɭɸ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɜɟɪɯɧɟɝɨ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɪ. Ʌɟɧɵ. ȼ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɵ ɷɬɢɯ ɪɚɣɨɧɨɜ
ɡɚɯɨɞɹɬ ɩɨɞɧɹɬɢɹ ɋɪɟɞɧɟɫɢɛɢɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɥɨɫɤɨɝɨɪɶɹ, Ɉɥɺɤɦɨ-ɑɚɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɢ
ɉɚɬɨɦɫɤɨɝɨ ɧɚɝɨɪɶɹ, ɨɬɪɨɝɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ ɡɞɟɫɶ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɫɝɥɚɠɟɧɵ. Ʉɥɢɦɚɬ
ɷɬɢɯ ɪɚɣɨɧɨɜ, ɩɨ ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɸ ɫ ɞɪɭɝɢɦɢ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɦɢ ɪɟɫɩɭɛɥɢɤɢ, ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ
ɦɹɝɤɢɣ.
Ɂɚ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ 20 ɥɟɬ ɜ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɟ ɨɬɦɟɬɢɥɚɫɶ ɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɹ ɫɨɤɪɚɳɟɧɢɹ
ɡɚɝɨɬɨɜɨɤ ɲɤɭɪɨɤ ɛɟɥɤɢ, ɝɨɪɧɨɫɬɚɹ, ɤɨɥɨɧɤɚ, ɨɧɞɚɬɪɵ. ɋɨɜɫɟɦ ɩɟɪɟɫɬɚɥɢ
ɩɨɫɬɭɩɚɬɶ ɜ ɡɚɝɨɬɨɜɤɢ ɲɤɭɪɤɢ ɥɢɫɵ ɢ ɚɦɟɪɢɤɚɧɫɤɨɣ ɧɨɪɤɢ. ȼ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɷɬɢɦ
ɦɵ ɩɪɨɜɟɥɢ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɨɜ ɩɨ ɡɢɦɧɟɦɭ ɭɱɺɬɭ (ɁɆɍ) ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ
ɩɭɲɧɨɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɵɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɡɚ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɫ 2005 ɩɨ 2011 ɝɝ. ɢ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɩɨ
ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɦɵɲɟɜɢɞɧɵɯ ɝɪɵɡɭɧɨɜ.
Ɇɚɬɟɪɢɚɥ ɛɵɥ ɫɨɛɪɚɧ ɜ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɩɨɥɟɜɵɯ ɪɚɛɨɬ ɜ ɦɚɪɬɟ-ɚɩɪɟɥɟ 20032005 ɝɝ. (Ɉɥɺɤɦɢɧɫɤɢɣ ɪɚɣɨɧ), ɚɜɝɭɫɬɟ 2006 ɝ. (Ʌɟɧɫɤɢɣ ɪɚɣɨɧ) ɢ ɜ ɢɸɥɟɚɜɝɭɫɬɟ 2011 ɝ. ɧɚ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɟ Ʌɟɧɫɤ – Ɉɥɟɤɦɢɧɫɤ (384 ɤɦ). ɍɱɺɬ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ
ɦɵɲɟɜɢɞɧɵɯ ɝɪɵɡɭɧɨɜ ɢ ɢɯ ɨɛɪɚɛɨɬɤɭ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɢ ɩɨ Ƚ.Ⱥ. ɇɨɜɢɤɨɜɭ [3]. ȼ
2006 ɝ. ɛɵɥɨ ɨɬɪɚɛɨɬɚɧɨ 476 ɞɚɜɢɥɤɨ-ɫɭɬɨɤ, ɚ 2011 ɝ. – 575 ɢ ɨɬɥɨɜɥɟɧɨ 97
ɢ 105 ɦɟɥɤɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ. Ʉɪɨɦɟ ɬɨɝɨ, ɛɵɥɢ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɵ ɚɧɤɟɬɧɵɟ
(n=345) ɢ ɨɩɪɨɫɧɵɟ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɨɬ ɨɯɨɬɧɢɤɨɜ, ɨɯɨɬɨɜɟɞɨɜ (85 ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤ).
Ⱦɨ 1970-ɯ ɝɨɞɨɜ ɜ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɟ ɡɚɝɨɬɚɜɥɢɜɚɥɢɫɶ ɲɤɭɪɤɢ 11 ɜɢɞɨɜ
ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɵɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ: ɛɟɥɤɚ, ɡɚɹɰ-ɛɟɥɹɤ, ɨɧɞɚɬɪɚ, ɚɦɟɪɢɤɚɧɫɤɚɹ ɧɨɪɤɚ,
ɝɨɪɧɨɫɬɚɣ, ɤɨɥɨɧɨɤ, ɫɨɛɨɥɶ, ɥɢɫɚ, ɜɨɥɤ, ɪɨɫɨɦɚɯɚ ɢ ɪɵɫɶ, ɢɡ ɧɢɯ ɜ
ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ 8 ɜɢɞɨɜ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɚɦɢ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɨɣ ɨɯɨɬɵ.
ȼ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɷɬɢɦ ɦɵ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɦ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɩɨ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɡɚɝɨɬɨɜɤɚɦ
ɷɬɢɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ. Ɉɫɬɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɜɢɞɵ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɪɨɥɢ ɜ ɡɚɝɨɬɨɜɤɚɯ ɩɭɲɧɢɧɵ ɧɟ
ɢɝɪɚɸɬ.
Ɉɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɚɹ ɛɟɥɤɚ. Ⱦɨ 70 – ɞɟɫɹɬɵɯ ɝɨɞɨɜ ɩɪɨɲɥɨɝɨ ɜɟɤɚ ɷɬɨɬ ɜɢɞ
ɛɵɥ ɨɞɢɧ ɢɡ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɩɭɲɧɨ-ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɵɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ. ȼɵɯɨɞ ɛɟɥɢɱɶɢɯ
ɲɤɭɪɨɤ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɥ 5-22 ɫ 1000 ɝɚ ɛɟɥɢɱɶɢɯ ɭɝɨɞɢɣ [2]. ȼ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ
ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɚɟɬɫɹ ɞɟɩɪɟɫɫɢɹ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɜɢɞɚ. Ɂɚ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɫ 2000 ɩɨ 20011 ɝɝ. ɜ
ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦ ɡɚ ɝɨɞ ɡɚɝɨɬɚɜɥɢɜɚɥɨɫɶ 15,2 ɬɵɫ. ɛɟɥɢɱɶɢɯ ɲɤɭɪɨɤ ɢ ɩɨ ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɸ
ɫ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɨɦ 1981-1990 ɝɝ. ɨɧɢ ɫɨɤɪɚɬɢɥɢɫɶ ɜ 4,7 ɪɚɡɚ (71,2 ɬɵɫ. ɲɬ. ɩɪɨɬɢɜ
15,2 ɬɵɫ. ɲɬ.). ɉɨ ɞɚɧɧɵɦ ɁɆɍ ɩɨɫɥɟɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɚɹ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɛɟɥɤɢ ɧɚ
ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɘɝɨ-Ɂɚɩɚɞɧɨɣ əɤɭɬɢɢ ɜ 2010 ɝ. ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɥɚ ɨɤɨɥɨ 400-450 ɬɵɫ.
ɨɫɨɛɟɣ.
Ɉɧɞɚɬɪɚ. Ɂɚ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɫ 1932 ɩɨ 1934 ɝɝ. ɢɡ Ʉɚɧɚɞɵ (57 ɷɤɡ.) ɢ
Ɏɢɧɥɹɧɞɢɢ (63 ɷɤɡ.) ɛɵɥɢ ɡɚɜɟɡɟɧɵ 120 ɨɧɞɚɬɪ, ɡɜɟɪɶɤɢ ɛɵɥɢ ɜɵɩɭɳɟɧɵ ɜ
ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɟ ɪ. Ɉɥɺɤɦɵ ɜ ɩɨɣɦɟɧɧɵɟ ɨɡɺɪɚ ɪ. Ɍɨɤɤɨ ɢ ɟɺ ɩɪɢɬɨɤɚ ɪ. Ɍɹɧɹ.
ɗɬɢɦɢ ɜɵɩɭɫɤɚɦɢ ɡɚɜɟɪɲɢɥɫɹ ɡɚɜɨɡ ɨɧɞɚɬɪɵ ɜ ɪɟɫɩɭɛɥɢɤɭ ɢɡɜɧɟ,
ɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɟɟ ɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟ ɪɚɫɫɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɡɜɟɪɶɤɨɜ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɥɨ ɡɚ ɫɱɺɬ
ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɜɲɟɣɫɹ ɬɨɤɤɢɧɫɤɨɣ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ. ȼɦɟɫɬɟ ɫ ɬɟɦ ɛɵɥɨ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɜ
ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɦɟɫɬɚɯ ɜɵɩɭɳɟɧɧɚɹ ɨɧɞɚɬɪɚ ɢɫɱɟɡɥɚ, ɢ ɷɬɨ ɢɫɱɟɡɧɨɜɟɧɢɟ
ɫɜɹɡɵɜɚɥɢ ɫ ɩɪɨɦɟɪɡɚɧɢɟɦ ɜɨɞɨɺɦɨɜ ɢ ɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɤɨɪɦɨɜ [1]. ȼ 50ɞɟɫɹɬɵɯ ɝɨɞɚɯ ɡɚɝɨɬɨɜɤɢ ɨɧɞɚɬɪɨɜɵɯ ɲɤɭɪɨɤ ɜ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɟ ɪɨɫɥɢ, ɢ ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦ
151
ɡɚ ɝɨɞ ɡɚɝɨɬɚɜɥɢɜɚɥɨɫɶ 13,6 ɬɵɫ. ɨɧɞɚɬɪɨɜɵɯ ɲɤɭɪɨɤ. ȼ ɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɳɟɦ ɨɧɢ
ɪɟɡɤɨ ɭɩɚɥɢ, ɢ ɜ 70-ɯ ɝɨɞɚɯ ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦ ɡɚ ɝɨɞ ɡɚɝɨɬɚɜɥɢɜɚɥɨɫɶ ɧɟ ɛɨɥɟɟ 1 ɬɵɫ.
ɲɤɭɪɨɤ, ɚ ɜ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ ɞɟɫɹɬɶ ɥɟɬ – ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦ ɡɚ ɝɨɞ 68 ɲɬ. ɑɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ
ɨɧɞɚɬɪɵ ɜ ɜɨɞɨɺɦɚɯ ɘɝɨ-Ɂɚɩɚɞɧɨɣ əɤɭɬɢɢ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɜ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɯ 1,5-2 ɬɵɫ.
ɨɫɨɛɟɣ.
Ƚɨɪɧɨɫɬɚɣ. ȼ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ ɝɨɞɵ ɡɚɝɨɬɨɜɤɢ ɝɨɪɧɨɫɬɚɟɜɵɯ ɲɤɭɪɨɤ
ɧɚɯɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɧɢɡɤɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ ɢ ɩɨ ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɸ ɫ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɨɦ 1981-1990 ɝɝ. ɨɧɢ
ɫɨɤɪɚɬɢɥɢɫɶ ɜ 380 ɪɚɡ (50200 ɲɬ. ɩɪɨɬɢɜ 131 ɲɬ.). ɉɨɫɥɟɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɚɹ
ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɜɢɞɚ ɜ ɦɚɪɬɟ 2010 ɝ. ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɥɚ 27-30 ɬɵɫ. ɝɨɥɨɜ.
Ʉɨɥɨɧɨɤ. Ɋɚɣɨɧɵ ɘɝɨ-Ɂɚɩɚɞɧɨɣ əɤɭɬɢɢ ɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹ ɤ ɡɨɧɟ ɫ ɨɱɟɧɶ
ɧɢɡɤɨɣ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɜɢɞɚ. ȼ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ ɝɨɞɵ ɡɚɝɨɬɨɜɤɢ ɲɤɭɪɨɤ ɤɨɥɨɧɤɚ
ɪɟɡɤɨ ɫɨɤɪɚɬɢɥɢɫɶ, ɢ ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦ ɡɚ ɝɨɞ ɡɚɝɨɬɚɜɥɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ 65 ɲɤɭɪɨɤ.
ɉɨɫɥɟɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɚɹ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɤɨɥɨɧɤɚ ɜ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɟ 2010 ɝ. ɛɵɥɚ ɨɤɨɥɨ 1
ɬɵɫ. ɨɫɨɛɟɣ
Ⱥɦɟɪɢɤɚɧɫɤɚɹ ɧɨɪɤɚ. Ⱥɤɤɥɢɦɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɧɨɪɤɢ ɛɵɥɨ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɨ ɜ
ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɟ Ɉɥɺɤɦɵ ɜ ɫɟɧɬɹɛɪɟ 1961 ɝ. 53 ɨɫɨɛɢ ɛɵɥɢ ɜɵɩɭɳɟɧɵ ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦ
ɬɟɱɟɧɢɢ Ɍɨɤɤɨ ɜ ɭɫɬɶɹ ɪɟɤ Ɍɨɪɝɨ ɢ ɑɚɪɭɨɞɚ (Ɋɟɜɢɧ, 1989). ȼ ɷɬɨɦ ɠɟ ɝɨɞɭ ɧɚ
ɪ. ɉɢɥɶɤɚ (Ʌɟɧɫɤɢɣ ɪɚɣɨɧ) ɛɵɥɨ ɜɵɩɭɳɟɧɨ 33 ɧɨɪɤɢ [2]. Ȼɨɥɶɲɚɹ ɱɚɫɬɶ
ɦɟɫɬ, ɝɞɟ ɛɵɥɢ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɵ ɜɵɩɭɫɤɢ ɧɨɪɨɤ, ɨɤɚɡɚɥɢɫɶ ɩɪɢɝɨɞɧɵɦɢ ɞɥɹ
ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɡɜɟɪɶɤɢ ɲɢɪɨɤɨ ɪɚɫɫɟɥɢɥɢɫɶ. Ʉ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɦɭ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɧɨɪɤɚ
ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɞɨɥɢɧɟ Ɉɥɺɤɦɵ ɢ ɟɺ ɩɪɢɬɨɤɨɜ. ɑɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɧɨɪɤɢ ɜ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɟ
ɜɚɪɶɢɪɭɟɬ ɜ ɲɢɪɨɤɢɯ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɯ. Ɍɚɤ ɧɚ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɟ ɪ. Ɉɥɺɤɦɚ – ɪɭɱɟɣ Ȼɟɞɟɪɞɹɯ
(ɞɥɢɧɚ ɦɚɪɲɪɭɬɚ 23 ɤɦ) ɜ 2005 ɧɚ 1 ɤɦ ɦɚɪɲɪɭɬɚ ɩɪɢɯɨɞɢɥɨɫɶ 0,13 ɫɥɟɞɚ, ɚ
2006 ɝ. – 0,21, ɚ ɧɚ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɟ ɭɫɬɶɟ ɪ. Ȼɚɝɚɞɢɥɚɯ – ɭɫɬɶɟ ɪ. Ɍɨɤɤɨ (ɞɥɢɧɚ
ɦɚɪɲɪɭɬɚ 26 ɤɦ) – 1,23 ɢ 0,73 ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ [6]. ȼ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɜ
ɪɟɝɢɨɧɟ ɨɛɢɬɚɟɬ ɨɤɨɥɨ 1,5-2,0 ɬɵɫ. ɨɫɨɛɟɣ ɢ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɞɨɛɵɜɚɬɶ ɨɤɨɥɨ 500-600
ɧɨɪɨɤ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɟɥ ɧɨɪɤɢ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɧɢɡɤɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ. ɇɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɜ
2008 ɝ. ɛɵɥɨ ɡɚɝɨɬɨɜɥɟɧɨ 36 ɧɨɪɤɨɜɵɯ ɲɤɭɪɨɤ.
Ɉɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɚɹ ɥɢɫɢɰɚ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɚ ɜ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɟ ɲɢɪɨɤɨ, ɧɨ
ɧɟɪɚɜɧɨɦɟɪɧɨ – ɦɨɡɚɢɱɧɨ.
Ɋɚɣɨɧɵ ɘɝɨ-Ɂɚɩɚɞɧɨɣ əɤɭɬɢɢ ɩɨ
ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɜ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢ ɥɢɫɢɰɵ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɨɱɟɧɶ ɧɢɡɤɢɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ. ɉɨ
ɞɚɧɧɵɦ ɁɆɍ ɜ 2010 ɝ. ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚ ɨɛɢɬɚɥɨ ɨɤɨɥɨ 1ɬɵɫ. ɨɫɨɛɟɣ.
ȼ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦ ɡɚ ɝɨɞ ɞɨɛɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ 11ɨɫɨɛɟɣ, ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦ ɲɤɭɪɤɢ ɥɢɫɵ ɨɫɟɞɚɸɬ ɭ
ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ.
ȼɨɥɤ. ɉɨ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɚɦ ɁɆɍ ɩɨɫɥɟɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɚɹ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɜɨɥɤɚ ɜ
ɪɟɝɢɨɧɟ ɜ 2005-2009 ɝɝ. ɧɚɯɨɞɢɥɚɫɶ ɜ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɯ 500-600 ɝɨɥɨɜ. ɋ 2000 ɩɨ
2011 ɝɝ. ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦ ɡɚ ɝɨɞ ɞɨɛɵɜɚɥɨɫɶ 60 ɯɢɳɧɢɤɨɜ. Ɇɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɨɟ
ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɜɨɥɤɨɜ ɛɵɥɨ ɞɨɛɵɬɨ ɜ 2001 ɝ. (119 ɲɬ.), 2003 ɝ. (109 ɲɬ.) ɢ 2007
ɝ. (107 ɲɬ.), ɚ ɦɢɧɢɦɚɥɶɧɨɟ – 2002 (33 ɲɬ.) ɢ 2010 ɝ. (27 ɲɬ.).
ɋɨɛɨɥɶ. ɉɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɨɟ ɨɫɜɨɟɧɢɟ ɡɚɩɚɫɨɜ ɫɨɛɨɥɹ ɜ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɟ ɧɚɱɚɥɨɫɶ ɫ
1970 ɝ. ɢ ɜ ɷɬɨɬ ɝɨɞ ɛɵɥɨ ɡɚɝɨɬɨɜɥɟɧɨ 1,8 ɬɵɫ. ɲɤɭɪɨɤ ɫɨɛɨɥɹ. ɋ ɷɬɨɝɨ
ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɡɚɝɨɬɨɜɤɢ ɲɤɭɪɨɤ ɫɨɛɨɥɹ ɦɟɞɥɟɧɧɨ ɪɨɫɥɢ ɢ ɜ 1979 ɝ. ɨɧɢ ɞɨɫɬɢɝɥɢ
ɨɛɴɺɦɚ 6,6 ɬɵɫ. ɲɬ. Ɂɚ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɫ 1980 ɩɨ 1989 ɝɝ. ɫɪɟɞɧɟɝɨɞɨɜɵɟ ɡɚɝɨɬɨɜɤɢ
ɲɤɭɪɨɤ ɫɨɛɨɥɹ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɥɢɫɶ ɜ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɯ 7,8 ɬɵɫ. ɲɬ. ɍɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟ ɡɚɝɨɬɨɜɨɤ
152
ɲɤɭɪɨɤ ɫɨɛɨɥɹ ɜ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɟɦ ɞɟɫɹɬɢɥɟɬɢɢ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɨ ɫ ɪɨɫɬɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɜɢɞɚ
[5]. Ɉɩɬɢɦɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɩɥɨɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɨɛɨɥɶ ɞɨɫɬɢɝ ɜ 2006 ɝ. (ɜ 2007 ɝ. ɩɨ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɭ
ɛɵɥɨ ɡɚɝɨɬɨɜɥɟɧɨ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɲɤɭɪɨɤ ɫɨɛɨɥɹ – 13,0 ɬɵɫ. ɲɬ.).
Ɂɚ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɫ 2001 ɩɨ 2011 ɝɝ. ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦ ɡɚ ɝɨɞ ɡɚɝɨɬɚɜɥɢɜɚɥɨɫɶ 8 ɬɵɫ.
ɫɨɛɨɥɢɧɵɯ ɲɤɭɪɨɤ. ɉɨɫɥɟɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɚɹ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɜɢɞɚ ɡɚ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ 10
ɥɟɬ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɨɞɧɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ, ɜ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɯ 20,2 ɬɵɫ. (2003 ɝ.),
23,6 ɬɵɫ. ɝɨɥɨɜ (2007 ɝ.). ɗɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɫɨɛɨɥɹ ɜ ɪɚɣɨɧɚɯ ɘɝɨɁɚɩɚɞɧɨɣ əɤɭɬɢɢ ɜɟɥɢɤɨ. ɇɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɜ 2010 ɝ. ɜ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɟ ɛɵɥɨ ɡɚɤɭɩɥɟɧɨ
ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɨɣ ɩɭɲɧɢɧɵ ɧɚ 19817,8 ɬɵɫ. ɪɭɛ. ɇɚ ɞɨɥɸ ɫɨɛɨɥɹ ɩɪɢɲɥɨɫɶ
98,9% ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɜɫɟɣ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɨɣ ɩɭɲɧɢɧɵ ɡɚɝɨɬɨɜɥɟɧɧɨɣ ɜ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɟ.
Ɉɫɬɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɜɢɞɵ – ɛɟɥɤɚ, ɝɨɪɧɨɫɬɚɣ, ɨɧɞɚɬɪɚ, ɤɨɥɨɧɨɤ ɪɟɲɚɸɳɟɝɨ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ
ɜ ɩɭɲɧɵɯ ɡɚɝɨɬɨɜɤɚɯ ɧɟ ɢɦɟɸɬ, ɧɚ ɞɨɥɸ ɢɯ ɩɪɢɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɨɤɨɥɨ 1,1% ɨɬ
ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɨɣ ɩɭɲɧɢɧɵ.
ɑɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɦɵɲɟɜɢɞɧɵɯ ɝɪɵɡɭɧɨɜ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɸɬ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ
ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɭɝɨɞɢɣ, ɬɚɤ ɤɚɤ ɨɬ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɢɯ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ
ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɵɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ, ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɫɨɛɨɥɹ ɢ ɝɨɪɧɨɫɬɚɹ.
ɉɨ ɞɚɧɧɵɦ ɨɬɥɨɜɚ ɦɵɲɟɜɢɞɧɵɯ ɝɪɵɡɭɧɨɜ ɜ ɢɸɥɟ-ɚɜɝɭɫɬɟ 2006 ɝ. ɢ 2011ɝ.
ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɢɯ ɛɵɥɚ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɣ. ɇɚ 100 ɞɚɜɢɥɤɨ-ɫɭɬɨɤ ɨɬɥɚɜɥɢɜɚɥɨɫɶ 20,3 ɢ
18,2 ɝɪɵɡɭɧɚ, ɬ. ɟ. ɤɨɪɦɨɜɚɹ ɛɚɡɚ ɞɥɹ ɯɢɳɧɢɤɨɜ (ɫɨɛɨɥɹ, ɝɨɪɧɨɫɬɚɹ ɢ
ɤɨɥɨɧɤɚ) ɛɵɥɚ ɯɨɪɨɲɟɣ.
Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɡɚɝɨɬɨɜɨɤ ɲɤɭɪɨɤ ɛɟɥɤɢ, ɝɨɪɧɨɫɬɚɹ,
ɚɦɟɪɢɤɚɧɫɤɨɣ ɧɨɪɤɢ ɢ ɤɨɥɨɧɤɚ, ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦ ɜɵɡɜɚɧɨ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟɦ ɫɩɪɨɫɚ ɭ
ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ (ɧɢɡɤɢɟ ɡɚɤɭɩɨɱɧɵɟ ɰɟɧɵ) ɢ ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɨɦ ɨɯɨɬɧɢɤɨɜ
ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɧɚ ɞɨɛɵɱɭ ɫɨɛɨɥɹ.
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. Ⱦɚɜɵɞɨɜ Ɇ.Ɇ., ɋɨɥɨɦɨɧɨɜ ɇ.Ƚ. Ɉɧɞɚɬɪɚ ɢ ɟɺ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɟɥ ɜ əɤɭɬɢɢ. – əɤɭɬɫɤ, 1967. –
68 ɫ.
2. Ɇɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɟ əɤɭɬɢɢ // Ɍɚɜɪɨɜɫɤɢɣ ȼ.Ⱥ., ȿɝɨɪɨɜ Ɉ.ȼ., Ʉɪɢɜɨɲɟɟɜ ȼ.Ƚ. ɢ ɞɪ. –
Ɇ.: ɇɚɭɤɚ, 1971. – 660 ɫ.
3. ɇɨɜɢɤɨɜ Ƚ.Ⱥ. ɉɨɥɟɜɵɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɧɚɡɟɦɧɵɯ ɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ. – Ɇ.,
1953. – 512 ɫ.
4. Ɋɟɜɢɧ ɘ.ȼ. Ɇɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɟ ɘɠɧɨɣ əɤɭɬɢɢ. – ɇɨɜɨɫɢɛɢɪɫɤ: ɇɚɭɤɚ, 1989. – 320 ɫ.
5. ɋɟɞɚɥɢɳɟɜ ȼ.Ɍ., Ɉɞɧɨɤɭɪɰɟɜ ȼ.Ⱥ., Ɉɯɥɨɩɤɨɜ ɂ.Ɇ. Ʉ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɫɨɛɨɥɹ ɘɝɨɁɚɩɚɞɧɨɣ əɤɭɬɢɢ // ȼɟɫɬɧɢɤ ɨɯɨɬɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ. – 2011. Ɍ. – 8. ʋ 2. – ɋ. 130-138.
6. ɋɟɞɚɥɢɳɟɜ ȼ.Ɍ., Ɉɞɧɨɤɭɪɰɟɜ ȼ.Ⱥ. Ʉ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɚɦɟɪɢɤɚɧɫɤɨɣ ɧɨɪɤɢ (Neovinson vison
Schreber, 1777) ɘɠɧɨɣ əɤɭɬɢɢ // ɉɨɜɨɥɠɫɤɢɣ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɠɭɪɧɚɥ. – 2012. ʋ 3. – ɋ.
302-310.
STATE OF COMMERCIAL FUR GAME ANIMALS IN THE SOUTH-WESTERN
YAKUTIA
V.T. Sedalischev, V.A. Odnokurtsev
Institute for biological problems of cryolithozone SB RAS, Lenin pr. 41, 677891 Yakutsk.
Data of post-hunted number of 8 fur-game animal species and count of abundance
of mouse-like rodents has been presented. The sable (98.9 of total fur-game
153
animals hunted on Southwestern Yakutia) had the most proportion of the fur
harvesting. Decreasing of hunt squirrel, ermine, Siberian weasel and American
mink and their fur stock related basically to low purchasing prices and hunters’
preference to hunt sable.
ɍȾɄ 574.34
ɉɊɂɆȿɇȿɇɂȿ ɉɈɄȺɁȺɌȿɅə ɀȿɋɌɄɈɋɌɂ ɉɈȽɈȾɕ
ɉɈ Ƚ. ȻɈȾɆȺɇɍȼ ɗɄɈɅɈȽɂɑȿɋɄɂɏ ɂɋɋɅȿȾɈȼȺɇɂəɏ
ȼ.ȼ. ɋɤɥɸɟɜ
ȽȻɈɍ ɋɉɈ "ɉȽɄ", ɝ. ɋɚɦɚɪɚ, [email protected]
ȼ ɫɬɚɬɶɟ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɵ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɩɨ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɸ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɹ ɠɟɫɬɤɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɝɨɞɵ ɩɨ
Ƚ. Ȼɨɞɦɚɧɭ ɜ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹɯ, ɨɩɢɫɚɧɵ ɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɱɟɫɤɢɟ
ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɥɢɫɢɰɵ ɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɨɣ (Vulpes vulpes, Linnaeus,
1758) ɜ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɵ ɫɧɟɠɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɤɪɨɜɚ ɢ ɫɭɪɨɜɨɫɬɢ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɚ ɧɚ
ɩɪɢɦɟɪɟ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ Ʉɪɚɫɧɨɚɪɦɟɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ ɋɚɦɚɪɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ.
ɐɟɥɶ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ: ɫɪɚɜɧɢɬɶ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ ɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɜ
ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ ɩɨɝɨɞɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ ɫ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɹ ɠɟɫɬɤɨɫɬɢ
ɩɨɝɨɞɵ ɩɨ Ƚ. Ȼɨɞɦɚɧɭ, ɪɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɟɬɶ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɹ
ɠɟɫɬɤɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɝɨɞɵ ɜ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹɯ.
Ɂɚɞɚɱɚ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ: ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɣ ɜ ɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɥɢɫɢɰɵ ɜ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɵ ɫɧɟɠɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɤɪɨɜɚ ɢ
ɫɭɪɨɜɨɫɬɢ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɚ, ɚɩɪɨɛɚɰɢɹ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɹ ɠɟɫɬɤɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɝɨɞɵ ɩɨ
Ƚ. Ȼɨɞɦɚɧɭ ɜ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹɯ.
Ɇɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɵ ɢ ɦɟɬɨɞɵ. ɉɪɢ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɨɣ ɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ
ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɟ, ɧɨ ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨ ɛɨɥɶɲɨɣ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɢ ɜɟɬɪɚ, ɬɟɩɥɨɩɨɬɟɪɢ
ɠɢɜɨɬɧɨɝɨ ɛɭɞɭɬ ɜɵɲɟ, ɱɟɦ ɩɪɢ ɛɨɥɶɲɨɣ ɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɟ ɜ
ɛɟɡɜɟɬɪɟɧɧɭɸ ɩɨɝɨɞɭ. ȼ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɟ [6, 7] ɟɫɬɶ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ
ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɹ “ɠɟɫɬɨɤɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɝɨɞɵ” Ȼɨɞɦɚɧɚ, ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɳɢɦ
ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ, ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɟ ɨɛɦɨɪɨɠɟɧɢɸ. Ɉɧ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɧɢɡɤɨɣ
ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɨɣ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ ɢ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɶɸ ɜɟɬɪɚ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɜɥɢɹɸɬ ɧɚ
ɨɯɥɚɠɞɟɧɢɟ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɨɛɥɚɞɚɸɬ ɢɡɛɵɬɨɱɧɵɦ ɬɟɩɥɨɦ ɩɨ ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɸ
ɫ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɨɣ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɜ ɷɬɨɦ ɠɟ ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɟ ɚɜɬɨɪ [6, 7] ɧɟ ɦɨɝ
ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶ ɞɚɧɧɵɣ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶ ɜ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɦɢ
ɨɬɤɥɨɧɟɧɢɹɦɢ ɤɚɤ ɩɨ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɢ ɜɟɬɪɚ (ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɳɟɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ), ɬɚɤ ɢ ɩɨ
ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɟ ɧɚ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɭɟɦɨɣ ɢɦ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ, ɬɚɤ ɤɚɤ, ɞɚɠɟ ɧɚ ɨɞɧɨɣ
ɦɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ, ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɧɟɫɨɜɩɚɞɟɧɢɟ ɫ ɞɚɧɧɵɦɢ ɦɟɬɟɨɫɬɚɧɰɢɣ,
ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɭɞɚɥɟɧɧɨ ɞɪɭɝ ɨɬ ɞɪɭɝɚ, ɚ ɫɚɦɨɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɢɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɣ ɜ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɭɟɦɵɯ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɚɯ ɚɜɬɨɪ ɧɟ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥ [6, 7, 10]. ȼ ɧɚɲɟɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ,
ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɹ ɧɚɥɢɱɢɟ ɪɭɱɧɨɝɨ ɚɧɟɦɨɦɟɬɪɚ (ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɳɟɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ) ɢ
154
ɬɟɪɦɨɦɟɬɪɚ, ɩɪɨɜɟɫɬɢ ɩɨɞɪɨɛɧɵɟ ɢɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɹ ɜɟɬɪɨɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɧɵɯ
ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɨɜ ɧɚ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɭɸɳɟɣ ɧɚɫ ɦɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɟ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɥɨ ɨɫɨɛɨɝɨ ɬɪɭɞɚ.
ɇɨɱɧɵɟ ɢɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɢɫɶ ɜ 22.00-23.00; ɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɟ – 7.00-9.00; ɨɫɨɛɭɸ
ɪɨɥɶ ɢɝɪɚɥɢ ɞɧɟɜɧɵɟ ɢɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɹ (ɫ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɦɢ ɩɨɜɬɨɪɚɦɢ), ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɦɵɟ ɫ
12.00 ɞɨ 14.00 ɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɜ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɚɯ, ɝɞɟ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɨɫɶ ɬɪɨɩɥɟɧɢɟ. ɇɚ
ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɯ ɢɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɣ ɛɵɥ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧ ɪɚɫɱɟɬ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɹ
Ȼɨɞɦɚɧɚ ɞɥɹ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɭɟɦɨɣ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ. ɋɭɪɨɜɨɫɬɶ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɚ ɢɡɦɟɪɹɥɚɫɶ ɜ
ɛɚɥɥɚɯ ɩɨ ɮɨɪɦɭɥɟ Ƚ. Ȼɨɞɦɚɧɚ:
S = (1-0.04t)(1 +0.272V),
ɝɞɟ S – ɛɚɥɥɵ ɫɭɪɨɜɨɫɬɢ; t – ɫɪɟɞɧɹɹ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ ɡɚ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ
ɧɚɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɹ, ɝɪɚɞ. ɋ; V – ɫɪɟɞɧɹɹ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɶ ɜɟɬɪɚ ɡɚ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɹ,
ɦ/ɫ.
Ⱥɜɬɨɪɨɦ ɥɢɱɧɨ ɛɵɥɚ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɚ ɮɢɤɫɚɰɢɹ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɨɜ
ɠɟɫɬɤɨɫɬɢ (“ɠɟɫɬɨɤɨɫɬɢ”) ɩɨɝɨɞɵ: ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ ɢ ɜɟɬɪɚ. ɂɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɹ
ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɢɫɶ ɧɨɱɶɸ, ɭɬɪɨɦ (ɧɚɤɚɧɭɧɟ ɬɪɨɩɥɟɧɢɹ) ɢ ɞɧɟɦ (ɩɪɢ ɬɪɨɩɥɟɧɢɢ).
ɋɤɨɪɨɫɬɶ ɜɟɬɪɚ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɥɢ ɩɪɢ ɩɨɦɨɳɢ ɪɭɱɧɨɝɨ ɚɧɟɦɨɦɟɬɪɚ, ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɭ
– ɫ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ ɬɟɪɦɨɦɟɬɪɚ (ɰɢɮɪɨɜɨɝɨ ɢ ɚɧɚɥɨɝɨɜɨɝɨ).
Ɂɢɦɧɢɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ 2009-2010 ɝɨɞɚ ɛɵɥ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɟɧ ɞɥɹ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɨɥɨɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɜ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ
ɨɬ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɵ ɫɧɟɠɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɤɪɨɜɚ ɢ ɫɭɪɨɜɨɫɬɢ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɚ ɜ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɯ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɭɟɦɨɝɨ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɚ. ɉɪɢ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɢ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɜ ɞɟɤɚɛɪɟ-ɮɟɜɪɚɥɟ
2010 ɝ. ɫɪɟɞɧɹɹ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɚ ɫɧɟɠɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɤɪɨɜɚ ɧɚ ɩɨɥɹɯ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɥɚ 20-30 ɫɦ (ɫ
ɩɪɢɛɥɢɡɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ 20 ɫɦ ɜ ɞɟɤɚɛɪɟ, ɞɨ 30 ɫɦ – ɜ ɮɟɜɪɚɥɟ), ɤɚɤ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ ɧɟ
ɩɪɟɜɵɲɚɹ 30 ɫɦ.
ȼ ɤɨɧɰɟ ɮɟɜɪɚɥɹ – ɧɚɱɚɥɟ ɦɚɪɬɚ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɧɟɝɨɩɚɞɨɜ,
ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɚ ɫɧɟɠɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɤɪɨɜɚ ɧɚ ɩɨɥɹɯ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɚ ɛɨɥɟɟ 50 ɫɦ (ɞɨ 60 ɫɦ). ɜ
ɨɜɪɚɠɤɚɯ, ɧɢɡɢɧɚɯ, ɛɭɟɪɚɤɚɯ ɬɨɥɳɢɧɚ ɫɧɟɠɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɤɪɨɜɚ ɛɵɥɚ ɨɬ 80 ɫɦ
(ɨɜɪɚɠɤɢ, ɧɢɡɢɧɵ) ɞɨ 120 ɫɦ (ɭɝɥɭɛɥɟɧɢɹ, ɛɭɟɪɚɤɢ) ɫɭɩɪɨɬɢɜ 30 ɫɦ ɜ ɹɧɜɚɪɟ
– ɮɟɜɪɚɥɟ ɜ ɧɢɡɢɧɚɯ ɢ ɨɜɪɚɠɤɚɯ ɢ ɧɟ ɛɨɥɟɟ 50 ɫɦ – ɜ ɭɝɥɭɛɥɟɧɢɹɯ ɢ
ɛɭɟɪɚɤɚɯ. ɇɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɨɬɦɟɬɢɬɶ, ɱɬɨ, ɜ ɰɟɥɨɦ, ɜɟɫɶ ɪɚɣɨɧ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ
ɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɥɫɹ ɧɚ ɦɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɫ ɩɨɧɢɠɟɧɢɟɦ ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɚ [4, 5].
Ɋɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɢ ɨɛɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɹ
ȼɦɟɫɬɟ ɫ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɹɦɢ ɫɧɟɠɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɤɪɨɜɚ, ɩɨɤɚɡɚɧɢɹ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ, ɢ,
ɜ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ, ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɢ ɜɟɬɪɚ, ɢɦɟɸɬ ɜɚɠɧɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɞɥɹ ɜɫɟɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɭɟɦɵɯ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɣ, ɜ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɳɢɦ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟɦ ɧɚ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɭ
ɬɟɩɥɨɩɨɬɟɪɶ. ɇɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɜ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɯ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚɯ ɫ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ
ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɹ Ƚ. Ȼɨɞɦɚɧɚ ɜ Ʉɪɚɫɧɨɚɪɦɟɣɫɤɨɦ ɪɚɣɨɧɟ ɋɚɦɚɪɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ, ɩɪɢ
ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɟ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ +1 ɢ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɢ ɜɟɬɪɚ 10 ɦ/ɫ, ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɚ ɬɟɩɥɨɩɨɬɟɪɢ
ɨɤɚɡɚɥɚɫɶ ɜɵɲɟ, ɱɟɦ ɩɪɢ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɟ -14 ɢ ɜɟɬɪɟ 1 ɦ/ɫ (3 ɛɚɥɥɚ ɫɭɩɪɨɬɢɜ 2).
ȼ ɧɚɲɢɯ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚɯ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɥɢɫɶ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ, ɭɫɪɟɞɧɟɧɧɵɟ ɡɚ ɫɭɬɤɢ
(ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɳɢɦɢ, ɬɟɦ ɧɟ ɦɟɧɟɟ, ɛɵɥɢ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɢɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɹ
ɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɧɚ ɦɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ). ɉɨ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɚɦ ɩɨɞɫɱɟɬɚ ɛɵɥ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧ
ɝɪɚɮɢɤ (ɪɢɫ. 1).
155
ɋɬɨɢɬ ɨɬɦɟɬɢɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɢɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɢɫɶ ɩɨ 7 ɞɧɟɣ – ɫ 7 ɩɨ 14
ɮɟɜɪɚɥɹ (3,1 – ɫɪɟɞɧɢɣ ɛɚɥɥ ɡɚ 7 ɞɧɟɣ) ɢ ɫ 12 ɩɨ 18 ɦɚɪɬɚ (ɫɪɟɞɧɢɣ ɛɚɥɥ –
2,4), ɩɨɫɥɟ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɹ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɵ ɫɧɟɠɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɤɪɨɜɚ ɜ ɧɚɱɚɥɟ
ɦɚɪɬɚ. ɋɚɦɨɟ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɹ Ȼɨɞɦɚɧɚ ɜ 2010 ɝ. ɞɥɹ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɧɨɣ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɨ 3,93 ɛɚɥɥɚ, ɩɪɢ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɢ ɜɟɬɪɚ 4 ɦ/ɫ ɢ
ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɟ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ -22°C ɜ ɧɨɱɶ ɧɚ 9 ɮɟɜɪɚɥɹ. ɉɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ
ɯɨɪɨɲɨ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɭɸɬɫɹ ɫ ɦɟɬɟɨɫɜɨɞɤɚɦɢ ɩɨ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɭ [8, 9] ɢ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ
ɞɨɩɨɥɧɹɸɬ ɢɯ ɧɚ ɦɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ. ȼ ɰɟɥɨɦ, ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɨ ɬɨɱɟɤ ɥɟɠɢɬ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ
ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɣ, ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɵɯ ɞɥɹ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɲɢɪɨɬɧɨɣ ɡɨɧɵ.
Ȼɚɥɥɵ ɫɭɪɨɜɨɫɬɢ
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Ⱦɧɢ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɬɪɨɩɥɟɧɢɣ
Ɏɟɜɪɚɥɶ
Ɇɚɪɬ
Ɋɢɫ. 1. Ⱦɢɧɚɦɢɤɚ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɹ ɠɟɫɬɤɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɝɨɞɵ ɜɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɬɪɨɩɥɟɧɢɣ
(ɋɤɥɸɟɜ ȼ.ȼ., 2010)
ɂɧɬɟɪɟɫɧɨ ɨɬɦɟɬɢɬɶ ɪɚɛɨɬɭ ɂɫɚɟɜɨɣ Ɇ.ȼ. [1], ɜ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɢɧɞɟɤɫ
ɫɭɪɨɜɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɝɨɞɵ ɩɨ Ƚ. Ȼɨɞɦɚɧɭ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɥɫɹ ɩɪɢ ɪɟɤɪɟɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ
ɡɢɦɧɟɝɨ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɚ. ȼ ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɟ ɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ, ɱɬɨ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɉɎɈ
ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɢɧɞɟɤɫɚ ɫɭɪɨɜɨɫɬɢ Ȼɨɞɦɚɧɚ ɦɟɧɹɸɬɫɹ ɨɬ 1,7 ɞɨ 2,4 ɛɚɥɥɚ, ɱɬɨ
ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɟɬ ɡɢɦɧɢɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɤɚɤ «ɦɚɥɨɫɭɪɨɜɵɟ» ɢ «ɭɦɟɪɟɧɧɨ-ɫɭɪɨɜɵɟ».
ɉɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ, ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɢɧɞɟɤɫɚ ɫɭɪɨɜɨɫɬɢ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɉɎɈ ɜ ɯɨɥɨɞɧɵɣ
ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɝɨɞɚ (ɫ ɧɨɹɛɪɹ ɩɨ ɦɚɪɬ) ɜ ɩɭɧɤɬɚɯ, ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɜ ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɣ
ɱɚɫɬɢ Ȼɚɲɤɨɪɬɨɫɬɚɧɚ, ɜ ɋɚɦɚɪɫɤɨɣ ɢ ɍɥɶɹɧɨɜɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɹɯ, ɜɨɫɬɨɱɧɨɣ
ɱɚɫɬɢ ɪɟɫɩɭɛɥɢɤɢ Ɇɨɪɞɨɜɢɹ, ɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɤɚɤ «ɦɚɥɨɫɭɪɨɜɵɟ» [1]. ɇɚ
ɨɫɬɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɭɟɦɨɣ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɡɢɦɚ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɤɚɤ «ɭɦɟɪɟɧɧɨ
ɫɭɪɨɜɚɹ» (2<S<3). ɋɚɦɵɟ ɫɭɪɨɜɵɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ (2,4 ɛɚɥɥɚ) ɡɢɦɧɟɝɨ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɚ
ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɸɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɸɝɨ-ɜɨɫɬɨɤɟ ɉɪɢɜɨɥɠɫɤɨɝɨ ɨɤɪɭɝɚ (Ɂɚɭɪɚɥɶɫɤɚɹ ɪɚɜɧɢɧɚ).
ɇɚɢɦɟɧɶɲɢɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɢɧɞɟɤɫɚ Ȼɨɞɦɚɧɚ (1,7 ɛɚɥɥɚ) ɜ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɫ ɧɨɹɛɪɹ ɩɨ
ɦɚɪɬ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɫɬɚɧɰɢɹɦ, ɧɚɯɨɞɹɳɢɦɫɹ ɜ ɝɨɪɧɨɣ ɦɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɘɠɧɨɝɨ
ɍɪɚɥɚ ɪɟɫɩɭɛɥɢɤɢ Ȼɚɲɤɨɪɬɨɫɬɚɧ ɢ ɧɚ ɸɝɟ ɉɟɪɦɫɤɨɝɨ ɤɪɚɹ. ɑɢɫɥɨ ɞɧɟɣ ɫ
ɫɭɪɨɜɨɣ ɩɨɝɨɞɨɣ ɫ ɧɨɹɛɪɹ ɩɨ ɦɚɪɬ ɤɨɥɟɛɥɟɬɫɹ ɨɬ 0 ɞɨ 24. ɑɚɳɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ
ɫɭɪɨɜɵɟ ɩɨɝɨɞɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɨɬɦɟɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɜɨɫɬɨɤɟ Ɉɪɟɧɛɭɪɝɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ
(13-16% ɞɧɟɣ ɡɚ ɯɨɥɨɞɧɵɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ). ɑɢɫɥɨ ɞɧɟɣ ɫ ɭɦɟɪɟɧɧɨ-ɫɭɪɨɜɨɣ
ɩɨɝɨɞɨɣ (2<S<3) ɧɚ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɭɟɦɨɣ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɢɡɦɟɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɨɬ 23 ɞɨ 78 ɡɚ
156
ɯɨɥɨɞɧɵɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ [1, 5]. ȼ ɪɚɛɨɬɟ ɞɟɥɚɟɬɫɹ ɜɵɜɨɞ, ɱɬɨ ɩɨ ɢɧɞɟɤɫɭ ɫɭɪɨɜɨɫɬɢ
Ȼɨɞɦɚɧɚ (S) ɡɢɦɚ ɧɚ ɛɨɥɶɲɟɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɭɟɦɨɣ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ
ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɤɚɤ «ɭɦɟɪɟɧɧɨ ɫɭɪɨɜɚɹ» (2<S<3). ȼ ɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ, ɜ ɋɚɦɚɪɫɤɨɣ
ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ, ɡɢɦɵ ɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɤɚɤ «ɦɚɥɨɫɭɪɨɜɵɟ». Ɂɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɨɣ
ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɸɬ ɡɢɦɧɢɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɧɚ ɛɨɥɶɲɟɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɭɟɦɵɯ ɫɬɚɧɰɢɣ ɤɚɤ ɞɢɫɤɨɦɮɨɪɬɧɵɟ. ɍɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɞɢɫɤɨɦɮɨɪɬɚ ɜ ɡɢɦɧɢɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɩɪɢ ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɢ ɧɢɡɤɢɯ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪ ɢ ɜɵɫɨɤɢɯ
ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɟɣ ɜɟɬɪɚ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɸɬɫɹ ɥɢɲɶ ɜ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɭɧɤɬɚɯ ɜ ɜɨɫɬɨɱɧɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ
Ɉɪɟɧɛɭɪɝɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ [1, 4, 5].
ɂɫɯɨɞɹ ɢɡ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɨɜ ɢ ɢɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɣ, ɚɜɬɨɪ ɫɱɢɬɚɟɬ
ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɦ ɨɰɟɧɢɬɶ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɢɧɞɟɤɫɚ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ ɤɚɤ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɫɭɪɨɜɵɟ, ɚ ɧɟ
ɦɚɥɨɫɭɪɨɜɵɟ. Ɍɚɤɠɟ ɜ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɨɦ ɜɵɲɟ ɮɪɚɝɦɟɧɬɟ ɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ
ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɤɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬɚ Ȼɨɞɦɚɧɚ ɨɬ 1,7 ɞɨ 2,4 ɛɚɥɥɚ, ɟɫɥɢ ɷɬɨ ɭɫɪɟɞɧɟɧɧɵɟ
ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɵ, ɬɨ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɨɜ ɚɜɬɨɪɚ ɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɬ ɤɨɥɟɛɚɧɢɹ ɩɨ
ɭɫɪɟɞɧɟɧɧɵɦ ɞɚɧɧɵɦ ɨɬ 2 ɞɨ 4 ɛɚɥɥɨɜ. Ʉɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬ Ȼɨɞɦɚɧɚ ɩɨ
ɚɛɫɨɥɸɬɧɵɦ – ɨɬ 1,58 ɞɨ 3,93 [4, 5]. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɜ ɬɨɣ ɠɟ ɪɚɛɨɬɟ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɨ,
ɱɬɨ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɛɢɨɤɥɢɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɟɣ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ
ɉɎɈ
ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɟɬɫɹ
ɫɪɚɜɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ
ɛɨɥɶɲɨɣ
ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ
ɧɟɨɞɧɨɪɨɞɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɢ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɣ ɢɡɦɟɧɱɢɜɨɫɬɶɸ ɜ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɵ ɝɨɞɚ ɫ
ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɨɱɚɝɨɜ ɢɯ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɣ, ɨɛɭɫɥɨɜɥɟɧɧɵɯ
ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚɦɢ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɨɝɨ ɦɚɫɲɬɚɛɚ [1], ɱɬɨ ɜ ɰɟɥɨɦ ɧɟ ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɪɟɱɢɬ
ɭɬɜɟɪɠɞɟɧɢɸ ɨ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɨɥɟɛɚɧɢɹɯ ɫɭɪɨɜɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɝɨɞɵ ɞɚɠɟ ɜ
ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɯ ɫɪɚɜɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɨɝɨ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɢ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɢ
ɢɯ ɭɱɟɬɚ [10].
ɉɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɧɚɦɢ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɯɨɪɨɲɨ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɭɸɬɫɹ ɫ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɚɦɢ
ɫɪɟɞɧɟɣ ɩɨɥɨɫɵ; ɢɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɹ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ ɢ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɢ ɜɟɬɪɚ – ɫ
ɦɟɬɟɨɫɜɨɞɤɚɦɢ (ɫ ɮɥɭɤɬɭɚɰɢɹɦɢ ɩɨ ɪɚɣɨɧɭ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ) [5]. ȼ ɰɟɥɨɦ, ɩɨ
ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɸ ɫɭɪɨɜɨɫɬɢ ɮɟɜɪɚɥɶ (3,1 – ɫɪɟɞɧɢɣ ɛɚɥɥ ɡɚ 7 ɞɧɟɣ) ɨɤɚɡɚɥɫɹ
ɫɭɪɨɜɟɟ ɦɚɪɬɚ, ɧɨ ɜ ɦɚɪɬɟ (ɫɪɟɞɧɢɣ ɛɚɥɥ – 2,4) ɛɵɥɢ ɪɟɡɤɢɟ ɫɦɟɧɵ
ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ (ɪɢɫ. 1). Ɇɚɪɬ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɫɱɢɬɚɬɶ ɦɟɧɟɟ ɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɵɦ ɞɥɹ
ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɦɟɫɹɰɟɦ, ɜ ɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ, ɢɡ-ɡɚ ɛɨɥɶɲɨɣ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɵ ɫɧɟɠɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɤɪɨɜɚ
ɢ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɚɫɬɚ ɜ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɨɣ ɨɬɬɟɩɟɥɢ 12-15 ɦɚɪɬɚ. Ɉɫɨɛɨ ɫɬɨɢɬ
ɨɬɦɟɬɢɬɶ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɟ ɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɟɝɨ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɹ ɭɫɩɟɲɧɨɫɬɢ ɦɵɲɤɨɜɚɧɢɹ
ɩɨɫɥɟ ɨɬɬɟɩɟɥɢ. ɇɚ ɪɢɫ. 2 ɢ 3 ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵ ɫɧɢɦɤɢ ɫ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɹɦɢ
ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɩɨɢɫɤɨɜɨ-ɩɢɳɟɜɨɝɨ ɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɧɚɱɚɥɟ ɮɟɜɪɚɥɹ (ɪɢɫ. 2) ɢ ɜɨ
ɜɬɨɪɨɣ ɩɨɥɨɜɢɧɟ ɦɚɪɬɚ, ɩɨɫɥɟ ɨɬɬɟɩɟɥɢ (ɪɢɫ. 3) [4, 5].
157
Ɋɢɫ. 2. ɉɨɤɨɩɤɚ ɜɨɡɥɟ ɫɬɨɥɛɚ. Ɏɟɜɪɚɥɶ.
Ɋɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɩɨɢɫɤɨɜɨ-ɩɢɳɟɜɨɝɨ ɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ (ɮɨɬɨ ɚɜɬɨɪɚ).
Ɋɢɫ. 3. Ƚɥɭɛɨɤɢɟ ɩɨɤɨɩɤɢ ɥɢɫɢɰɵ (ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɚ ɫɧɟɠɧɨɝɨ
ɩɨɤɪɨɜɚ ɛɨɥɟɟ 50 ɫɦ, ɧɚɫɬ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɨɬɬɟɩɟɥɢ). Ɇɚɪɬ (ɮɨɬɨ ɚɜɬɨɪɚ).
ɇɚ ɪɢɫɭɧɤɚɯ 2 ɢ 3 ɜɢɞɧɨ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟ ɬɪɭɞɨɟɦɤɨɫɬɢ ɭɞɚɱɧɨɣ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ
ɩɢɳɟɜɨɝɨ ɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɝɨ ɫɧɟɠɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɤɪɨɜɚ [5].
ɇɚɦɢ ɛɵɥ ɫɞɟɥɚɧ ɪɚɫɱɟɬ ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɣ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɣ ɥɢɫɢɰɵ ɜ
ɩɟɪɟɫɱɟɬɟ ɧɚ 100 ɪɟɚɤɰɢɣ ɜ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɵ ɫɧɟɠɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɤɪɨɜɚ ɢ
ɫɭɪɨɜɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɝɨɞɵ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɜ ɞɟɬɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɬɪɨɩɥɟɧɢɣ ɫɥɟɞɨɜ
ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ [3, 5]. Ɋɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɨɜ ɜɵɛɨɪɨɱɧɨ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵ ɧɚ
ɞɢɚɝɪɚɦɦɟ (ɪɢɫ. 3).
158
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55
Ɋɟɚɤɰɢɢ
ɞɢɫɤɨɦɮɨɪɬɚ
Ɍɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɚɥɶɧɵɟ
ɉɢɳɟɜɵɟ
ɉɨɢɫɤɨɜɨɩɢɳɟɜɵɟ
ɋɭɦɦɚ
ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ
ɪɟɚɤɰɢɣ
0
Ʉɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɣ
Ɍɢɩɵ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɣ
ɋɚɦɤɚ, ɦɚɥɨɫɧɟɠɧɵɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ (2-4 ɛɚɥɥɚ)
ɋɚɦɤɚ, ɦɧɨɝɨɫɧɟɠɧɵɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ (1,7-3 ɛɚɥɥɚ)
ɋɚɦɟɰ, ɦɚɥɨɫɧɟɠɧɵɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ (2-4 ɛɚɥɥɚ)
ɋɚɦɟɰ, ɦɧɨɝɨɫɧɟɠɧɵɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ (1,7-3 ɛɚɥɥɚ)
Ɋɢɫ. 4. Ⱦɢɚɝɪɚɦɦɚ ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɬɢɩɨɜ ɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ
ɥɢɫɢɰɵ ɜ ɦɚɥɨ- ɢ ɦɧɨɝɨɫɧɟɠɧɵɟ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɵ (ɋɤɥɸɟɜ ȼ.ȼ. , 2010).
ɂɡ ɪɢɫɭɧɤɚ ɜɢɞɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɫ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɫɧɟɠɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɤɪɨɜɚ (ɜ ɛɨɥɟɟ
ɫɭɪɨɜɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɦɚɪɬɚ), ɪɚɫɬɟɬ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɩɨɢɫɤɨɜɨ-ɩɢɳɟɜɵɯ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɣ
ɤɚɤ ɭ ɫɚɦɨɤ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɭ ɫɚɦɰɨɜ, ɩɪɢ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɢ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɩɢɳɟɜɵɯ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɣ
(ɭɞɚɱɧɨ ɡɚɜɟɪɲɢɜɲɟɣɫɹ ɨɯɨɬɵ) ɭ ɫɚɦɰɨɜ ɢ ɧɟɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɦ ɪɨɫɬɟ ɩɢɳɟɜɵɯ
ɪɟɚɤɰɢɣ ɭ ɫɚɦɨɤ. Ʉɪɨɦɟ ɬɨɝɨ, ɭ ɫɚɦɨɤ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɞɨɥɢ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɨɱɧɵɯ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɣ. ȼ
ɦɧɨɝɨɫɧɟɠɧɵɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɸɬɫɹ ɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɢ ɞɢɫɤɨɦɮɨɪɬɚ
ɤɚɤ ɭ ɫɚɦɰɨɜ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɭ ɫɚɦɨɤ. ɗɬɨ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɨɛɴɹɫɧɢɬɶ ɪɹɞɨɦ ɩɪɢɱɢɧ: ɜɨɩɟɪɜɵɯ, ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟ ɷɤɜɢɜɚɥɟɧɬɧɨɣ ɞɢɫɬɚɧɰɢɢ (ɛɨɥɶɲɢɟ ɞɢɫɬɚɧɰɢɢ
ɩɪɨɯɨɞɹɬ, ɛɨɥɶɲɟ ɩɪɨɜɚɥɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɜ ɫɧɟɝɭ), ɜɨ-ɜɬɨɪɵɯ, – ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɹɦɢ
ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɨɜ (ɜ ɨɜɪɚɠɤɚɯ ɢ ɧɢɡɢɧɚɯ ɬɨɥɳɢɧɚ
ɫɧɟɠɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɤɪɨɜɚ ɜ 2-3 ɪɚɡɚ ɩɪɟɜɵɲɚɟɬ ɬɚɤɨɜɭɸ ɧɚ ɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ). ȼ
ɦɚɥɨɫɧɟɠɧɵɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɢ ɞɢɫɤɨɦɮɨɪɬɚ ɧɢ ɭ ɫɚɦɰɨɜ, ɧɢ ɭ ɫɚɦɨɤ ɧɟ
ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɥɢɫɶ [5].
Ɍɚɤɠɟ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɧɨ ɜɢɞɟɬɶ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɟ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɣ ɢ ɭ
ɫɚɦɨɤ, ɢ ɭ ɫɚɦɰɨɜ ɥɢɫɢɰɵ – ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ, ɢɡ-ɡɚ ɬɨɝɨ, ɱɬɨ ɜ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɫɭɪɨɜɵɯ
ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦ ɩɪɢɭɪɨɱɟɧɨ ɤ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɦ ɤɨɪɦɨɜɵɦ
159
ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɦ, ɩɪɢ ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɢ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɩɟɪɢɦɟɬɪɭ, ɚ
ɬɚɤɠɟ, ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ, ɜ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɬɟɦ, ɱɬɨ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ ɩɨ
ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɭ
ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɚɪɧɵɯ
ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ
ɪɟɚɤɰɢɣ
ɫɪɚɜɧɢɦɨ
ɫ
ɩɢɳɟɞɨɛɵɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɦ, ɢ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɷɧɟɪɝɨɡɚɬɪɚɬɧɨ (ɬ.ɟ., ɜ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɫɭɪɨɜɵɯ
ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ, ɩɪɢ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɢ ɬɪɭɞɨɟɦɤɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɷɧɟɪɝɨɡɚɬɪɚɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɚ
ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɸ ɩɢɳɟɞɨɛɵɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ, ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ «ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɹ» ɧɚ
ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɚɥɶɧɨɦ, ɬ.ɤ. «ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɬɶ» ɧɚ ɩɢɳɟɞɨɛɵɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɦ ɧɟ ɜɫɟɝɞɚ
ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ ɩɨ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɟ ɟɝɨ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɳɟɝɨ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɜɵɠɢɜɚɟɦɨɫɬɶ).
ȼɵɜɨɞɵ
1. ɂɡɦɟɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɪɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɜ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ
ɨɬ ɫɭɪɨɜɨɫɬɢ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɚ.
2. ɉɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɹ ɠɟɫɬɤɨɫɬɢ (ɫɭɪɨɜɨɫɬɢ, ɪɚɧɟɟ – ɠɟɫɬɨɤɨɫɬɢ)
ɩɨɝɨɞɵ ɩɨ Ȼɨɞɦɚɧɭ ɜ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɨ-ɷɬɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹɯ ɦɨɠɟɬ
ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɨɛɨɝɚɬɢɬɶ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɜ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɨɧɢɬɨɪɢɧɝɚ, ɜ
ɬ.ɱ. ɩɪɢ ɛɢɨɰɟɧɨɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹɯ, ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɪɚɫɲɢɪɢɬɶ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɨɛ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɩɥɚɫɬɢɱɧɨɫɬɢ ɢɡɭɱɚɟɦɨɝɨ ɜɢɞɚ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ
ɚɞɚɩɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɨɣ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ (ɜ
ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɚɞɚɩɬɚɰɢɣ – ɜ ɷɬɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹɯ).
Ɂɚɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟ
ɋ ɭɱɟɬɨɦ ɠɟɫɬɤɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɝɨɞɵ ɢ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɵ ɫɧɟɠɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɤɪɨɜɚ ɩɨ
ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɸ
ɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ
ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɵ
ɩɪɢɱɢɧɵ
ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɜɵɠɢɜɚɟɦɨɫɬɢ ɫɚɦɨɤ ɥɢɫɢɰɵ (ɤɚɤ ɩɪɢ ɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɤɟ
ɩɢɳɟɜɨɝɨ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɚ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɩɪɢ ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɨɦ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɢ) ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ [5].
ɉɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɹ ɠɟɫɬɤɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɝɨɞɵ ɩɨ Ȼɨɞɦɚɧɭ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɢɥɨ ɧɚɦ
ɧɚɥɨɠɢɬɶ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɦɟɬɟɨɫɜɨɞɨɤ ɧɚ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɢɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɣ ɢ
ɩɪɨɢɥɥɸɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɭ ɫɭɪɨɜɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɝɨɞɵ ɜ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɭɟɦɨɦ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɟ ɫ
ɰɟɥɶɸ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɤɢ ɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɪɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɣ
ɜ ɦɚɥɨ- ɢ ɦɧɨɝɨɫɧɟɠɧɵɟ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɵ.
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1.
ɂɫɚɟɜɚ
Ɇ.ȼ.
ɉɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ-ɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɚɹ
ɢɡɦɟɧɱɢɜɨɫɬɶ
ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ
ɛɢɨɤɥɢɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɟɣ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɩɪɢɜɨɥɠɫɤɨɝɨ ɮɟɞɟɪɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɨɤɪɭɝɚ.
Ⱥɜɬɨɪɟɮɟɪɚɬ ɞɢɫɫɟɪɬɚɰɢɢ ɧɚ ɫɨɢɫɤɚɧɢɟ ɭɱɟɧɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɤɚɧɞɢɞɚɬɚ ɝɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɧɚɭɤ.
– Ʉɚɡɚɧɶ, 2009. ɋ. 14-22.
2. Ɇɨɡɝɨɜɨɣ Ⱦ.ɉ., Ɋɨɡɟɧɛɟɪɝ Ƚ.ɋ. ɋɢɝɧɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɉɨɥɟ Ɇɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ:
ɬɟɨɪɢɹ ɢ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɚ ɩɨɥɟɜɵɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ. – ɋɚɦɚɪɚ: ɋɚɦɚɪɫɤɢɣ ɭɧ-ɬ, 1992. – 119 ɫ.
3. Ɇɨɡɝɨɜɨɣ Ⱦ.ɉ. ɋɢɝɧɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɩɨɥɟ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ: ɬɟɨɪɢɹ ɢ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɚ
ɩɨɥɟɜɵɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ / ɋɚɦɚɪɚ: ɂɡɞ-ɜɨ "ɋɚɦɚɪɫɤɢɣ ɭɧ-ɬ", ȼɟɫɬɧɢɤ
ɋɚɦȽɍ –
ȿɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɧɚɭɱɧɚɹ ɫɟɪɢɹ, 2005 ʋ2 (36). ɋ. 238 – 249.
4. ɋɤɥɸɟɜ ȼ.ȼ. ɉɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɵɣ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɥɢɫɢɰɵ ɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɨɣ (Vulpes vulpes) ɜ
ɛɢɨɬɨɩɚɯ ɋɚɦɚɪɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɪɚɡɧɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɧɚɪɭɲɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ: Ⱥɜɬɨɪɟɮ. ɞɢɫ. ... ɤɚɧɞ. ɛɢɨɥ.
ɧɚɭɤ. ɋɚɦɚɪɚ, ɍɈɉ ɋɚɦȽɍ, 2010. – 20 ɫ.
160
5. ɋɤɥɸɟɜ ȼ.ȼ. ɉɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɵɣ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɥɢɫɢɰɵ ɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɨɣ (Vulpes vulpes) ɜ
ɛɢɨɬɨɩɚɯ ɋɚɦɚɪɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɪɚɡɧɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɧɚɪɭɲɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ: Ⱦɢɫ. ... ɤɚɧɞ. ɛɢɨɥ. ɧɚɭɤ.
ɋɚɦɚɪɚ. 2010. – 220 ɫ.
6. Ɏɨɪɦɨɡɨɜ Ⱥ.ɇ. ɋɧɟɠɧɵɣ ɩɨɤɪɨɜ ɤɚɤ ɮɚɤɬɨɪ ɫɪɟɞɵ, ɟɝɨ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɠɢɡɧɢ
ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ ɢ ɩɬɢɰ ɋɋɋɊ. – Ɇ.: ɂɡɞ-ɜɨ ɆɈɂɉ, 1946. – 152ɫ.
7. Ɏɨɪɦɨɡɨɜ Ⱥ.ɇ. ɋɧɟɠɧɵɣ ɩɨɤɪɨɜ ɤɚɤ ɮɚɤɬɨɪ ɫɪɟɞɵ, ɟɝɨ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɠɢɡɧɢ
ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ ɢ ɩɬɢɰ ɋɋɋɊ / Ɉɬɜ. ɪɟɞ. ȿ.ɇ. Ɇɚɬɸɲɤɢɧ. – 2 ɢɡɞ. – Ɇ.: ɂɡɞ-ɜɨ ɆȽɍ,
1990. – 287ɫ., ɢɥ.
8. ȼɨɥɝɚɂɧɮɨɪɦ. ȼ ɋɚɦɚɪɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɝɨɬɨɜɹɬɫɹ ɤ ɫɢɥɶɧɨɦɭ ɩɨɥɨɜɨɞɶɸ.
http://volgainform.ru/allnews/430801/ (27.09.2010).
9. ɋɩɪɚɜɤɚ ɨɛ ɨɠɢɞɚɟɦɨɦ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɟ ɜɟɫɟɧɧɟɝɨ ɩɨɥɨɜɨɞɶɹ 2010 ɝɨɞɚ ɧɚ ɪɟɤɚɯ
Ɋɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɣ Ɏɟɞɟɪɚɰɢɢ ɢ ɩɪɟɞɜɚɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɩɪɨɝɧɨɡ ɩɪɢɬɨɤɚ ɜɨɞɵ ɜ ɤɪɭɩɧɵɟ
ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚ ɜɨ ɜɬɨɪɨɦ ɤɜɚɪɬɚɥɟ. http://meteoinfo.ru/hydro-spring. (27.09.2010).
10. Ɏɨɪɦɨɡɨɜ Ⱥ.ɇ. ɋɧɟɠɧɵɣ ɩɨɤɪɨɜ ɜ ɠɢɡɧɢ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ ɢ ɩɬɢɰ.
http://www.zoomet.ru/formozov%5Cformozov-oglav.html (27.09.2010).
APPLICATION OF G. BODMAN’S INDICATOR OF THE WEATHER HARDNESS IN
ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH
V.V. Skljuev
SBEE SPE "USC", Samara, [email protected]
Data of application of G. Bodman’s indicator of the weather hardness in
ecological investigations are given, behavioural features of an activity of the
common fox depending on depth of snow mantle and climate severity in
Krasnoarmejsky area of Samara Region are described.
ɍȾɄ 59.006(470.324)
ȼɈɁɆɈɀɇɕȿ ɉȿɊɋɉȿɄɌɂȼɕ ɉɊɂɆȿɇȿɇɂə
ȺɇɂɆȺɅɈɌȿɊȺɉɂɂ ȼ ɊȺɆɄȺɏ ɊȺȻɈɌɕ ɄɈɇɌȺɄɌɇɈɃ
ɄɈɆɇȺɌɕ ȼɈɊɈɇȿɀɋɄɈȽɈ ɁɈɈɉȺɊɄȺ
Ɉ.Ƚ. ɋɨɥɨɞɨɜɧɢɤɨɜɚ, Ɇ.ɘ. ɉɥɟɬɧɟɜ, Ⱥ.ȼ. ɉɥɹɳɟɧɤɨ
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɢɣ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ,
ɝ. ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ, ɟ-mail: [email protected]
ȼ ɞɚɧɧɨɣ ɫɬɚɬɶɟ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɵ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɨ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɦ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɢ
ɚɧɢɦɚɥɨɬɟɪɚɩɢɢ ɜ ɪɚɦɤɚɯ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɧɨɝɨ ɡɚɥɚ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɝɨ ɡɨɨɩɚɪɤɚ:
ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɩɨ ɜɢɞɚɦ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ, ɜɵɡɵɜɚɸɳɢɦ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɢɣ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫ ɩɨɫɟɬɢɬɟɥɟɣ
ɢ ɜɨɫɩɢɬɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɭɱɪɟɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɞɟɬɟɣ.
ɇɚ ɫɟɝɨɞɧɹɲɧɢɣ ɞɟɧɶ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɨ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ,
ɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɧɵɯ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɸ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɧɚ ɡɞɨɪɨɜɶɟ ɥɸɞɟɣ. ɒɢɪɨɤɨɟ
ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɩɟɬ-ɬɟɪɚɩɢɹ (ɚɧɢɦɚɥɨɬɟɪɚɩɢɹ) ɧɚɲɥɚ ɜ ɡɚɩɚɞɧɵɯ ɫɬɪɚɧɚɯ,
ɚ ɜ ɋɒȺ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɚɹ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɬɟɪɚɩɢɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɦɢ (Pet
161
Therapy International). ɋɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɫɬɵ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɸɬ ɩɨɥɶɡɭ ɚɧɢɦɚɥɨɬɟɪɚɩɢɢ ɤɚɤ
ɜɚɠɧɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɸɳɟɣ ɬɟɪɚɩɢɢ, ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɩɨɦɨɝɚɟɬ ɞɟɬɹɦ
ɭɤɪɟɩɢɬɶ ɩɫɢɯɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɡɞɨɪɨɜɶɟ ɢ ɚɞɚɩɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɜ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟ.
ɑɬɨ ɤɚɫɚɟɬɫɹ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ ɫɟɪɶɟɡɧɵɯ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɫɤɢɯ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ, ɬɨ ɧɚ ɞɚɧɧɵɣ
ɦɨɦɟɧɬ ɫɱɢɬɚɟɬɫɹ, ɱɬɨ ɚɧɢɦɚɥɨɬɟɪɚɩɢɹ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɚ ɩɪɢ ɥɟɱɟɧɢɢ
ɞɟɩɪɟɫɫɢɢ, ɚɭɬɢɡɦɚ, ɩɨɪɚɠɟɧɢɣ ɝɨɥɨɜɧɨɝɨ ɦɨɡɝɚ ɫ ɩɪɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɹɦɢ
ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɢɥɢ ɚɝɪɟɫɫɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ, ɤɨɪɪɟɤɰɢɢ ɩɫɢɯɨɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ ɥɸɞɟɣ ɫ ɫɢɧɞɪɨɦɨɦ Ⱦɚɭɧɚ. ɉɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɩɚɰɢɟɧɬɵ, ɢɦɟɸɳɢɟ ɬɪɚɜɦɵ
ɧɚ ɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ, ɩɪɨɹɜɥɹɸɬ ɫɬɪɟɦɥɟɧɢɟ ɨɛɳɚɬɶɫɹ ɫ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɦ.
Ʉɪɨɦɟ ɬɨɝɨ, ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɟ ɩɨɦɨɝɚɸɬ ɫɩɪɚɜɢɬɶɫɹ ɫ ɜɵɫɨɤɢɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟɦ ɬɪɟɜɨɝɢ,
ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɵɦ ɛɟɫɩɨɤɨɣɫɬɜɨɦ.
ɋɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɞɜɚ ɜɢɞɚ ɚɧɢɦɚɥɨɬɟɪɚɩɢɢ: ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɚɹ ɢ ɧɟɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɚɹ.
ɇɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɚɹ - ɩɪɟɞɭɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɬ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ ɫɨ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ
ɨɛɭɱɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɦɢ, ɢɦɟɸɳɟɟ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɟ ɰɟɥɢ ɢ ɡɚɞɚɱɢ. Ʉ ɬɚɤɢɦ
ɪɚɡɧɨɜɢɞɧɨɫɬɹɦ ɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹ ɞɟɥɶɮɢɧɨɬɟɪɚɩɢɹ, ɮɟɥɢɧɨɬɟɪɚɩɢɹ, ɤɚɧɢɫɬɟɪɚɩɢɹ,
ɢɩɩɨɬɟɪɚɩɢɹ.
ɇɟɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɚɹ ɬɟɪɚɩɢɹ, ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɚɹ ɫɨɛɨɣ ɩɪɨɫɬɨɟ ɨɛɳɟɧɢɟ
ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɢ ɞɟɬɟɣ, ɞɚɟɬ ɧɟ ɦɟɧɟɟ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ. ɇɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɢ ɨɛɴɹɫɧɹɸɬ ɷɬɨ ɦɨɳɧɵɦ ɛɢɨɩɨɥɟɦ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ, ɦɹɝɤɨ
ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɦ ɧɚ ɛɢɨɩɨɥɟ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ. ȼɬɨɪɨɣ ɚɫɩɟɤɬ – ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟ ɭ
ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɪɟɱɢ. Ⱦɥɹ ɞɟɬɟɣ, ɭ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɧɚɪɭɲɟɧɚ ɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɹ, ɠɢɜɨɬɧɨɟ
ɦɨɠɟɬ ɫɬɚɬɶ ɫɜɹɡɭɸɳɢɦ ɡɜɟɧɨɦ ɜ ɨɛɳɟɧɢɢ ɫ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɢɦ ɦɢɪɨɦ. ȼ
ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɟ ɪɟɛɟɧɨɤ ɭɯɚɠɢɜɚɟɬ ɡɚ ɩɢɬɨɦɰɟɦ, ɤɨɪɦɢɬ ɟɝɨ, ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɟɬ ɡɚ ɧɢɦ.
ɗɬɨ ɞɚɟɬ ɦɨɳɧɵɣ ɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɡɚɪɹɞ. ȼɚɠɧɭɸ ɪɨɥɶ ɢɝɪɚɸɬ ɢ ɬɚɤɬɢɥɶɧɵɟ
ɨɳɭɳɟɧɢɹ, ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɸɳɢɟ ɦɟɥɤɭɸ ɢ ɤɪɭɩɧɭɸ ɦɨɬɨɪɢɤɭ. ɉɨ ɞɚɧɧɵɦ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɇɂɂ ɩɟɞɢɚɬɪɢɢ Ɋɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɣ ɚɤɚɞɟɦɢɢ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɫɤɢɯ ɧɚɭɤ,
ɡɚɧɹɬɢɹ ɫ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɦɢ ɭɥɭɱɲɚɸɬ ɩɫɢɯɨɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɦɚɥɟɧɶɤɢɯ
ɩɚɰɢɟɧɬɨɜ, ɦɨɬɨɪɢɤɭ, ɫɧɢɠɚɸɬ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɷɩɢɥɟɩɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɪɢɩɚɞɤɨɜ,
ɧɟɪɚɡɝɨɜɨɪɱɢɜɵɟ ɞɟɬɢ ɧɚɱɢɧɚɸɬ ɛɨɥɶɲɟ ɝɨɜɨɪɢɬɶ, ɚ ɞɟɬɢ ɫ ɩɨɧɢɠɟɧɧɨɣ
(ɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɬɟɧɧɨɣ ɢɥɢ ɜɪɨɠɞɟɧɧɨɣ) ɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɧɚɱɢɧɚɸɬ ɩɪɨɹɜɥɹɬɶ
ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨ ɪɟɚɝɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɧɚ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɢɣ ɦɢɪ.
ȼ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ ɞɟɫɹɬɢɥɟɬɢɹ ɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢ ɨɫɨɛɭɸ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɪɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɪɟɞɢ
ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɥɢ ɬɚɤ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɦɵɟ ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɧɵɟ ɡɨɨɩɚɪɤɢ, ɤɨɧɰɟɩɰɢɹ
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɩɪɟɞɭɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɬ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɢɚɥɶɧɨ ɧɨɜɭɸ ɮɨɪɦɭ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɫ
ɩɨɫɟɬɢɬɟɥɹɦɢ. ȼ ɦɚɟ 2012 ɝ. ɫɨɫɬɨɹɥɨɫɶ ɨɬɤɪɵɬɢɟ ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɧɨɝɨ ɡɚɥɚ
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɝɨ ɡɨɨɩɚɪɤɚ, ɩɪɢ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ ɜɚɠɧɟɣɲɟɣ ɡɚɞɚɱɟɣ ɛɵɥɚ
ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɩɪɨɫɜɟɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɢ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɞɥɹ ɩɨɫɟɬɢɬɟɥɟɣ.
ɉɪɢ ɩɨɞɛɨɪɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɞɥɹ ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɧɨɝɨ ɡɚɥɚ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɫɨɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɟ
ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɯ ɩɪɚɜɢɥ:
-ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɟ ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɛɵɬɶ ɨɬɨɛɪɚɧɵ, ɢɫɯɨɞɹ ɢɡ ɜɢɞɨɜɵɯ ɷɬɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ
ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɨɜ (ɚɝɪɟɫɫɢɹ ɧɚ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ, ɫɨɰɢɨ-ɩɨɥɨɜɚɹ ɚɝɪɟɫɫɢɹ, ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɶ
ɷɫɤɚɥɚɰɢɢ ɚɝɪɟɫɫɢɜɧɵɯ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɣ, ɚɞɚɩɬɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɤ
ɩɪɢɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɸ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ, ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶ ɤ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɦ ɮɨɪɦɚɦ ɧɚɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɬ.ɞ.);
-ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɟ ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɛɵɬɶ ɡɞɨɪɨɜɵɦɢ ɢ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɬɶɫɹ ɜ ɱɢɫɬɨɬɟ;
162
-ɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɥ ɞɨɥɠɟɧ ɛɵɬɶ ɨɛɭɱɟɧ ɢ ɢɦɟɬɶ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɣ ɨɩɵɬ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ,
ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɹ ɨɩɬɢɦɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɨɛɳɟɧɢɹ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɢ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ;
-ɩɟɪɟɞ ɪɚɛɨɬɨɣ ɫ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɦɢ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɶ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟ
ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɩɨɤɚɡɚɧɢɣ ɭ ɩɨɫɟɬɢɬɟɥɟɣ (ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟ ɫɤɥɨɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɤ ɚɥɥɟɪɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ
ɪɟɚɤɰɢɹɦ ɢ ɞɪ.);
-ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɢɦɟɬɶ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɚɧɧɵɟ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤɢ ɧɟɣɬɪɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ
ɫɬɪɟɫɫɢɪɭɸɳɟɝɨ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɩɨɫɟɬɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɧɚ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ.
ȼ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɜ ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɧɨɦ ɡɚɥɟ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɝɨ ɡɨɨɩɚɪɤɚ
ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɬɫɹ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɜɢɞɵ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ: ɺɠ ɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɵɣ (Erinaceus
europaeus L.), ɤɨɡɵ ɤɚɦɟɪɭɧɫɤɢɟ (Capra hircus L.), ɤɪɨɥɢɤɢ (Oryctolagus
cuniculus L.), ɦɨɪɫɤɢɟ ɫɜɢɧɤɢ (Cavia porcellus L.), ɛɟɥɢɱɶɹ ɨɛɟɡɶɹɧɚ ɫɚɣɦɢɪɢ
(Saimiri sciureus Voigt), ɬɨɧɤɨɪɭɧɧɵɟ ɨɜɰɵ (Ovis aries L.), ɥɚɦɚ (Lama glama
L.), ɩɚɜɥɢɧɵ ɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɵɟ (Pavo cristatus L.), ɧɟɹɫɵɬɢ (Strix aluco L.),
ɩɨɩɭɝɚɢ ɠɚɤɨ (Psittacus erithacus L.) ɢ ɤɨɪɟɥɥɚ (Nymphicus hollandicus Kerr),
ɞɨɦɚɲɧɢɟ ɤɭɪɵ (Gallus gallus L.), ɤɪɚɫɧɨɭɯɢɟ (Trachemys scripta Schoepff) ɢ
ɫɪɟɞɧɟɚɡɢɚɬɫɤɢɟ ɱɟɪɟɩɚɯɢ (Agrionemys horsfieldii Gray), ɭɥɢɬɤɢ ɚɯɚɬɢɧɵ
(Achatina fulica Ferussac). ɇɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɪɧɵ ɭ ɩɨɫɟɬɢɬɟɥɟɣ
ɫɪɟɞɧɟɚɡɢɚɬɫɤɢɟ ɱɟɪɟɩɚɯɢ, ɤɪɨɥɢɤɢ, ɫɚɣɦɢɪɢ. Ⱦɥɹ ɜɫɟɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ
ɩɪɟɞɭɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɵ
ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ
ɤɨɪɦɚ,
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ
ɜɵɞɚɸɬɫɹ
ɩɨɫɟɬɢɬɟɥɹɦ ɩɪɢ ɜɯɨɞɟ ɜ ɡɚɥ. ɋɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɟ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤɢ ɩɨ ɚɞɚɩɬɚɰɢɢ
ɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɤ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɭ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɢɥɢ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɨ ɫɧɢɡɢɬɶ
ɫɬɪɟɫɫɵ ɢ ɫɞɟɥɚɬɶ ɤɨɦɮɨɪɬɧɵɦ ɨɛɳɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɫɟɬɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɫ ɧɢɦɢ.
ɉɨɞɚɜɥɹɸɳɟɟ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɨ ɩɨɫɟɬɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɧɨɝɨ ɡɚɥɚ ɩɪɢɯɨɞɹɬ ɫ
ɞɟɬɶɦɢ (90 % ɨɬ ɨɛɳɟɝɨ ɱɢɫɥɚ), ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɜ
ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹɯ:
ɚ) ɞɟɬɢ ɞɨɲɤɨɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚ ɢ ɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɥɚɫɫɨɜ (ɨɫɧɨɜɧɚɹ ɝɪɭɩɩɚ,
ɧɚ ɤɨɬɨɪɭɸ ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɥɢɫɶ ɫɨɡɞɚɬɟɥɢ ɞɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɨɬɞɟɥɚ) – 53%;
ɛ) ɞɟɬɢ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɝɨ ɲɤɨɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚ (9 – 15 ɥɟɬ) –35%;
ɜ) ɞɟɬɢ ɫɬɚɪɲɟɝɨ ɲɤɨɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚ (16 -18 ɥɟɬ) –12%.
Ⱦɟɪɟɛɨ ɢ əɫɜɢɧ ɜɵɞɟɥɢɥɢ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɚɧɢɦɚɥɨɬɟɪɚɩɢɢ:
- ɉɫɢɯɨɮɢɡɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɹ. ȼɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ ɫ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɦɢ
ɦɨɠɟɬ ɫɧɢɦɚɬɶ ɫɬɪɟɫɫ, ɧɨɪɦɚɥɢɡɨɜɵɜɚɬɶ ɪɚɛɨɬɭ ɧɟɪɜɧɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ, ɩɫɢɯɢɤɢ
ɜ ɰɟɥɨɦ.
- ɉɫɢɯɨɬɟɪɚɩɟɜɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɹ. ȼɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ ɥɸɞɟɣ ɫ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɦɢ
ɦɨɠɟɬ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ ɝɚɪɦɨɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɢɯ
ɦɟɠɥɢɱɧɨɫɬɧɵɯ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɣ.
- Ɋɟɚɛɢɥɢɬɚɰɢɨɧɧɚɹ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɹ. Ʉɨɧɬɚɤɬɵ ɫ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɦɢ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ
ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦ ɤɚɧɚɥɨɦ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɥɢɱɧɨɫɬɢ ɫ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɢɦ ɦɢɪɨɦ,
ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɦ ɤɚɤ ɩɫɢɯɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɟɟ ɪɟɚɛɢɥɢɬɚɰɢɢ.
- Ɏɭɧɤɰɢɹ ɭɞɨɜɥɟɬɜɨɪɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɨɫɬɢ ɜ ɤɨɦɩɟɬɟɧɬɧɨɫɬɢ.
ɉɨɬɪɟɛɧɨɫɬɶ ɜ ɤɨɦɩɟɬɟɧɬɧɨɫɬɢ, ɜɵɪɚɠɚɟɦɚɹ ɮɨɪɦɭɥɨɣ "ɹ ɦɨɝɭ", ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ
ɨɞɧɨɣ ɢɡ ɜɚɠɧɟɣɲɢɯ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ.
- Ɏɭɧɤɰɢɹ ɫɚɦɨɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ. Ɉɞɧɨɣ ɢɡ ɜɚɠɧɟɣɲɢɯ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɨɫɬɟɣ
ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɨɫɬɶ ɜ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɫɜɨɟɝɨ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɟɝɨ
163
ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɚ, ɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɨɫɬɶ ɛɵɬɶ ɡɧɚɱɢɦɵɦ ɞɥɹ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ, ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɦ ɜ ɢɯ
ɠɢɡɧɢ ɢ ɜ ɢɯ ɥɢɱɧɨɫɬɢ.
- Ɏɭɧɤɰɢɹ ɨɛɳɟɧɢɹ. Ɉɞɧɨɣ ɢɡ ɜɚɠɧɟɣɲɢɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ, ɤɨɬɨɪɭɸ ɦɨɝɭɬ
ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɬɶ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɟ ɜ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɟ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ ɫ ɧɢɦɢ – ɷɬɨ
ɮɭɧɤɰɢɹ ɩɚɪɬɧɟɪɨɜ ɨɛɳɟɧɢɹ.
ɋɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɨɬɦɟɬɢɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɡɚ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɨɣ ɫɪɨɤ ɫɜɨɟɝɨ
ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɭ ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɧɨɝɨ ɡɨɨɩɚɪɤɚ ɩɨɹɜɢɥɢɫɶ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɵɟ ɩɨɫɟɬɢɬɟɥɢ –
ɨɤɨɥɨ 20% ɨɬ ɨɛɳɟɝɨ ɱɢɫɥɚ, ɫɨ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɢɱɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɩɨɫɟɳɟɧɢɣ 1
ɩɨɫɟɳɟɧɢɟ ɡɚ 2-3 ɤɚɥɟɧɞɚɪɧɵɯ ɧɟɞɟɥɢ. Ɋɨɞɢɬɟɥɢ ɬɚɤɢɯ ɞɟɬɟɣ ɫɨɨɛɳɚɸɬ, ɱɬɨ
ɞɟɬɢ ɫɚɦɢ ɩɪɨɫɹɬ ɨ ɩɪɨɝɭɥɤɟ ɜ ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɧɨɦ ɡɨɨɩɚɪɤɟ, ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɷɮɮɟɤɬ
ɩɪɢɜɵɤɚɧɢɹ ɢ «ɡɚɟɡɠɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ», ɤɚɠɞɵɣ ɪɚɡ ɩɪɢɫɭɬɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɹɪɤɢɟ
ɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɷɦɨɰɢɢ (ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫ, ɪɚɞɨɫɬɶ, ɜɨɫɯɢɳɟɧɢɟ). ɉɪɢ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɦɨɦ
ɨɩɪɨɫɟ ɜɵɹɫɧɢɥɨɫɶ, ɱɬɨ ɞɟɬɢ, ɪɟɝɭɥɹɪɧɨ ɢɦɟɸɳɢɟ ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬ ɫ
ɷɤɫɩɨɧɢɪɭɟɦɵɦɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɦɢ, ɩɪɨɹɜɥɹɥɢ ɬɚɤɢɟ ɱɟɪɬɵ, ɤɚɤ ɬɟɪɩɟɥɢɜɨɫɬɶ,
ɫɞɟɪɠɚɧɧɨɫɬɶ, ɚ ɭ ɞɟɬɟɣ ɫ ɜɨɡɛɭɠɞɺɧɧɨɣ ɩɫɢɯɢɤɨɣ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɟɬɫɹ
ɭɫɩɨɤɚɢɜɚɸɳɢɣ ɷɮɮɟɤɬ. Ȼɵɥɢ ɭɩɨɦɢɧɚɧɢɹ ɨ ɩɪɟɨɞɨɥɟɧɢɢ ɡɚɫɬɟɧɱɢɜɨɫɬɢ ɢ
ɧɟɪɟɲɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɭ ɞɟɬɟɣ, ɢɦɟɸɳɢɯ ɩɨɫɬɬɪɚɜɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɫɬɪɟɫɫɨɜɨɟ
ɪɚɫɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜɨ. Ɍɚɤɠɟ ɫɨɨɛɳɚɥɨɫɶ ɨ ɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɨɦ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɢ ɧɚ ɞɟɬɟɣ ɫ
ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚɦɢ
ɨɩɨɪɧɨ-ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɚɩɩɚɪɚɬɚ,
Ⱦɐɉ,
ɫɬɪɚɞɚɸɳɢɯ
ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɦɢ ɪɚɫɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜɚɦɢ ɐɇɋ.
Ƚɪɭɩɩɚ ɫɨɬɪɭɞɧɢɤɨɜ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɝɨ ɡɨɨɩɚɪɤɚ ɝɥɭɛɨɤɨ ɭɛɟɠɞɟɧɚ, ɱɬɨ
ɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɢɟ ɫɬɚɬɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɞɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɚ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɬ
ɝɨɪɚɡɞɨ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɟɟ ɫɭɞɢɬɶ ɨ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɢ ɬɚɤɨɝɨ ɨɛɳɟɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɞɟɬɟɣ. ɉɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɟ
ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɨɩɪɨɫɚ ɪɨɞɢɬɟɥɟɣ, ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨ ɩɨɫɟɳɚɸɳɢɯ ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɧɵɣ ɡɨɨɩɚɪɤ,
ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɬ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɞɟɫɹɬɤɨɜ ɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɨɬɡɵɜɨɜ ɨ ɪɚɛɨɬɟ ɭɱɪɟɠɞɟɧɢɹ.
Ⱦɟɬɢ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɪɚɫɬɭɬ ɜ ɝɨɪɨɞɟ, ɨɛɞɟɥɟɧɵ ɨɛɳɟɧɢɟɦ ɫ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɦɢ, ɬɚɤ
ɤɚɤ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɨ ɪɨɞɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɩɪɨɬɢɜ ɞɨɦɚɲɧɟɝɨ ɩɢɬɨɦɰɚ, ɩɨɬɨɦɭ ɱɬɨ ɧɟ
ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɸɬ ɠɢɥɢɳɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ, ɥɢɛɨ ɧɟɬ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɭɯɚɠɢɜɚɬɶ ɡɚ ɧɢɦ.
Ɉɝɪɨɦɧɨɟ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɧɚ ɞɟɬɟɣ ɡɚɤɥɸɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɬɨɦ, ɱɬɨ ɨɧɢ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ
ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɨɦ ɧɪɚɜɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɜɨɫɩɢɬɚɧɢɹ: ɦɚɥɵɲ ɢɫɩɵɬɵɜɚɟɬ ɪɚɞɨɫɬɶ, ɭ ɧɟɝɨ
ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɱɭɜɫɬɜɨ ɩɪɟɤɪɚɫɧɨɝɨ, ɱɬɨ ɫɥɭɠɢɬ ɫɬɢɦɭɥɨɦ ɞɥɹ
ɢɧɬɟɥɥɟɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ, ɜɵɪɚɛɨɬɤɢ ɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɵɲɥɟɧɢɹ, ɫɟɧɫɨɪɢɤɢ,
ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɥɸɛɨɡɧɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ. Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ,
ɪɚɛɨɬɚ ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɧɨɝɨ ɡɚɥɚ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɝɨ ɡɨɨɩɚɪɤɚ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɚɩɪɨɛɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ
ɦɨɞɟɥɶ ɚɧɢɦɚɥɨɬɟɪɚɩɢɢ ɜ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɢɧɧɨɜɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɫ
ɩɨɫɟɬɢɬɟɥɹɦɢ.
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. Ⱦɟɪɟɛɨ ɋ.Ⱦ., əɫɜɢɧ ȼ.Ⱥ. ɗɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɩɟɞɚɝɨɝɢɤɚ ɢ ɩɫɢɯɨɥɨɝɢɹ. - Ɋɨɫɬɨɜ-ɧɚȾɨɧɭ, 1996. - ɋ. 74-75
2. ɇɚɭɱɧɨ-ɩɪɨɫɜɟɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ ɪɚɛɨɬɚ ɜ ɡɨɨɩɚɪɤɚɯ / Ɇɟɠɜɟɞ. ɫɛɨɪ. ɧɚɭɱ. ɢ ɧɚɭɱ.-ɦɟɬɨɞ.
ɬɪ. ɩɨɞ ɪɟɞ. ɋɩɢɰɢɧɚ ȼ.ȼ. - Ɇ.: Ɇɨɫɤɨɜɫɤɢɣ ɡɨɨɩɚɪɤ, 2002. - 204 ɫ.
3. ɐɜɟɬɤɨɜɚ Ɇ. ȼ. ɉɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɚɧɢɦɚɥɨɬɟɪɚɩɢɢ ɜ ɭɱɪɟɠɞɟɧɢɹɯ ɡɚɤɪɵɬɨɝɨ
ɬɢɩɚ / Ɇ. ȼ. ɐɜɟɬɤɨɜɚ // Ɇɨɥɨɞɨɣ ɭɱɟɧɵɣ, 2013. — ʋ6. — ɋ. 746-747.
164
PRESUMABLE ASPECTS OF PET THERAPY IN THE CONTACT ROOM OF
VORONEZH ZOO
O.G. Solodovnikova, M.Y. Pletnev, A.V. Plyashchenko
Voronezh Zoo, Voronezh
Voronezh state University, Voronezh
This article includes some data about presumable practice of pet therapy in
Voronezh’ petting zoo. This paper discusses the species of animals which are of
most interest from visitors and educational value of petting zoo.
ɍȾɄ 595.771
ȼɅɂəɇɂȿ ɊȿɄɊȿȺɐɂɈɇɇɈɃ ɇȺȽɊɍɁɄɂ ɇȺ ȼɂȾɈȼɈɃ ɋɈɋɌȺȼ
ȽɊɂȻɇɕɏ ɄɈɆȺɊɈȼ (DIPTERA, SCIAROIDEA) ȼ ɉɈȾɌȺȿɀɇɕɏ
ȻɂɈȽȿɈɐȿɇɈɁȺɏ ɁȺɉȺȾɇɈɃ ɋɂȻɂɊɂ
ȿ.ɘ. ɋɭɛɛɨɬɢɧɚ, ɘ.ȼ. Ɇɚɤɫɢɦɨɜɚ
Ɍɨɦɫɤɢɣ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ,
ɝ. Ɍɨɦɫɤ, [email protected]
ɂɡɭɱɟɧɢɟ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɨɜ ɫɰɢɚɪɨɢɞɧɵɯ ɞɜɭɤɪɵɥɵɯ ɜ ɛɢɨɰɟɧɨɡɚɯ ɫ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɨɣ
ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶɸ ɪɟɤɪɟɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥɨ, ɱɬɨ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ
ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɨɣ ɬɪɚɧɫɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ ɥɟɫɧɵɯ ɛɢɨɝɟɨɰɟɧɨɡɨɜ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ ɤ
ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹɦ ɜ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɟ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɨɜ ɝɪɢɛɧɵɯ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ: ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɞɨɥɹ
ɜɢɞɨɜ ɫ ɲɢɪɨɤɨɣ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɚɦɩɥɢɬɭɞɨɣ – ɨɛɢɬɚɬɟɥɟɣ ɩɥɨɞɨɜɵɯ ɬɟɥ
ɝɪɢɛɨɜ (Bolitophila, Allodia, Mycetophila ɢ Exechia) ɢ ɫɧɢɠɚɟɬɫɹ ɱɢɫɥɨ ɜɢɞɨɜ,
ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɧɚ ɦɢɰɟɥɢɢ ɞɪɟɜɟɫɢɧɵ ɢ ɞɟɬɪɢɬɚ (Phronia, Trichonta ɢ
Mycomya).
Ƚɪɢɛɧɵɟ ɤɨɦɚɪɵ (ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɫɟɦɟɣɫɬɜ ɜ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɟ ɧɚɞɫɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɚ
Sciaroidea) ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɬɢɩɢɱɧɵɦ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɨɦ ɥɟɫɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɢ ɬɢɩɢɱɧɨɣ
ɦɢɰɟɬɨɮɢɥɶɧɨɣ ɝɪɭɩɩɨɣ. ɇɚ ɫɨɫɬɚɜ ɢ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɨɜ
ɦɢɰɟɬɨɛɢɨɧɬɨɜ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɳɟɟ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɫɨɫɬɚɜ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ
ɝɪɭɩɩɢɪɨɜɨɤ ɝɪɢɛɨɜ, ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɜ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɬɢɩɚɯ ɥɟɫɚ [2], ɜ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ
ɱɟɦ, ɦɨɠɧɨ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɧɚ
ɫɨɫɬɚɜ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɚ ɫɰɢɚɪɨɢɞɧɵɯ ɞɜɭɤɪɵɥɵɯ ɜ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɯ. ɋ ɨɞɧɨɣ
ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ, ɭɱɚɫɬɤɢ ɥɟɫɚ, ɧɚɯɨɞɹɳɢɟɫɹ ɜ ɨɤɪɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɹɯ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɩɭɧɤɬɨɜ,
ɢɫɩɵɬɵɜɚɸɬ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɭɸ ɪɟɤɪɟɚɰɢɨɧɧɭɸ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɭ. Ⱥɤɬɢɜɧɵɣ ɫɛɨɪ
ɝɪɢɛɨɜ, ɭɩɥɨɬɧɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɱɜɵ ɢ ɧɚɪɭɲɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɞɫɬɢɥɤɢ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɩɪɢɜɟɫɬɢ ɤ
ɨɛɟɞɧɟɧɢɸ ɮɥɨɪɵ ɝɪɢɛɨɜ ɢ ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɸ ɜɢɞɨɜɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɫɰɢɚɪɨɢɞɧɵɯ
ɞɜɭɤɪɵɥɵɯ. ɋ ɞɪɭɝɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ, ɭɞɚɥɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɥɟɫɨɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ
ɦɟɪɨɩɪɢɹɬɢɣ ɫɬɚɪɵɯ ɞɟɪɟɜɶɟɜ ɢ ɞɪɟɜɟɫɧɵɯ ɨɫɬɚɬɤɨɜ ɫɧɢɠɚɟɬ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ
ɤɫɢɥɨɬɪɨɮɧɵɯ ɮɨɪɦ ɝɪɢɛɨɜ, ɱɬɨ ɞɨɥɠɧɨ ɜɟɫɬɢ ɤ ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɸ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ
ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɯ ɫ ɧɢɦɢ ɧɚɫɟɤɨɦɵɯ.
165
Ⱦɥɹ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɪɟɤɪɟɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɢ ɥɟɫɨɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ ɧɚ
ɮɚɭɧɭ ɝɪɢɛɧɵɯ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ ɛɵɥɚ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɚ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɨɣ
ɬɪɚɧɫɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ ɨɛɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɨɜ, ɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɚɳɢɯ ɤ ɪɚɡɧɵɦ
ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦ ɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɹɦ. ɉɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɥɚɫɶ ɭɞɚɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɨɬ
ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɩɭɧɤɬɨɜ, ɪɟɝɭɥɹɪɧɨɫɬɶ ɥɟɫɨɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɦɟɪɨɩɪɢɹɬɢɣ, ɝɭɫɬɨɬɚ
ɬɪɨɩɢɧɨɱɧɨɣ ɫɟɬɢ, ɧɚɥɢɱɢɟ ɫɜɟɬɨɥɸɛɢɜɵɯ ɢ ɫɨɪɧɵɯ ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɣ ɢ ɞɪ. Ɂɚ
ɨɫɧɨɜɭ ɦɵ ɜɡɹɥɢ ɫɯɟɦɭ Ⱥ.ɂ. ȼɨɪɨɧɰɨɜɚ [1], ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɜɵɞɟɥɹɟɬ 5 ɫɬɚɞɢɣ
ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɚ ɨɬ ɫɚɦɨɝɨ ɧɚɱɚɥɚ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɧɚ ɧɟɝɨ ɞɨ
ɩɨɥɧɨɝɨ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɟɝɨ ɩɪɟɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ:
ɋɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɚ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ
ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɜɵɹɜɢɬɶ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɡɚɤɨɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɫɬɢ.
ɍɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟ ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɨɣ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ ɧɚ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɵ
ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨ ɯɨɪɨɲɨ ɨɬɫɥɟɠɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɢ ɫɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ ɜɢɞɨɜ
ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɦɚɫɫɨɜɵɯ ɦɧɨɝɨɜɢɞɨɜɵɯ ɪɨɞɨɜ. Ⱥɧɚɥɢɡ ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ ɜɢɞɨɜ
ɦɚɫɫɨɜɵɯ ɦɧɨɝɨɜɢɞɨɜɵɯ ɪɨɞɨɜ ɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ, ɱɬɨ ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɚɹ
ɬɪɚɧɫɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɹ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ ɤ ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɸ ɞɨɥɢ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɤɫɢɥɨɦɢɰɟɬɨɛɢɨɧɬɨɜ ɢ
ɞɟɬɪɢɬɨɛɢɨɧɬɨɜ. ɇɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɹɪɤɨ ɩɪɨɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɷɬɚ ɡɚɤɨɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɫɬɶ ɜ
ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɪɨɞɚ Phronia, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɜɵɫɨɤɢɣ
ɩɪɨɰɟɧɬ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɜ ɦɚɥɨɧɚɪɭɲɟɧɧɵɯ ɛɢɨɰɟɧɨɡɚɯ (ɞɨ 31%), ɧɨ ɪɟɚɝɢɪɭɟɬ
ɡɚɦɟɬɧɵɦ ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɟɦ ɱɢɫɥɚ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɧɚ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚɧɢɟ ɪɟɤɪɟɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɢ
ɥɟɫɨɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ. ȼ ɬɟɦɧɨɯɜɨɣɧɵɯ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɚɯ ɞɨɥɹ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɷɬɨɝɨ
ɪɨɞɚ ɫɧɢɠɚɟɬɫɹ ɞɨ 8%, ɜ ɫɜɟɬɥɨɯɜɨɣɧɵɯ í ɞɨ 10% ɛɢɨɬɨɩɚɯ.
Ⱦɨɥɹ ɜɢɞɨɜ, ɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɚɳɢɯ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɦɚɫɫɨɜɵɦ ɪɨɞɚɦ Phronia,
Trichonta ɢ Mycomya, ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɩɪɨɯɨɞɹɬ
ɫɜɨɟ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ ɧɚ ɦɢɰɟɥɢɢ ɞɟɪɟɜɨɪɚɡɪɭɲɚɸɳɢɯ ɝɪɢɛɨɜ, ɫɧɢɠɚɟɬɫɹ ɫ 42,4 ɞɨ
22,2% ɜ ɫɜɟɬɥɨɯɜɨɣɧɵɯ ɥɟɫɚɯ ɢ ɫ 39,2 ɞɨ 20,4% – ɜ ɬɟɦɧɨɯɜɨɣɧɵɯ. ɋ ɞɪɭɝɨɣ
ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ, ɦɧɨɝɢɟ ɜɢɞɵ ɪɨɞɨɜ ɬɢɩɢɱɧɵɯ ɦɢɰɟɬɨɛɢɨɧɬɨɜ Bolitophila, Allodia,
Mycetophila ɢ Exechia ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɩɥɚɫɬɢɱɧɟɟ ɢ ɯɨɪɨɲɨ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵ ɜɨ
ɜɫɟɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɪɚɣɨɧɚɯ, ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɹ ɫɭɦɦɚɪɧɨ 45í46% ɨɬ ɨɛɳɟɝɨ ɱɢɫɥɚ
ɜ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɚɯ ɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɬɚɞɢɣ ɬɪɚɧɫɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ, ɢ 55í61% í ɜ ɧɚɪɭɲɟɧɧɵɯ.
ɇɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɯ, ɞɚɧɧɵɯ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɫɞɟɥɚɬɶ ɜɵɜɨɞ, ɱɬɨ
ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɨɣ ɬɪɚɧɫɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ ɥɟɫɧɵɯ ɛɢɨɝɟɨɰɟɧɨɡɨɜ
ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ ɤ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹɦ ɜ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɟ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɨɜ ɝɪɢɛɧɵɯ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ:
ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɞɨɥɹ ɜɢɞɨɜ-ɦɢɰɟɬɨɛɢɨɧɬɨɜ ɫ ɲɢɪɨɤɨɣ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɚɦɩɥɢɬɭɞɨɣ ɢ ɫɧɢɠɚɟɬɫɹ ɱɢɫɥɨ ɜɢɞɨɜ í ɤɫɢɥɨɦɢɰɟɬɨ- ɢ ɞɟɬɪɢɬɨɛɢɨɧɬɨɜ.
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. ȼɨɪɨɧɰɨɜ Ⱥ.ɂ. ɉɚɬɨɥɨɝɢɹ ɥɟɫɚ. Ɇ.: Ʌɟɫɧɚɹ ɩɪɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ, 1978. í 270 ɫ.
2. Ʉɪɢɜɨɲɟɢɧɚ ɇ.ɉ., Ɂɚɣɰɟɜ Ⱥ.ɂ., əɤɨɜɥɟɜ ȿ.Ȼ. ɇɚɫɟɤɨɦɵɟ – ɪɚɡɪɭɲɢɬɟɥɢ ɝɪɢɛɨɜ ɜ
ɥɟɫɚɯ ȿɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɋɋɋɊ. – Ɇ.: ɇɚɭɤɚ, 1986. – 310 ɫ.
166
EFFECT OF RECREATIONAL LOAD ON THE SPECIES COMPOSITION OF THE
FUNGUS GNATS (DIPTERA, SCIARIDAE) IN SUBTAIGA BIOGEOCENOSIS OF
THE WEST SIBERIA
E.Yu. Subbotina, Yu.V. Maximova
Tomsk State University, Tomsk
Study of the complexes Sciaroidea in ecosystems with varying degrees of
recreational load showed that the increase of anthropogenic transformation of the
forest ecosystems leads to changes in the composition of the fungus gnats
complexes: grow the proportion of inhabitants of fruiting bodies with wide
ecological amplitude (Bolitophila, Allodia, Mycetophila and Exechia) and
decrease the number of species developing on the mycelium of wood and detrite
(Phronia, Trichonta and Mycomya).
ɍȾɄ 599.322.2
ɉɈɉɍɅəɐɂə ɋɍɊɄȺ-ȻȺɃȻȺɄȺ
ɇȺ ɋȿȼȿɊɈ-ɁȺɉȺȾȿ ȼɈɊɈɇȿɀɋɄɈɃ ɈȻɅȺɋɌɂ
Ⱥ.Ⱥ. Ɍɟɥɟɜɢɧɨɜ, ɇ.ɂ. ɉɪɨɫɬɚɤɨɜ
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɢɣ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɚɝɪɨɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ,
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɢɣ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ
ɂɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɵ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɸ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɫɭɪɤɚ-ɛɚɣɛɚɤɚ ɧɚ
ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɋɪɟɞɧɟɝɨ ɉɨɞɨɧɶɹ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɛɚɣɪɨɱɧɵɯ ɥɟɫɨɜ ɧɚ ɫɟɜɟɪɨ-ɡɚɩɚɞɟ
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ. ȼɵɹɜɥɟɧɵ ɫɬɚɰɢɢ ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɫɭɪɤɚ-ɛɚɣɛɚɤɚ, ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɵ
ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɟ ɦɨɪɮɨɦɟɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ, ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɚ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ
ɨɫɵɛɟɣ ɩɨ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɚɦ. Ɉɬɦɟɱɟɧɨ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɫɭɪɤɚ-ɛɚɣɛɚɤɚ ɤɚɤ ɜɢɞɚ ɲɢɪɨɤɨɣ
ɩɪɢɭɪɨɱɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɤ ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɚɦ ɥɟɫɨɫɬɟɩɢ.
ȼ ɫɬɚɬɶɟ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɧɚɲɢɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɩɨ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɸ
ɩɨɫɟɥɟɧɢɣ ɫɭɪɤɚ-ɛɚɣɛɚɤɚ (Marmota bobac Mull) ɧɚ ɫɟɜɟɪɨ-ɡɚɩɚɞɟ
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɜ ɏɨɯɨɥɶɫɤɨɦ ɪɚɣɨɧɟ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɛɵɜɲɟɝɨ
ɤɨɥɯɨɡɚ Ʉɨɫɬɺɧɤɢ. ɍɱɚɫɬɨɤ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɩɪɚɜɨɛɟɪɟɠɶɟ Ⱦɨɧɚ ɜ
ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ Ⱦɨɧɫɤɨɝɨ Ȼɟɥɨɝɨɪɶɹ, ɜ 30 ɤɦ ɸɝɨ-ɡɚɩɚɞɧɟɟ ɝ. ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɚ.
Ɍɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹ ɟɝɨ ɜɯɨɞɢɬ ɜ ɫɨɫɬɚɜ ɉɪɢɞɨɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɟɥɨɜɨɝɨ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ ɬɢɩɢɱɧɨɣ
ɥɟɫɨɫɬɟɩɢ ɋɪɟɞɧɟɪɭɫɫɤɨɣ ɜɨɡɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ. Ɉɛɳɚɹ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɶ – 12505 ɝɚ.
ɉɨɦɢɦɨ ɫɟɥɚ Ʉɨɫɬɺɧɤɢ ɜ ɫɨɫɬɚɜ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɜɯɨɞɢɬ ɫɟɥɨ Ⱥɥɟɤɫɚɧɞɪɨɜɤɚ ɢ
ɬɪɢ ɯɭɬɨɪɚ – Ⱦɨɥɠɨɧɤɢ, Ɋɨɫɫɨɲɤɢ ɢ ɉɪɨɤɭɞɢɧɨ.
ɋɟɥɚ Ʉɨɫɬɺɧɤɢ ɢ Ⱥɥɟɤɫɚɧɞɪɨɜɤɚ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɸɬɫɹ ɜ ɥɨɝɚɯ ɨɜɪɚɠɧɨɛɚɥɨɱɧɨɣ ɫɟɬɢ ɩɪɚɜɨɝɨ ɛɟɪɟɝɚ Ⱦɨɧɚ. ɏɭɬɨɪɚ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɵ ɜ 15-18 ɤɦ ɤ ɸɝɨɡɚɩɚɞɭ ɨɬ ɫɟɥɚ Ʉɨɫɬɺɧɤɢ.
167
ɇɚ ɋɪɟɞɧɟɦ ɉɨɞɨɧɶɟ ɛɚɣɛɚɤɢ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɢɫɱɟɡɚɥɢ. ȼ ɞɜɚɞɰɚɬɵɯ
ɝɨɞɚɯ ɩɪɨɲɥɨɝɨ ɫɬɨɥɟɬɢɹ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɹɥɚɫɶ ɟɞɢɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɚɹ ɜ ɤɪɚɟ ɫɭɪɨɱɶɹ ɤɨɥɨɧɢɹ
ɜ ɤɚɦɟɧɧɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɢ [12].
ɋ 2010 ɝɨɞɚ ɜ ɥɨɝɚɯ ɫɟɥɚ Ʉɨɫɬɺɧɤɢ ɢ ɜ ɟɝɨ ɯɭɬɨɪɚɯ (Ɋɨɫɫɨɲɤɢ, Ⱦɨɥɝɨɟ,
ɉɪɨɤɭɞɢɧɨ) ɢ ɫɟɥɚ Ⱥɥɟɤɫɚɧɞɪɨɜɤɚ ɧɚɦɢ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɨ
ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɢ ɩɨɫɟɥɟɧɢɣ ɫɭɪɤɚ-ɛɚɣɛɚɤɚ. ȼ ɥɨɝɭ ɍɝɥɹɧɤɚ ɧɚ ɫɤɥɨɧɟ ɦɟɥɨɜɨɝɨ
ɤɨɪɜɟɠɤɚ ɜ ɜɟɪɲɢɧɟ ɛɚɥɤɢ ɜ 2010 ɝɨɞɭ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɚ ɨɞɢɧɨɱɧɚɹ ɫɟɦɶɹ ɫ ɬɪɟɦɹ
ɩɪɢɛɵɥɵɦɢ ɢ ɬɪɟɦɹ ɩɪɨɲɥɨɝɨɞɧɢɦɢ ɫɭɪɱɚɬɚɦɢ. ȼ Ⱥɧɨɫɨɜɨɦ ɥɨɝɭ ɜ ɟɝɨ
ɜɟɪɲɢɧɟ ɨɛɢɬɚɟɬ ɞɜɟ ɫɟɦɶɢ ɫ ɱɟɬɵɪɶɦɹ ɩɪɢɛɵɥɵɦɢ ɢ ɨɞɧɢɦ ɫɭɪɤɨɦ
ɩɪɨɲɥɨɝɨ ɝɨɞɚ ɜɵɜɨɞɤɨɦ ɜ ɩɟɪɜɨɣ ɫɟɦɶɟ ɢ ɫ ɬɪɟɦɹ ɩɪɢɛɵɥɵɦɢ ɢ ɞɜɭɦɹ
ɩɪɨɲɥɨɝɨɞɧɢɦɢ ɫɭɪɱɚɬɚɦɢ.
ȼ Ȼɚɣɪɚɱɧɨɦ ɥɟɫɭ ɧɚɞ ɫ. Ⱥɥɟɤɫɚɧɞɪɨɜɤɚ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɚ ɫɟɦɶɹ ɫɭɪɤɚ ɧɚ
ɫɤɥɨɧɟ ɛɚɥɤɢ ȼɵɫɨɤɢɣ ɥɨɝ ɧɚ ɨɬɪɟɡɤɟ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɨɜɪɚɝɨɦ ɋɭɪɤɨɜɵɦ ɢ ɛɚɥɤɨɣ
Ⱥɥɬɚɪɫɤɢɣ ɥɨɝ ɫ ɬɪɟɦɹ ɩɪɢɛɵɥɵɦɢ ɫɭɪɱɚɬɚɦɢ ɢ ɨɞɧɢɦ ɩɪɨɲɥɨɝɨ ɝɨɞɚ
ɜɵɜɨɞɤɚ.. Ɉɛɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ, ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɧɨɟ ɧɚɦɢ ɜ 2010 ɝɨɞɭ, ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥɨ, ɱɬɨ
ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹ ɛɚɣɪɚɱɧɵɯ ɥɟɫɨɜ ɯɭɬɨɪɨɜ Ⱦɨɥɠɨɧɤɢ ɢ ɉɪɨɤɭɞɢɧɨ ɡɚɧɹɬɚ
ɫɟɦɶɹɦɢ ɫɭɪɤɚ-ɛɚɣɛɚɤɚ.
ɍ ɯɭɬɨɪɚ Ⱦɨɥɠɨɧɤɢ, ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɜ 18 ɤɦ ɤ ɸɝɨ-ɡɚɩɚɞɭ ɨɬ ɫ.
Ʉɨɫɬɟɧɤɢ ɜ ɭɪɨɱɢɳɟ Ɋɭɛɰɨɜ ɛɚɥɤɢ Ⱦɨɥɝɨɟ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɨ ɞɜɟ ɫɟɦɶɢ ɫ
ɱɟɬɵɪɶɦɹ ɩɪɢɛɵɥɵɦɢ ɫɭɪɱɚɬɚɦɢ, ɞɜɭɦɹ ɩɪɨɲɥɨɝɨ ɝɨɞɚ ɜɵɜɨɞɤɚɦɢ ɢ ɨɞɧɢɦ
ɞɜɭɯɝɨɞɨɜɚɥɵɦ. ȼ ɭɪɨɱɢɳɟ ȼɟɞɟɧɟɟɜ ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɚ ɫɟɦɶɹ ɫ ɞɜɭɦɹ ɩɪɢɛɵɥɵɦɢ
ɫɭɪɱɚɬɚɦɢ ɢ ɞɜɭɦɹ ɩɪɨɲɥɨɝɨ ɝɨɞɚ ɜɵɜɨɞɤɚɦɢ.
ɍ ɫ. Ʉɨɫɬɟɧɤɢ ɜ 2010 ɝɨɞɭ ɛɵɥɨ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɨ ɜ ɫɭɦɦɟ ɩɨ ɥɨɝɚɦ
(ɍɝɥɹɧɤɚ, Ⱥɧɨɫɨɜ) ɜ 2010 ɝɨɞɭ ɬɪɢ ɫɟɦɶɢ ɫɭɪɤɨɜ ɫ 9 ɩɪɢɛɵɥɵɦɢ, ɫ 5
ɨɞɧɨɥɟɬɤɚɦɢ ɢ 1 ɞɜɭɯɥɟɬɤɨɦ.
ɍ ɯɭɬɨɪɚ ɉɪɨɤɭɞɢɧɨ, ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɜ 15 ɤɦ ɤ ɡɚɩɚɞɭ ɨɬ ɫ. Ʉɨɫɬɟɧɤɢ ɜ
ɭɪɨɱɢɳɟ ɋɬɚɧɨɜɨɟ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɚ ɨɞɧɚ ɫɟɦɶɹ ɫ 3 ɩɪɢɛɵɥɵɦɢ ɢ 3 ɩɪɨɲɥɨɝɨ
ɝɨɞɚ ɜɵɜɨɞɤɨɦ.
ȼ 2011 ɝɨɞɭ ɜ ɥɨɝɭ ɍɝɥɹɧɤɚ ɭ ɨɞɢɧɨɱɧɨɣ ɫɟɦɶɢ ɛɵɥɨ 3 ɩɪɢɛɵɥɵɯ ɢ 2
ɨɞɧɨɥɟɬɧɢɯ ɫɭɪɤɚ.
ȼ Ⱥɧɨɫɨɜɨɦ ɥɨɝɭ ɭ ɤɨɥɨɧɢɢ ɢɡ ɞɜɭɯ ɫɟɦɟɣ ɛɵɥɨ 3 ɩɪɢɛɵɥɵɯ ɢ 4 ɫɭɪɤɚ
ɩɪɨɲɥɨɝɨ ɝɨɞɚ ɜɵɜɨɞɤɚ.
ȼ ɫɟɥɟ Ⱥɥɟɤɫɚɧɞɪɨɜɤɚ ɜ ɨɞɢɧɨɱɧɨɣ ɫɟɦɶɟ ɛɵɥɨ 3 ɩɪɢɛɵɥɵɯ ɢ 4
ɩɪɨɲɥɨɝɨ ɝɨɞɚ ɜɵɜɨɞɤɚ.
ȼ ɭɪɨɱɢɳɟ ȼɟɞɟɧɟɟɜ ɜ ɨɞɢɧɨɱɧɨɣ ɫɟɦɶɟ ɛɵɥɨ 3 ɩɪɢɛɵɥɵɯ ɢ 2 ɫɭɪɤɚ
ɩɪɨɲɥɨɝɨ ɝɨɞɚ ɜɵɜɨɞɤɚ.
ɍ ɯɭɬɨɪɚ ɉɪɨɤɭɞɢɧɨ ɩɨɹɜɢɥɚɫɶ ɟɳɟ ɨɞɧɚ ɫɟɦɶɹ, ɢ ɬɟɩɟɪɶ ɜ ɤɨɥɨɧɢɢ ɢɡ
ɞɜɭɯ ɫɟɦɟɣ ɛɵɥɨ 4 ɩɪɢɛɵɥɵɯ ɢ 2 ɩɪɨɲɥɨɝɨ ɝɨɞɚ ɜɵɜɨɞɤɚ ɢ 1 ɞɜɭɯɥɟɬɨɤ.
ȼ 2012 ɝɨɞɭ ɜ ɥɨɝɭ ɍɝɥɹɧɤɚ ɭ ɨɞɢɧɨɱɧɨɣ ɫɟɦɶɢ ɛɵɥɨ 4 ɩɪɢɛɵɥɵɯ ɢ 3
ɩɪɨɲɥɨɝɨ ɝɨɞɚ ɜɵɜɨɞɤɚ.
ɍ ɯɭɬɨɪɚ Ⱦɨɥɠɨɧɤɢ ɜ ɤɨɥɨɧɢɢ ɫɬɚɥɨ ɭɠɟ ɬɪɢ ɫɟɦɶɢ ɫ 5 ɩɪɢɛɵɥɵɦɢ
ɫɭɪɤɚɦɢ ɢ 4 ɩɪɨɲɥɨɝɨ ɝɨɞɚ ɜɵɜɨɞɤɚ.
ȼ ɍɪɨɱɢɳɟ ȼɟɞɟɧɟɟɜ ɜ ɨɞɢɧɨɱɧɨɣ ɫɟɦɶɟ ɛɵɥɨ 3 ɩɪɢɛɵɥɵɯ ɢ 2 ɫɭɪɤɚ
ɩɪɨɲɥɨɝɨ ɝɨɞɚ ɜɵɜɨɞɤɚ.
168
ɍ ɯɭɬɨɪɚ ɉɪɨɤɭɞɢɧɨ ɜ ɤɨɥɨɧɢɢ ɢɡ ɞɜɭɯ ɫɟɦɟɣ ɛɵɥɨ 3 ɩɪɢɛɵɥɵɯ ɢ 3
ɩɪɨɲɥɨɝɨ ɝɨɞɚ ɜɵɜɨɞɤɚ.
ȼ Ⱥɧɨɫɨɜɨɦ ɥɨɝɭ ɜ ɞɜɭɯ ɫɟɦɶɹɯ ɛɵɥɨ 3 ɩɪɢɛɵɥɵɯ ɢ 3 ɫɭɪɤɚ ɩɪɨɲɥɨɝɨ
ɝɨɞɚ ɜɵɜɨɞɤɚ.
ȼ ɫɟɥɟ Ⱥɥɟɤɫɚɧɞɪɨɜɤɚ ɜ ɨɞɢɧɨɱɧɨɣ ɫɟɦɶɟ ɛɵɥɨ 3 ɩɪɢɛɵɥɵɯ ɢ 3 ɫɭɪɤɚ
ɩɪɨɲɥɨɝɨ ɝɨɞɚ ɜɵɜɨɞɤɚ.
ȼ 2013 ɝɨɞɭ ɜ ɥɨɝɭ ɍɝɥɹɧɤɚ ɭ ɨɞɢɧɨɱɧɨɣ ɫɟɦɶɢ ɛɵɥɨ 3 ɩɪɢɛɵɥɵɯ ɢ 3
ɩɪɨɲɥɨɝɨ ɝɨɞɚ ɜɵɜɨɞɤɚ.
ɍ ɯɭɬɨɪɚ Ⱦɨɥɠɨɧɤɢ ɢɦɟɟɬɫɹ ɬɪɢ ɫɟɦɶɢ ɫ 4 ɩɪɢɛɵɥɵɦɢ ɫɭɪɤɚɦɢ ɢ 4
ɩɪɨɲɥɨɝɨ ɝɨɞɚ ɜɵɜɨɞɤɚ. ȼ ɭɪɨɱɢɳɟ ȼɟɞɟɧɟɟɜ ɜ ɨɞɢɧɨɱɧɨɣ ɫɟɦɶɟ ɛɵɥɨ 2
ɩɪɢɛɵɥɵɯ ɢ 3 ɩɪɨɲɥɨɝɨ ɝɨɞɚ ɜɵɜɨɞɤɚ. ȼ ɫɟɥɟ Ⱥɥɟɤɫɚɧɞɪɨɜɤɚ ɜ ɨɞɢɧɨɱɧɨɣ
ɫɟɦɶɟ ɛɵɥɨ 3 ɩɪɢɛɵɥɵɯ ɢ 3 ɩɪɨɲɥɨɝɨ ɝɨɞɚ ɜɵɜɨɞɤɚ. ɍ ɯɭɬɨɪɚ ɉɪɨɤɭɞɢɧɨ ɜ
ɞɜɭɯ ɫɟɦɶɹɯ ɛɵɥɨ 4 ɩɪɢɛɵɥɵɯ ɢ 3 ɩɪɨɲɥɨɝɨ ɝɨɞɚ ɜɵɜɨɞɤɚ. ȼ ɛɚɥɤɟ, ɢɞɭɳɟɣ
ɜɜɟɪɯ ɨɬ ɯɭɬɨɪɚ ɉɪɨɤɭɞɢɧɨ ɤ ɨɫɬɪɨɝɨɠɫɤɨɣ ɬɪɚɫɫɟ ɩɨɹɜɢɥɢɫɶ ɞɜɟ ɦɨɥɨɞɵɟ
ɫɟɦɶɢ, ɜ ɧɢɯ ɛɵɥɨ 4 ɩɪɢɛɵɥɵɯ ɫɭɪɱɚɬ. ȼ ɬɚɛɥɢɰɟ 1 ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɵ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɨ
ɫɭɦɦɚɪɧɨɦ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɟ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɵɯ ɝɪɭɩɩ ɤɨɥɨɧɢɢ ɫɭɪɤɚ-ɛɚɣɛɚɤɚ ɫ 2010 ɩɨ 2013
ɝɨɞɵ ɩɨ ɥɨɝɚɦ ɫɟɥɚ Ʉɨɫɬɟɧɤɢ ɢ ɯɭɬɨɪɨɜ Ⱦɨɥɠɨɧɤɢ ɢ ɉɪɨɤɭɞɢɧɨ. ɂɡ ɧɟɺ
ɜɢɞɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɡɚ ɷɬɨɬ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɫɟɦɟɣ ɜɵɪɨɫɥɨ ɫ 8 ɞɨ 10. Ʉɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ
ɫɟɝɨɥɟɬɨɤ ɩɨ ɝɨɞɚɦ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɥɨ 19-22, ɨɞɧɨɥɟɬɨɤ – 14. ȼ ɞɚɧɧɨɣ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ
ɫɭɪɤɚ-ɛɚɣɛɚɤɚ ɜɵɜɨɞɤɢ ɛɥɚɝɨɩɨɥɭɱɧɨ ɜɵɠɢɜɚɸɬ ɢ ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ.
ȼɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɚɹ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ ɩɨɫɟɥɟɧɢɣ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ 2013 ɝɨɞ
ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɦɢ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɹɦɢ: ɫɟɝɨɥɟɬɤɢ – 40%; ɫɭɪɤɢ ɩɪɨɲɥɨɝɨ ɝɨɞɚ ɜɵɜɨɞɤɚ
– 24%; ɜɡɪɨɫɥɵɟ – 36%.
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 1
Ƚɨɞ
Ⱦɢɧɚɦɢɤɚ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɫɭɪɤɚ-ɛɚɣɛɚɤɚ ɜ ɫɭɦɦɟ
ɩɨ ɥɨɝɚɦ ɫɟɥɚ Ʉɨɫɬɟɧɤɢ ɢ ɯɭɬɨɪɨɜ Ⱦɨɥɠɨɧɤɢ ɢ ɉɪɨɤɭɞɢɧɨ
Ʉɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ
Ʉɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ
Ʉɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ
Ʉɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ
ɫɟɦɟɣ
ɜɡɪɨɫɥɵɯ ɫɭɪɤɨɜ
ɩɪɢɛɵɥɵɯ
ɫɭɪɱɚɬ
+ɫɭɪɤɨɜ 2-ɯ
ɫɭɪɱɚɬ-ɫɟɝɨɥɟɬɨɤ
ɨɞɧɨɥɟɬɨɤ
ɥɟɬɨɤ
2010 (ɥɟɬɨ)
2010(ɜɟɫɧɚ)
2010 (ɨɫɟɧɶ)
2011 (ɥɟɬɨ)
2011(ɜɟɫɧɚ)
2011 (ɨɫɟɧɶ)
2012 (ɥɟɬɨ)
2012(ɜɟɫɧɚ)
2012 (ɨɫɟɧɶ)
2013 (ɥɟɬɨ)
2013(ɜɟɫɧɚ)
2013 (ɨɫɟɧɶ)
8
8
8
9
9
9
10
10
10
12
12
12
16
16+1
16
18
18
18
20
20
20
24
24
24
169
21
21
21
19
19
19
22
22
22
23
23
23
12
12
12
15
15
15
14
14
14
19
19
19
Ⱦɚɧɧɵɟ ɬɚɛɥɢɰɵ ɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɬ ɧɚ ɬɨ, ɱɬɨ ɩɨɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɫɭɪɤɚ-ɛɚɣɛɚɤɚ ɩɨ
ɥɨɝɚɦ ɫɟɥɚ Ʉɨɫɬɟɧɤɢ ɢ ɯɭɬɨɪɨɜ Ⱦɨɥɠɨɧɤɢ ɢ ɉɪɨɤɭɞɢɧɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ
ɛɥɚɝɨɩɨɥɭɱɧɨ.
ɋ 2011 ɝɨɞɚ ɢɡɭɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɨɫɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɫɭɪɤɚ-ɛɚɣɛɚɤɚ ɧɚ ɯɭɬɨɪɟ Ɋɨɫɫɨɲɤɢ.
Ⱦɚɧɧɵɟ ɡɚ 2011-2013 ɝɨɞɚ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɜ ɬɚɛɥɢɰɟ 2.
ȼ 2011 ɝɨɞɭ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɨ ɩɹɬɶ ɫɟɦɟɣ ɫɭɪɤɚ-ɛɚɣɛɚɤɚ.
ȿɠɟɝɨɞɧɨ ɜ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɜɟɫɧɵ, ɥɟɬɚ ɢ ɨɫɟɧɢ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɢɫɶ ɪɟɝɭɥɹɪɧɵɟ
ɜɢɡɭɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɹ, ɩɨɞɫɱɢɬɵɜɚɥɨɫɶ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɧɨɪ, ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɥɢɫɶ
ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɢ ɤɚɠɞɨɣ ɫɟɦɶɢ, ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɨɣ ɫɨɫɬɚɜ ɫɟɦɟɣ ɢ
ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɚ ɩɨɝɨɥɨɜɶɹ.
ȼ ɬɚɛɥɢɰɟ 2 ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɵ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɨ ɫɭɦɦɚɪɧɨɦ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɟ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɵɯ ɝɪɭɩɩ
ɤɨɥɨɧɢɢ ɫɭɪɤɚ-ɛɚɣɛɚɤɚ.
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 2
Ƚɨɞ
Ⱦɢɧɚɦɢɤɚ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɤɨɥɨɧɢɢ ɛɚɣɛɚɤɚ ɜ 2011-2013 ɝɝ.
Ʉɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ
Ʉɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ
Ʉɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ
Ʉɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ
ɫɟɦɟɣ
ɜɡɪɨɫɥɵɯ ɫɭɪɤɨɜ
ɩɪɢɛɵɥɵɯ
ɫɭɪɱɚɬ
+ ɫɭɪɤɨɜ 2-ɯ
ɫɭɪɱɚɬɨɞɧɨɥɟɬɨɤ
ɥɟɬɨɤ
ɫɟɝɨɥɟɬɨɤ
2011 (ɥɟɬɨ)
4
8+3
11
7
2011(ɜɟɫɧɚ)
4
8
11
7
2011 (ɨɫɟɧɶ)
4
8
11
7
2012 (ɥɟɬɨ)
5
10
12
9
2012(ɜɟɫɧɚ)
5
10
12
9
2012 (ɨɫɟɧɶ)
2013 (ɥɟɬɨ)
2013(ɜɟɫɧɚ)
2013 (ɨɫɟɧɶ)
5
6
6
6
10
12
12
12
12
14
14
14
9
11
11
11
ɋ 2011 ɝ. ɩɨ 2013 ɝ. ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɫɟɦɟɣ ɜɨɡɪɨɫɥɨ ɫ 4 ɞɨ 6. ȼɟɫɧɨɣ
ɞɜɭɯɝɨɞɨɜɚɥɵɯ ɫɭɪɤɨɜ ɛɵɥɨ 3. Ʉɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɩɪɢɛɵɥɵɯ ɫɭɪɱɚɬ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɥɨɫɶ ɫ
11 ɞɨ 14, ɢ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɨɞɧɨɥɟɬɨɤ ɜɨɡɪɨɫɥɨ ɫ 7 ɞɨ 11.
ȼ 2012 ɝ. ɱɚɫɬɶ ɫɭɪɨɜ ɩɨɤɢɧɭɥɚ ɤɨɥɨɧɢɸ ɢ ɩɨɫɟɥɢɥɚɫɶ ɜ ɜɟɪɲɢɧɟ ɛɚɥɤɢ
ɉɪɨɤɭɞɢɧɨ.
ɉɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɫɟɦɟɣ, ɜɵɜɨɞɤɢ ɛɥɚɝɨɩɨɥɭɱɧɨ
ɜɵɠɢɜɚɸɬ, ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ, ɢ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɦɢɝɪɚɰɢɹ ɢ ɨɫɜɨɟɧɢɟ ɧɨɜɵɯ
ɭɱɚɫɬɤɨɜ.
ȼɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɨɣ ɫɨɫɬɚɜ ɫɭɪɤɨɜ-ɛɚɣɛɚɤɨɜ ɩɨ ɜɫɟɦ ɢɦɟɸɳɢɦɫɹ ɩɨɫɟɥɟɧɢɹɦ
ɧɚ ɢɡɭɱɚɟɦɨɣ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɜ ɰɟɥɨɦ ɧɚ ɥɟɬɨ 2013 ɝɨɞɚ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɟɬɫɹ
ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɦɢ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɹɦɢ: ɫɟɝɨɥɟɬɤɢ – 37 (36%); ɨɞɧɨɥɟɬɨɤ – 30 (29%),
ɜɡɪɨɫɥɵɯ – 36 (35%.) ɗɬɢ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɸ ɧɚ ɬɨ, ɱɬɨ ɩɨɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɫɭɪɤɨɜ
ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɛɥɚɝɨɩɨɥɭɱɧɨ.
170
ȼ ɰɟɥɨɦ ɜ ɩɨɫɟɥɟɧɢɹɯ ɫɭɪɤɚ-ɛɚɣɛɚɤɚ ɧɚ 2013 ɝɨɞ ɩɨ ɥɨɝɚɦ ɫɟɥɚ
Ʉɨɫɬɟɧɤɢ, ɯɭɬɨɪɨɜ Ⱦɨɥɠɨɧɤɢ ɢ ɉɪɨɤɭɞɢɧɨ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɩɨ ɯɭɬɨɪɭ Ɋɨɫɫɨɲɤɢ ɜ
ɫɭɦɦɟ ɧɚɫɱɢɬɵɜɚɥɨɫɶ 18 ɫɟɦɟɣ.
Ⱦɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɪɚɫɲɢɪɟɧɧɵɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɸ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɢ
ɫɭɪɤɚ-ɛɚɣɛɚɤɚ ɜ ɛɚɣɪɚɱɧɨɦ ɥɟɫɭ ɭ ɯɭɬɨɪɚ Ɋɨɫɫɨɲɤɢ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɫ 2011 ɝɨɞɚ.
ɋɤɥɨɧ ɛɚɥɤɢ ɩɨɤɪɵɬ ɥɟɫɨɦ, ɭɫɩɟɲɧɨɦɭ ɪɨɫɬɭ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ ɫɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɟɬ
ɩɨɝɥɨɳɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɱɜɨɝɪɭɧɬɨɜɨɣ ɜɥɚɝɢ, ɫɬɟɤɚɸɳɟɣ ɫ ɜɨɞɨɫɛɨɪɚ. Ⱦɟɥɸɜɢɚɥɶɧɨɚɥɸɜɢɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɩɨɱɜɚ ɧɚ ɥɟɜɨɦ ɫɤɥɨɧɟ ɛɚɥɤɢ: ɸɝɨ-ɜɨɫɬɨɱɧɚɹ ɷɤɫɩɨɡɢɰɢɹ ɢ
ɩɨɞɩɨɱɜɟɧɧɨɟ ɭɜɥɚɠɧɟɧɢɟ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɸɬ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɨɢɡɪɚɫɬɚɧɢɹ
ɫɥɨɠɧɨɝɨ ɬɪɺɯɴɹɪɭɫɧɨɝɨ ɞɭɛɨɜɨɝɨ ɞɪɟɜɨɫɬɨɹ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɣ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ
ɫɧɵɬɶɟɜɨɣ ɞɭɛɪɚɜɵ. ȼ ɜɟɪɯɧɟɦ ɹɪɭɫɟ ɩɪɨɢɡɪɚɫɬɚɟɬ ɩɨɡɞɧɹɹ ɪɚɫɚ ɞɭɛɚ
ɱɟɪɟɲɱɚɬɨɝɨ ɫ ɩɪɢɦɟɫɶɸ ɹɫɟɧɹ, ɜɨ ɜɬɨɪɨɦ ɹɪɭɫɟ – ɤɥɺɧ ɨɫɬɪɨɥɢɫɬɧɵɣ, ɥɢɩɚ,
ɜ ɩɨɞɥɟɫɤɟ – ɨɪɟɲɧɢɤ ɢ ɤɥɺɧ ɩɨɥɟɜɨɣ. ȼ ɬɪɚɜɹɧɢɫɬɨɦ ɩɨɤɪɨɜɟ ɤɚɤ ɞɨɦɢɧɚɧɬ
ɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɟɬ ɫɧɵɬɶ ɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɚɹ, ɢ ɤɚɤ ɫɭɛɞɨɦɢɧɚɧɬ ɩɪɨɢɡɪɚɫɬɚɟɬ
ɤɨɩɵɬɟɧɶ ɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɢɣ ɢ ɦɚɥɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨ ɨɫɨɤɚ ɜɨɥɨɫɢɫɬɚɹ, ɹɫɦɟɧɧɢɤ ɢ
ɡɜɟɡɞɱɚɬɤɚ.
Ʉɨɥɨɧɢɹ ɫɭɪɤɚ ɛɚɣɛɚɤɚ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬɫɹ ɭ ɧɢɠɧɟɣ ɝɪɚɧɢɰɵ ɛɚɣɪɚɱɧɨɝɨ
ɥɟɫɚ ɧɚ ɦɟɥɨɜɨɦ ɨɫɬɚɧɰɟ ɢ ɜɨɤɪɭɝ ɧɟɝɨ. Ɏɨɬɨɝɪɚɮɢɢ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɹɬɫɹ
ɧɢɠɟ. Ɇɟɥɨɜɨɣ ɨɫɬɚɧɟɰ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɩɨɥɨɝɨɦ ɫɤɥɨɧɟ ɧɢɠɧɟɣ ɝɪɚɧɢɰɵ
ɛɚɣɪɨɱɧɨɝɨ ɥɟɫɚ. ɉɥɨɳɚɞɶ ɫɤɥɨɧɚ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ 4,5 ɝɚ. Ɋɚɡɦɟɪɵ ɨɫɬɚɧɰɚ: ɞɥɢɧɚ
– 65 ɦ, ɲɢɪɢɧɚ – 28 ɦ, ɧɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɚɹ ɜɵɫɨɬɚ – 2,6 ɦ.
ɋɭɪɤɢ ɩɨɟɞɚɥɢ ɢɡɛɢɪɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɣ, ɧɚɯɨɞɹɳɢɯɫɹ
ɜ ɮɚɡɟ ɪɨɫɬɚ ɢ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ. ɉɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɢɬɚɥɢɫɶ ɫɨɱɧɵɟ ɜɟɪɯɭɲɟɱɧɵɟ
ɩɨɛɟɝɢ, ɥɢɫɬɶɹ ɢ ɫɟɦɟɧɚ. ɇɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɱɚɫɬɨ ɩɨɟɞɚɥɢɫɶ ɜɶɸɧɨɤ ɩɨɥɟɜɨɣ, ɩɬɢɱɶɹ
ɝɪɟɱɢɯɚ, ɤɥɟɜɟɪ, ɤɨɫɬɟɪ, ɥɟɛɟɞɚ, ɩɵɪɟɣ, ɬɢɩɱɚɤ, ɨɞɭɜɚɧɱɢɤ ɢ ɩɨɥɵɧɶ.
ɇɨɪɵ ɛɚɣɛɚɤɨɜ ɫɨɟɞɢɧɟɧɵ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɫɨɛɨɣ ɬɪɨɩɢɧɤɚɦɢ. ɉɨ ɢɯ ɫɟɬɢ
ɜɨɤɪɭɝ ɝɧɟɡɞɨɜɵɯ ɧɨɪ ɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɢ ɫɨɫɟɞɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ ɫɟɦɟɣ. ɉɨ
ɝɪɚɧɢɰɚ ɫɟɦɟɣɧɨɝɨ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚ ɫɚɦɰɵ ɪɵɥɢ ɤɨɩɚɧɰɵ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɨɣ 5-10 ɫɦ ɢ
ɦɚɪɤɢɪɨɜɨɱɧɵɟ ɹɦɤɢ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɨɣ ɞɨ 13 ɫɦ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɸɬ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɶɧɨɨɯɪɚɧɧɭɸ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɸ. ȼ ɚɩɪɟɥɟ ɫɭɪɤɢ ɪɚɫɱɢɳɚɥɢ ɥɟɬɧɢɟ ɝɧɟɡɞɨɜɵɟ ɢ
ɡɚɳɢɬɧɨ-ɤɨɪɦɨɜɵɟ ɧɨɪɵ, ȼ ɦɚɣ – ɡɢɦɨɜɨɱɧɨ-ɜɵɜɨɞɤɨɜɵɟ, ɜ ɢɸɧɟ – ɫɬɪɨɢɥɢ
ɧɨɜɵɟ ɝɧɟɡɞɨɜɵɟ ɤɚɦɟɪɵ, ɜ ɚɜɝɭɫɬɟ-ɫɟɧɬɹɛɪɟ – ɱɢɫɬɢɥɢ ɫɬɚɪɵɟ ɝɧɟɡɞɚ.
Ƚɧɟɡɞɨɜɵɟ (ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɚɥɶɧɵɟ) ɧɨɪɵ ɫɥɭɠɢɥɢ ɞɥɹ ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɜɡɪɨɫɥɵɯ
ɫɚɦɰɨɜ ɢ ɧɟɩɨɥɨɜɨɡɪɟɥɵɯ ɨɫɨɛɟɣ ɩɪɢɩɥɨɞɚ ɩɪɨɲɥɵɯ ɥɟɬ
ɇɚ ɫɟɦɟɣɧɨɦ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɟ ɨɛɳɟɟ ɱɢɫɥɨ ɧɨɪ ɡɚɜɢɫɟɥɨ ɨɬ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚ ɫɟɦɶɢ ɢ
ɤɨɥɟɛɚɥɨɫɶ ɨɬ 8 ɞɨ 26, ɢɡ ɧɢɯ 1-3 – ɡɢɦɨɜɨɱɧɨ-ɜɵɜɨɞɤɨɜɵɯ ɢ 6-9 – ɡɚɳɢɬɧɨɤɨɪɦɨɜɵɯ.
Ɉɬɦɟɱɟɧɨ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɧɨɟ ɹɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɨ ɧɚɥɢɱɢɢ ɧɨɪ ɤɪɚɩɱɚɬɨɝɨ ɫɭɫɥɢɤɚ
(Spermophilus suslicus) ɧɚ ɨɤɪɚɢɧɟ ɤɨɥɨɧɢɢ ɫɭɪɤɚ-ɛɚɣɛɚɤɚ.
ɇɚ ɫɤɥɨɧɟ ɨɫɬɚɧɰɚ ɧɢɠɟ ɤɨɥɨɧɢɢ ɫɭɪɤɚ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɨ ɨɤɨɥɨ 20 ɠɢɥɵɯ
ɧɨɪ ɫɭɫɥɢɤɚ.
ɋɪɟɞɢ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɜɪɚɝɨɜ ɢɦɟɟɬɫɹ ɥɢɫɢɰɚ, ɫɬɟɩɧɨɣ ɯɨɪɶ. ɋɬɟɩɧɨɣ
ɯɨɪɶ ɫɱɢɬɚɟɬɫɹ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɵɦ ɜɪɚɝɨɦ ɛɚɣɛɚɤɚ, ɨɧ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɟɧ ɩɪɨɧɢɤɚɬɶ ɤ ɫɩɹɳɢɦ
ɡɜɟɪɶɤɚɦ ɜ ɧɨɪɭ ɡɢɦɨɣ, ɭɛɢɜɚɹ ɢɯ ɢ ɩɨɟɞɚɹ, ɜ ɩɟɪɜɭɸ ɨɱɟɪɟɞɶ, ɦɨɡɝ.
171
ɍɪɨɧ ɛɚɣɛɚɤɚɦ ɧɚɧɨɫɹɬ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɢ ɛɪɚɤɨɧɶɟɪɵ.
Ɂɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɣ (ɷɩɢɡɨɨɬɢɣ) ɭ ɫɭɪɤɨɜ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɨ ɧɟ ɛɵɥɨ, ɢɦɟɥɢɫɶ ɛɥɨɯɢ ɢ
ɝɚɦɚɡɨɜɵɟ ɤɥɟɳɢ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟɝɟɥɶɦɢɧɬɵ.
Ȼɚɣɛɚɤ ɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɢɣ – ɟɞɢɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɜɢɞ ɫɪɟɞɢ ɫɭɪɤɨɜ, ɪɟɫɭɪɫɵ ɢ ɚɪɟɚɥ
ɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚɥɢ ɜ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɟɟ ɞɟɫɹɬɢɥɟɬɢɟ.
ɑɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɭɪɤɚ-ɛɚɣɛɚɤɚ ɜ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɧɟ ɛɨɥɟɟ 250 ɬɵɫ.
ɨɫɨɛɟɣ. Ƚɪɚɧɢɰɚ ɫɩɥɨɲɧɵɯ ɩɨɫɟɥɟɧɢɣ ɫɭɪɤɨɜ ɩɪɨɞɜɢɝɚɥɚɫɶ ɪɚɧɟɟ ɤ ɫɟɜɟɪɭ
ɫɨ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɶ ɧɟ ɦɟɧɟɟ ɩɹɬɢ ɤɢɥɨɦɟɬɪɨɜ ɜ ɝɨɞ, ɧɨ ɷɬɚ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ
ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɚ, ɫɟɜɟɪɧɟɟ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɚɪɟɚɥɚ ɥɟɠɚɬ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ
ɨɫɜɚɢɜɚɬɶ ɡɜɟɪɹɦ ɬɪɭɞɧɨ ɢ ɧɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ. ɋ 1977 ɝɨɞɚ ɛɥɚɝɨɞɚɪɹ
ɦɟɪɨɩɪɢɹɬɢɹɦ ɩɨ ɜɧɭɬɪɢɚɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɦɭ ɪɚɫɫɟɥɟɧɢɸ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɹ ɛɚɣɛɚɤɨɜ ɛɵɥɚ
ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɚ, ɢ ɤ 1996 ɝɨɞɭ ɜ ɪɹɞɟ ɦɟɫɬ ɞɨɫɬɢɝɥɢ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɨɣ
ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ. ȼ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɢ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɛɚɣɛɚɤɚ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɥɨɫɶ ɞɜɚ
ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ: ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɚɪɟɚɥɚ ɩɭɬɟɦ ɜɵɩɭɫɤɚ ɡɜɟɪɶɤɨɜ ɬɚɦ, ɝɞɟ ɨɧɢ
ɪɚɧɶɲɟ ɠɢɥɢ ɢ ɭɫɢɥɟɧɢɟ ɢ ɨɯɪɚɧɚ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ ɩɨɫɟɥɟɧɢɣ.
Ɍɚɤ ɜ 1989 ɝ. ɜ ȼɨɥɨɲɢɧɫɤɨɦ ɨɯɨɬɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟ Ɋɨɫɬɨɜɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɛɵɥ
ɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧ ɨɬɥɨɜ ɦɟɫɬɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɝɨɥɨɜɶɹ ɫɭɪɤɚ ɜ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟ 300 ɨɫɨɛɟɣ
ɪɚɡɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɚ ɞɥɹ ɪɚɫɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɜ Ȼɟɥɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɭɸ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɶ ɜ ɟɺ ɸɝɨ-ɜɨɫɬɨɱɧɵɟ
ɪɚɣɨɧɵ (ȼɚɥɭɣɫɤɢɣ, Ⱥɥɟɤɫɟɟɜɫɤɢɣ).
ɇɚ ɩɪɚɜɨɦ ɤɨɪɟɧɧɨɦ ɛɟɪɟɝɭ Ȼɢɬɸɝɚ ɜ ɦɟɫɬɚɯ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɩɨɱɬɢ
ɛɟɡɧɚɞɟɠɧɵ ɞɥɹ ɥɟɫɨɪɚɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ, ɝɞɟ ɧɢ ɤɨɫɢɬɶ, ɧɢ ɫɟɹɬɶ, ɧɢ ɫɤɨɬ ɩɚɫɬɢ,
ɛɵɥɚ ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɚ ɤɨɥɨɧɢɹ ɛɚɣɛɚɤɚ. ȼ Ʉɚɦɟɧɧɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɢ, ɧɚ ɜɨɞɨɪɚɡɞɟɥɟ,
ɫɭɪɤɢ ɠɢɥɢ ɧɚ ɞɜɭɯ ɜɵɤɚɲɢɜɚɟɦɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɶɸ 35 ɝɚ. ɂɯ
ɧɚɫɱɢɬɵɜɚɥɨɫɶ ɩɨɥɬɨɪɵ ɬɵɫɹɱɢ. ɋ ɪɨɫɬɨɦ ɥɟɫɧɵɯ ɩɨɥɨɫ ɪɚɡɧɨɬɪɚɜɧɵɟ
ɡɚɥɟɠɢ ɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɥɢɫɶ ɧɟɩɪɢɝɨɞɧɵɦɢ ɞɥɹ ɫɭɪɤɨɜ – ȼɟɪɯɨɜɨɞɤɚ ɩɨ ɜɟɫɧɟ
ɨɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɥɚɫɶ ɱɭɬɶ ɧɢ ɜ ɦɟɬɪɟ ɨɬ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ ɡɟɦɥɢ (ɧɚ ɝɪɟɛɧɟ
ɜɨɞɨɪɚɡɞɟɥɚ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɏɨɩɪɨɦ ɢ Ȼɢɬɸɝɨɦ).
ɇɨ ɞɜɚ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɢɯ ɜɵɫɟɥɤɚ ɜ ɛɥɢɠɚɣɲɢɯ ɛɚɥɤɚɯ ɩɪɢɠɢɥɢɫɶ, ɢ
ɪɚɜɧɢɧɧɵɟ ɫɭɪɤɢ ɩɟɪɟɲɥɢ ɠɢɬɶ ɧɚ ɫɭɯɢɟ ɫɤɥɨɧɵ, ɝɞɟ ɢɦ ɧɟ ɝɪɨɡɢɬ ɧɢ
ɪɚɫɩɚɲɤɚ ɡɟɦɥɢ, ɧɢ ɩɨɞɬɨɩɥɟɧɢɟ ɜɟɪɯɨɜɨɞɤɨɣ. ɂ ɬɟɩɟɪɶ ɜ ɛɚɥɤɚɯ ɧɚ ɢɯ
ɫɤɥɨɧɚɯ – ɲɢɪɨɤɢɟ ɪɵɠɢɟ ɢ ɛɟɥɵɟ ɩɥɟɲɢɧɵ ɫ ɛɭɬɚɧɚɦɢ ɧɨɪ ɫɬɟɩɧɵɯ
ɫɭɪɤɨɜ-ɛɚɣɛɚɤɨɜ.
ȼ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɟ ɢɦɟɸɬɫɹ ɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɨ ɧɚɥɢɱɢɢ ɫɭɪɱɢɧɵɯ ɧɨɪ ɜ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ
ɛɚɥɨɤ ɩɪɚɜɨɛɟɪɟɠɶɹ ɪ. Ȼɨɝɭɱɚɪ. Ɉɛɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ, ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɧɨɟ ɜ 1972 ɢ 1974
ɝ.ɝ. ɡɨɨɥɨɝɚɦɢ, ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥɨ, ɱɬɨ ɩɨɱɬɢ ɜɫɹ ɷɬɚ ɛɨɥɶɲɚɹ ɛɚɥɨɱɧɚɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ,
ɡɚɧɢɦɚɸɳɚɹ ɸɠɧɭɸ ɩɨɥɨɜɢɧɭ Ȼɨɝɭɱɚɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɢ Ʉɚɧɬɟɦɢɪɨɜɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɣɨɧɨɜ,
ɡɚɧɹɬɚ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɟɣ ɫɭɪɤɚ-ɛɚɣɛɚɤɚ, ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɸɳɟɣ ɡɞɟɫɶ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɨɣ
ɩɥɨɬɧɨɫɬɢ. Ⱥɧɚɥɨɝɢɱɧɵɟ ɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɞɚɧɵ ɢ ɩɨ ɸɝɭ Ȼɟɥɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ [6,
7].
ȼ ɏɪɢɩɭɧɫɤɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɢ ɧɚ ɫɤɥɨɧɚɯ ɛɚɥɨɤ ɫɭɪɤɢ ɧɟ ɫɟɥɢɥɢɫɶ, ɢ ɧɢɤɚɤɢɯ
ɫɥɟɞɨɜ ɢɯ ɩɪɟɛɵɜɚɧɢɹ ɬɚɦ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɢɬɶ ɧɟ ɭɞɚɟɬɫɹ. Ɍɟɩɟɪɶ ɛɚɥɨɱɧɵɟ
ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɩɥɨɬɧɨ ɡɚɫɟɥɟɧɵ ɫɭɪɤɚɦɢ. Ƚɥɭɲɶ ɢ ɛɟɡɥɸɞɶɟ ɞɟɥɚɟɬ ɛɚɥɤɢ
ɫɜɨɟɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɦ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɨɦ, ɧɟ ɬɪɟɛɭɸɳɢɦ ɨɫɨɛɨɣ ɨɯɪɚɧɵ, ɤɪɨɦɟ
ɟɝɟɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɧɚɞɡɨɪɚ [7].
172
ɇɟɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢɪɭɟɦɵɣ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɟɥ ɩɨɞɪɵɜɚɟɬ ɠɢɡɧɟɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɨɫɟɥɟɧɢɣ
ɧɚ ɭɰɟɥɟɜɲɢɯ ɰɟɥɢɧɧɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ, ɡɚɥɟɠɚɯ, ɫɭɯɨɞɨɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɟɧɨɤɨɫɚɯ [10].
Ȼɪɚɤɨɧɶɟɪɵ ɨɬɥɚɜɥɢɜɚɸɬ ɫɭɪɤɨɜ ɤɚɩɤɚɧɚɦɢ ɢ ɨɬɫɬɪɟɥɢɜɚɸɬ ɢɯ. ɉɟɪɜɵɣ
ɜɵɫɬɪɟɥ ɱɚɫɬɨ ɧɟ ɩɭɝɚɟɬ ɫɭɪɤɨɜ, ɢ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɜɬɨɪɨɝɨ, ɚ ɢɧɨɝɞɚ
ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɯ ɨɫɬɚɜɲɢɟɫɹ ɜ ɠɢɜɵɯ ɫɭɪɤɢ ɫɤɪɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɜ ɧɨɪɚɯ. [5].
ɋɤɥɨɧɨɜɚɹ
ɦɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɶ
ɧɚ
ɋɪɟɞɧɟɦ
ɉɨɞɨɧɶɟ
ɨɬɥɢɱɚɟɬɫɹ
ɦɧɨɝɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɨɣ ɩɟɫɬɪɨɬɨɣ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ. ȼ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɷɬɢɦ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ
ɧɟ ɡɚɧɢɦɚɸɬ ɡɞɟɫɶ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɯ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɟɣ ɩɨɞɪɹɞ. ȼ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɬɢɩɢɱɧɨɣ
ɥɟɫɨɫɬɟɩɢ ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨ ɬɟɩɥɵɟ ɢ ɫɭɯɢɟ, ɧɟ ɫɥɢɲɤɨɦ ɤɪɭɬɵɟ ɧɢɡɤɨɬɪɚɜɧɵɟ
ɫɤɥɨɧɵ ɸɠɧɨɣ ɷɤɫɩɨɡɢɰɢɢ ɩɪɢɜɥɟɤɚɸɬ ɤɪɚɩɱɚɬɨɝɨ ɫɭɫɥɢɤɚ, ɛɨɥɶɲɨɝɨ
ɬɭɲɤɚɧɱɢɤɚ, ɫɭɪɤɚ ɛɚɣɛɚɤɚ. Ɉɜɪɚɝɢ ɢ ɥɨɝɚ ɲɢɪɨɤɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɫɹ
ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɦɢ ɞɥɹ ɦɢɝɪɚɰɢɢ. ɀɢɜɨɬɧɵɟ, ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɳɢɟ ɪɚɡɪɟɠɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ
ɬɪɚɜɹɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɤɪɨɜɚ ɧɚ ɦɟɥɹɯ, ɸɠɧɭɸ ɷɤɫɩɨɡɢɰɢɸ ɫɤɥɨɧɨɜ, ɯɨɪɨɲɭɸ
ɞɪɟɧɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɢ ɤɪɭɬɢɡɧɭ, ɩɪɟɞɨɯɪɚɧɹɸɳɭɸ ɨɬ ɩɚɫɬɶɛɵ ɫɤɨɬɚ ɢ
ɜɵɬɚɩɬɵɜɚɧɢɹ ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɣ ɥɸɞɶɦɢ.
əɪɤɢɦ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɨɦ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɤɥɨɧɨɜɨɝɨ ɬɢɩɚ ɦɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɟɦ ɫɬɟɩɧɨɣ ɮɚɭɧɵ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɫɥɭɠɢɬɶ ɫɭɪɨɤ-ɛɚɣɛɚɤ. ɉɨ
ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɷɬɨɬ ɫɭɪɨɤ-ɛɚɣɛɚɤ ɪɟɞɨɤ. Ɍɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɚ ɜ
ɬɢɩɢɱɧɨɣ ɥɟɫɨɫɬɟɩɧɨɣ ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɧɨɣ ɡɨɧɟ ɜ ɋɪɟɞɧɟɪɭɫɫɤɨɦ Ȼɟɥɨɝɨɪɶɟ. ȼ
ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢ ɭɱɚɫɬɨɤ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧ ɜ ɸɠɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɨɜɢɧɟ ɜ
ɥɟɫɨɫɬɟɩɧɨɣ
ɮɢɡɢɤɨ-ɝɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɩɪɨɜɢɧɰɢɢ
ɋɪɟɞɧɟɪɭɫɫɤɨɣ
ɜɨɡɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɜ ɉɪɢɞɨɧɫɤɨɦ ɦɟɥɨɜɨɦ ɪɚɣɨɧɟ. ɇɚ ɋɪɟɞɧɟɦ ɉɨɞɨɧɶɟ
ɛɚɣɛɚɤɢ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɢɫɱɟɡɚɥɢ. ȼ ɞɜɚɞɰɚɬɵɯ ɝɨɞɚɯ ɩɪɨɲɥɨɝɨ ɫɬɨɥɟɬɢɹ
ɫɨɯɪɚɧɹɥɚɫɶ ɟɞɢɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɚɹ ɜ ɤɪɚɟ ɫɭɪɨɱɶɹ ɤɨɥɨɧɢɹ ɜ ɤɚɦɟɧɧɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɢ
[12].
ɋɭɪɤɚɦ ɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɬɟɧɢɟ ɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɯ ɞɥɹ ɨɛɨɡɪɟɧɢɹ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɨɜ ɫ
ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɧɨɣ ɬɪɚɜɹɧɢɫɬɨɣ ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɷɞɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɬɢɩɚ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɵɦɢ
ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɬɶ ɢɯ ɫɨɱɧɵɦɢ ɤɨɪɦɚɦɢ. ɋɢɥɶɧɨ ɡɚɪɨɫɲɢɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɨɜ ɫ ɧɚɥɢɱɢɟɦ
ɜɨɣɥɨɤɚ ɢɡ ɨɬɦɟɪɲɢɯ ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɣ ɢɡɛɟɝɚɸɬ, ɜ ɬɚɤɢɯ ɦɟɫɬɚɯ ɡɚɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ
ɧɚɱɚɥɨ ɜɟɝɟɬɚɰɢɢ ɜ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɵɣ ɩɨ ɢɧɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɜɟɫɟɧɧɢɣ
ɩɟɪɢɨɞ. ɇɚ ɬɚɤɢɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ ɫ ɧɢɡɤɢɦ ɡɚɥɟɝɚɧɢɟɦ ɝɪɭɧɬɨɜɵɯ ɜɨɞ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ
ɭɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜɨ ɩɪɨɱɧɵɯ ɫɭɯɢɯ ɢ ɝɥɭɛɨɤɢɯ ɧɨɪ.
Ȼɚɣɛɚɤɢ – ɬɢɩɢɱɧɵɟ ɧɨɪɧɢɤɢ, ɩɪɟɛɵɜɚɸɳɢɟ ɜ ɧɨɪɟ ɞɨ 85% ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ.
Ɏɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɨɞɤɨɠɧɨɝɨ ɠɢɪɚ, ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɸɳɟɝɨ 30% ɨɛɳɟɣ ɦɚɫɫɵ ɬɟɥɚ,
ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɟɬ ɬɟɩɥɨɡɚɳɢɬɭ ɜɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɡɢɦɧɟɣ ɫɩɹɱɤɢ ɜ ɧɨɪɟ. Ɉɞɧɨɣ ɢɡ
ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɚɞɚɩɬɚɰɢɣ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɬɶ ɜ
ɧɨɪɟ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɣ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɧɵɣ ɪɟɠɢɦ ɩɭɬɺɦ ɡɚɤɥɚɞɤɢ ɧɟɩɪɨɞɭɜɚɟɦɨɝɨ
ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɮɢɥɹ ɯɨɞɨɜ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɡɚɤɪɵɜɚɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɡɢɦɧɟɣ ɫɩɹɱɤɢ
ɜɫɟɯ ɧɚɪɭɠɧɵɯ ɥɚɡɨɜ ɩɪɨɛɤɚɦɢ.
ɋɢɫɬɟɦɚ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɧɨɪ ɧɚ ɡɚɧɢɦɚɟɦɨɦ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɟ ɞɨɥɠɧɚ
ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɬɶ ɫɜɨɟɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɟ ɢ ɛɵɫɬɪɨɟ ɭɤɪɵɬɢɟ ɜ ɧɨɪɚɯ, ɜ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ
ɩɪɟɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢɯ ɧɚ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ ɡɟɦɥɢ.
ȼ Ʉɨɫɬɺɧɤɚɯ ɛɚɣɛɚɤ ɫɟɥɢɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɜɨɡɜɵɲɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ ɫɤɥɨɧɨɜ ɫ
ɜɵɯɨɞɚɦɢ ɦɟɥɚ ɜ ɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɛɥɢɡɨɫɬɢ ɤ ɢɦɟɸɳɢɦɫɹ ɛɚɣɪɚɱɧɵɦ
173
ɥɟɫɚɦ (ɪɢɫ. 1). ȼ ɥɨɝɚɯ ɧɚ ɦɟɫɬɚɯ ɢɫɱɟɡɚɸɳɢɯ ɢ ɩɨɥɭɪɚɡɪɭɲɟɧɧɵɯ
ɞɟɪɟɜɭɲɟɤ ɫɭɪɨɤ ɨɛɪɚɡɭɟɬ ɤɨɥɨɧɢɢ ɫ ɧɨɪɚɦɢ ɧɚ ɡɚɪɨɫɲɢɯ ɛɭɪɶɹɧɨɦ
ɯɨɥɦɢɤɚɯ ɢ ɜɨɡɜɵɲɟɧɢɹɯ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɩɪɨɦɨɢɧɚɦɢ ɫɤɥɨɧɨɜ.
Ɋɢɫ. 1. ɋɭɪɨɤ-ɛɚɣɛɚɤ.
ɋɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɣ ɚɪɟɚɥ ɛɚɣɛɚɤɚ ɩɪɟɪɵɜɢɫɬɵɣ, ɜɢɞ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɫɹ ɧɚ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ
ɰɟɥɢɧɧɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɢ ɜ ɋɪɟɞɧɟɦ ɉɨɞɨɧɶɟ, ɘɠɧɨɦ ɉɪɢɭɪɚɥɶɟ ɢ ɧɚ Ⱦɨɧɭ. Ȼɚɣɛɚɤ
ɬɹɝɨɬɟɟɬ ɤ ɪɚɡɧɨɜɢɞɧɨɫɬɹɦ ɡɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɬɟɩɟɣ, ɫɟɥɢɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɰɟɥɢɧɧɵɯ
ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ ɥɭɝɨɫɬɟɩɢ ɢ ɥɟɫɨɫɬɟɩɢ. Ɉɛɢɬɚɟɬ ɧɚ ɫɤɥɨɧɚɯ ɨɜɪɚɠɧɨ-ɛɚɥɨɱɧɵɯ
ɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɜɛɥɢɡɢ ɛɚɣɪɚɱɧɵɯ ɥɟɫɨɜ, ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɤɚɤ ɜɵɧɭɠɞɟɧɧɚɹ ɦɟɪɚ.
ɋɭɪɤɢ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɢɬɚɸɬ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɢ ɫ ɝɥɭɛɨɤɢɦ ɡɚɥɟɝɚɧɢɟɦ ɝɪɭɧɬɨɜɵɯ ɜɨɞ. ȼ
Ʉɨɫɬɺɧɤɚɯ ɫɭɪɤɢ ɫɟɥɹɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɜɨɡɜɵɲɟɧɧɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ ɫɤɥɨɧɨɜ ɛɚɥɨɤ.
Ʉɨɫɬɺɧɤɢ ɧɚɯɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɜ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɯ ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɥɟɫɨɫɬɟɩɢ, ɜ ɫɟɜɟɪɧɨɦ
ɬɢɩɢɱɧɨɦ ɥɟɫɨɫɬɟɩɧɨɦ ɪɚɣɨɧɟ. Ƚɨɞɨɜɚɹ ɫɭɦɦɚ ɨɫɚɞɤɨɜ ɛɥɢɡɤɚ ɤ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɟ
ɢɫɩɚɪɹɟɦɨɫɬɢ, ɜɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɧɚ ɩɥɨɫɤɢɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ ɜɨɞɨɪɚɡɞɟɥɚ ɢ ɧɚ
ɫɤɥɨɧɚɯ ɫ ɤɪɭɬɢɡɧɨɣ ɞɨ 3º ɜɟɪɯɧɢɣ ɩɨɱɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬ ɜ ɜɟɫɟɧɧɢɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ
ɩɨɫɥɟ ɬɚɹɧɢɹ ɫɧɟɝɚ ɧɚɫɵɳɟɧ ɜɥɚɝɨɣ ɢ ɩɨɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɜɟɪɯɨɜɨɞɤɚ. ȼ ɬɚɤɢɯ
ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɧɨɪɧɵɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɟ ɠɢɬɶ ɧɟ ɦɨɝɭɬ.
ɋɭɪɨɤ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɜɵɠɢɜɚɬɶ ɜ Ʉɨɫɬɺɧɤɚɯ ɧɚ ɜɨɡɜɵɲɟɧɧɵɯ ɫɤɥɨɧɚɯ ɜɛɥɢɡɢ
ɛɚɣɪɚɱɧɵɯ ɞɭɛɪɚɜ.
ȼ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɤɨɥɯɨɡɨɜ ɜ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟ ɢɦɟɥɨɫɶ ɛɨɥɶɲɨɟ
ɩɨɝɨɥɨɜɶɟ ɤɪɭɩɧɨɝɨ ɪɨɝɚɬɨɝɨ ɫɤɨɬɚ ɢ ɨɬɚɪɚ ɨɜɟɰ. ɇɚ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ, ɝɞɟ ɦɵ
ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɢ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ (Ʉɨɫɬɺɧɤɢ, Ɋɨɫɫɨɲɤɢ, ɉɪɨɤɭɞɢɧɨ) ɢɦɟɥɢɫɶ
174
ɛɪɢɝɚɞɵ ɢ ɥɟɬɧɢɟ ɥɚɝɟɪɹ ɞɥɹ ɜɵɩɚɫɚ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ. ȼ ɤɚɠɞɨɦ ɞɜɨɪɟ ɢɦɟɥɢɫɶ
ɤɨɪɨɜɵ, ɨɜɰɵ ɢ ɤɨɡɵ. ȼɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟ ɷɬɨɝɨ, 30 ɥɟɬ ɧɚɡɚɞ ɜɫɟ ɫɜɨɛɨɞɧɵɟ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɢ
ɢ ɫɤɥɨɧɚ ɛɚɥɨɤ ɛɵɥɢ ɜɵɛɢɬɵ ɨɬ ɱɪɟɡɦɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɜɵɩɚɫɚ, ɩɨ ɫɤɥɨɧɚɦ ɛɪɨɞɢɥɢ
ɨɬɚɪɵ ɨɜɟɰ. Ɍɟɩɟɪɶ ɜ ɧɚɥɢɱɢɟ ɡɚɩɭɫɬɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɥɟɣ, ɯɭɬɨɪɚ ɜɵɦɟɪɥɢ, ɩɨɝɨɥɨɜɶɟ
ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɫɨɤɪɚɬɢɥɨɫɶ ɞɨ ɧɭɥɹ, ɜ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɧɟ ɞɟɪɠɢɬ ɞɨɦɚɲɧɢɯ
ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ.
Ɉɜɪɚɠɧɨ-ɛɚɣɪɚɱɧɵɟ ɥɟɫɚ ɢ ɫɤɥɨɧɵ ɛɚɥɨɤ ɡɚɪɨɫɥɢ ɥɭɝɨɜɨ-ɫɬɟɩɧɨɣ
ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɢ ɫɬɚɥɢ ɩɪɢɝɨɞɧɵɦɢ ɞɥɹ ɩɨɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɤɨɥɨɧɢɣ ɫɭɪɤɚɛɚɣɛɚɤɚ.
ɋɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɤɨɥɨɧɢɢ ɫɭɪɤɨɜ ɧɚ ɪɨɜɧɵɯ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɹɯ ɧɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ.
ɉɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɧɨɜɵɯ ɤɨɥɨɧɢɣ ɫɭɪɤɚ-ɛɚɣɛɚɤɚ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɧɚ ɫɤɥɨɧɚɯ
ɛɚɥɨɤ.
ɇɚ ɸɝɟ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɜ ɪɚɣɨɧɟ, ɝɞɟ ɤɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬ ɢɫɩɚɪɟɧɢɹ
ɩɪɟɜɵɲɚɟɬ ɜɞɜɨɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɜɵɩɚɞɚɸɳɢɯ ɨɫɚɞɤɨɜ, ɤɨɥɨɧɢɢ ɫɭɪɤɚ-ɛɚɣɛɚɤɚ
ɦɨɝɭɬ ɜɵɠɢɜɚɬɶ ɢ ɧɚ ɪɨɜɧɵɯ ɫɬɟɩɧɵɯ ɢ ɩɥɚɤɨɪɧɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ.
ȼ Ʉɨɫɬɺɧɤɚɯ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɹ ɫɭɪɤɚ-ɛɚɣɛɚɤɚ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɫɟɜɟɪɧɨɣ ɝɪɚɧɢɰɟ
ɫɜɨɟɝɨ ɚɪɟɚɥɚ, ɨɛɪɚɡɭɹ ɧɟɦɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɨɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɜɛɥɢɡɢ ɛɚɣɪɚɱɧɵɯ
ɥɟɫɨɜ.
ɇɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ ɨɯɪɚɧɧɵɦ ɦɟɪɨɩɪɢɹɬɢɣ ɢ ɩɪɢɞɚɧɢɹ
ɛɚɣɪɚɱɧɵɦ ɥɟɫɚɦ ɫɬɚɬɭɫɚ ɨɯɪɚɧɹɟɦɨɣ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ.
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. Ȼɢɛɢɤɨɜ Ⱦ. ɂ. ɋɭɪɤɢ / Ⱦ. ɂ. Ȼɚɛɢɤɨɜ. – Ⱥɝɪɨɩɪɨɦɢɡɞɚɬ, 1989. – 225.
2. Ɂɢɦɢɧɚ Ɋ. ɉ. Ɉɱɟɪɤ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɫɬɟɩɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɫɟɪɨɝɨ ɫɭɪɤɨɜ / Ɋ. ɉ. Ɂɢɦɢɧɚ // Ɍɪ. ɂɧ-ɬɚ
ɝɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɢ Ⱥɇ ɋɋɋɊ. – 1953. – ȼɵɩ. 54. – ɋ. 42-49.
3. Ɇɚɲɤɢɧ ȼ. ɂ. ȿɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɢɣ ɛɚɣɛɚɤ: ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɹ, ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɢ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ / ȼ.ɂ.
Ɇɚɲɤɢɧ. – Ʉɢɪɨɜ, 1997. – 160 ɫ.
4. Ʉɚɦɵɲɟɜ ɇ. ɋ. Ɋɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɩɨɤɪɨɜ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɢ ɟɝɨ ɨɯɪɚɧɚ / ɇ.ɋ.
Ʉɚɦɵɲɟɜ, Ʉ.Ɏ. ɏɦɟɥɟɜ. – ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ, 1976. – 1984 ɫ.
5. Ʉɨɪɵɬɢɧ ɋ. Ⱥ. ɉɨɜɚɞɤɢ ɞɢɤɢɯ ɡɜɟɪɟɣ / ɋ. Ⱥ. Ʉɨɪɵɬɢɧ. – Ɇ.: Ⱥɝɪɨɩɨɪɦɢɡɞɚɬ, 1986.
– 319 ɫ.
6. Ʉɨɫɬɢɧ ɋ. ɂ. Ʉɥɢɦɚɬ. – ȼ ɤɧ.: ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɚɹ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɶ, ɉɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ / ɋ. ɂ.
Ʉɨɫɬɢɧ, – ɑ. 1. – ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ, 1952.
7. Ɇɢɥɶɤɨɜ Ɏ. ɇ. Ʌɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɵ Ⱦɨɥɢɧɵ Ⱦɨɧɚ / Ɏ.ɇ. Ɇɢɥɶɤɨɜ // Ⱦɨɥɢɧɚ Ⱦɨɧɚ.
ɉɪɢɪɨɞɚ ɢ ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɵ. – ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ, 1982. – ɋ. 52-63.
8. ɉɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɹ ɫɭɪɤɚ-ɛɚɣɛɚɤɚ ɜ ȼɨɥɨɲɢɧɫɤɨɦ ɨɯɨɬɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟ Ɋɨɫɬɨɜɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ.
Ʌɟɫ. ɇɚɭɤɚ. Ɇɨɥɨɞɟɠɶ – 2003: ɋɛɨɪɧɢɤ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɨɜ ɩɨ ɢɬɨɝɚɦ ɧɚɭɱɧɨ-ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɫɤɨɣ
ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɦɨɥɨɞɵɯ ɭɱɟɧɵɯ ɡɚ 2003 ɝɨɞ, ɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɧɵɣ 90-ɥɟɬɢɸ ɫɨ ɞɧɹ ɪɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ
ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɨɪɚ ɉ.Ȼ. Ɋɚɫɤɚɬɨɜɚ / ɉɨɞ ɪɟɞ. ɩɪɨɮ. ɋɜɢɪɢɞɨɜɚ. – ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ: ȼȽɅɌȺ, 2003. – 418
ɫ.
9. ɋɟɪɟɞɧɟɜɚ Ɍ. Ⱥ. Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɚɛɫɨɥɸɬɧɨɣ ɩɥɨɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɦɨɧɝɨɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ ɢ
ɫɬɟɩɧɨɝɨ ɫɭɪɤɨɜ / Ɍ. Ⱥ. ɋɟɪɟɞɧɟɜɚ // Ȼɢɨɥɨɝɢɹ, ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɹ, ɨɯɪɚɧɚ ɢ ɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɟ
ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɫɭɪɤɨɜ: Ɇɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɵ ɜɫɟɫɨɸɡɧ. ɫɨɜɟɳ. – Ɇ., 1991. – ɫ. 125-131.
10. ɋɩɚɧɝɟɧɛɟɪɝ ȿ. ɇ. ȼɫɬɪɟɱɢ ɫ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɦɢ / ȿ. ɇ. ɋɩɚɧɝɟɧɛɟɪɝ. – Ɇ. ȼɵɫɲɚɹ
ɲɤɨɥɚ,1987.– 225 ɫ.
11. ɋɪɟɞɧɟɪɭɫɫɤɨɟ Ȼɟɥɨɝɨɪɶɟ / Ɏ.ɇ. Ɇɢɥɶɤɨɜ, ȼ.Ȼ. Ɇɢɯɧɨ, Ⱥ.ȼ. Ȼɟɪɟɠɧɨɣ ɢ ɞɪ. –
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ: ɢɡɞ-ɜɨ ȼȽɍ, 1985. – 240 ɫ.
175
1. Ȼɚɪɚɛɚɲ-ɇɢɤɢɮɨɪɨɜ ɂ.ɂ. Ɂɜɟɪɢ ɸɝɨ-ɜɨɫɬɨɱɧɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɑɟɪɧɨɡɟɦɧɨɝɨ ɰɟɧɬɪɚ.
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ: ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ ɤɧ. ɂɡɞ-ɜɨ, 1957. – 370 ɫ.
12. ɏɚɪɱɟɧɤɨ ɇ. ɇ. ɇɨɪɧɵɟ ɡɜɟɪɢ ɋɪɟɞɧɟɝɨ ɉɨɞɨɧɶɹ: Ɇɨɧɨɝɪɚɮɢɹ / ɇ. ɇ. ɏɚɪɱɟɧɤɨ.
– Ȼɟɥɝɨɪɨɞ; ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ: ɂɡɞ-ɜɨ ȻɟɥȽɍ, 2002. – 393 ɫ.: ɢɥ.
POPULATION OF THE MARMOT
IN THE NORTHERN-WEST OF VORONEZH REGION
Ⱥ.Ⱥ. Televinov, N.I. Prostakov
Voronezh State Agrarian University,
Voronezh State University, Voronezh, Russia
The investigation is devoted to Marmota bobac Mull population in the Middle
Podonye in ravine forest in the North-West of Voronezh region. The stations of
Marmota bobac Mull environment are revealed, morphometric indexes are
received, the number of population of the species according to biotops are
determined.
ɍȾɄ 576.591.5.595.7.599.3
ɋɈɈȻɓȿɋɌȼȺ ɗɄɌɈɉȺɊȺɁɂɌɈȼ Ⱦȼɍɏ ȼɂȾɈȼ ɆȿɅɄɂɏ
ɆɅȿɄɈɉɂɌȺɘɓɂɏ ɇɈȼȽɈɊɈȾɋɄɈɃ ɈȻɅȺɋɌɂ
Ʉ.Ⱥ. Ɍɪɟɬɶɹɤɨɜ
Ɂɨɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ɊȺɇ,
ɋɚɧɤɬ-ɉɟɬɟɪɛɭɪɝ, [email protected]
ɇɚ ɦɟɥɤɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɵ 30 ɜɢɞɨɜ ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ, 14 ɢɡ
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɨɛɨɢɯ ɜɢɞɚɯ. ɇɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɟɟ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟ ɜɢɞɨɜ
ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɨ ɧɚ ɪɵɠɟɣ ɩɨɥɟɜɤɟ. ȼɢɞɨɜɨɣ ɫɨɫɬɚɜ ɢ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ
ɢɡɦɟɧɹɥɚɫɶ ɜ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɝɨɞɚ. ɋɟɡɨɧɧɵɟ ɤɨɥɟɛɚɧɢɹ ɜ ɛɨɥɶɲɟɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ
ɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɦ ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚɦ ɢ ɜ ɧɚɢɦɟɧɶɲɟɣ - ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɵɦ.
Ɋɚɛɨɬɵ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɢɫɶ ɜ ɑɭɞɨɜɫɤɨɦ ɪɚɣɨɧɟ ɇɨɜɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɜ
1996-2004 ɝɝ. ȼɫɟɝɨ ɨɬɪɚɛɨɬɚɧɨ 59022 ɥɨɜɭɲɤɨ/ɫɭɬɨɤ ɢ ɨɬɥɨɜɥɟɧɨ 6644
ɨɫɨɛɢ ɦɟɥɤɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ, ɨɬɧɨɫɹɳɢɯɫɹ ɤ 16 ɜɢɞɚɦ. ɋ ɦɟɥɤɢɯ
ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ ɛɵɥɨ ɫɨɛɪɚɧɨ 222114 ɨɫɨɛɟɣ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ. ɂɡ 30
ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ 14 ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɨɛɨɢɯ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɜɢɞɚɯ ɦɟɥɤɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ. ɇɚ ɪɵɠɟɣ ɩɨɥɟɜɤɟ ɫɨɛɪɚɧɵ
26 ɜɢɞɨɜ ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ: 12 ɜɢɞɨɜ ɛɥɨɯ, 1 ɜɢɞ ɜɲɟɣ, 2 ɜɢɞɚ ɢɤɫɨɞɨɜɵɯ
ɤɥɟɳɟɣ, 6 ɜɢɞɨɜ ɝɚɦɚɡɨɜɵɯ ɢ 5 ɜɢɞɨɜ ɚɤɚɪɢɮɨɪɦɧɵɯ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ. ɇɚ ɛɭɪɨɡɭɛɤɚɯ
ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧ 21 ɜɢɞ ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ: 12 ɜɢɞɨɜ ɛɥɨɯ, 2 ɜɢɞɚ ɢɤɫɨɞɨɜɵɯ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ,
5 ɜɢɞɨɜ ɝɚɦɚɡɨɜɵɯ ɢ 2 ɜɢɞɚ ɚɤɚɪɢɮɨɪɦɧɵɯ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ.
ɉɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɵɟ ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɵ. ɂɡ ɧɚɫɟɤɨɦɵɯ ɧɚ ɪɵɠɟɣ ɩɨɥɟɜɤɟ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨ
ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɢɪɭɟɬ ɨɞɢɧ ɜɢɞ ɜɲɟɣ Hoplopleura edentula Fahrenholz. ɂɡ
176
ɚɤɚɪɢɮɨɪɦɧɵɯ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɦɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɦ ɛɵɥ Radfordia
clethrionomydis Fain et Lukoschus (Myobiidae). Ʌɢɲɶ ɧɟɦɧɨɝɢɦ ɭɫɬɭɩɚɥ
ɩɪɟɞɵɞɭɳɟɦɭ ɜɢɞɭ ɩɨ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ Listrophorus mediterraneus Portus, Fain et
Lukoschus (Listrophoridae). Ɇɟɧɟɟ ɦɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɛɵɥɢ ɞɜɚ ɜɢɞɚ ɫɟɦ.
Myocoptidae (Myocoptes japonensis japonensis Radford ɢ Trichoecius
clethrionomydis Portus et Gallego).
Ʉ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɵɦ ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚɦ ɛɭɪɨɡɭɛɨɤ ɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹ ɞɜɚ ɜɢɞɚ ɤɥɟɳɟɣɦɢɨɛɢɢɞ – Amorphacarus elongatus Poppe (ɷɬɨɬ ɜɢɞ ɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɥ) ɢ
Protomyobia onoi Jameson et Dusbabek.
ɉɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɵɟ ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɵ ɨɛɢɬɚɸɬ ɧɚ ɬɟɥɟ ɯɨɡɹɢɧɚ ɤɪɭɝɥɨɝɨɞɢɱɧɨ, ɧɨ
ɩɪɨɰɟɧɬ ɢɧɜɚɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɵɯ ɨɫɨɛɟɣ ɢ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɢɧɞɟɤɫɵ ɨɛɢɥɢɹ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵ ɜ
ɪɚɡɧɵɟ ɫɟɡɨɧɵ ɝɨɞɚ. ɉɢɤɢ ɨɛɢɥɢɹ ɜɲɟɣ Haploplura edentula ɧɚ ɪɵɠɢɯ
ɩɨɥɟɜɤɚɯ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɵ ɜɟɫɧɨɣ ɢ ɨɫɟɧɶɸ ɫ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɢɦ ɫɩɚɞɨɦ ɥɟɬɨɦ ɢ
ɦɢɧɢɦɭɦɨɦ ɡɢɦɨɣ. ɍ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ-ɥɢɫɬɪɨɮɨɪɢɞ ɩɢɤ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧ ɜ
ɨɫɟɧɧɟ-ɡɢɦɧɢɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɢ ɭ ɦɢɨɤɨɩɬɢɞ – ɫ ɧɚɱɚɥɚ ɡɢɦɵ ɢ ɞɨ ɤɨɧɰɚ ɥɟɬɚ. ɍ
ɤɥɟɳɟɣ-ɦɢɨɛɢɢɞ ɧɚ ɪɵɠɢɯ ɩɨɥɟɜɤɚɯ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɚɹ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɥɚɫɶ
ɜ ɜɟɫɟɧɧɟ-ɥɟɬɧɢɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ, ɚ ɡɢɦɨɣ ɨɧɚ ɩɚɞɚɟɬ ɞɨ ɦɢɧɢɦɭɦɚ. ɇɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɚɹ
ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ-ɦɢɨɛɢɢɞ ɧɚ ɛɭɪɨɡɭɛɤɚɯ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɤɨɧɰɟ ɡɢɦɵ ɢ
ɜɟɫɧɨɣ, ɚ ɦɢɧɢɦɚɥɶɧɚɹ - ɫ ɫɟɪɟɞɢɧɵ ɥɟɬɚ ɢ ɞɨ ɧɚɱɚɥɚ ɡɢɦɵ.
ȼɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɟ ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɵ. ɂɡ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ ɧɚ ɪɵɠɢɯ
ɩɨɥɟɜɤɚɯ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɦɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɛɵɥɢ ɥɢɱɢɧɤɢ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ Hirsutiella
zachvatkini, ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɩɨɱɬɢ ɧɚ ɜɫɟɯ ɨɫɨɛɹɯ. ɇɚ ɞɨɥɸ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɜɢɞɚ
ɩɪɢɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɩɨɥɨɜɢɧɵ ɨɬ ɱɢɫɥɚ ɜɫɟɯ ɫɨɛɪɚɧɧɵɯ ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ.
ɇɚ ɪɵɠɢɯ ɩɨɥɟɜɤɚɯ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɦɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵ ɛɵɥɢ ɱɟɬɵɪɟ ɜɢɞɚ ɛɥɨɯ Amalaraeus penicilliger Grube, Ctenophtalmus uncinatus Wagn, Megabotris
turbidus Roths. ɢ Piromyscopsilla bidentata Kol., ɧɚ ɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɵɯ
ɛɭɪɨɡɭɛɤɚɯ - Palaeopsylla soricis Dale ɢ Doratopsylla dasycnema Roths.
ɇɚ ɪɵɠɢɯ ɩɨɥɟɜɤɚɯ ɢ ɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɛɭɪɨɡɭɛɤɚɯ ɛɵɥɢ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɵ
ɝɚɦɚɡɨɜɵɟ ɤɥɟɳɢ ɬɪɟɯ ɨɞɢɧɚɤɨɜɵɯ ɪɨɞɨɜ ɢ ɩɨ ɨɞɧɨɦɭ ɪɨɞɭ, ɧɟ
ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɸɳɟɦɭɫɹ ɧɚ ɞɪɭɝɨɦ ɯɨɡɹɢɧɟ. ɑɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɝɚɦɚɡɨɜɵɯ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ ɧɚ
ɜɫɟɯ ɯɨɡɹɟɜɚɯ ɜ ɪɚɣɨɧɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɛɵɥɚ ɧɢɡɤɨɣ (ɢɧɞɟɤɫ ɨɛɢɥɢɹ, ɂɈ,
ɦɟɧɶɲɟ 0.1 ɢ ɢɧɞɟɤɫ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɟɦɨɫɬɢ, ɂȼ, ɧɟ ɛɨɥɟɟ 5%).
ȼɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɦ ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚɦ ɜ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɟɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵ
ɫɟɡɨɧɧɵɟ ɤɨɥɟɛɚɧɢɹ, ɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ ɨɧɢ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɹɬ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɠɢɡɧɢ ɜɧɟ ɬɟɥɚ ɯɨɡɹɢɧɚ.
Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɥɢɱɢɧɤɢ Hirsutiella zachvatkini Schluger ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɢɪɭɸɬ ɧɚ ɩɨɥɟɜɤɚɯ
ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɤɪɭɝɥɨɝɨɞɢɱɧɨ ɢ ɫ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨ ɜɵɫɨɤɢɦ ɨɛɢɥɢɟɦ.
ȼ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɟ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɨɛɳɟɝɨ (ɫɭɦɦɚɪɧɨɝɨ ɩɨ ɜɫɟɦ ɜɢɞɚɦ) ɢɧɞɟɤɫɚ
ɨɛɢɥɢɹ ɛɥɨɯ ɧɚ ɪɵɠɢɯ ɩɨɥɟɜɤɚɯ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɥɨɫɶ ɬɪɢ ɩɨɞɴɟɦɚ – ɜɟɫɟɧɧɢɣ,
ɥɟɬɧɢɣ ɢ ɡɢɦɧɢɣ [2]. Ⱦɥɹ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɛɥɨɯ ɡɢɦɧɢɣ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɢɡɦ
ɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹ ɧɨɪɦɨɣ. Ɇɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧ ɜɟɫɧɨɣ - ɜ
ɚɩɪɟɥɟ, ɤɨɝɞɚ ɢɧɞɟɤɫ ɨɛɢɥɢɹ ɞɨɯɨɞɢɥ ɞɨ 3.1-3.8.
Ⱦɜɚ ɜɢɞɚ ɛɥɨɯ (Palaeopsylla soricis ɢ Doratopsylla dasycnema),
ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɧɵɯ ɞɥɹ ɛɭɪɨɡɭɛɨɤ, ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɜ ɯɨɥɨɞɧɨɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ
ɝɨɞɚ [3]. Ⱦɥɹ ɫɟɡɨɧɧɨɣ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɢ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ P. soricis ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɵ ɞɜɚ
177
ɯɨɪɨɲɨ ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɩɨɞɴɟɦɚ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ. Ɉɞɢɧ ɢɡ ɧɢɯ (ɜɟɫɟɧɧɢɣ) ɜɨ ɜɫɟ
ɝɨɞɵ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɣ ɨɬɦɟɱɚɥɫɹ ɜ ɚɩɪɟɥɟ ɢ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɥ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɩɨɥɧɨɝɨ
ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɹ ɷɬɢɯ ɛɥɨɯ ɜ ɩɪɟɞɵɞɭɳɢɟ ɞɜɚ ɦɟɫɹɰɚ. ɋ ɦɚɹ ɩɨ ɚɜɝɭɫɬ
ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ P. soricis ɧɚ ɡɜɟɪɶɤɚɯ ɩɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɨ ɫɧɢɠɚɥɚɫɶ, ɚ ɜ ɫɟɧɬɹɛɪɟ
ɧɚɱɢɧɚɥɫɹ ɜɬɨɪɨɣ (ɨɫɟɧɧɢɣ) ɩɨɞɴɟɦ, ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɜɲɢɣ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɜ
ɨɤɬɹɛɪɟ.
Ƚɚɦɚɡɨɜɵɟ ɤɥɟɳɢ ɜ ɧɚɲɢɯ ɫɛɨɪɚɯ ɫ ɪɵɠɢɯ ɩɨɥɟɜɨɤ ɛɵɥɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵ
7 ɜɢɞɚɦɢ. Ɉɧɢ ɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɚɬ ɤ ɪɨɞɚɦ Laelaps, Eulaelaps, Haemogamasus,
Echinonysssus. ɗɬɢ ɠɟ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɟ ɜɢɞɵ ɭɩɨɦɹɧɭɬɵɯ ɪɨɞɨɜ ɛɵɥɢ ɧɚɣɞɟɧɵ ɢ ɜ
ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɱɚɫɬɹɯ ɚɪɟɚɥɚ ɪɵɠɟɣ ɩɨɥɟɜɤɢ [1]. ɑɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɝɚɦɚɡɨɜɵɯ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ ɧɚ
ɯɨɡɹɟɜɚɯ ɜ ɪɚɣɨɧɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɛɵɥɚ ɧɢɡɤɨɣ (ɂɈ ɦɟɧɶɲɟ 0.1 ɢ ɂȼ ɧɟ ɛɨɥɟɟ
5.0%) ɩɨ ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɸ ɫ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɸɠɧɟɟ ɱɚɫɬɹɦɢ ɚɪɟɚɥɚ ɯɨɡɹɢɧɚ.
ȼ ɫɛɨɪɚɯ ɫ ɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɛɭɪɨɡɭɛɤɢ ɝɚɦɚɡɨɜɵɟ ɤɥɟɳɢ ɛɵɥɢ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵ 6 ɜɢɞɚɦɢ. ɑɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɝɚɦɚɡɨɜɵɯ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ ɧɚ ɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɵɯ
ɛɭɪɨɡɭɛɤɚɯ ɜ ɪɚɣɨɧɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɛɵɥɚ ɧɢɡɤɨɣ (ɂɈ ɦɟɧɶɲɟ 0.1 ɢ ɂȼ
ɧɟ ɛɨɥɟɟ 5%) ɩɨ ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɸ ɫ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɸɠɧɟɟ ɱɚɫɬɹɦɢ ɚɪɟɚɥɚ ɷɬɨɝɨ
ɯɨɡɹɢɧɚ.
ɇɚ ɪɵɠɢɯ ɩɨɥɟɜɤɚɯ ɢ ɛɭɪɨɡɭɛɤɚɯ ɫɨɛɢɪɚɥɢ ɥɢɱɢɧɨɤ ɢ ɧɢɦɮ ɞɜɭɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ
ɢɤɫɨɞɨɜɵɯ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ (Ixodes persulcatus Schulze ɢ I. trianguliceps Birula).
Ʌɢɱɢɧɤɢ I. trianguliceps ɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɢɬɚɸɬ ɜ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɩɪɨɤɨɪɦɢɬɟɥɟɣ
ɡɟɦɥɟɪɨɟɤ. ɇɢɦɮɵ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɜɢɞɚ ɜ ɪɚɜɧɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɦɟɠɞɭ
ɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɛɭɪɨɡɭɛɤɨɣ ɢ ɪɵɠɟɣ ɩɨɥɟɜɤɨɣ. Ʌɢɱɢɧɤɢ ɢ ɧɢɦɮɵ I.
persulcatus ɜ ɛɨɥɶɲɟɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɪɵɠɢɯ ɩɨɥɟɜɤɚɯ.
Ʉɥɟɳɢ Ixodes trianguliceps ɛɵɥɢ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɵ ɤɪɭɝɥɵɣ ɝɨɞ. Ɉɬɦɟɱɟɧɨ 3
ɩɢɤɚ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ – ɜ ɧɚɱɚɥɟ ɢ ɤɨɧɰɟ ɥɟɬɚ ɢ ɜ ɮɟɜɪɚɥɟ-ɦɚɪɬɟ. Ixodes
persulcatus ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɢɜɚɥɫɹ ɧɚ ɦɟɥɤɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɜ ɬɟɩɥɨɟ
ɜɪɟɦɹ ɝɨɞɚ ɢ ɩɢɤɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɜ ɧɚɱɚɥɨ ɥɟɬɚ.
Ƚɨɞɨɜɨɟ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɫɭɦɦɚɪɧɨɝɨ ɢɧɞɟɤɫɚ ɨɛɢɥɢɹ ɜɫɟɯ ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ ɧɚ
ɡɜɟɪɶɤɚɯ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɜɨ ɦɧɨɝɨɦ ɫɯɨɞɧɨ. Ɍɚɤ, ɫ ɧɚɱɚɥɚ ɝɨɞɚ (ɹɧɜɚɪɶ)
ɨɛɢɥɢɟ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ ɩɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɨ ɪɚɫɬɟɬ ɞɨ ɚɩɪɟɥɹ, ɡɚɬɟɦ ɧɚɱɢɧɚɟɬɫɹ ɪɟɡɤɢɣ
ɫɩɚɞ. ɍ ɩɨɥɟɜɨɤ ɨɧ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɚɟɬɫɹ ɞɨ ɢɸɥɹ.
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. Ⱥɪɡɚɦɚɫɨɜ ɂ.Ɍ., Ɇɟɪɤɭɲɟɜɚ ɂ.ȼ., ɑɟɤɢɥɟɜɫɤɚɹ ɂ.ȼ. ɋɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɰɟɧɨɡɨɜ
ɝɪɵɡɭɧɨɜ ɝɟɨɛɨɬɚɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɨɞɡɨɧ Ȼɟɥɨɪɭɫɫɢɢ. - Ɇɢɧɫɤ, 1983. - 182 ɫ.
2. ȼɚɳɟɧɨɤ ȼ.ɋ., Ɍɪɟɬɶɹɤɨɜ Ʉ.Ⱥ. ɋɟɡɨɧɧɚɹ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɚ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɛɥɨɯ (Siphonaptera)
ɧɚ ɪɵɠɟɣ ɩɨɥɟɜɤɟ (Clethrionimys glareolus) ɜ ɫɟɜɟɪɧɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɇɨɜɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ //
ɉɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɥɨɝɢɹ. - 2003. - Ɍ. 37, ɜɵɩ. 3. - ɋ. 177-190.
3. ȼɚɳɟɧɨɤ ȼ.ɋ., Ɍɪɟɬɶɹɤɨɜ Ʉ.Ⱥ. ɋɟɡɨɧɧɚɹ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɚ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɛɥɨɯ (Siphonaptera)
ɧɚ ɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɛɭɪɨɡɭɛɤɟ (Sorex araneus) ɜ ɫɟɜɟɪɧɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɇɨɜɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ //
ɉɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɥɨɝɢɹ. - 2004. - Ɍ. 38, ɜɵɩ. 6. - ɋ. 503-514.
178
COMMUNITIES OF ECTOPARASITES OF SMALL
MAMMALS IN NOVGOROD REGION
K.A. Tretyakov
Zoological institute RAS, Saint-Petersburg
30 species of parasites found on small mammals. 14 species found in both species
of hosts. The greatest diversity was marked in the bank vole. Species composition
of ectoparasites and their abundance changed during the year. Seasonal changes of
abundance were the most expressed for the temporary ectoparasites, while for
permanent parasites, the seasonal fluctuations of indices were displayed in a less
scale.
Ʉ ɂɁɍɑȿɇɂɘ ȽȿɅɖɆɂɇɌɈȼ ɁȿɅȿɇɕɏ ɅəȽɍɒȿɄ
ɍɋɆȺɇɋɄɈȽɈ ȻɈɊȺ (ȼɈɊɈɇȿɀɋɄȺə ɈȻɅȺɋɌɖ)
ȿ.ɂ. Ɍɪɭɮɚɧɨɜɚ, Ⱥ.ɋ. Ʉɥɢɦɨɜ
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɢɣ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ, ɝ. ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ
ɂɡɭɱɚɥɢ ɝɟɥɶɦɢɧɬɨɮɚɭɧɭ ɡɟɥɟɧɵɯ ɥɹɝɭɲɟɤ ɍɫɦɚɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɛɨɪɚ (ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɚɹ
ɨɛɥɚɫɬɶ) ɜ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ 2009-2013 ɝɝ. Ɉɛɧɚɪɭɠɢɥɢ 8 ɜɢɞɨɜ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ,
ɨɬɧɨɫɹɳɢɯɫɹ ɤ Plathelminthes (Trematoda – 2 ɜɢɞɚ ɢ Monogenoidea 1 ɜɢɞ) ɢ ɤ
Nemathelminthes (5 ɜɢɞɨɜ). ɋɪɟɞɢ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɵ ɤɚɤ ɝɟɨɝɟɥɶɦɢɧɬɵ, ɬɚɤ
ɢ ɛɢɨɝɟɥɶɦɢɧɬɵ. ɋ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚ ɥɹɝɭɲɟɤ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ
ɷɤɫɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɢ ɢɧɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɢɧɜɚɡɢɢ.
ȼɚɠɧɵɦ ɡɜɟɧɨɦ ɜ ɰɢɪɤɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɝɟɥɶɦɢɧɬɨɜ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɞɢɤɢɯ,
ɞɨɦɚɲɧɢɯ, ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ, ɚ ɢɧɨɝɞɚ ɢ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ
ɚɦɮɢɛɢɢ. ɉɨ ɱɢɫɥɭ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɝɟɥɶɦɢɧɬɨɜ, ɜ ɰɢɪɤɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɚɦɮɢɛɢɢ
ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɸɬ ɭɱɚɫɬɢɟ ɤɚɤ ɩɪɨɦɟɠɭɬɨɱɧɵɟ ɢ ɪɟɡɟɪɜɭɚɪɧɵɟ ɯɨɡɹɟɜɚ, ɨɧɢ ɦɨɝɭɬ
ɫɪɚɜɧɢɬɶɫɹ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɫ ɪɵɛɚɦɢ [7].
ɐɟɥɶɸ ɞɚɧɧɨɣ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɹɜɥɹɥɨɫɶ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɟ ɜɢɞɨɜɨɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɚ ɝɟɥɶɦɢɧɬɨɜ
ɡɟɥɟɧɵɯ ɥɹɝɭɲɟɤ ɜ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ (ɍɫɦɚɧɫɤɢɣ ɛɨɪ).
ɂɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɢ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɤɨɪɞɨɧɚ ȼɟɧɟɜɢɬɢɧɨɜɨ ɜ
ɍɫɦɚɧɫɤɨɦ
ɛɨɪɭ
(ɛɢɨɫɬɚɧɰɢɹ
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɝɨ
ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ
ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬɚ) ɜ 2009-2013 ɝɝ. ɍɫɦɚɧɫɤɢɣ ɛɨɪ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧ ɧɚ ɜɨɞɨɪɚɡɞɟɥɚɯ
ɪɟɤ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ ɢ ɍɫɦɚɧɶ, ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɜ ɩɨɞɡɨɧɟ ɬɢɩɢɱɧɨɣ ɥɟɫɨɫɬɟɩɢ ɈɤɫɤɨȾɨɧɫɤɨɣ ɧɢɡɦɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ, ɹɜɥɹɹɫɶ ɨɞɧɢɦ ɢɡ ɤɪɭɩɧɟɣɲɢɯ ɥɟɫɧɵɯ ɦɚɫɫɢɜɨɜ
ɐɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɑɟɪɧɨɡɟɦɶɹ. ɉɨ ɛɨɬɚɧɢɤɨ-ɝɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɭ ɩɨɞɪɚɡɞɟɥɟɧɢɸ
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹ ɍɫɦɚɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɛɨɪɚ ɜɯɨɞɢɬ ɜ ɫɨɫɬɚɜ
ɋɪɟɞɧɟɪɭɫɫɤɨɣ ɞɭɛɨɜɨ-ɫɨɫɧɨɜɨɣ ɩɪɨɜɢɧɰɢɢ. ɉɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɶ ɛɨɪɚ ɞɪɟɧɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ
ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦ ɪɟɤɚɦɢ ɍɫɦɚɧɤɚ ɢ ɂɜɧɢɰɚ – ɥɟɜɵɦɢ ɩɪɢɬɨɤɚɦɢ ɪɟɤɢ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ.
Ȼɢɨɫɬɚɧɰɢɹ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɝɨ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬɚ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɚ ɜ ɸɠɧɨɣ ɨɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɫɬɢ
ɍɫɦɚɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɛɨɪɚ ɧɚ ɛɟɪɟɝɭ ɪɟɤɢ ɍɫɦɚɧɶ, ɜ ɨɤɪɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɹɯ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ
ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɬɪɚɜɹɧɵɟ ɢ ɫɮɚɝɧɨɜɵɟ ɛɨɥɨɬɚ [2].
179
ɇɚɦɢ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɚ ɝɟɥɶɦɢɧɬɨɮɚɭɧɚ ɡɟɥɟɧɵɯ ɥɹɝɭɲɟɤ ɬɪɟɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ: Rana
ridibunda Pallas, 1771; Rana lessonae Camerano, 1882; Rana esculenta
Linnaeus, 1758.
ȼɫɟɝɨ ɨɬɥɨɜɥɟɧɨ 324 ɨɫɨɛɢ ɡɟɥɟɧɵɯ ɥɹɝɭɲɟɤ: Rana ridibunda – 83 ɨɫɨɛɢ
(67 ɫɚɦɨɤ ɢ 16 ɫɚɦɰɨɜ); Rana lessonae – 19 ɨɫɨɛɟɣ (13 ɫɚɦɨɤ ɢ 6 ɫɚɦɰɨɜ);
Rana esculenta – 222 ɨɫɨɛɢ (142 ɫɚɦɤɢ ɢ 80 ɫɚɦɰɨɜ).
Ⱦɥɹ ɨɬɥɨɜɚ ɥɹɝɭɲɟɤ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɥɢ ɫɚɱɨɤ ɫ ɱɚɫɬɵɦɢ ɹɱɟɣɤɚɦɢ [4].
Ⱥɦɮɢɛɢɣ ɨɬɥɚɜɥɢɜɚɥɢ ɩɨ ɛɟɪɟɝɚɦ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɨɜ ɛɢɨɫɬɚɧɰɢɢ ȼȽɍ (ɪɟɤɚ ɍɫɦɚɧɶ,
ɨɡɟɪɨ ɑɢɫɬɨɟ, ɨɡɟɪɨ Ɇɚɤɥɨɤ, ɨɡɟɪɨ Ʉɥɸɤɜɟɧɧɨɟ, ɨɡɟɪɨ ɍɝɨɥɶɧɨɟ), ɩɨɫɥɟ
ɱɟɝɨ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɢ ɜɫɤɪɵɬɢɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ, ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɥɢ ɜɢɞɨɜɭɸ, ɩɨɥɨɜɭɸ ɢ
ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɭɸ ɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɨɫɨɛɟɣ [1], [3], [5].
ɉɪɢ ɝɟɥɶɦɢɧɬɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɦ ɜɫɤɪɵɬɢɢ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɥɢ ɥɟɝɤɢɟ, ɩɟɱɟɧɶ,
ɩɢɳɟɜɨɞ, ɠɟɥɭɞɨɤ, ɬɨɧɤɢɣ ɢ ɬɨɥɫɬɵɣ ɨɬɞɟɥɵ ɤɢɲɟɱɧɢɤɚ, ɦɨɱɟɜɨɣ ɩɭɡɵɪɶ,
ɩɨɥɨɫɬɶ ɬɟɥɚ, ɫɨɛɪɚɧɧɵɯ ɝɟɥɶɦɢɧɬɨɜ ɮɢɤɫɢɪɨɜɚɥɢ. Ⱦɥɹ ɮɢɤɫɚɰɢɢ ɤɪɭɝɥɵɯ
ɱɟɪɜɟɣ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɥɢ ɠɢɞɤɨɫɬɶ Ȼɚɪɛɚɝɚɥɥɨ, ɩɥɨɫɤɢɯ ɱɟɪɜɟɣ - 70% ɷɬɢɥɨɜɵɣ
ɫɩɢɪɬ [6]. ɂɡ ɫɨɛɪɚɧɧɵɯ ɝɟɥɶɦɢɧɬɨɜ ɢɡɝɨɬɚɜɥɢɜɚɥɢ ɩɪɟɩɚɪɚɬɵ, ɜɢɞɨɜɨɝɨ
ɫɨɫɬɚɜɚ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɥɢ ɩɨ Ʉ.Ɇ. Ɋɵɠɢɤɨɜɭ ɫ ɫɨɚɜɬɨɪɚɦɢ (1980). Ɋɚɫɫɱɢɬɵɜɚɥɢ
ɷɤɫɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɢɧɜɚɡɢɢ (ɗɂ), ɢɧɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɢɧɜɚɡɢɢ (ɂɂ), ɢɧɞɟɤɫ ɨɛɢɥɢɹ
(ɂɈ) [6].
ȼɫɟɝɨ ɡɚɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɨ 8 ɜɢɞɨɜ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɱɟɪɜɟɣ ɡɟɥɟɧɵɯ
ɥɹɝɭɲɟɤ, ɨɬɧɨɫɹɳɢɯɫɹ ɤ ɞɜɭɦ ɬɢɩɚɦ: ɩɥɨɫɤɢɟ ɱɟɪɜɢ (Plathelminthes) ɢ
ɤɪɭɝɥɵɟ ɱɟɪɜɢ (Nemathelminthes). ɉɥɨɫɤɢɯ ɱɟɪɜɟɣ ɛɵɥɨ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɨ 3 ɜɢɞɚ,
ɜ ɬɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟ ɫɨɫɚɥɶɳɢɤɨɜ (ɤɥɚɫɫ Trematoda) - 2 ɜɢɞɚ ɢ ɦɨɧɨɝɟɧɟɣ (ɤɥɚɫɫ
Monogenoidea) – 1ɜɢɞ. Ʉɪɭɝɥɵɯ ɱɟɪɜɟɣ – 5 ɜɢɞɨɜ.
ɉɪɢɜɨɞɢɦ ɫɩɢɫɨɤ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɝɟɥɶɦɢɧɬɨɜ.
Ɍɢɩ Plathelminthes
Ʉɥɚɫɫ Monogenoidea
Ɉɬɪɹɞ Polyopisthocotylidea Gussev, 1977
ɋɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɨ Polystomatidae (Carus, 1863)
Ɋɨɞ Polystoma Zeder, 1800
ȼɢɞ Polystoma integerrimum (Frohlich, 1798)
Ʉɥɚɫɫ Trematoda Rudolphi, 1808
Ɉɬɪɹɞ Fasciolida (Skrjabin et Schulz, 1935, subordo) Skrjabin et
Guschanskaja, 1962
ɋɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɨ Gorgoderidae Looss, 1901
Ɋɨɞ Gorgoderina (Looss, 1902)
ȼɢɞ Gorgoderina vitelliloba (Olsson, 1876)
ɋɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɨ Plagiorchidae Luhe, 1901
Ɋɨɞ Pneumonoeces Looss, 1902
ȼɢɞ Pneumonoeces variegates
Ɍɢɩ Nemathelminthes
Ɉɬɪɹɞ Rhabditida Chitwood, 1933
ɋɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɨ Trichostrongylidae Leiper, 1912
Ɋɨɞ Oswaldocruzia Travasson, 1917
180
ȼɢɞ Oswaldocruzia filiformis (Goeze,1782)
Ɉɬɪɹɞ Ascarida (Skrjabin, 1915, subordo) Skrjabin et Schulz, 1940
ɋɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɨ Cosmocercidae (Railliet et Henry, 1916, subfam.)
Travassos, 1925
Ɋɨɞ Aplectana Railliet et Henry, 1916
ȼɢɞ Aplectana acuminate (Schrank, 1788)
Ɋɨɞ Cosmocerca Diesing, 1861
ȼɢɞ Cosmocerca ornate (Dujardin, 1845)
Ɋɨɞ Neoxysomatium Ballesteros Marquez, 1945
ȼɢɞ Neoxysomatium brevicaudatum (Zeder,1800)
Ɉɬɪɹɞ Spirurida Chitwood, 1933
ɋɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɨ Spiruridae Oerly, 1885
Ɋɨɞ Ascarops Beneden, 1873
ȼɢɞ Ascarops
ȼ ɬɨɧɤɨɦ ɨɬɞɟɥɟ ɤɢɲɟɱɧɢɤɚ R. lessonae ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɵ ɧɟɦɚɬɨɞɵ
Neoxysomatium brevicaudatum ɢ Aplectana acuminate.
ȼ ɬɨɧɤɨɦ ɢ ɬɨɥɫɬɨɦ ɨɬɞɟɥɚɯ ɤɢɲɟɱɧɢɤɚ R. ridibunda ɧɚɣɞɟɧɵ
ɧɟɦɚɬɨɞɵ: Cosmocerca ornata, Neoxysomatium brevicaudatum ɢ Ascarops
strongylina; ɬɪɟɦɚɬɨɞɵ: Gorgoderina vitelliloba ɢ ɦɨɧɨɝɟɧɟɢ: Polystoma
integerrimum. ȼ ɦɨɱɟɜɨɦ ɩɭɡɵɪɟ - Gorgoderina vitelliloba. ȼ ɥɟɝɤɢɯ ɬɪɟɦɚɬɨɞɵ Pneumonoeces variegates.
ȼ ɬɨɧɤɨɦ ɢ ɬɨɥɫɬɨɦ ɨɬɞɟɥɚɯ ɤɢɲɟɱɧɢɤɚ R. esculenta ɧɚɣɞɟɧɵ ɧɟɦɚɬɨɞɵ:
Oswaldocruzia filiformis, Cosmocerca ornate, Aplectana acuminata,
Neoxysomatium brevicaudatum, Ascarops strongylina (ɥɢɱɢɧɤɢ); ɬɪɟɦɚɬɨɞɵ:
Gorgoderina vitelliloba ɢ ɦɨɧɨɝɟɧɟɢ: Polystoma integerrimum. ȼ ɥɟɝɤɢɯ ɬɪɟɦɚɬɨɞɚ Pneumonoeces variegatus. Ɉɬɦɟɱɟɧɚ ɥɨɤɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ Gorgoderina
vitelliloba ɜ ɩɢɳɟɜɚɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɦ ɬɪɚɤɬɟ [10].
ɇɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɟɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɝɟɥɶɦɢɧɬɨɜ ɩɢɳɟɜɚɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɬɪɚɤɬɚ
ɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹ ɤ ɤɥɚɫɫɭ Nematoda - Neoxysomatium brevicaudatum,
Ascarops strongylina (ɥɢɱɢɧɤɢ). Neoxysomatium brevicaudatum ɝɟɨɝɟɥɶɦɢɧɬ. Ⱥɦɮɢɛɢɢ ɢɧɜɚɡɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɢɦ ɧɚ ɫɬɚɞɢɢ ɝɨɥɨɜɚɫɬɢɤɚ.
ɉɨɥɨɜɨɡɪɟɥɨɣ ɫɬɚɞɢɢ ɷɬɢ ɧɟɦɚɬɨɞɵ ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɸɬ ɜ ɩɢɳɟɜɚɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ
ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ
ɯɨɡɹɢɧɚ.
Ascarops
strongylina
ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ
ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɦ
ɩɢɳɟɜɚɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɬɪɚɤɬɚ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ, ɚɦɮɢɛɢɢ ɫɥɭɠɚɬ ɞɥɹ ɧɟɝɨ
ɪɟɡɟɪɜɭɚɪɧɵɦɢ ɯɨɡɹɟɜɚɦɢ.
ɇɚɣɞɟɧɧɵɟ ɜ ɩɢɳɟɜɚɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ ɬɪɟɦɚɬɨɞɵ – ɛɢɨɝɟɥɶɦɢɧɬɵ, ɭ
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɩɟɪɜɵɦ ɩɪɨɦɟɠɭɬɨɱɧɵɦ ɯɨɡɹɢɧɨɦ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟ ɜɢɞɵ
ɦɨɥɥɸɫɤɨɜ, ɜɬɨɪɵɦ - ɥɢɱɢɧɤɢ ɞɜɭɤɪɵɥɵɯ ɧɚɫɟɤɨɦɵɯ.
Ɇɨɧɨɝɟɧɟɢ ɛɵɥɢ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɵ ɭ R.ridibunda ɢ R. esculenta. Ɂɚɪɚɠɟɧɢɟ
ɦɨɧɨɝɟɧɟɹɦɢ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɧɚ ɫɬɚɞɢɢ ɝɨɥɨɜɚɫɬɢɤɚ, ɝɞɟ ɨɧɢ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɢɪɭɸɬ ɧɚ
ɠɚɛɪɚɯ, ɚ ɡɚɬɟɦ ɩɪɨɧɢɤɚɸɬ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɤɥɨɚɤɭ ɜ ɦɨɱɟɜɨɣ ɩɭɡɵɪɶ. ȼ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɟ
ɢɦɟɸɬɫɹ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɨ ɬɨɦ, ɱɬɨ ɜ ɩɢɳɟɜɚɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɦ ɬɪɚɤɬɟ ɥɹɝɭɲɟɤ ɷɬɢ ɱɟɪɜɢ
ɩɨɞ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟɦ ɩɢɳɟɜɚɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɮɟɪɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɛɵɫɬɪɨ ɩɨɝɢɛɚɸɬ [7]. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ, ɜ
ɧɚɲɢɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹɯ ɜ ɤɢɲɟɱɧɢɤɟ ɛɵɥɢ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɵ ɩɨɥɨɜɨɡɪɟɥɵɟ ɨɫɨɛɢ
181
Polystoma integerrimum. ȼ ɥɟɝɤɢɯ R.ridibunda ɢ R. Esculenta ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɵ
ɫɨɫɚɥɶɳɢɤɢ Pneumonoeces variegates.
ȼ ɰɟɥɨɦ, ɡɟɥɟɧɵɟ ɥɹɝɭɲɤɢ ɩɨɱɬɢ ɜ ɪɚɜɧɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɨɤɚɡɚɥɢɫɶ
ɡɚɪɚɠɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɤɚɤ ɩɥɨɫɤɢɦɢ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɤɪɭɝɥɵɦɢ ɱɟɪɜɹɦɢ: ɗɂ – 24,5% ɢ
18,3%; ɂɂ – 6,0 ɢ 5,3 ɷɤɡ.; ɂɈ – 4 ɢ 3 ɷɤɡ. ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ.
ɍɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɡɚɪɚɠɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɨɫɚɥɶɳɢɤɚɦɢ ɜ ɩɪɹɦɨɣ
ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ ɨɬ ɞɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɟɛɵɜɚɧɢɹ ɚɦɮɢɛɢɣ ɜ ɜɨɞɟ, ɚ
ɤɪɭɝɥɵɦɢ ɱɟɪɜɹɦɢ ɫɢɥɶɧɟɟ ɡɚɪɚɠɟɧɵ ɜɢɞɵ, ɛɨɥɟɟ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɟ ɫ ɫɭɲɟɣ [9].
ɂɫɫɥɟɞɭɟɦɵɟ ɧɚɦɢ ɜɢɞɵ ɡɟɥɟɧɵɯ ɥɹɝɭɲɟɤ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɬɢɩɢɱɧɨ ɜɨɞɧɵɦɢ, ɜ
ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɚ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɧɢ ɬɟɫɧɨ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɵ ɫ ɜɨɞɨɣ, ɱɬɨ
ɨɛɴɹɫɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɧɢɟɦ ɜ ɢɯ ɩɢɳɟɜɨɦ ɪɚɰɢɨɧɟ ɛɟɫɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯɝɢɞɪɨɛɢɨɧɬɨɜ
(ɪɚɤɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɯ,
ɧɚɫɟɤɨɦɵɯ),
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ
ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ
ɩɪɨɦɟɠɭɬɨɱɧɵɦɢ ɯɨɡɹɟɜɚɦɢ ɦɧɨɝɢɯ ɫɨɫɚɥɶɳɢɤɨɜ. ȼ ɬɨɠɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ, ɨɧɢ
ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɵ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶ ɜ ɩɢɳɭ ɢ ɛɟɫɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɯɨɪɬɨ- ɢ ɚɧɬɨɛɢɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɹɪɭɫɨɜ,
ɱɬɨ,
ɩɨ-ɜɢɞɢɦɨɦɭ,
ɨɛɭɫɥɨɜɥɢɜɚɟɬ
ɡɚɪɚɠɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ
ɢɯ
ɝɟɨɝɟɥɶɦɢɧɬɚɦɢ, ɤ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɦ ɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹ ɦɧɨɝɢɟ ɜɢɞɵ ɧɟɦɚɬɨɞ.
Ɉɬɦɟɱɟɧɨ ɬɚɤɠɟ, ɱɬɨ ɫ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚ ɥɹɝɭɲɟɤ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ
ɷɤɫɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɢ ɢɧɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɢɧɜɚɡɢɢ, ɬɚɤ, ɫɟɝɨɥɟɬɤɢ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɛɟɞɧɭɸ
ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɮɚɭɧɭ. Ɉɛɨɝɚɳɟɧɢɸ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɮɚɭɧɵ ɫ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɨɦ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɟɬ
ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɹɟɦɨɣ ɢɦɢ ɩɢɳɢ.
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. Ȼɚɧɧɢɤɨɜ Ⱥ.Ƚ. Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟɥɶ ɡɟɦɧɨɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɢ ɩɪɟɫɦɵɤɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɮɚɭɧɵ ɋɋɋɊ / Ⱥ.Ƚ.
Ȼɚɧɧɢɤɨɜ, ɂ.ɋ. Ⱦɚɪɟɜɫɤɢɣ ɢ ɞɪ. – Ɇ.:ɉɪɨɫɜɟɳɟɧɢɟ, 1977. – 414 ɫ.
2. Ƚɨɥɭɛ ȼ.Ȼ. ɇɚɭɱɧɨ-ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɢ ɫɩɨɪɬɢɜɧɨ-ɨɡɞɨɪɨɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫ
«ȼɟɧɟɜɢɬɢɧɨɜɨ» ȼȽɍ / ȼ.Ȼ. Ƚɨɥɭɛ. – ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ: ȼȽɍ, 2006. – 107 ɫ.
3. Ʉɥɢɦɨɜ Ⱥ.ɋ. Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟɥɶ ɡɟɦɧɨɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɩɨ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ / Ⱥ.ɋ. Ʉɥɢɦɨɜ,
ȿ.ɂ. Ɍɪɭɮɚɧɨɜɚ. – ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ: ȼȽɍ, 1998. – 24 ɫ.
4. ɇɭɦɟɪɨɜ Ⱥ.Ⱦ. ɉɨɥɟɜɵɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɚɡɟɦɧɵɯ ɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ / Ⱥ.Ⱦ. ɇɭɦɟɪɨɜ, Ⱥ.ɋ.
Ʉɥɢɦɨɜ, ȿ.ɂ. Ɍɪɭɮɚɧɨɜɚ.– ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ: ɂɡɞɚɬɟɥɶɫɤɨ-ɩɨɥɢɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɰɟɧɬɪ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ. ɝɨɫ.
ɭɧ-ɬɚ, 2010. – 300 ɫ.
5. ɉɢɫɚɧɟɰ ȿ.Ɇ. Ɂɧɚɤɨɦɶɬɟɫɶ: ɚɦɮɢɛɢɢ ɢ ɩɪɟɫɦɵɤɚɸɳɢɟɫɹ / ȿ.Ɇ. ɉɢɫɚɧɟɰ. – Ʉɢɟɜ:
ɇɚɭɤɨɜɚ Ⱦɭɦɤɚ, 1990. – 128 ɫ.
6. Ɋɨɦɚɲɨɜ Ȼ.ȼ. Ɇɟɬɨɞɢɤɚ ɝɟɥɶɦɢɧɬɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ
ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ: ɍɱɟɛɧɨ-ɦɟɬɨɞɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɩɨɫɨɛɢɟ / Ȼ.ȼ. Ɋɨɦɚɲɨɜ ɢ ɞɪ. - ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ: ȼȽɍ, 2003. –
35 ɫ.
7. Ɋɵɠɢɤɨɜ Ʉ.Ɇ. Ƚɟɥɶɦɢɧɬɵ ɚɦɮɢɛɢɣ ɮɚɭɧɵ ɋɋɋɊ / Ʉ.Ɇ. Ɋɵɠɢɤɨɜ, ȼ.ɉ. ɒɚɪɩɢɥɨ,
ɇ.ɇ. ɒɟɜɱɟɧɤɨ. –Ɇ.: ɇɚɭɤɚ, 1980, 179 ɫ.
8. ɋɤɪɹɛɢɧ Ʉ.ɂ. Ɇɟɬɨɞ ɩɨɥɧɵɯ ɝɟɥɶɦɢɧɬɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɜɫɤɪɵɬɢɣ ɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ,
ɜɤɥɸɱɚɹ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ / Ʉ.ɂ. ɋɤɪɹɛɢɧ. – Ɇ., 1928. - 186 ɫ.
9. Ɍɟɪɟɧɬɶɟɜ ɉ.ȼ. Ʌɹɝɭɲɤɚ / ɉ.ȼ. Ɍɟɪɟɧɬɶɟɜ. – Ɇ.: ɋɨɜ. ɧɚɭɤɚ, 1950. – 346 ɫ.
10. Ɍɪɭɮɚɧɨɜɚ ȿ.ɂ., Ʉɧɹɡɟɜɚ ɇ.ȼ. Ʉ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɸ ɝɟɥɶɦɢɧɬɨɮɚɭɧɵ ɡɟɥɟɧɵɯ ɥɹɝɭɲɟɤ
ɍɫɦɚɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɛɨɪɚ (ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɚɹ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɶ) // ɋɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɨɛɳɟɣ ɢ ɩɪɢɤɥɚɞɧɨɣ
ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɥɨɝɢɢ: ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɵ V ɸɛɢɥɟɣɧɨɣ ɧɚɭɱɧɨ-ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɤɨɧɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɢ ɩɚɦɹɬɢ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɨɪɚ ȼ.Ⱥ. Ɋɨɦɚɲɨɜɚ – ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ: Ⱥɪɬɟɮɚɤɬ, 2011. – ɋ. 72-75.
182
HELMINTHES OF THE TRUE FROGS
IN THE USMAN FOREST (VORONEZH REGION)
E.I. Trufanova
Voronezh State University
Fauna of the helminthes of the true frogs was studied in Usman Forest in 20092013. Eight species of parasitic worms were pointed out. Two species of
Trematoda, 1 species of Monogenoidea and five species of Nemathelminthes were
among them. Both geo- and biohelminthes were noticed. Extensiveness and
intensity of invasion increases with the age of the hosts.
ɍȾɄ 579.6/.9:591.53(470.322)
ȾȺɇɇɕȿ ɉɈ ɉɂɌȺɇɂɘ ɁȿɅȬɇɈɃ ɀȺȻɕ (AMPHIBIA: ANURA:
BUFONIDAE) ȼ ɁȺɉɈȼȿȾɇɂɄȿ «ȽȺɅɂɑɖə ȽɈɊȺ»
Ɇ.ȼ. ɍɲɚɤɨɜ
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɢɣ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ, ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤ «Ƚɚɥɢɱɶɹ ɝɨɪɚ»,
ɫ. Ⱦɨɧɫɤɨɟ, Ɂɚɞɨɧɫɤɢɣ ɪɚɣɨɧ, Ʌɢɩɟɰɤɚɹ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɶ, [email protected]
ɉɪɢɜɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɩɨ ɤɨɪɦɨɜɨɦɭ ɪɚɰɢɨɧɭ ɡɟɥɺɧɨɣ ɠɚɛɵ ɜ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɟ
«Ƚɚɥɢɱɶɹ ɝɨɪɚ» ɩɭɬɺɦ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɢɦɨɝɨ ɟɺ ɷɤɫɤɪɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ. ȼ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɢ
ɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɸɬ
ɧɚɫɟɤɨɦɵɟ,
ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ
ɠɟɫɬɤɨɤɪɵɥɵɟ,
ɢɦ
ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɭɫɬɭɩɚɸɬ ɩɟɪɟɩɨɧɱɚɬɨɤɪɵɥɵɟ ɢ ɩɨɥɭɠɟɫɬɤɨɤɪɵɥɵɟ. Ɍɚɤɠɟ ɜ
ɩɢɬɚɧɢɢ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɨɣ, ɧɨ ɪɟɝɭɥɹɪɧɵɣ ɜɤɥɚɞ ɜɧɨɫɹɬ ɩɚɭɤɢ.
Ɇɚɥɵɟ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɵ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɚ «Ƚɚɥɢɱɶɹ ɝɨɪɚ» (231 ɝɚ) ɢ ɥɟɧɬɨɱɧɚɹ
ɤɨɧɮɢɝɭɪɚɰɢɹ
ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ
ɟɝɨ
ɭɪɨɱɢɳ
ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɸɬ
ɧɢɡɤɭɸ
ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɚɜɬɨɧɨɦɧɨɫɬɶ ɪɟɡɟɪɜɚɬɚ, ɜɵɪɚɠɚɸɳɭɸɫɹ ɜ ɨɫɬɪɨɜɧɨɦ
ɷɮɮɟɤɬɟ ɢ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɣ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɩɪɨɧɢɰɚɟɦɨɫɬɢ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ
ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ ɟɝɨ ɛɢɨɬɵ ɨɬ ɫɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ (ɍɲɚɤɨɜ, 2005 ɚ, ɛ).
Ƚɟɪɩɟɬɨɮɚɭɧɚ ɛɨɥɶɲɟɣ ɱɚɫɬɶɸ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɡɚ ɫɱɺɬ ɦɢɝɪɚɰɢɣ
ɩɨɞɚɜɥɹɸɳɟɝɨ ɱɢɫɥɚ ɡɟɦɧɨɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɢ ɧɟɦɧɨɝɢɯ ɪɟɡɢɞɟɧɬɧɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ
ɩɪɟɫɦɵɤɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ [3, 4].
Ɋɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɦɚɹ ɜ ɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɰɢɢ ɡɟɥɺɧɚɹ ɠɚɛɚ, Pseudepidalea viridis
(Laurenti, 1768), ɨɫɬɚɺɬɫɹ ɨɛɵɱɧɵɦ ɜɢɞɨɦ, ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɸɳɢɦɫɹ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ
ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɚ «Ƚɚɥɢɱɶɹ ɝɨɪɚ» [5]. ȿɳɺ ɞɜɚ ɞɟɫɹɬɢɥɟɬɢɹ ɧɚɡɚɞ ɨɧɚ ɛɵɥɚ
ɦɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɦ ɜɢɞɨɦ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɤ ɤɨɧɰɭ ɞɟɜɹɧɨɫɬɵɯ ɝɨɞɨɜ ɩɪɨɲɥɨɝɨ
ɫɬɨɥɟɬɢɹ ɟɺ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɪɟɡɤɨ ɫɨɤɪɚɬɢɥɚɫɶ ɢ ɜ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɨɧɚ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɚ ɧɟɦɧɨɝɢɦɢ ɨɫɨɛɹɦɢ [1, 4]. Ɍɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɚ ɠɚɛɨɣ
ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɥɟɬɧɟɣ ɫɬɚɰɢɢ, ɡɞɟɫɶ ɠɟ ɨɧɚ ɢ ɡɢɦɭɟɬ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ
ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɚɟɬɫɹ ɡɚ ɟɝɨ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɦɢ.
183
ȼɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɫɜɨɢɯ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɟɧɢɣ P. viridis ɱɚɫɬɨ ɜɵɛɢɪɚɟɬ ɞɨɪɨɝɢ ɢ ɬɪɨɩɵ,
ɧɚ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɢɫɩɪɚɠɧɟɧɢɹ ɢɡ ɧɟɩɟɪɟɜɚɪɟɧɧɵɯ ɨɫɬɚɬɤɨɜ ɩɢɳɢ ɜ ɜɢɞɟ
ɩɪɨɞɨɥɝɨɜɚɬɵɯ ɷɤɫɤɪɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɨɤɨɥɨ 10 – 30 ɦɦ ɞɥɢɧɨɣ. Ɉɧɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ
ɫɨɛɨɣ ɩɥɨɬɧɨ ɭɩɚɤɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ ɯɢɬɢɧɨɜɵɟ ɩɨɤɪɨɜɵ ɛɟɫɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ. ɗɬɨ
ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɩɨ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɢɦɨɦɭ ɷɤɫɤɪɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɞɢɫɬɚɧɰɢɨɧɧɨ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɶ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɟ
ɡɟɦɧɨɜɨɞɧɨɝɨ, ɧɟ ɧɚɧɨɫɹ ɜɪɟɞɚ ɫɚɦɨɦɭ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɨɦɭ.
Ɂɚɞɚɱɟɣ ɧɚɲɟɣ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɫɬɨɹɥɨ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɟ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɡɟɥɺɧɨɣ ɠɚɛɵ ɜ
ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɟ «Ƚɚɥɢɱɶɹ ɝɨɪɚ» ɩɨ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɢɦɨɦɭ ɢɯ ɷɤɫɤɪɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ.
Ɇɚɬɟɪɢɚɥ ɫɨɛɢɪɚɥɫɹ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɚ ɜɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɦɚɪɲɪɭɬɧɵɯ
ɷɤɫɤɭɪɫɢɣ ɜɞɨɥɶ ɞɨɪɨɝ ɢ ɬɪɨɩ ɜ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɫ 2007 ɩɨ 2012 ɝɨɞɵ. ȼɫɟɝɨ ɫɨɛɪɚɧɨ
25 ɷɤɫɤɪɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ.
Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɨɫɬɚɬɤɨɜ ɛɟɫɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɥ ɫɨɬɪɭɞɧɢɤ
ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɚ «Ƚɚɥɢɱɶɹ ɝɨɪɚ» Ɇ.ɇ. ɐɭɪɢɤɨɜ.
ȼ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɨɜ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɜɵɱɢɫɥɹɥɢɫɶ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ
ɨɫɨɛɟɣ ɜ ɨɫɬɚɬɤɚɯ ɬɚɤɫɨɧɚ (RT) ɢ ɟɝɨ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɟɦɨɫɬɶ ɜ ɷɤɫɤɪɟɦɟɧɬɚɯ ɜ ɞɨɥɹɯ
ɨɬ ɨɛɳɟɝɨ ɱɢɫɥɚ ɷɤɫɤɪɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ (CT) [2]. ȼɵɱɢɫɥɟɧɢɹ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɥɢɫɶ ɜ MS
Office Excel 2003.
ɂɡɭɱɟɧɢɟ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɢɦɨɦɭ ɷɤɫɤɪɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɡɟɥɺɧɨɣ ɠɚɛɵ
ɩɨɦɢɦɨ ɨɱɟɜɢɞɧɵɯ ɞɨɫɬɨɢɧɫɬɜ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɪɹɞ ɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɤɨɜ. Ɍɚɤ ɜ
ɷɤɫɤɪɟɦɟɧɬɚɯ ɧɟ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɹɸɬɫɹ ɨɫɬɚɬɤɢ ɛɟɫɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ, ɧɟ ɢɦɟɸɳɢɯ
ɬɜɺɪɞɵɟ ɩɨɤɪɨɜɵ, ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ ɤɨɥɶɱɚɬɵɯ ɱɟɪɜɟɣ ɢɥɢ ɦɨɥɥɸɫɤɨɜ. ɉɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɷɬɚ
ɝɪɭɩɩɚ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɟ ɭɱɬɺɧɧɨɣ.
ɋɪɟɞɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɜ ɩɢɳɟ P. viridis ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɵ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɢ ɬɪɺɯ
ɤɥɚɫɫɨɜ: ɩɚɭɤɢ, ɞɜɭɩɚɪɧɨɧɨɝɢɟ ɦɧɨɝɨɧɨɠɤɢ ɢ ɧɚɫɟɤɨɦɵɟ. ɉɚɭɤɨɜ ɪɚɧɝɨɦ
ɧɢɠɟ ɤɥɚɫɫɚ ɢɞɟɧɬɢɮɢɰɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɧɟ ɭɞɚɥɨɫɶ. ȼɵɹɜɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɦɧɨɝɨɧɨɠɤɢ
ɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹ ɤ ɨɬɪɹɞɭ ɤɢɜɫɹɤɢ, Julida Brandt, 1833. ɇɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɦ
ɨɤɚɡɚɥɫɹ ɤɥɚɫɫ ɧɚɫɟɤɨɦɵɟ, ɜ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɦ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɢɥɢɫɶ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɢ ɲɟɫɬɢ
ɨɬɪɹɞɨɜ (ɬɚɛɥɢɰɚ).
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ
Ⱦɚɧɧɵɟ ɩɨ ɨɫɬɚɬɤɚɦ ɧɚɫɟɤɨɦɵɯ ɜ ɷɤɫɤɪɟɦɟɧɬɚɯ ɡɟɥɺɧɨɣ ɠɚɛɵ
ɜ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɟ «Ƚɚɥɢɱɶɹ ɝɨɪɚ» (N = 25)
ɋɪɟɞɧɟɟ
ȼɫɬɪɟɱɚɟɦɨɫɬɶ
ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ
ɬɚɤɫɨɧɚ ɜ
Ɍɚɤɫɨɧ
ɨɫɬɚɬɤɨɜ
ɷɤɫɤɪɟɦɟɧɬɚɯ,
ɬɚɤɫɨɧɚ, RT
CT
Ɉɬɪɹɞ ɍɯɨɜɺɪɬɤɢ, Dermaptera De Geer, 1773
ɋɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɨ Forficulidae Stephens, 1829
Ɉɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɚɹ ɭɯɨɜɺɪɬɤɚ, Forficula auricularia
Linnaeus, 1758
Ɉɬɪɹɞ ɉɨɥɭɠɟɫɬɤɨɤɪɵɥɵɟ, Hemiptera Linnaeus, 1758
ɋɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɨ Ƚɪɟɛɥɹɤɢ, Corixidae Leach, 1815
ɋɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɨ Ʉɪɚɟɜɢɤɢ, Coreidae Amyot & Serville, 1843
ɓɚɜɟɥɟɜɵɣ ɤɪɚɟɜɢɤ, Coreus marginatus Linnaeus,
1758
ɋɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɨ ɇɚɫɬɨɹɳɢɟ ɳɢɬɧɢɤɢ, Pentatomidae Leach,
1815
Ɋɚɩɫɨɜɵɣ ɤɥɨɩ, Eurydema oleracea (Linnaeus,
1758)
184
0,04 ± 0,040
0,04 ± 0,040
0,04
0,04
0,04 ± 0,040
1,08 ± 0,288
0,08 ± 0,055
0,08 ± 0,055
0,04
0,52
0,08
0,08
0,08 ± 0,055
0,08
0,44 ± 0,164
0,28
0,04 ± 0,040
0,04
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ. ɉɪɨɞɨɥɠɟɧɢɟ
Ɂɟɥɺɧɵɣ ɞɪɟɜɟɫɧɵɣ ɳɢɬɧɢɤ, Palomena prasina
Linnaeus, 1761
Ɉɬɪɹɞ ɀɟɫɬɤɨɤɪɵɥɵɟ, Coleoptera Linnaeus, 1758
ɋɟɦɟɫɬɜɨ ɉɢɥɸɥɶɳɢɤɢ, Byrrhidae Leach, 1815
Ɉɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɩɢɥɸɥɶɳɢɤ, Byrrhus pilula
(Linnaeus, 1758)
ɋɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɨ ɀɭɠɟɥɢɰɵ, Carabidae Latreille, 1802
Ȼɵɫɬɪɹɤ, Agonum gracilipes (Duftschmid, 1812)
Ɍɭɫɤɥɹɤ, Amara bifrons (Gyllenhal, 1810)
Ɍɭɫɤɥɹɤ, Amara ingenua (Duftschmied, 1812)
Ɍɭɫɤɥɹɤ, Amara sp.
Anisodactylus sp.
Badister bullatus (Schrank, 1798)
Ɇɨɯɨɜɢɤ, Calathus ambiguus (Paykull, 1790)
Ɇɨɯɨɜɢɤ, Calathus fuscipes (Goeze, 1777)
Ɋɟɲɺɬɱɚɬɚɹ ɠɭɠɟɥɢɰɚ, Carabus cancellatus Illiger,
1798
ɋɦɟɠɧɵɣ ɛɟɝɭɧ, Harpalus affinis (Schrank, 1781)
Ȼɟɝɭɧ, Harpalus calceatus (Duftschmied, 1812)
Ɉɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɛɟɝɭɧ, Harpalus distinguendus
(Duftschmied, 1812)
Ȼɟɝɭɧ ɤɪɚɫɧɨɜɚɬɵɣ, Harpalus rubripes
(Duftschmied, 1812)
Ȼɟɝɭɧ, Harpalus rufipes (De Geer, 1774)
Ɂɚɛɪɨɢɞɧɵɣ ɛɟɝɭɧ, Harpalus zabroides Dejean,
1829
Ȼɟɝɭɧ, Harpalus sp.
Ʌɚɡɭɪɧɵɣ ɛɟɝɭɧ, Ophonus azureus (Fabricius,
1775)
Ȼɟɝɭɧ, Ophonus rufibarbis (Fabricius, 1792)
Poecilus sp.
əɦɱɚɬɨɬɨɱɟɱɧɵɣ ɩɬɟɪɨɫɬɢɪɯ, Pterostichus
oblongopunctatus (Fabricius, 1787)
ɏɥɟɛɧɚɹ ɠɭɠɟɥɢɰɚ, Zabrus tenebrioides (Goeze,
1777)
ɋɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɨ ɍɫɚɱɢ, Cerambycidae Latreille, 1802
ɒɟɥɤɨɜɢɫɬɵɣ ɤɨɪɧɟɟɞ, Dorcadion holosericeum
Krynicky, 1832
ɀɺɥɬɨɩɹɬɧɢɫɬɵɣ ɝɥɚɡɱɚɬɵɣ ɭɫɚɱ, Mesosa myops
(Dalman, 1817)
ɋɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɨ Ⱦɨɥɝɨɧɨɫɢɤɢ, Curculionidae Latreille, 1802
Ɇɚɥɵɣ ɱɺɪɧɵɣ ɫɤɨɫɚɪɶ, Otiorhynchus ovatus
Linnaeus, 1758
Ɋɟɩɧɵɣ ɫɤɨɫɚɪɶ, Otiorhynchus raucus Fabricius,
1777
ɋɤɨɫɚɪɶ, Otiorhynchus sp.
Ʉɥɭɛɟɧɶɤɨɜɵɣ ɞɨɥɝɨɧɨɫɢɤ, Sitona sp.
ɋɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɨ ɉɥɚɜɭɧɰɵ, Dytiscidae Latreille, 1802
ɋɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɨ ɇɚɪɵɜɧɢɤɢ, Meloidae Gyllenhal, 1810
Ɇɚɣɤɚ ɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɚɹ, Meloe proscarabaeus
Linnaeus, 1758
Ɇɚɣɤɚ ɮɢɨɥɟɬɨɜɚɹ, Meloe violaceus Marsham,
1802
ɋɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɨ Ɇɟɪɬɜɨɟɞɵ, Silphidae Latreille, 1807
Ɇɨɝɢɥɶɳɢɤ, Nicrophorus sp.
Ɍɺɦɧɵɣ ɦɟɪɬɜɨɟɞ, Silpha obscura Linnaeus, 1758
ɋɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɨ ɇɚɜɨɡɧɢɤɢ, Geotrupidae Latreille, 1802
Ʌɟɫɧɨɣ ɧɚɜɨɡɧɢɤ, Anoplotrupes stercorarius Scriba,
1791
185
0,08 ± 0,055
5,44 ± 1,505
0,36 ± 0,151
0,08
0,92
0,20
0,36 ± 0,151
2,96 ± 1,067
0,08 ± 0,055
0,16 ± 0,160
0,20 ± 0,163
0,36 ± 0,172
0,04 ± 0,040
0,04 ± 0,040
0,04 ± 0,040
0,08 ± 0,080
0,20
0,72
0,08
0,04
0,08
0,24
0,04
0,04
0,04
0,04
0,08 ± 0,055
0,20 ± 0,129
0,04 ± 0,040
0,08
0,12
0,04
0,12 ± 0,088
0,08
0,08 ± 0,080
0,12 ± 0,120
0,04
0,04
0,24 ± 0,202
0,06 ± 0,030
0,08
0,28
0,08 ± 0,055
0,16 ± 0,095
0,08 ± 0,080
0,08
0,12
0,04
0,04 ± 0,040
0,04
0,04 ± 0,040
0,08 ± 0,055
0,04
0,08
0,04 ± 0,040
0,04
0,04 ± 0,040
0,40 ± 0,231
0,04
0,16
0,08 ± 0,080
0,04
0,20 ± 0,163
0,04 ± 0,040
0,08 ± 0,055
0,04 ± 0,040
0,36 ± 0,114
0,08
0,04
0,08
0,04
0,32
0,04 ± 0,040
0,04
0,32 ± 0,095
0,12 ± 0,066
0,04 ± 0,040
0,08 ± 0,055
0,04 ± 0,040
0,32
0,12
0,04
0,08
0,04
0,04 ± 0,040
0,04
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ. ɉɪɨɞɨɥɠɟɧɢɟ
ɋɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɨ ɉɥɚɫɬɢɧɱɚɬɨɭɫɵɟ, Scarabaeidae Latreille,
1802
Ʌɭɧɧɵɣ ɤɨɩɪ, Copris lunaris Linnaeus, 1758)
ɒɟɥɤɨɜɢɫɬɵɣ ɯɪɭɳɢɤ, Maladera holosericea
(Scopoli, 1772)
ȼɨɧɸɱɚɹ ɛɪɨɧɡɨɜɤɚ, Oxythyrea funesta (Poda von
Neuhaus, 1761)
ȼɟɫɟɧɧɢɣ ɧɟɯɪɭɳ, Rhizotrogus aestivus (Olivier,
1789)
ɋɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɨ ɑɟɪɧɨɬɟɥɤɢ, Tenebrionidae Latreille, 1802
Ȼɚɣɪɚɱɧɵɣ ɦɟɞɥɹɤ, Oodescelis melas (Fischer von
Waldheim, 1823)
Ʉɭɤɭɪɭɡɧɚɹ ɱɟɪɧɨɬɟɥɤɚ, Pedinus femoralis
(Linnaeus, 1767)
ɥɢɱɢɧɤɚ
Ɉɬɪɹɞ ɉɟɪɟɩɨɧɱɚɬɨɤɪɵɥɵɟ, Hymenoptera Linnaeus, 1758
ɋɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɨ ɇɚɫɬɨɹɳɢɟ ɩɱɺɥɵ, Apidae
ɒɦɟɥɶ, Bombus sp.
ɒɦɟɥɶ-ɤɭɤɭɲɤɚ, Psithyrus sp.
ɋɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɨ Ɇɭɪɚɜɶɢ, Formicidae Latreille, 1802
ɋɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɨ ɇɚɫɬɨɹɳɢɟ ɧɚɟɡɞɧɢɤɢ, Ichneumonidae
Haliday, 1838
Ɉɬɪɹɞ ɑɟɲɭɟɤɪɵɥɵɟ, Lepidoptera Linnaeus, 1758
ɋɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɨ ɋɨɜɤɢ-ɥɟɧɬɨɱɧɢɰɵ, Erebidae
Ɂɭɛɱɚɬɚɹ ɥɟɧɬɨɱɧɢɰɚ, Scoliopteryx libatrix
(Linnaeus, 1758)
ɋɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɨ ɋɨɜɤɢ, Noctuidae Latreille, 1809
ɀɟɥɬɨɜɚɬɚɹ ɩɥɨɫɤɨɬɟɥɚɹ ɫɨɜɤɚ, Conistra
rubiginosa (Scopoli, 1763
ɋɤɪɨɦɧɚɹ ɫɨɜɤɚ, Agrochola humilis (Denis &
Schiffermuller, 1775)
Ɍɺɦɧɨ-ɛɭɪɚɹ ɦɨɯɧɨɧɨɝɚɹ ɫɨɜɤɚ, Agrochola litura
(Linnaeus, 1758)
ɝɭɫɟɧɢɰɚ
Ɉɬɪɹɞ Ⱦɜɭɤɪɵɥɵɟ, Diptera Linnaeus, 1758
ɋɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɨ Ɂɢɦɧɢɟ ɤɨɦɚɪɵ, Trichoceridae Rondani, 1841
ȼɫɟɝɨ
0,80 ± 0,351
0,04 ± 0,040
0,32
0,04
0,40 ± 0,321
0,12
0,16 ± 0,075
0,16
0,20 ± 0,141
0,20 ± 0,163
0,08
0,08
0,08 ± 0,055
0,08
0,12 ± 0,120
0,04 ± 0,040
4,56 ± 3,413
0,24 ± 0,087
0,20 ± 0,082
0,04 ± 0,040
4,28 ± 3,425
0,04
0,04
0,52
0,24
0,20
0,04
0,32
0,04 ± 0,040
0,52 ± 0,252
0,12 ± 0,120
0,04
0,28
0,04
0,12 ± 0,120
0,12 ± 0,120
0,04
0,04
0,04 ± 0,040
0,04
0,04 ± 0,040
0,04
0,04 ± 0,040
0,28 ± 0,108
0,04 ± 0,040
0,04 ± 0,040
0,04
0,24
0,04
0,04
11,68 ± 3,845
1,00
Ɉɫɬɚɬɤɢ ɧɚɫɟɤɨɦɵɯ ɨɬɦɟɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɜɨ ɜɫɟɯ ɧɚɣɞɟɧɧɵɯ ɷɤɫɤɪɟɦɟɧɬɚɯ.
ɉɚɭɤɢ ɜ ɪɚɰɢɨɧɟ ɡɟɥɺɧɨɣ ɠɚɛɵ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɭɸ, ɧɨ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɫɤɚɡɚɬɶ
ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɭɸ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɹ (RT = 0.80 ± 0.231, CT = 0.40).
Ɇɧɨɝɨɧɨɠɤɢ ɧɟ ɢɝɪɚɸɬ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɪɨɥɢ ɜ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɢ (RT = 0.68 ± 0.377,
CT = 0.12).
ȼ ɷɤɫɤɪɟɦɟɧɬɚɯ ɡɟɥɺɧɨɣ ɠɚɛɵ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɛɵɥɢ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɵ ɧɢɠɧɹɹ
ɱɟɥɸɫɬɶ ɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɛɭɪɨɡɭɛɤɢ, Sorex (Sorex) araneus Linnaeus, 1758, ɢ
ɠɢɜɭɳɢɣ ɧɚ ɠɭɤɚɯ ɤɥɟɳ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ, ɫɤɨɪɟɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ, ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɫɥɭɱɚɣɧɨɣ
ɞɨɛɵɱɟɣ, ɡɚɯɜɚɱɟɧɧɨɣ ɩɨɩɭɬɧɨ ɫ ɞɪɭɝɢɦɢ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦɚɦɢ.
Ȼɵɥɨ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɧɚ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ ɨɬɪɹɞɨɜ ɛɟɫɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɟɬɫɹ
ɫɨɤɪɚɳɟɧɢɟ ɫɩɟɤɬɪɚ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɤ ɤɨɧɰɭ ɥɟɬɚ, ɜ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɦ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɦɢ
ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɚɦɢ ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɠɟɫɬɤɨɤɪɵɥɵɟ ɢ ɩɟɪɟɩɨɧɱɚɬɨɤɪɵɥɵɟ [2].
186
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. ɍɲɚɤɨɜ Ɇ.ȼ. Ⱦɢɧɚɦɢɤɚ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɡɟɦɧɨɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɢ ɩɪɟɫɦɵɤɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ Ɇɨɪɨɡɨɜɨɣ
ɝɨɪɵ (ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤ «Ƚɚɥɢɱɶɹ ɝɨɪɚ», Ɋɨɫɫɢɹ), ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɧɟɺ ɤɚɬɚɫɬɪɨɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɫɨɛɵɬɢɣ //
ɉɪɚɰɿ ɍɤɪɚʀɧɫɶɤɨɝɨ ɝɟɪɩɟɬɨɥ. ɬɨɜ-ɜɚ. — 2011. — ʋ 3. — ɋ. 191–200.
2. ɍɲɚɤɨɜ Ɇ.ȼ. ɂɡɭɱɟɧɢɟ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɡɟɥɺɧɨɣ ɠɚɛɵ (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae) ɜ
ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɟ «Ƚɚɥɢɱɶɹ ɝɨɪɚ» // ɋɨɜɪ. ɝɟɪɩɟɬɨɥɨɝɢɹ. — 2013. — Ɍ. 13, ʋ 3–4. — ɋ. 166–
169.
3. ɍɲɚɤɨɜ Ɇ.ȼ. ɉɪɟɞɜɚɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ
ɡɟɦɧɨɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɚ «Ƚɚɥɢɱɶɹ ɝɨɪɚ» // Ɇɚɬɟɪiɚɥɢ ɉɟɪɲɨï ɤɨɧɮɟɪɟɧɰiï
ɍɤɪɚïɧɫɶɤɨɝɨ Ƚɟɪɩɟɬɨɥ. ɬɨɜ-ɜɚ (10–12 ɠɨɜɬɧɹ 2005 ɪ., Ʉɢïɜ). — Ʉ.: Ɂɨɨɦɭɡɟɣ ɇɇɉɆ
ɇȺɇ ɍɤɪɚïɧɢ, 2005 ɚ. — ɋ. 169–172.
4. ɍɲɚɤɨɜ Ɇ.ȼ. Ɉɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɢ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɦɟɥɤɢɯ ɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɜ ɧɚɝɨɪɧɨɣ
ɞɭɛɪɚɜɟ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɚ «Ƚɚɥɢɱɶɹ ɝɨɪɚ» // ɉɨɜɨɥɠ. ɷɤɨɥ. ɠɭɪɧ. — 2007. — ʋ 3. — ɋ. 278–
284.
5. ɍɲɚɤɨɜ Ɇ.ȼ. Ɏɚɭɧɚ ɡɟɦɧɨɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɢ ɩɪɟɫɦɵɤɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɚ «Ƚɚɥɢɱɶɹ ɝɨɪɚ»
// ɋɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɨɫɨɛɨ ɨɯɪɚɧɹɟɦɵɯ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɣ ȿɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ: ɋɛ.
ɧɚɭɱ. ɫɬɚɬɟɣ, ɩɨɫɜɹɳɺɧɧɵɣ 70-ɥɟɬɢɸ ɏɨɩɺɪɫɤ. ɡɚɩ-ɤɚ (ɩɨɫ. ȼɚɪɜɚɪɢɧɨ, ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɚɹ
ɨɛɥ., 20–23 ɫɟɧɬɹɛɪɹ 2005 ɝ.). — ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ: ɂɡɞ-ɜɨ ȼȽɍ, 2005 ɛ. — ɋ. 437–441.
THE DATA OF GREEN TOAD (AMPHIBIA: ANURA: BUFONIDAE) NUTRITION IN
GALICH’YA GORA NATURAL RESERVE
M.V. Ushakov
Voronezh State University, Galich’ya Gora Natural Reserve,
Donskoe, Zadonskii raion, Lipetsk region, [email protected]
Data on feed ration of green toad in the Galich’ya Gora Natural Reserve was
obtained with study of contents of the toads’ excrement. Insects, especially
Coleoptera, dominate in the feed ration. Hemiptera and Hymenoptera are eaten
less. Also the toads eat spiders regularly, but in low amount.
ɍȾɄ 579.6/.9:591.53(470.324)
ȾȺɇɇɕȿ ɉɈ ɉɂɌȺɇɂɘ ɁȿɅȬɇɈɃ ɀȺȻɕ (AMPHIBIA: ANURA:
BUFONIDAE) ȼ ɉɊɂɊɈȾɇɈɆ ȺɊɏɂɌȿɄɌɍɊɇɈȺɊɏȿɈɅɈȽɂɑȿɋɄɈɆ ɆɍɁȿȿ-ɁȺɉɈȼȿȾɇɂɄȿ «ȾɂȼɇɈȽɈɊɖȿ»
Ɇ.ȼ. ɍɲɚɤɨɜ
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɢɣ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ, ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤ «Ƚɚɥɢɱɶɹ ɝɨɪɚ»,
ɫ. Ⱦɨɧɫɤɨɟ, Ɂɚɞɨɧɫɤɢɣ ɪɚɣɨɧ, Ʌɢɩɟɰɤɚɹ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɶ, [email protected]
ɉɪɢɜɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɩɨ ɤɨɪɦɨɜɨɦɭ ɪɚɰɢɨɧɭ ɡɟɥɺɧɨɣ ɠɚɛɵ ɜ ɦɭɡɟɟɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɟ «Ⱦɢɜɧɨɝɨɪɶɟ» ɩɭɬɺɦ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɢɦɨɝɨ ɟɺ ɷɤɫɤɪɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ. ȼ
ɩɢɬɚɧɢɢ ɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɸɬ ɧɚɫɟɤɨɦɵɟ, ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɠɟɫɬɤɨɤɪɵɥɵɟ. Ɍɚɤɠɟ ɜ
ɩɢɬɚɧɢɢ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɨɣ, ɧɨ ɪɟɝɭɥɹɪɧɵɣ ɜɤɥɚɞ ɜɧɨɫɹɬ ɩɚɭɤɢ. ɉɨɦɢɦɨ
ɛɟɫɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɜ ɩɢɳɟ ɠɚɛɵ ɛɵɥɢ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɵ ɨɫɬɚɬɤɢ Pelias renardi.
187
Ɋɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɣ ɤ ɸɝɭ ɨɬ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɚ ɦɭɡɟɣ-ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤ «Ⱦɢɜɧɨɝɨɪɶɟ» ɫ
ɩɥɨɳɚɞɶɸ ɛɨɥɟɟ 1 100 ɝɚ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧ ɦɟɥɨɜɵɦɢ ɨɬɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɦɢ ɧɚ
ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ ɡɟɦɥɢ ɢ ɜɨɡɜɵɲɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ 103 ɦɟɬɪɚ ɧɚɞ ɩɪɨɬɟɤɚɸɳɢɦɢ ɜ ɟɝɨ
ɝɪɚɧɢɰɚɯ Ⱦɨɧɨɦ ɢ ɟɝɨ ɩɪɢɬɨɤɨɦ Ɍɢɯɨɣ ɋɨɫɧɨɣ. Ɋɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ
ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɚ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɚ ɤɫɟɪɨɮɢɬɧɵɦɢ ɬɪɚɜɹɧɢɫɬɵɦɢ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚɦɢ, ɧɚ
ɤɪɭɬɵɯ
ɫɤɥɨɧɚɯ
ɩɪɨɢɡɪɚɫɬɚɸɬ
ɩɟɬɪɨɮɢɬɧɵɟ
ɜɢɞɵ.
Ⱦɪɟɜɟɫɧɚɹ
ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɨɫɬɨɢɬ ɢɡ «ɞɨɤɭɱɚɟɜɫɤɨɣ» ɥɟɫɨɩɨɥɨɫɵ ɢɡ ɹɫɟɧɹ ɢ
ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɢɯ ɨɛɥɟɫɺɧɧɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɨɜ ɭ ɩɨɞɧɨɠɢɹ ɫɤɥɨɧɨɜ.
Ƚɟɪɩɟɬɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ
ɢɡɵɫɤɚɧɢɹ
«Ⱦɢɜɧɨɝɨɪɶɹ»
ɤɪɚɣɧɟ
ɛɟɞɧɵ.
ɇɟɦɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɧɵɟ ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɢ [1, 2] ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɬ ɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɥɢɲɶ
ɨ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɯ ɜɨɫɬɨɱɧɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɧɨɣ ɝɚɞɸɤɢ, Pelias renardi (Christoph, 1861).
ȼɦɟɫɬɟ ɫ ɬɟɦ, ɜ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɟ ɜɩɨɥɧɟ ɨɛɵɱɧɵɦ ɢ ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨ
ɦɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɦ ɜɢɞɨɦ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɡɟɥɺɧɚɹ ɠɚɛɚ, Pseudepidalea viridis
(Laurenti, 1768). ɇɚɦɢ ɛɵɥ ɡɚɥɨɠɟɧ ɭɱɺɬɧɵɣ ɦɚɪɲɪɭɬ ɞɥɢɧɨɣ ɜ 763 ɦ ɞɥɹ
ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɡɟɦɧɨɜɨɞɧɨɝɨ. ɉɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɥɫɹ ɦɟɬɨɞ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ
ɷɤɫɤɪɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ, ɫɨɛɪɚɧɧɵɯ ɧɚ ɦɚɪɲɪɭɬɟ ɢ ɭɠɟ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɺɧɧɵɣ ɩɪɢ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɢ
ɩɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɜɢɞɚ ɜ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɟ «Ƚɚɥɢɱɶɹ ɝɨɪɚ» [3].
Ɇɚɬɟɪɢɚɥ ɫɨɛɢɪɚɥɫɹ ɧɚ ɦɚɪɲɪɭɬɟ ɟɠɟɦɟɫɹɱɧɨ ɫ ɚɩɪɟɥɹ ɦɟɫɹɰɚ ɩɨ
ɚɜɝɭɫɬ 2013 ɝɨɞɚ. ȼɫɟɝɨ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɨ 34 ɷɤɫɤɪɟɦɟɧɬɚ.
Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɨɫɬɚɬɤɨɜ ɛɟɫɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɥ ɫɨɬɪɭɞɧɢɤ
ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɚ «Ƚɚɥɢɱɶɹ ɝɨɪɚ» Ɇ.ɇ. ɐɭɪɢɤɨɜ.
ȼ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɨɜ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɜɵɱɢɫɥɹɥɢɫɶ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ
ɨɫɨɛɟɣ ɜ ɨɫɬɚɬɤɚɯ ɬɚɤɫɨɧɚ (RT) ɢ ɟɝɨ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɟɦɨɫɬɶ ɜ ɷɤɫɤɪɟɦɟɧɬɚɯ ɜ ɞɨɥɹɯ
ɨɬ ɨɛɳɟɝɨ ɱɢɫɥɚ ɷɤɫɤɪɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ (CT) [3]. ȼɵɱɢɫɥɟɧɢɹ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɥɢɫɶ ɜ MS
Office Excel 2003.
ɂɡɭɱɟɧɢɟ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɢɦɨɦɭ ɷɤɫɤɪɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɡɟɥɺɧɨɣ ɠɚɛɵ
ɩɨɦɢɦɨ ɨɱɟɜɢɞɧɵɯ ɞɨɫɬɨɢɧɫɬɜ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɪɹɞ ɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɤɨɜ. Ɍɚɤ ɜ
ɷɤɫɤɪɟɦɟɧɬɚɯ ɧɟ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɹɸɬɫɹ ɨɫɬɚɬɤɢ ɛɟɫɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ, ɧɟ ɢɦɟɸɳɢɯ
ɬɜɺɪɞɵɟ ɩɨɤɪɨɜɵ, ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ ɤɨɥɶɱɚɬɵɯ ɱɟɪɜɟɣ ɢɥɢ ɦɨɥɥɸɫɤɨɜ. ɉɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɷɬɚ
ɝɪɭɩɩɚ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɟ ɭɱɬɺɧɧɨɣ.
ɂɡ ɛɟɫɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɜ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɢ ɠɚɛɵ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɵ ɨɫɬɚɬɤɢ ɩɚɭɤɨɜ,
ɧɚɫɟɤɨɦɵɯ ɢ, ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ, ɦɨɥɥɸɫɤɨɜ. Ʉɚɤ ɢ ɜ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɟ «Ƚɚɥɢɱɶɹ ɝɨɪɚ» ɜ
«Ⱦɢɜɧɨɝɨɪɶɟ» ɩɚɭɤɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɨɣ, ɧɨ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɵɣ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬ
ɩɢɳɢ (RT = 0.65 ± 0.111, CT = 0.56). Ɉɫɬɚɬɤɢ ɧɚɫɟɤɨɦɵɯ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɵ ɜɨ
ɜɫɟɯ ɷɤɫɤɪɟɦɟɧɬɚɯ ɢ ɢɝɪɚɸɬ ɝɥɚɜɧɭɸ ɪɨɥɶ ɜ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɢ (ɬɚɛɥɢɰɚ). Ɉɧɢ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵ ɩɹɬɶɸ ɨɬɪɹɞɚɦɢ.
ȼ ɷɤɫɤɪɟɦɟɧɬɚɯ, ɩɨ-ɜɢɞɢɦɨɦɭ, ɧɟ ɫɥɭɱɚɣɧɨ ɞɜɚɠɞɵ (ɜ ɚɩɪɟɥɟ ɢ ɢɸɧɟ)
ɩɨɩɚɞɚɸɬɫɹ ɮɪɚɝɦɟɧɬɵ ɨɫɬɚɬɤɨɜ ɜɨɫɬɨɱɧɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɧɨɣ ɝɚɞɸɤɢ ɩɟɪɜɨɝɨ ɝɨɞɚ
ɠɢɡɧɢ (RT = 0.06 ± 0.041, CT = 0.06).
Ʉɪɨɦɟ ɬɨɝɨ, ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɵ ɞɜɟ ɤɨɫɬɨɱɤɢ ɦɚɯɚɥɟɛɤɢ ɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɨɣ, ɢɥɢ
ɜɢɲɧɢ ɚɧɬɢɩɤɢ, Padellus mahaleb (L.) Vassilcz., ɩɥɨɞɵ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɛɵɥɢ
ɡɚɯɜɚɱɟɧɵ ɠɚɛɨɣ ɜɦɟɫɬɟ ɫ ɠɟɪɬɜɨɣ.
188
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ
Ⱦɚɧɧɵɟ ɩɨ ɨɫɬɚɬɤɚɦ ɧɚɫɟɤɨɦɵɯ ɜ ɷɤɫɤɪɟɦɟɧɬɚɯ ɡɟɥɺɧɨɣ ɠɚɛɵ
ɜ ɦɭɡɟɟ-ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɟ «Ⱦɢɜɧɨɝɨɪɶɟ» (N = 34)
ȼɫɬɪɟɱɚɟɦɨɫɬɶ
ɋɪɟɞɧɟɟ
ɬɚɤɫɨɧɚ ɜ
ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ
Ɍɚɤɫɨɧ
ɨɫɬɚɬɤɨɜ
ɷɤɫɤɪɟɦɟɧɬɚɯ,
ɬɚɤɫɨɧɚ, RT
CT
Ɉɬɪɹɞ ɉɨɥɭɠɟɫɬɤɨɤɪɵɥɵɟ, Hemiptera Linnaeus, 1758
ɋɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɨ ɇɚɡɟɦɧɢɤɢ, Lygaeidae Schilling, 1829
ɋɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɨ ɇɚɫɬɨɹɳɢɟ ɳɢɬɧɢɤɢ, Pentatomidae Leach,
1815
Ɂɟɥɺɧɵɣ ɞɪɟɜɟɫɧɵɣ ɳɢɬɧɢɤ, Palomena prasina
Linnaeus, 1761
ɓɢɬɧɢɤ, Pentatoma sp.
Ɉɬɪɹɞ ɀɟɫɬɤɨɤɪɵɥɵɟ, Coleoptera Linnaeus, 1758
ɋɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɨ ɀɭɠɟɥɢɰɵ, Carabidae Latreille, 1802
Ȼɟɝɭɧ, Harpalus sp.
Ȼɟɝɭɧ, Ophonus sp.
Poecilus sp.
Zabrus spinipes (Fabricius, 1798)
ɋɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɨ ɍɫɚɱɢ, Cerambycidae Latreille, 1802
Ʉɨɪɧɟɟɞ, Dorcadion sp.
ɋɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɨ Ɂɥɚɬɤɢ, Buprestidae Leach, 1815
ɋɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɨ ɓɟɥɤɭɧɵ, Elateridae Leach, 1815
ɋɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɨ Ʌɢɫɬɨɟɞɵ, Chrysomelidae Latreille, 1802
Ⱦɜɚɞɰɚɬɢɬɨɱɟɱɧɵɣ ɥɢɫɬɨɟɞ, Chrysomela
vigintipunctata (Scopoli, 1763)
ɋɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɨ Ⱦɨɥɝɨɧɨɫɢɤɢ, Curculionidae Latreille, 1802
Centricnemus leucogrammus (Germar, 1824)
Hypera interruptovittatus (Desbrochers, 1875)
Hypera sp.
ɋɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɨ ɉɥɚɫɬɢɧɱɚɬɨɭɫɵɟ, Scarabaeidae Latreille,
1802
Ȼɪɨɧɡɨɜɤɚ ɡɨɥɨɬɢɫɬɚɹ, Cetonia aurata (Linnaeus,
1761)
Ɇɚɣɫɤɢɣ ɯɪɭɳ, Melolontha sp.
ɒɟɥɤɨɜɢɫɬɵɣ ɯɪɭɳɢɤ, Maladera holosericea
(Scopoli, 1772)
ȼɟɫɟɧɧɢɣ ɧɟɯɪɭɳ, Rhizotrogus aestivus (Olivier,
1789)
ɋɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɨ ɑɟɪɧɨɬɟɥɤɢ, Tenebrionidae Latreille, 1802
Ɇɟɞɥɹɤ ɡɟɪɧɨɜɨɣ, Crypticus quisquilius (Linnaeus,
1761)
ɉɵɥɶɰɟɟɞ, Cteniopus sulphuripes (Germar, 1824)
Ɇɟɞɥɹɤ ɩɟɫɱɚɧɵɣ, Opatrum sabulosum (Linnaeus,
1761)
Ʉɭɤɭɪɭɡɧɚɹ ɱɟɪɧɨɬɟɥɤɚ, Pedinus femoralis
(Linnaeus, 1767)
Ɉɬɪɹɞ ɉɟɪɟɩɨɧɱɚɬɨɤɪɵɥɵɟ, Hymenoptera Linnaeus, 1758
ɋɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɨ Ɇɭɪɚɜɶɢ, Formicidae Latreille, 1802
ɋɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɨ ɇɚɫɬɨɹɳɢɟ ɨɫɵ, Vespidae
ɋɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɨ ɇɚɫɬɨɹɳɢɟ ɧɚɟɡɞɧɢɤɢ, Ichneumonidae
Haliday, 1838
ɇɚɞɫɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɨ ɉɱɺɥɵ ɢ ɫɮɟɤɨɢɞɧɵɟ ɪɨɸɳɢɟ ɨɫɵ,
Apoidea Latreille, 1802
Ɉɬɪɹɞ ɑɟɲɭɟɤɪɵɥɵɟ, Lepidoptera Linnaeus, 1758
ɝɭɫɟɧɢɰɚ
Ɉɬɪɹɞ Ⱦɜɭɤɪɵɥɵɟ, Diptera Linnaeus, 1758
ȼɫɟɝɨ
189
0,50 ± 0,190
0,03 ± 0,029
0,32
0,03
0,47 ± 0,190
0,29
0,06 ± 0,041
0,24 ± 0,085
3,12 ± 0,312
0,65 ± 0,150
0,24 ± 0,095
0,03 ± 0,029
0,03 ± 0,029
0,24 ± 0,085
0,03 ± 0,029
0,03 ± 0,029
0,03 ± 0,029
0,09 ± 0,065
0,15 ± 0,070
0,06
0,21
0,97
0,44
0,18
0,03
0,03
0,21
0,03
0,03
0,03
0,06
0,12
0,12 ± 0,070
0,18 ± 0,070
0,03 ± 0,029
0,03 ± 0,029
0,03 ± 0,029
0,09
0,18
0,03
0,03
0,03
0,74 ± 0,150
0,50
0,38 ± 0,085
0,03 ± 0,029
0,38
0,03
0,03 ± 0,029
0,03
0,21 ± 0,125
1,26 ± 0,028
0,09
0,71
0,09 ± 0,049
0,15 ± 0,147
0,09
0,03
0,21 ± 0,070
0,21
0,53 ± 0,180
1,74 ± 0,869
1,47 ± 0,835
0,15 ± 0,062
0,27
0,29
0,18
0,15
0,06 ± 0,041
0,06
0,03 ± 0,029
0,15 ± 0,075
0,15 ± 0,075
0,03 ± 0,029
0,03
0,12
0,12
0,03
5,53 ± 0,851
1,00
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. ȼɥɚɫɨɜ Ⱥ.Ⱥ., ȼɥɚɫɨɜɚ Ɉ.ɉ. Ȼɢɨɥɨɝɢɹ ɢ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɫɬɟɩɧɨɣ ɝɚɞɸɤɢ ɧɚ
ɫɟɜɟɪɧɨɣ ɝɪɚɧɢɰɟ ɚɪɟɚɥɚ ɜ ɐɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨ-ɑɟɪɧɨɡɟɦɧɨɦ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɟ // Ɂɨɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɜ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɚɯ ɐɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɑɟɪɧɨɡɟɦɶɹ. Ɍɪ. Ⱥɫɫɨɰɢɚɰɢɢ ɨɫɨɛɨ ɨɯɪ.
ɩɪɢɪ. ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɣ ɐɟɧɬɪ. ɑɟɪɧɨɡɟɦɶɹ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ. ȼɵɩ. 2. — Ɍɭɥɚ, 2001. — ɋ. 116–121.
2. ɉɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɵ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ. ɉɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɟ. Ʉɚɞɚɫɬɪ. —
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ: Ȼɢɨɦɢɤ, 1996. — 225 ɫ.
3. ɍɲɚɤɨɜ Ɇ.ȼ. ɂɡɭɱɟɧɢɟ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɡɟɥɺɧɨɣ ɠɚɛɵ (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae) ɜ
ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɟ «Ƚɚɥɢɱɶɹ ɝɨɪɚ» // ɋɨɜɪ. ɝɟɪɩɟɬɨɥɨɝɢɹ. — 2013. — Ɍ. 13, ʋ 3–4. — ɋ. 166–
169.
THE DATA OF THE GREEN TOAD (AMPHIBIA: ANURA: BUFONIDAE)
NUTRITION IN THE NATURAL ARCHITECTURAL AND ARCHEOLOGICAL
MYSEUM-RESERVE «DIVNOGORIE»
M.V. Ushakov
Voronezh State University, Galich’ya Gora Natural Reserve,
Donskoe, Zadonskii raion, Lipetsk region, [email protected]
Data on feeding ration of the green toad in the museum-reserve «Divnogorie» was
obtained with study of contents of toads’ excrement. Insects, especially
Coleoptera, dominate in the feed ration. Hemiptera and Hymenoptera are eaten
less. Also the green toads eat regularly spiders in low amount. In addition to
invertebrates the remains of Pelias renardi were detected.
ɍȾɄ 598.288.6:591.5
ɋȿɁɈɇɇȺə ɂɁɆȿɇɑɂȼɈɋɌɖ ɈɈɅɈȽɂɑȿɋɄɂɏ ɉɈɄȺɁȺɌȿɅȿɃ
ȾɊɈɁȾɈȼɂȾɇɕɏ ɄȺɆɕɒȿȼɈɄ (ACROCEPHALUS
ARUNDINACEUS), ȽɇȿɁȾəɓɂɏɋə ȼ ɉɈɃɆȿ ɊȿɄɂ ɉɈɌɍȾȺɇɖ
Ⱦ.Ɉ. ɍɲɚɤɨɜɚ, Ⱥ.Ⱦ. ɇɭɦɟɪɨɜ
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɢɣ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ, ɝ. ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ
ȼ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɞɪɨɡɞɨɜɢɞɧɚɹ ɤɚɦɵɲɟɜɤɚ (Acrocephalus
arundinaceus) ɨɛɵɱɧɵɣ, ɦɟɫɬɚɦɢ ɦɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɣ, ɝɧɟɡɞɹɳɢɣɫɹ ɢ
ɩɟɪɟɥɟɬɧɵɣ ɜɢɞ. ȼ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɫɟɥɹɟɬ ɡɚɪɨɫɥɢ ɧɚɞɜɨɞɧɨɣ
ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɨɜ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ
[8]. ɗɤɨɥɨɝɢɹ ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɤɚɦɵɲɟɜɨɤ ɜ ɐɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɑɟɪɧɨɡɟɦɶɟ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɚ
ɫɥɚɛɨ. ȿɞɢɧɢɱɧɵɟ ɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɰɢɢ ɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɵ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɭ ɢ ɫɬɚɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɦɭ
ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɸ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɦ ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɚɦ ɹɢɰ ɤɚɦɵɲɟɜɨɤ Ʌɢɩɟɰɤɨɣ
ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ (ȿɮɢɦɨɜ, 2003; ȿɮɢɦɨɜ, Ʉɭɡɧɟɰɨɜɚ, 2006).
190
Ɇɚɬɟɪɢɚɥ ɢ ɦɟɬɨɞɵ
Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɵɟ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɹ ɡɚ ɝɧɟɡɞɚɦɢ ɞɪɨɡɞɨɜɢɞɧɵɯ ɤɚɦɵɲɟɜɨɤ
ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɵ ɜ 2011-2013 ɝɝ. ɜ ɩɨɣɦɟ ɪɟɤɢ ɉɨɬɭɞɚɧɶ ɧɚ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɟ ɨɬ ɬɪɚɫɫɵ
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ–Ɉɫɬɪɨɝɨɠɫɤ ɞɨ ɦɟɫɬɚ ɜɩɚɞɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɪɟɤɭ Ⱦɨɧ. Ɉɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɤɥɚɞɤɢ
ɨɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɵ ɢ ɩɪɨɦɟɪɟɧɵ ɜ 1993, 2009 ɢ 2010 ɝɝ. Ɉɛɳɚɹ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɶ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ
ɧɚ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɥɢ ɩɨɢɫɤ ɝɧɟɡɞ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɥɚ 4,05 ɤɦ2. ɋ ɰɟɥɶɸ
ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɢɹ ɝɧɟɡɞ ɜɞɨɥɶ ɪɟɤɢ ɢ ɩɪɢɥɟɝɚɸɳɢɯ ɤ ɧɟɣ ɨɡɟɪ (ɧɚ ɦɟɥɤɨɜɨɞɶɟ)
ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɢ ɩɟɲɢɟ ɦɚɪɲɪɭɬɵ, ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɭɹɫɶ ɧɚ ɩɨɸɳɢɯ ɫɚɦɰɨɜ ɤɚɦɵɲɟɜɨɤ.
ɇɚ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ ɨɬɤɪɵɬɨɣ ɜɨɞɵ ɫ ɛɨɥɶɲɨɣ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɨɣ ɩɟɪɟɞɜɢɝɚɥɢɫɶ ɧɚ
ɞɟɪɟɜɹɧɧɨɣ ɥɨɞɤɟ-ɩɥɨɫɤɨɞɨɧɤɟ.
Ⱦɥɹ ɨɫɦɨɬɪɚ ɝɧɟɡɞ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɥɢ ɬɟɥɟɫɤɨɩɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɭɞɨɱɤɭ ɫ
ɡɚɤɪɟɩɥɟɧɧɵɦ ɧɚ ɤɨɧɰɟ ɡɟɪɤɚɥɨɦ. ɉɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɫɬɚɪɚɥɢɫɶ ɧɟ ɛɟɫɩɨɤɨɢɬɶ ɩɬɢɰ ɢ
ɧɟ ɞɟɦɚɫɤɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɢɯ ɝɧɟɡɞɚ, ɱɬɨɛɵ ɫɧɢɡɢɬɶ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɫɤɢɣ ɩɪɟɫɫ.
Ƚɧɟɡɞɚ ɢɡɦɟɪɹɥɢ ɢ ɨɩɢɫɵɜɚɥɢ ɩɨ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɯɟɦɟ ɢ ɡɚɩɨɥɧɹɥɢ ɝɧɟɡɞɨɜɭɸ
ɤɚɪɬɨɱɤɭ [9]. Ʉɥɚɞɤɢ ɮɨɬɨɝɪɚɮɢɪɨɜɚɥɢ ɰɢɮɪɨɜɵɦ ɮɨɬɨɚɩɩɚɪɚɬɨɦ ɜ ɝɧɟɡɞɟ ɢ
ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɨ, ɜɵɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɹ ɢɯ ɧɚ ɨɞɧɨɬɨɧɧɭɸ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɶ. əɣɰɚ ɢɡɦɟɪɹɥɢ
ɲɬɚɧɝɟɧɰɢɪɤɭɥɟɦ ɫ ɬɨɱɧɨɫɬɶɸ 0,1 ɦɦ, ɮɨɪɦɭ ɹɢɰ ɜɵɱɢɫɥɹɥɢ ɩɨ ɢɧɞɟɤɫɭ
ɭɞɥɢɧɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ: (LD)/D×100%, ɝɞɟ L ɞɥɢɧɚ, D ɞɢɚɦɟɬɪ ɹɣɰɚ [5], ɚ ɨɛɴɟɦ
ɩɨ ɮɨɪɦɭɥɟ Ⱦ. ɏɨɣɬɚ V=0.51×L×D2 [12].
ɋɬɚɬɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɨɛɪɚɛɨɬɤɭ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɚ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɥɢ ɩɨ ɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɧɵɦ
ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤɚɦ (Ɂɚɣɰɟɜ, 1991), ɫ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ ɤɨɦɩɶɸɬɟɪɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦ (Exɫel,
Statistica 6.0).
Ɋɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɢ ɢɯ ɨɛɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɟ
ȼɫɟ ɝɧɟɡɞɚ ɞɪɨɡɞɨɜɢɞɧɵɯ ɤɚɦɵɲɟɜɨɤ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɵ ɧɚ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ
ɚɤɜɚɬɨɪɢɢ ɫ ɝɭɫɬɨ ɪɚɫɬɭɳɢɦ (ɜɵɫɨɬɚ 2,5-4 ɦ) ɬɪɨɫɬɧɢɤɨɦ ɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɵɦ
ɢɥɢ ɸɠɧɵɦ (Phramites australis), ɩɥɨɳɚɞɶɸ ɨɤɨɥɨ 4 ɝɚ.
Ɉɬɤɥɚɞɤɚ ɩɟɪɜɵɯ ɹɢɰ ɜ ɝɧɟɡɞɚɯ ɤɚɦɵɲɟɜɨɤ ɜ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟ ɝɨɞɵ
ɡɚɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɚ ɜ ɩɨɣɦɟ ɪɟɤɢ ɉɨɬɭɞɚɧɶ ɜ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ 12-19 ɦɚɹ. ɋɜɟɠɢɟ
ɤɥɚɞɤɢ ɩɨɹɜɥɹɥɢɫɶ ɜɩɥɨɬɶ ɞɨ ɩɟɪɜɨɣ ɞɟɤɚɞɵ ɢɸɥɹ. Ɉɛɳɚɹ
ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɚ ɩɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɝɧɟɡɞ ɫ ɩɟɪɜɵɦ ɹɣɰɨɦ ɭ ɤɚɦɵɲɟɜɨɤ
ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɚ, ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦ, 52 ɞɧɹ (ɪɢɫ. 1).
Ʉɚɤ ɜɢɞɢɦ ɧɚ ɪɢɫ.1, ɜɵɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɨɞɢɧ ɩɢɤ ɧɚɱɚɥɚ ɤɥɚɞɨɤ ɭ ɤɚɦɵɲɟɜɨɤ,
ɩɪɢɯɨɞɹɳɢɣɫɹ ɧɚ ɞɜɟ ɩɟɪɜɵɟ ɩɹɬɢɞɧɟɜɤɢ ɢɸɧɹ. Ʉ ɷɬɨɦɭ ɠɟ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɭ
ɩɨɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ 50 % ɜɫɟɯ ɤɥɚɞɨɤ ɜ ɫɟɡɨɧɟ (ɤɪɢɜɚɹ ɧɚɤɨɩɥɟɧɢɹ). ȼ ɰɟɥɨɦ,
ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɜɵɝɥɹɞɢɬ ɛɥɢɡɤɢɦ ɤ ɧɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɨɦɭ. ɇɟɛɨɥɶɲɚɹ ɚɫɢɦɦɟɬɪɢɹ
ɩɪɚɜɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɝɢɫɬɨɝɪɚɦɦɵ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɚ ɫ ɧɚɥɢɱɢɟɦ ɩɨɜɬɨɪɧɵɯ ɤɥɚɞɨɤ,
ɨɬɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɫɚɦɤɚɦɢ ɤɚɦɵɲɟɜɨɤ ɜɡɚɦɟɧ ɭɬɪɚɱɟɧɧɵɯ. ɋɜɟɠɢɟ ɝɧɟɡɞɚ
ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɯ ɩɹɬɢɞɧɟɜɨɤ ɢɸɧɹ - ɷɬɨ ɜɨɡɨɛɧɨɜɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɤɥɚɞɤɢ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɝɢɛɟɥɢ ɧɚ
ɫɬɚɞɢɢ ɧɚɫɢɠɢɜɚɧɢɹ. ɇɨɜɵɟ ɝɧɟɡɞɚ ɫ ɩɟɪɜɵɦ ɹɣɰɨɦ, ɩɨɹɜɢɜɲɢɟɫɹ ɜ ɢɸɥɟ, ɩɨɜɬɨɪɧɵɟ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɝɢɛɟɥɢ ɪɚɡɧɨɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɵɯ ɩɬɟɧɰɨɜ (ɪɢɫ. 1).
191
% 18
100
16
14
75
12
10
50
8
6
25
4
2
0
0
12-16 17-21 22-26 27-31
1-5
ɦɚɣ
6-11 12-16 17-21 22-26 27-30
ɢɸɧɶ
1-5
6-11 12-16
ɢɸɥɶ
Ɋɢɫ. 1. ɉɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɝɧɟɡɞ ɤɚɦɵɲɟɜɨɤ ɫ ɩɟɪɜɵɦ ɹɣɰɨɦ ɩɨ ɩɹɬɢɞɧɟɜɤɚɦ ɜ ɩɨɣɦɟ ɪɟɤɢ
ɉɨɬɭɞɚɧɶ ɜ 2011-2013 ɝɝ.
ɉɨɥɧɵɟ ɤɥɚɞɤɢ ɞɪɨɡɞɨɜɢɞɧɵɯ ɤɚɦɵɲɟɜɨɤ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɥɢ ɨɬ 2-ɯ ɞɨ 6-ɬɢ
ɹɢɰ, ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦ, 4,5±0,09 ɹɢɰ ɧɚ ɝɧɟɡɞɨ. ȼ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɫɟɡɨɧɚ (ɨɬ ɦɚɹ ɤ ɢɸɥɸ)
ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɤɥɚɞɨɤ ɫ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɦ ɱɢɫɥɨɦ ɹɢɰ ɡɚɤɨɧɨɦɟɪɧɨ ɢɡɦɟɧɹɥɨɫɶ.
ȼɟɥɢɱɢɧɚ ɤɥɚɞɨɤ, ɨɬɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɤɚɦɵɲɟɜɤɚɦɢ ɜ ɧɚɱɚɥɟ ɫɟɡɨɧɚ ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɟɧɢɹ
(4,9±0,15), ɞɨɫɬɨɜɟɪɧɨ (p<0,001, t=3,7) ɩɪɟɜɵɲɚɥɚ ɬɚɤɨɜɵɟ ɜ ɢɸɧɟ-ɢɸɥɟ –
4,2±0,12 ɹɢɰ ɧɚ ɝɧɟɡɞɨ. ɗɬɨ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɨ ɫ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɣ ɞɨɥɟɣ 23-ɯ ɹɣɰɟɜɵɯ ɤɥɚɞɨɤ ɜ ɢɸɧɟ-ɢɸɥɟ (25,7 %) ɩɪɨɬɢɜ 5,9 % ɜ ɦɚɟ. Ⱦɨɥɹ ɠɟ
ɤɪɭɩɧɵɯ ɤɥɚɞɨɤ ɢɡ 5-6 ɹɢɰ ɛɵɥɚ ɜɵɲɟ ɜ ɦɚɟ ɩɨ ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɸ ɫ ɢɸɧɟɦ-ɢɸɥɟɦ
(70,6 % ɢ 43,2 % ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ). ɋɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɤɥɚɞɨɤ
ɤɚɦɵɲɟɜɤɢ ɫ 2-6 ɹɣɰɚɦɢ, ɨɬɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɜ ɝɧɟɡɞɚ ɜ ɦɚɟ ɢ ɢɸɧɟ-ɢɸɥɟ ɜ ɩɨɣɦɟ
ɪɟɤɢ ɉɨɬɭɞɚɧɶ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɧɵ ɧɚ ɪɢɫ. 2.
% 45
40
35
30
25
ɦɚɣ
20
ɢɸɧɶ-ɢɸɥɶ
15
10
5
0
2
3
4
5
6
ɹɢɰ ɜ ɤɥɚɞɤɟ
Ɋɢɫ. 2. ɋɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɤɥɚɞɨɤ ɤɚɦɵɲɟɜɤɢ ɫ 2-6 ɹɣɰɚɦɢ (ɜ %),
ɨɬɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɜ ɝɧɟɡɞɚ ɜ ɦɚɟ ɢ ɢɸɧɟ-ɢɸɥɟ ɜ ɩɨɣɦɟ ɪɟɤɢ ɉɨɬɭɞɚɧɶ (n=108).
192
ɂɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɚ ɤɥɚɞɤɢ ɜ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɫɟɡɨɧɚ ɝɧɟɡɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɨ ɞɥɹ
ɪɹɞɚ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɩɬɢɰ ɫ ɪɚɫɬɹɧɭɬɵɦ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɨɦ ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɟɧɢɹ [3, 6, 7], ɚ
ɬɚɤɠɟ ɞɥɹ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɣ ɞɪɨɡɞɨɜɢɞɧɵɯ ɤɚɦɵɲɟɜɨɤ [10]. ɉɨ ɦɧɟɧɢɸ Ɋ.
Ȼɟɪɧɞɬɚ ɢ ȼ. ȼɢɧɤɟɥɹ [11], ɫɟɡɨɧɧɨɟ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɚ ɤɥɚɞɤɢ ɢɦɟɟɬ
ɚɞɚɩɬɢɜɧɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɤ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɚɸɳɢɦɫɹ ɤɨɪɦɨɜɵɦ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɹɦ ɞɥɹ
ɩɬɟɧɰɨɜ.
Ɇɨɪɮɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢ ɹɢɰ ɤɚɦɵɲɟɜɨɤ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɩɨɞɜɟɪɠɟɧɵ
ɫɟɡɨɧɧɵɦ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹɦ, ɨɞɧɚɤɨ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ ɷɬɢɯ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɣ ɩɨɤɚ ɧɟ ɩɨɞɞɚɟɬɫɹ
ɨɞɧɨɡɧɚɱɧɨɣ ɬɪɚɤɬɨɜɤɟ. Ɉɛɳɢɟ ɫɪɟɞɧɢɟ ɩɨ ɜɫɟɣ ɜɵɛɨɪɤɟ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɢ:
22,72±0,06ɯ16,26±0,03 ɦɦ, ɩɪɟɞɟɥɵ - 20,1-26,5ɯ13,5-17,9 ɦɦ (n=329). Ɂɞɟɫɶ
ɦɵ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɦ ɨɛɴɟɦ ɢ ɮɨɪɦɭ ɹɢɰ ɤɚɤ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ,
ɜɤɥɸɱɚɸɳɢɟ ɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨ ɞɥɢɧɭ ɢ ɞɢɚɦɟɬɪ ɹɣɰɚ. Ɍɚɤ, ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɨɛɴɟɦɚ
ɹɢɰ ɤɚɦɵɲɟɜɨɤ ɜ ɦɚɟ 2013 ɝɨɞɚ (3,12±0,05 ɫɦ3) ɨɤɚɡɚɥɢɫɶ ɜɵɲɟ, ɱɟɦ ɨɛɴɟɦ
ɹɢɰ ɜ ɢɸɧɟ-ɢɸɥɟ (3,06±0,03 ɫɦ3), ɚ ɜ 2012 ɝɨɞɭ, ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɛɵɥɨ
ɨɛɪɚɬɧɵɦ (ɪɢɫ. 3). ȼ ɰɟɥɨɦ, ɫɟɡɨɧɧɵɯ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɣ ɫɪɟɞɧɢɯ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɣ ɨɛɴɟɦɚ
ɞɨɫɬɨɜɟɪɧɨ ɧɟ ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɨ (p>0,05).
Ɋɢɫ. 3. Ɉɛɴɟɦ ɹɢɰ ɞɪɨɡɞɨɜɢɞɧɵɯ ɤɚɦɵɲɟɜɨɤ, ɨɬɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɜ ɝɧɟɡɞɚ ɜ ɦɚɟ ɢ ɢɸɧɟɢɸɥɟ ɜ ɩɨɣɦɟ ɪɟɤɢ ɉɨɬɭɞɚɧɶ (2012-2013 ɝɝ.)
ȼ ɮɨɪɦɟ ɹɢɰ ɤɚɦɵɲɟɜɨɤ ɫɟɡɨɧɧɚɹ ɢɡɦɟɧɱɢɜɨɫɬɶ ɧɟ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɚ.
ɋɪɟɞɧɢɟ ɢɧɞɟɤɫɵ ɭɞɥɢɧɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɹɢɰ ɦɚɹ ɢ ɢɸɧɹ-ɢɸɥɹ ɞɨɫɬɨɜɟɪɧɨ ɧɟ
ɪɚɡɥɢɱɚɥɢɫɶ ɜ 2012 ɢ ɜ 2013 ɝɝ. (ɪɢɫ.4). Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɩɨ ɝɨɞɚɦ ɮɨɪɦɚ ɹɢɰ ɢɦɟɥɚ
ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɹ (p<0,001).
ȼ ɨɤɪɚɫɤɟ ɫɤɨɪɥɭɩɵ ɹɢɰ ɞɪɨɡɞɨɜɢɞɧɨɣ ɤɚɦɵɲɟɜɤɢ ɱɟɬɤɨ ɜɵɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹ
ɞɜɟ ɨɤɪɚɫɨɱɧɵɟ ɦɨɪɮɵ ɫ ɝɨɥɭɛɨɜɚɬɵɦ ɢ ɡɟɥɟɧɨɜɚɬɵɦ ɮɨɧɨɦ. Ⱦɨɥɹ ɤɥɚɞɨɤ
(n=55) ɫ ɝɨɥɭɛɵɦ ɮɨɧɨɦ ɹɢɰ (77,3±2,70 %) ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɩɪɟɜɵɲɚɥɚ ɬɚɤɨɜɭɸ
ɫ ɡɟɥɟɧɵɦ ɮɨɧɨɦ (22,7±2,70 %). ɉɨ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɹɦ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ Ɉɞɟɫɫɤɨɣ,
ɇɢɤɨɥɚɟɜɫɤɨɣ ɢ Ɂɚɩɨɪɨɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɟɣ ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɩɨɥɶɡɭ ɝɨɥɭɛɨɝɨ
ɮɨɧɚ ɹɢɰ ɛɵɥɨ ɟɳɟ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦ 81,6 % ɢ 18,4 % ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ [2].
Ⱦɜɟ ɤɥɚɞɤɢ ɜ 2009 ɝ. ɢ ɱɟɬɵɪɟ ɤɥɚɞɤɢ ɜ 2011 ɝ. (10,9 % ɜɫɟɯ ɤɥɚɞɨɤ)
193
ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɥɢ ɹɣɰɚ ɨɛɨɢɯ ɬɢɩɨɜ ɨɤɪɚɫɤɢ ɮɨɧɚ, ɱɬɨ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɨ ɫ
ɜɧɭɬɪɢɜɢɞɨɜɵɦ ɝɧɟɡɞɨɜɵɦ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɢɡɦɨɦ.
Ɋɢɫ. 4. Ɏɨɪɦɚ ɹɢɰ ɞɪɨɡɞɨɜɢɞɧɵɯ ɤɚɦɵɲɟɜɨɤ, ɨɬɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɜ ɦɚɟ ɢ ɢɸɧɟ-ɢɸɥɟ ɜ
ɩɨɣɦɟ ɪɟɤɢ ɉɨɬɭɞɚɧɶ (2012-2013 ɝɝ.).
Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɜɧɭɬɪɢɫɟɡɨɧɧɚɹ ɢɡɦɟɧɱɢɜɨɫɬɶ ɱɟɬɤɨ ɩɪɨɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɭ
ɞɪɨɡɞɨɜɢɞɧɨɣ ɤɚɦɵɲɟɜɤɢ ɜ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɢ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɚ ɤɥɚɞɤɢ. ɉɪɢɱɢɧɨɣ
ɩɨɞɨɛɧɨɝɨ ɹɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɤɚɤ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɟ ɜ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɨɦ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɟ
ɝɧɟɡɞɹɳɢɯɫɹ ɜ ɧɚɱɚɥɟ ɢ ɜ ɤɨɧɰɟ ɫɟɡɨɧɚ ɩɬɢɰ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɨɛɳɢɦ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟɦ
ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɢ ɞɨɫɬɭɩɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɢɳɟɜɵɯ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ. ɂɡɦɟɧɱɢɜɨɫɬɶ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɵ ɹɢɰ ɜ
ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɨɣ ɤɥɚɞɤɟ, ɜ ɩɟɪɜɭɸ ɨɱɟɪɟɞɶ, ɫɜɹɡɚɧɚ ɫ ɮɢɡɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ
ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟɦ ɫɚɦɤɢ, ɱɬɨ ɜ ɫɜɨɸ ɨɱɟɪɟɞɶ, ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɫɨɜɨɤɭɩɧɨɫɬɶɸ
ɧɚɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɢ ɫɪɟɞɨɜɵɯ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ. ɉɨɷɬɨɦɭ, ɞɨɥɹ ɦɟɠɤɥɚɞɤɨɜɨɣ
ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɵ ɜ ɨɛɳɟɣ ɢɡɦɟɧɱɢɜɨɫɬɢ ɨɨɦɨɪɮɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɨɜ
ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɜɵɫɨɤɚɹ (ɢɡ-ɡɚ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɣ ɫɚɦɨɤ) [1, 4, 6]. ȼ ɜɚɪɢɚɰɢɢ
ɮɨɪɦɵ ɹɢɰ ɤɚɦɵɲɟɜɨɤ ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɨ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟ ɫɟɡɨɧɧɨɣ, ɧɨ ɧɚɥɢɱɢɟ
ɯɪɨɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɢɡɦɟɧɱɢɜɨɫɬɢ, ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ ɨɬ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ
ɝɨɞɚ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɞɥɹ ɨɤɨɧɱɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɜɵɜɨɞɨɜ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦ ɫɛɨɪ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɚ.
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. ȼɟɧɝɟɪɨɜ ɉ.Ⱦ. 1993. ɉɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɨ-ɦɨɪɮɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɚɫɩɟɤɬɵ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɹ
ɢɡɦɟɧɱɢɜɨɫɬɢ ɩɬɢɱɶɢɯ ɹɢɰ // ɋɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɨɨɥɨɝɢɢ. Ɇɚɬɟɪ. 1 Ɇɟɠɞ. ɫɨɜɟɳ.
Ʌɢɩɟɰɤ, 1993. - ɋ. 21-25.
2. Ⱦɹɞɢɱɟɜɚ ȿ.Ⱥ., Ʉɨɲɟɥɟɜ Ⱥ.ɂ. Ɉɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢ ɢ ɢɯ ɢɡɦɟɧɱɢɜɨɫɬɶ ɭ
ɬɪɟɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɤɚɦɵɲɟɜɨɤ ɢ ɫɨɥɨɜɶɢɧɨɝɨ ɫɜɟɪɱɤɚ ɧɚ Ⱥɡɨɜɨ-ɑɟɪɧɨɦɨɪɫɤɨɦ ɩɨɛɟɪɟɠɶɟ
ɍɤɪɚɢɧɵ // Ⱥɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɨɨɥɨɝɢɢ. Ɇɚɬɟɪ. II Ɇɟɠɞ. ɤɨɧɮ. ɫɬɪɚɧ ɋɇȽ. Ʌɢɩɟɰɤ,
1998. - ɋ. 54-57.
3. Ɂɢɦɢɧ ȼ.Ȼ. ɗɤɨɥɨɝɢɹ ɜɨɪɨɛɶɢɧɵɯ ɩɬɢɰ ɫɟɜɟɪɨ-ɡɚɩɚɞɚ ɋɋɋɊ. - Ʌ.: ɇɚɭɤɚ, 1988. –
184 ɫ.
194
4. Ʉɥɢɦɨɜ ɋ.Ɇ. ɗɤɨɥɨɝɨ-ɷɜɨɥɸɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɚɫɩɟɤɬɵ ɢɡɦɟɧɱɢɜɨɫɬɢ ɨɨɦɨɪɮɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ
ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɟɣ ɩɬɢɰ. Ʌɢɩɟɰɤ: ɅȽɉɍ, 2003. - 208 ɫ.
5. Ʉɨɫɬɢɧ ɘ.ȼ. Ɉ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤɟ ɨɨɦɨɪɮɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɢ ɭɧɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢ
ɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɹ ɨɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɨɜ // Ɇɟɬɨɞɢɤɢ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ
ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɜ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɯ ɢɯ ɚɪɟɚɥɨɜ. - ȼɢɥɶɧɸɫ: Ɇɨɤɫɥɚɫ, 1977. - ɑ. 1. - ɋ. 14-22.
6. Ɇɹɧɞ Ɋ. ȼɧɭɬɪɢɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɚɹ ɢɡɦɟɧɱɢɜɨɫɬɶ ɩɬɢɱɶɢɯ ɹɢɰ. Ɍɚɥɥɢɧ: ȼɚɥɝɭɫ, 1988. 195 ɫ.
7. ɇɭɦɟɪɨɜ Ⱥ.Ⱦ. ɉɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɚɹ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɹ ɦɭɯɨɥɨɜɤɢ-ɩɟɫɬɪɭɲɤɢ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ
Ɉɤɫɤɨɝɨ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɚ // ɇɚɭɱɧɵɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɵ ɨɯɪɚɧɵ ɢ ɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɬɢɰ:
Ɍɪɭɞɵ Ɉɤɫɤɨɝɨ ɝɨɫɭɞ. ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɚ. - Ɋɹɡɚɧɶ, 1995. - ȼɵɩ. 19. - ɋ. 75-100.
8. ɇɭɦɟɪɨɜ Ⱥ.Ⱦ. Ʉɥɚɫɫ ɉɬɢɰɵ Aves // ɉɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɵ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ.
ɉɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɟ. Ʉɚɞɚɫɬɪ. – ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ: Ȼɢɨɦɢɤ, 1996. - ɋ. 48-159.
9. ɇɭɦɟɪɨɜ Ⱥ.Ⱦ., Ʉɥɢɦɨɜ Ⱥ.ɋ., Ɍɪɭɮɚɧɨɜɚ ȿ.ɂ. ɉɨɥɟɜɵɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɚɡɟɦɧɵɯ
ɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ. - ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ: ɂɉɐ ȼȽɍ, 2010. - 301 ɫ.
10. Ɏɺɞɨɪɨɜ ȼ.Ⱥ. Ɇɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɵ ɩɨ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɞɪɨɡɞɨɜɢɞɧɨɣ ɤɚɦɵɲɟɜɤɢ ɧɚ
ɸɝɟ ɉɫɤɨɜɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ // Ɍɟɡ. ɞɨɤɥ. XII ɉɪɢɛɚɥɬ. ɨɪɧɢɬɨɥ. ɤɨɧɮ. – ȼɢɥɶɧɸɫ, 1988. - ɋ.
227-228.
11. Berndt R., Winkel W. Die Gelegegrosse des Trauerschnappers (Ficedula hypoleca) in
Beziehung zu Ort Zeit, Biotorp und Alter // Vogelwelt. - 1967. - Vol. 88. - ʋ 4-5. - P. 97-136.
12. Hoyt D.F. Practical methods for estimating volume and fresh weight of birds eggs //
Auk. - 1979. - Vol. - 96. - P. 73-77.
SEASONAL VARIABILITY OF CLUTCHES AND EGG SIZE OF THE GREAT REED
WARBLER (ACROCEPHALUS ARUNDINACEUS) IN THE BOTTOMLAND OF
POTUDAN RIVER
D.O. Uchakova, A.D. Numerov
Voronezh State University, Voronezh, Russia
The nesting ecology (and egg size) of the Great Reed Warbler was studied in
2011–2013 in the bottomland of Potudan river (Voronezh Region). We studied the
seasonal variability of clutches and morphometric characteristics of eggs (volume
and shape) the Great Reed Warbler.
ɍȾɄ 599.32:599.324.4(575.2)
ɆɈɇɂɌɈɊɂɇȽ ɉȺɊȺɁɂɌɈɐȿɇɈɁȺ ɋȿɊɈɃ ɄɊɕɋɕ
(RATTUS NORVEGICUS BERKENHOUT) ȼ ɑɍɃɋɄɈɃ ȾɈɅɂɇȿ
(ɋȿȼȿɊɇɕɃ Ɍəɇɖ-ɒȺɇɖ)
ɋ.ɀ. Ɏɟɞɨɪɨɜɚ
Ȼɢɨɥɨɝɨ-ɩɨɱɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ɇȺɇ ɄɊ. Ʉɵɪɝɵɡɫɬɚɧ,
ɝ.Ȼɢɲɤɟɤ [email protected]
ȼ ɫɬɚɬɶɟ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɦɨɧɢɬɨɪɢɧɝɚ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ
ɫɟɪɨɣ ɤɪɵɫɵ ɜ ɑɭɣɫɤɨɣ ɞɨɥɢɧɟ, ɜɤɥɸɱɚɹ ɝ.Ȼɢɲɤɟɤ, ɫɨ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɟɺ ɜɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ
195
(1993 ɝ.) ɢ ɞɨ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɝɨ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ. ȼ ɩɟɪɜɵɟ ɝɨɞɵ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ
ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɵ ɧɚ ɩɚɫɸɤɟ ɧɟ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɢɜɚɥɢɫɶ. ȼ 2000 ɝɨɞɭ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɰɟɧɨɡ
ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɥɢ ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɵ ɝɪɵɡɭɧɨɜ, ɤ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɦɭ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɧɚɣɞɟɧɵ
ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɧɵɟ ɜɢɞɵ: ɜɨɲɶ Polyplax spinulosa ɢ ɤɥɟɳ Ornithonyssus bacoti.
ɉɚɪɚɡɢɬɚɪɧɨɟ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɨ ɫɟɪɨɣ ɤɪɵɫɵ ɜ ɑɭɣɫɤɨɣ ɞɨɥɢɧɟ ɜ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ
ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ 18 ɬɚɤɫɨɧɨɜ ɢ ɟɝɨ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɚɟɬɫɹ.
ɋɟɪɚɹ ɤɪɵɫɚ (Rattus norvegicus) ɞɚɜɧɨ ɨɛɪɚɳɚɟɬ ɧɚ ɫɟɛɹ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ
ɭɱɟɧɵɯ, ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɫɤɢɯ ɪɚɛɨɬɧɢɤɨɜ, ɷɤɨɥɨɝɨɜ, ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɫɬɨɜ ɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ
ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚ ɤɚɤ ɨɞɢɧ ɢɡ ɨɩɚɫɧɟɣɲɢɯ ɜɪɟɞɢɬɟɥɟɣ.
ɉɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɦɵɣ ɪɚɣɨɧ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɫɟɪɨɣ ɤɪɵɫɵ í ɘɝɨ-ȼɨɫɬɨɱɧɚɹ
Ⱥɡɢɹ. Ɇɢɪɨɜɨɣ ɚɪɟɚɥ ɫɟɪɨɣ ɤɪɵɫɵ ɞɚɜɧɨ ɭɠɟ ɪɚɫɲɢɪɹɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɜɫɟɯ
ɤɨɧɬɢɧɟɧɬɚɯ. Ɋɚɫɫɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɩɚɫɸɤɚ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɥɨ ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦ, ɩɪɢ ɭɱɚɫɬɢɢ
ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ í ɜ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɢɪɨɜɤɢ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɨɜ, ɝɪɭɡɨɜ [7]. Ⱦɨ
ɧɟɞɚɜɧɟɝɨ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹ ɋɪɟɞɧɟɣ Ⱥɡɢɢ ɧɟ ɛɵɥɚ ɨɫɜɨɟɧɚ ɫɟɪɨɣ
ɤɪɵɫɨɣ, ɬ.ɤ. ɩɭɫɬɵɧɧɵɟ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚ ɫɥɭɠɚɬ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦ ɩɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɢɟɦ
ɞɥɹ ɟɟ ɪɚɫɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ. ɉɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɩɚɫɸɤɚ ɜ ɝ.Ɍɚɲɤɟɧɬɟ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɨ
ɂ.ɂ.Ʉɨɥɟɫɧɢɤɨɜɵɦ [6] ɜ ɫɟɪɟɞɢɧɟ ɩɪɨɲɥɨɝɨ ɜɟɤɚ. ȼ Ɍɚɞɠɢɤɢɫɬɚɧɟ ɤɪɵɫɚ
ɩɨɹɜɢɥɚɫɶ ɜ 1957 ɝ. [4]. ȼ Ʉɚɡɚɯɫɬɚɧɟ ɫɟɪɚɹ ɤɪɵɫɚ ɞɨɥɝɨɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɛɵɥɚ
ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɚ ɥɢɲɶ ɧɚ ɫɟɜɟɪɟ ɪɟɫɩɭɛɥɢɤɢ. ɉɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬɫɹ, ɱɬɨ ɜ ȺɥɦɚȺɬɭ ɨɧɚ ɛɵɥɚ ɡɚɜɟɡɟɧɚ ɜ 1982ɝ. [10].
ȼ 1993 ɝ. ȼ.ɂ.Ɍɨɪɨɩɨɜɨɣ ɢ ɞɪ. [11] ɛɵɥɨ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɨ ɩɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɫɟɪɨɣ
ɤɪɵɫɵ ɜ ɝ. Ȼɢɲɤɟɤɟ. Ɂɚɜɨɡ ɝɪɵɡɭɧɨɜ ɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɟɪɜɨɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɢɯ
ɜɵɥɨɜɨɦ ɜ ɪɚɣɨɧɟ ɠɟɥɟɡɧɨɞɨɪɨɠɧɨɣ ɫɬɚɧɰɢɢ ɉɢɲɩɟɤ. ȼ 2003 ɝɨɞɭ ɫɟɪɚɹ
ɤɪɵɫɚ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɢɜɚɥɚɫɶ ɜɨ ɜɫɟɯ ɪɚɣɨɧɚɯ ɝ.Ȼɢɲɤɟɤɚ. ȼɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟ ɫɜɨɟɣ
ɷɜɪɢɛɢɨɧɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɦɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɷɬɨɬ ɝɪɵɡɭɧ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɜɚɠɧɨɟ
ɷɩɢɞɟɦɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ, ɬ.ɤ. ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɪɟɡɟɪɜɭɚɪɨɦ ɜɨɡɛɭɞɢɬɟɥɟɣ
ɦɧɨɝɢɯ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɣ: ɱɭɦɵ, ɬɭɥɹɪɟɦɢɢ, ɷɪɢɡɢɩɟɥɨɢɞɚ,
ɥɢɫɬɟɪɢɨɡɚ, ɫɚɥɶɦɨɧɟɥɥɟɡɚ, ɛɪɭɰɟɥɥɟɡɚ, ɥɢɯɨɪɚɞɤɢ Ʉɭ, ɥɢɯɨɪɚɞɤɢ
ɰɭɰɭɝɚɦɭɲɢ. Ɍ.ȼ.Ɇɟɤɚ-Ɇɟɱɟɧɤɨ ɫ ɫɨɚɜɬɨɪɚɦɢ [8] ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɨ ɭɱɚɫɬɢɟ
ɫɟɪɨɣ ɤɪɵɫɵ ɜ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɢ ɢ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɢ ɜ Ʉɵɪɝɵɡɫɬɚɧɟ ɜɨɡɛɭɞɢɬɟɥɟɣ
ɥɟɩɬɨɫɩɢɪɨɡɚ,
ɥɢɫɬɟɪɢɨɡɚ,
ɛɪɭɰɟɥɥɟɡɚ,
ɤɢɲɟɱɧɨɝɨ
ɢɟɪɫɢɧɢɨɡɚ,
ɩɫɟɜɞɨɬɭɛɟɪɤɭɥɟɡɚ, ɩɚɫɬɟɪɟɥɥɟɡɚ, ɛɟɲɟɧɫɬɜɚ.
ȼɚɠɧɚɹ ɪɨɥɶ ɜ ɷɩɢɞɟɦɢɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɢ ɷɩɢɡɨɨɬɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ
ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɣ ɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɢɬ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɱɥɟɧɢɫɬɨɧɨɝɢɦ. ɋɪɟɞɢ
ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ ɫɟɪɨɣ ɤɪɵɫɵ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɨɛɢɥɶɧɵ ɢ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵ ɛɥɨɯɢ. ɇɚ
ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɋɇȽ ɢɯ ɧɚɫɱɢɬɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ 56 ɜɢɞɨɜ, ɬɚɤɠɟ ɧɚɣɞɟɧɵ 12 ɜɢɞɨɜ
ɢɤɫɨɞɨɜɵɯ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ, 28 ɝɚɦɚɡɨɜɵɯ ɢ 11 ɤɪɚɫɧɨɬɟɥɤɨɜɵɯ [3].
ȼ ɩɟɪɜɵɟ ɝɨɞɵ ɜɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɫɟɪɨɣ ɤɪɵɫɵ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɱɥɟɧɢɫɬɨɧɨɝɢɟ ɜ
ɝ.Ȼɢɲɤɟɤɟ ɧɚ ɧɟɣ ɧɟ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɢɜɚɥɢɫɶ. ȼ 1997 ɝɨɞɭ Ⱥ.Ⱥ.Ⱥɥɵɦɤɭɥɨɜɨɣ [1]
ɧɚɣɞɟɧɵ ɤɥɟɳɢ Nothrholaspis (=Macrocheles – ɋ.Ɏ.) decoloratus, Parasitus
sp., ɛɥɨɯɢ Nosopsyllus fidus, Leptopsylla
segnis, Neopsylla teratura.
Ⱦɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɢɟ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɸɬ ɩɪɨɫɥɟɞɢɬɶ ɡɚ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ
ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ ɫɟɪɨɣ ɤɪɵɫɵ ɜ ɝ.Ȼɢɲɤɟɤɟ. ȼ ɧɚɲɢɯ ɫɛɨɪɚɯ ɡɚ
1998í2004 ɝ.ɝ. ɢɦɟɸɬɫɹ ɥɢɱɢɧɤɢ ɢɤɫɨɞɨɜɵɯ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ Rhipicephalus turanicus,
196
R.sanguineus, Haemaphysalis punctata, ɬ.ɟ. ɤɪɵɫɚ ɧɚɪɹɞɭ ɫ ɞɨɦɨɜɨɣ ɦɵɲɶɸ
ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɨɞɧɢɦ ɢɡ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɤɨɪɦɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɩɪɟɢɦɚɝɢɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɮɚɡ
ɨɛɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ ɜ ɝɨɪɨɞɟ ɢɤɫɨɞɢɞ. ȼ ɷɬɨɬ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɧɚ ɤɪɵɫɟ ɧɚɣɞɟɧɵ ɝɚɦɚɡɨɜɵɟ
ɤɥɟɳɢ ɝɪɵɡɭɧɨɜ Eulaelaps stabularis, Androlaelaps glasgowi, Hypoaspis (G.)
lubrica, ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɧɵɣ ɜɢɞ ɜɲɟɣ Polyplax spinulosa, ɛɥɨɯɢ ɦɵɲɟɜɢɞɧɵɯ
ɝɪɵɡɭɧɨɜ N.fidus, L.segnis [12]. ɋɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɧɵɣ ɜɢɞ ɝɚɦɚɡɨɜɨɝɨ ɤɥɟɳɚ
Ornithonyssus bacoti, ɢɦɟɸɳɢɣ ɷɩɢɞɟɦɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ, ɧɚɣɞɟɧ ɧɚɦɢ
ɜ 2004 ɝɨɞɭ ɢ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɧɨɜɵɦ ɞɥɹ ɮɚɭɧɵ Ʉɵɪɝɵɡɫɬɚɧɚ. ȼ ɩɪɢɝɨɪɨɞɚɯ ɝ.
Ȼɢɲɤɟɤɚ, ɤɪɨɦɟ
ɜɵɲɟɧɚɡɜɚɧɧɵɯ, ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɵ ɝɚɦɚɡɨɜɵɟ ɤɥɟɳɢ
Euryparasitus emarginatus, Proctolaelaps pygmaeus, Ameroseius eumorphus,
Hypoaspis (G.)heselhausi, H.(G.) aculeifer, Androlaelaps casalis, Hirstionyssus
latiscutatus,
ɛɥɨɯɚ Cerathophyllus (N.)consimilis. ɉɨɞɨɛɧɵɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ
ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɥɨ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɰɟɧɨɡɚ ɫɟɪɨɣ ɤɪɵɫɵ ɜ ɝ.Ⱥɥɦɚ-Ⱥɬɟ, ɝɞɟ
ɨɧɚ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɚ ɜ 1982 ɝɨɞɭ [2], ɬ.ɟ. ɩɟɪɜɨɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɨ ɪɚɫɫɟɥɹɸɳɚɹɫɹ
ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɹ ɩɚɫɸɤɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɧɟ ɢɦɟɥɚ ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ. Ʉ 2000 ɝɨɞɭ
ɬɚɦ ɧɚɣɞɟɧɵ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɧɵɟ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɵ ɤɪɵɫ: ɤɥɟɳ O.bacoti, ɛɥɨɯɢ N. cheopis,
N.fasciatus, ɱɬɨ ɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɟɬ ɨ ɬɨɦ, ɱɬɨ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɮɚɭɧɵ
ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ ɫɟɪɨɣ ɤɪɵɫɵ ɧɚ ɸɝɨ-ɜɨɫɬɨɤɟ Ʉɚɡɚɯɫɬɚɧɚ ɛɥɢɡɤɨ ɤ
ɡɚɜɟɪɲɟɧɢɸ.
Ʉ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɦɭ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɜ ɑɭɣɫɤɨɣ ɞɨɥɢɧɟ, ɜɤɥɸɱɚɹ ɝ.Ȼɢɲɤɟɤ,
ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɨ ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ ɩɚɫɸɤɚ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ 18 ɜɢɞɨɜ ɧɚɫɟɤɨɦɵɯ ɢ
ɤɥɟɳɟɣ ɢ ɟɝɨ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɚɟɬɫɹ.
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. Ⱥɥɵɦɤɭɥɨɜɚ Ⱥ.Ⱥ.ɂɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɝɪɚɧɢɰ
ɚɪɟɚɥɚ
ɫɟɪɨɣ
ɤɪɵɫɵ
ɢ
ɟɟ
ɷɩɢɞɟɦɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ // ɇɚɭɤɚ ɢ ɧɨɜɵɟ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɢ,1997,íʋ4.–C.84-89.
2. Ȼɭɪɞɟɥɨɜ Ʌ.Ⱥ., Ɇɟɤɚ-Ɇɟɱɟɧɤɨ ȼ.Ƚ., Ⱥɝɟɟɜ ȼ.ɋ., Ȼɭɪɞɟɥɨɜɚ ɇ.ȼ., Ʉɥɚɫɫɨɜɫɤɚɹ ȿ.ȼ.
Ɉ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɮɚɭɧɵ ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ ɩɚɫɸɤɚ ɜ ɝ. Ⱥɥɦɚɬɵ // ɉɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɣ
ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɥɨɝɢɢ. Ɇɚɬ. Ɇɟɠɞɭɧ.ɤɨɧɮ. ɋɉɛ, 2003, ɜɵɩ.1.– ɋ.99-100.
3. Ƚɨɧɱɚɪɨɜ Ⱥ.ɂ. Ɉ ɛɥɨɯɚɯ ɫɟɪɨɣ ɤɪɵɫɵ // 4 ɫɴɟɡɞ ȼɌɈ Ⱥɇ ɋɋɋɊ: Ɍɟɡ. ɞɨɤɥ. Ɇ.,–
Ɍ.3.– ɋ.353-354.
4. Ⱦɚɜɵɞɨɜ Ƚ.ɋ. Ɋɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɹ ɫɟɪɨɣ ɤɪɵɫɵ ɜ ɋɟɜɟɪɧɨɦ Ɍɚɞɠɢɤɢɫɬɚɧɟ
// ɂɡɜ.Ⱥɇ Ɍɚɞɠ.ɋɋɊ. Ɉɬɞ. ɛɢɨɥ. ɧɚɭɤ, 1987.– ȼɵɩ.2.– ɋ. 28-33.
5. Ʉɚɪɚɫɟɜɚ ȿ.ȼ., ɋɨɥɨɜɶɟɜ ȼ.ɂ., Ƚɚɜɪɢɥɨɜɫɤɚɹ ɂ.ɇ. ɢ ɞɪ.
ɉɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɢ
ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɫɤɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɫɟɪɨɣ ɤɪɵɫɵ // ɋɟɪɚɹ ɤɪɵɫɚ. ɋɢɫɬɟɦɚɬɢɤɚ, ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɹ, ɪɟɝɭɥɹɰɢɹ
ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ. Ɇ.: ɇɚɭɤɚ, 1990.– ɋ. 338-360.
6. Ʉɨɥɟɫɧɢɤɨɜ H.H. Ɉ ɩɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɢ ɫɟɪɨɣ ɤɪɵɫɵ ɜ Ɍɚɲɤɟɧɬɟ // Ɍɪ. ɋɪɟɞɧɟɚɡ. ɝɨɫ. ɭɧ-ɬɚ.
Ȼɢɨɥ. ɧɚɭɤɢ. Ɍɚɲɤɟɧɬ, 1952. – ȼɵɩ. 32. Ʉɧ. 2.– ɋ. 3-12.
7. Ʉɭɱɟɪɭɤ ȼ.ȼ. Ⱥɪɟɚɥ // ɋɟɪɚɹ ɤɪɵɫɚ: ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɬɢɤɚ, ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɹ, ɪɟɝɭɥɹɰɢɹ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ.
Ɇ., 1990, ɇɚɭɤɚ. – ɋ. 34-84.
8. Ɇɟɤɚ-Ɇɟɱɟɧɤɨ Ɍ.ȼ., Ⱥɥɵɦɤɭɥɨɜɚ Ⱥ.Ⱥ., Ȼɪɟɣɧɢɧɝɟɪ ɂ.Ƚ., Ȼɭɪɞɟɥɨɜ Ʌ.Ⱥ., ɇɟɤɪɚɫɨɜɚ
Ʌ.ȿ. Ƚɪɵɡɭɧɵ Ʉɵɪɝɵɡɫɬɚɧɚ í ɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɢ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɡɨɨɧɨɡɧɵɯ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢɣ//ɂɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ
ɠɢɜɨɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ Ʉɵɪɝɵɡɫɬɚɧɚ, 2013, ɜɵɩ.2.–ɋ.135-139.
9. ɋɤɥɹɪ ȼ.ȿ. ɗɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɵ ɫɟɪɨɣ ɤɪɵɫɵ Rattus norvegicus ɜ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɪɚɣɨɧɚɯ
ɫɬɟɩɧɨɣ ɢ ɥɟɫɨɫɬɟɩɧɨɣ ɡɨɧ ɍɤɪɚɢɧɵ // ɉɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɥɨɝɢɹ, 2011.-Ɍ.35, ɜɵɩ.3.– ɋ. 257-261.
10. ɋɬɨɝɨɜ ȼ.ɂ., Ȼɟɡɪɭɤɨɜɚ Ʌ.ɋ., Ⱥɥɦɚɧɢɹɡɨɜɚ Ʉ.Ʉ. Ɉ ɩɪɨɧɢɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɢ ɫɟɪɵɯ ɤɪɵɫ ɜ
Ⱥɥɦɚ-Ⱥɬɭ ɢ ɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɢɢ ɨɬ ɧɢɯ ɜɨɡɛɭɞɢɬɟɥɟɣ
ɢɟɪɫɢɧɢɨɡɨɜ, ɫɚɥɶɦɨɧɟɥɥɟɡɨɜ ɢ
197
ɩɚɫɬɟɪɟɥɥɟɡɚ // XI ȼɫɟɫɨɸɡ. ɤɨɧɮ. ɩɨ ɩɪɢɪɨɞ. ɨɱɚɝɨɜɨɫɬɢ ɛɨɥɟɡɧɟɣ: Ɍɟɡ.ɞɨɤɥ. Ɇ.,1984.–
ɋ.163-164.
11. Ɍɨɪɨɩɨɜɚ ȼ.ɂ., Ʉɨɦɚɧɞɢɪɨɜ Ⱥ.ȼ., Ȼɨɪɢɫɨɜɚ Ɇ.Ƚ. Rattus norvegicus Berk.,1769
(Muridae, Mammalia) – ɧɨɜɵɣ ɜɢɞ ɞɥɹ ɮɚɭɧɵ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ Ʉɵɪɝɵɡɫɬɚɧɚ // Selevinia.Ⱥɥɦɚɬɵ,1994.– ʋ2.– ɋ.97.
12. Ɏɟɞɨɪɨɜɚ ɋ.ɀ. ɋɟɪɚɹ ɤɪɵɫɚ (Rattus norvegicus Berk.) ɜ ɝ.Ȼɢɲɤɟɤɟ ɢ ɟɟ
ɷɩɢɞɟɦɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ // ȼɟɫɬɧɢɤ Ʉɇɍí Ȼɢɲɤɟɤ, 2005.– ɋɟɪɢɹ 5. – ɋ.274-278.
MONITORING OF PARASITOCENOSIS OF THE RATS
(RATTUS NORVEGICUS BERKENHOUT)
IN THE CHUI VALLEY (NORTHERN TIEN-SHAN)
S. Fedorova
Biology and soil Institute of National Academy of Sciences of Kyrgyzstan. Bishkek.
The article presents the results of a monitoring of ectoparasites community of the
rats in the Chui Valley, including Bishkek, since their immigration (1993) and up
to the present time. In the earlier years ectoparasites were not found on rats. In
2000, the parasitocenosis consisted of ectoparasites of rodents. Later we found a
specific species of louse Polyplax spinulosa: and Ornithonyssus bacoti mite.
Parasitic community of rat in the Chui Valley now includes 18 taxa and its
formation continues.
ɍȾɄ 599.742.42
ɇȿɄɈɌɈɊɕȿ ɈɋɈȻȿɇɇɈɋɌɂ ɗɄɈɅɈȽɂɂ ɑȿɊɇɈȽɈ ɏɈɊə
(MUSTELA PUTORIUS L.) ȼ ɋɊȿȾɇȿɃ ɁɈɇȿ ȼɈɅȽɈȽɊȺȾɋɄɈȽɈ
ȼɈȾɈɏɊȺɇɂɅɂɓȺ
Ⱥ.Ɉ. Ɏɢɥɢɩɶɟɱɟɜ, Ⱥ.Ⱥ. ɋɚɜɨɧɢɧ
ɋɚɪɚɬɨɜɫɤɢɣ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ ɢɦ. ɇ.Ƚ. ɑɟɪɧɵɲɟɜɫɤɨɝɨ, ɝ.
ɋɚɪɚɬɨɜ, [email protected]
ɑɟɪɧɵɣ ɯɨɪɶ ɨɛɵɱɧɵɣ ɜɢɞ ɞɥɹ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɣ ɡɨɧɵ ȼɨɥɝɨɝɪɚɞɫɤɨɝɨ
ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚ, ɟɝɨ ɩɨɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɭɪɨɱɟɧɵ ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦ ɤ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɧɵɦ
ɩɭɧɤɬɚɦ ɢ ɞɨɥɢɧɚɦ ɦɚɥɵɯ ɪɟɤ ɢ ɪɭɱɶɟɜ. ɑɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ 0.3-0.5 ɨɫɨɛɢ/ɝɚ,
ɫɪɟɞɧɢɣ ɪɚɡɦɟɪ ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚ 40.6±3.6. Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɵɦɢ
ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɚɦɢ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɜɨ ɜɫɟ ɫɟɡɨɧɵ ɫɥɭɠɚɬ ɚɦɮɢɛɢɢ (35%
BIO) ɢ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɟ (27.9% BIO). ȼɚɠɧɵɦɢ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɤɨɪɦɚɦɢ –
ɩɬɢɰɵ, ɪɟɩɬɢɥɢɢ, ɞɨɦɚɲɧɹɹ ɩɬɢɰɚ ɢ ɤɪɨɥɢɤɢ.
Ɇɚɬɟɪɢɚɥ ɛɵɥ ɫɨɛɪɚɧ ɜ 2000-2013 ɝɝ. ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ Ʉɪɚɫɧɨɚɪɦɟɣɫɤɨɝɨ
ɢ ɋɚɪɚɬɨɜɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɣɨɧɨɜ ɋɚɪɚɬɨɜɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ. ȼɫɟɝɨ ɛɵɥɨ ɡɚɤɚɪɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɨ 15
ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɨɜ, ɫɨɛɪɚɧɨ ɢ ɩɪɨɚɧɚɥɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɨ 682 ɩɪɨɛɵ
198
ɷɤɫɤɪɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ. Ɉɛɪɚɛɨɬɤɚ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɚ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɥɚɫɶ ɩɨ ɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɧɵɦ
ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤɚɦ [1, 2]. ɉɪɢ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɢ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɥɚɫɶ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɟɦɨɫɬɶ
ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɹ (RFO) ɢ ɤɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬ ɛɢɨɦɚɫɫɵ (BIO),
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɵɜɚɥɫɹ ɫ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɧɵɯ ɩɨɩɪɚɜɨɱɧɵɯ
ɤɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬɨɜ [5, 7]. ɒɢɪɢɧɚ ɬɪɨɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɧɢɲɢ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɨɜɚɥɚɫɶ
ɢɧɞɟɤɫɨɦ Ʌɟɜɢɧɫɚ (B) ɢ ɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɦ ɢɧɞɟɤɫɨɦ Ʌɟɜɢɧɫɚ (BS) [6].
Ⱦɥɹ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɣ ɡɨɧɵ ȼɨɥɝɨɝɪɚɞɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚ ɱɟɪɧɵɣ
ɯɨɪɶ (Mustela putorius L.) ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɨɛɵɱɧɵɦ ɜɢɞɨɦ. Ɉɧ ɩɪɢɭɪɨɱɟɧ ɜ
ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦ ɤ ɦɚɥɵɦ ɪɟɤɚɦ ɢ ɪɭɱɶɹɦ, ɱɚɫɬɨ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɫɟɥɢɬɟɛɧɨɦ
ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɟ. ɇɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɤ ɩɪɢɛɪɟɠɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɨɫɟ ȼɨɥɝɢ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɧɟ
ɩɨɞɯɨɞɢɬ, ɨɞɧɚɤɨ ɜ ɡɢɦɧɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɨɫɨɛɢ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɚɬɶɫɹ ɜ
ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɭɧɤɬɵ, ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɟ ɧɚ ɩɪɚɜɨɦ ɛɟɪɟɝɭ (ɫ. Ⱥɯɦɚɬ, ɇɢɠɧɹɹ
Ȼɚɧɧɨɜɤɚ, Ȼɟɥɨɝɨɪɫɤɨɟ). Ɉɬɦɟɱɚɥɢɫɶ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɢ ɯɢɳɧɢɤɚ ɢ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ
ɤɪɭɩɧɵɯ ɝɨɪɨɞɨɜ (ɋɚɪɚɬɨɜ, ɗɧɝɟɥɶɫ), ɧɨ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɵɯ ɩɨɫɟɥɟɧɢɣ ɡɞɟɫɶ ɨɧ ɧɟ
ɨɛɪɚɡɭɟɬ.
ɑɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɱɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɯɨɪɹ ɜ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɧɨɦ ɪɚɣɨɧɟ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ
ɫɬɚɛɢɥɶɧɚ ɢ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɨɬ 0.3 ɞɨ 0.5 ɨɫɨɛɢ/100 ɝɚ. ɋɪɟɞɧɢɟ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɵ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚ
ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɧɟɦɧɨɝɨ ɜɵɲɟ, ɱɟɦ ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦ ɩɨ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɢ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ 40.6±3.6 ɝɚ
(n=15). ɋɜɹɡɚɧɨ ɷɬɨ ɜ ɩɟɪɜɭɸ ɨɱɟɪɟɞɶ ɫ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɤɨɪɦɨɜɵɦɢ
ɪɟɫɭɪɫɚɦɢ ɜ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɫɟɡɨɧɵ ɝɨɞɚ [3]. ȼ ɡɢɦɧɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɟɬɫɹ
ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɹ ɱɟɪɧɵɯ ɯɨɪɟɣ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɩɭɧɤɬɨɜ, ɝɞɟ
ɫɨɡɞɚɸɬɫɹ ɧɚɢɥɭɱɲɢɟ ɤɨɪɦɨɜɵɟ ɢ ɡɚɳɢɬɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ. ȼɟɫɧɨɣ, ɩɨɫɥɟ
ɪɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɞɟɬɟɧɵɲɟɣ, ɫɚɦɤɢ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɨɫɬɚɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɧɵɯ
ɩɭɧɤɬɨɜ, ɚ ɜɡɪɨɫɥɵɟ ɫɚɦɰɵ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɜɫɟɝɞɚ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɚɸɬɫɹ ɜ ɞɨɥɢɧɵ
ɪɭɱɶɟɜ ɢ ɦɚɥɵɯ ɪɟɤ.
ɋɨɫɬɚɜ ɤɨɪɦɨɜ ɱɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɯɨɪɹ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧ ɧɚ ɪɢɫɭɧɤɟ 1.
Ɉɫɧɨɜɭ ɪɚɰɢɨɧɚ ɯɢɳɧɢɤɚ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɚɦɮɢɛɢɢ ɢ ɦɟɥɤɢɟ
ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɟ. ɂɯ ɯɨɪɶ ɞɨɛɵɜɚɟɬ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɤɪɭɝɥɨɝɨɞɢɱɧɨ. Ⱦɨɥɹ
ɚɦɮɢɛɢɣ ɜ ɪɚɰɢɨɧɟ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɚ ɜ ɜɟɫɟɧɧɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɢ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶ ɞɨ
30.6% RFO ɢ 53.5% BIO. ȼ ɥɟɬɧɟɟ ɢ ɨɫɟɧɧɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɨɧɚ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɧɢɠɟ, ɚ
ɡɢɦɨɣ ɚɦɮɢɛɢɢ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɜ ɟɞɢɧɢɱɧɵɯ ɷɤɫɤɪɟɦɟɧɬɚɯ.
Ɇɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ (ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦ ɦɵɲɟɜɢɞɧɵɯ ɝɪɵɡɭɧɨɜ ɢ ɧɚɫɟɤɨɦɨɹɞɧɵɯ
ɯɢɳɧɢɤ ɥɨɜɢɬ ɜ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɢ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɝɨɞɚ, ɢ ɞɨɥɹ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɚ ɜ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɢ
ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɫɬɚɛɢɥɶɧɚ [3].
Ɉɫɟɧɶɸ ɢ ɡɢɦɨɣ ɜ ɪɚɰɢɨɧɟ ɱɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɯɨɪɹ ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨ ɜɵɫɨɤɚ ɞɨɥɹ ɩɬɢɰ.
ɗɬɨ ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦ ɫɟɥɢɬɟɛɧɵɟ ɜɢɞɵ (ɩɨɥɟɜɨɣ ɜɨɪɨɛɟɣ, ɫɢɡɵɣ ɝɨɥɭɛɶ) ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ
ɯɢɳɧɢɤ ɥɨɜɢɬ ɜ ɩɨɫɟɥɟɧɢɹɯ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɨɤɨɥɨɜɨɞɧɵɟ ɜɢɞɵ
(ɤɪɹɤɜɚ, ɩɟɪɟɜɨɡɱɢɤ). ȼɟɫɧɨɣ ɢ ɥɟɬɨɦ ɯɢɳɧɢɤ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɪɚɡɨɪɹɬɶ ɩɬɢɱɶɢ
ɝɧɟɡɞɚ, ɩɨɟɞɚɹ ɤɥɚɞɤɢ ɢ ɩɬɟɧɰɨɜ. Ɍɚɤɠɟ ɜ ɬɟɩɥɨɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɝɨɞɚ ɯɨɪɶ ɞɨɜɨɥɶɧɨ
ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨ ɨɯɨɬɢɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɪɟɩɬɢɥɢɣ. Ɉɫɟɧɶɸ ɨɧ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɧɚ
ɞɨɛɵɱɟ ɜɨɞɹɧɵɯ ɭɠɟɣ, ɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɤ ɦɟɫɬɚɦ ɡɢɦɨɜɤɢ, ɢ ɞɨɥɹ ɷɬɨɝɨ
ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɚ ɜ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɢ ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɟɬ 11.8% RFO ɢ 18.1% BIO.
199
Ɋɢɫɭɧɨɤ 1. ɋɨɫɬɚɜ ɤɨɪɦɨɜ ɱɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɯɨɪɹ ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɣ ɡɨɧɟ
ȼɨɥɝɨɝɪɚɞɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚ (ɩɪɨɰɟɧɬ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɟɧɧɨɣ ɛɢɨɦɚɫɫɵ).
ȿɳɟ ɨɞɧɢɦ ɜɚɠɧɵɦ ɫɟɡɨɧɧɵɦ ɤɨɪɦɨɦ ɞɥɹ ɯɢɳɧɢɤɚ ɫɥɭɠɚɬ ɞɨɦɚɲɧɹɹ
ɩɬɢɰɚ ɢ ɤɪɨɥɢɤɢ. ɂɯ ɨɧ ɞɨɛɵɜɚɟɬ ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦ ɜ ɡɢɦɧɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ
ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɩɭɧɤɬɨɜ. ɋɭɦɦɚɪɧɨ ɷɬɢ ɞɜɚ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɚ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɩɪɟɜɵɲɚɬɶ 30%
BIO. Ɂɢɦɨɣ ɨɯɨɬɹɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɞɨɦɚɲɧɸɸ ɩɬɢɰɭ ɤɚɤ ɫɚɦɰɵ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɫɚɦɤɢ. ȼ
ɜɟɫɟɧɧɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɛɨɥɶɲɚɹ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɜɡɪɨɫɥɵɯ ɫɚɦɰɨɜ ɩɨɤɢɞɚɟɬ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɸ
ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɩɭɧɤɬɨɜ, ɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɚɹɫɶ ɜ ɞɨɥɢɧɵ ɦɚɥɵɯ ɪɟɤ, ɚ ɫɚɦɤɢ ɢ ɦɨɥɨɞɵɟ
ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɟ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɨɫɬɚɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɜ ɩɨɫɟɥɤɚɯ ɢ ɬɨɝɞɚ ɤɪɨɥɢɤɢ, ɞɨɦɚɲɧɢɟ ɤɭɪɵ ɢ
ɭɬɤɢ ɨɬɦɟɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɢ ɜ ɥɟɬɧɟɦ ɪɚɰɢɨɧɟ ɯɢɳɧɢɤɚ.
ȼ ɥɟɬɧɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɜ ɷɤɫɤɪɟɦɟɧɬɚɯ ɱɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɯɨɪɹ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɨɫɬɚɬɤɢ
ɪɟɱɧɨɣ ɪɵɛɵ, ɤɨɬɨɪɭɸ ɨɧ ɥɨɜɢɬ ɜ ɪɭɱɶɹɯ ɢɥɢ ɫɨɛɢɪɚɟɬ ɧɚ ɛɟɪɟɝɭ.
Ɋɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɤɨɪɦɚ (6.2% BIO) ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵ ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦ ɹɝɨɞɚɦɢ
ɡɨɥɨɬɢɫɬɨɣ ɫɦɨɪɨɞɢɧɵ ɢ ɜɢɲɧɢ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɫɬɟɛɥɹɦɢ ɬɪɚɜɵ. ɉɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ ɫɤɨɪɟɟ
ɜɫɟɝɨ ɩɨɩɚɞɚɸɬ ɜ ɩɢɳɟɜɚɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɬɪɚɤɬ ɫɥɭɱɚɣɧɨ, ɤɚɤ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɢɦɨɟ
ɠɟɥɭɞɤɨɜ ɠɟɪɬɜ. Ɂɢɦɨɣ ɢ ɜɟɫɧɨɣ ɱɟɪɧɵɣ ɯɨɪɶ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɤɨɪɦɢɬɶɫɹ ɧɚ ɫɟɥɶɫɤɢɯ
ɫɜɚɥɤɚɯ ɧɚ ɱɬɨ ɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɧɚɥɢɱɢɟ ɜ ɟɝɨ ɷɤɫɤɪɟɦɟɧɬɚɯ ɩɢɳɟɜɨɣ ɭɩɚɤɨɜɤɢ.
Ɍɚɤɠɟ ɜ ɜɟɫɟɧɧɢɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɨɧ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɩɨɟɞɚɬɶ ɩɚɞɚɥɶ ɧɚ ɜɵɝɨɧɚɯ ɢ
ɫɤɨɬɨɦɨɝɢɥɶɧɢɤɚɯ.
Ɍɪɨɮɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɧɢɲɚ ɱɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɯɨɪɹ ɞɨɜɨɥɶɧɨ ɲɢɪɨɤɚ (ɢɧɞɟɤɫ Ʌɟɜɢɧɫɚ
ɢɡɦɟɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɨɬ 4,5 ɞɨ 7,9), ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɹ ɫɜɨɟɝɨ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɭɦɚ ɜ ɥɟɬɧɢɣ ɫɟɡɨɧ (B=7,9;
BS=0,68). Ɂɢɦɨɣ ɞɨɥɹ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɨɜ ɜ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɢ ɡɚɦɟɬɧɨ
ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚɟɬ, ɢ ɬɪɨɮɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɧɢɲɚ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɭɡɤɚ (B=5,1; BS=0,41).
200
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. ɇɨɜɢɤɨɜ Ƚ.Ⱥ. ɉɨɥɟɜɵɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɧɚɡɟɦɧɵɯ ɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ. – Ɇ.:
ɂɡɞ. Ⱥɇ ɋɋɋɊ, 1953. – 499 ɫ.
2. ɋɢɞɨɪɨɜɢɱ ȼ.ȿ. Ʉɭɧɶɢ ɜ Ȼɟɥɚɪɭɫɢ. ɗɜɨɥɸɰɢɹ, ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɹ, ɞɟɦɨɝɪɚɮɢɹ ɢ
ɛɢɨɰɟɧɨɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɫɜɹɡɢ. – Ɇɢɧɫɤ: ɍɪɚɞɠɚɣ, 1997. – 263 ɫ.
3.
Ɏɢɥɢɩɶɟɱɟɜ
Ⱥ.Ɉ.
ɗɤɨɥɨɝɨ–ɮɚɭɧɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ
ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɚ
ɯɢɳɧɵɯ
ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ ɫɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɚ Ʉɭɧɶɢ (ɋarnivora, Ɇustelidae) ɫɟɜɟɪɚ ɇɢɠɧɟɝɨ ɉɨɜɨɥɠɶɹ:
Ⱥɜɬɨɪɟɮ. ɞɢɫ… ɤɚɧɞ. ɛɢɨɥ. ɧɚɭɤ. – ɋɚɪɚɬɨɜ, 2006. – 18 ɫ.
4. Ɏɢɥɢɩɶɟɱɟɜ Ⱥ.Ɉ. Ɋɚɡɦɟɪɵ ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɨɜ ɢ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɦɵɯ
ɭɛɟɠɢɳ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɤɭɧɶɢɯ (Carnivora, Mustelidae) ɧɚ ɫɟɜɟɪɟ ɇɢɠɧɟɝɨ ɉɨɜɨɥɠɶɹ //
ɂɡɜɟɫɬɢɹ ɋɚɪɚɬɨɜɫɤɨɝɨ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬɚ. ɇɨɜɚɹ ɫɟɪɢɹ. ɋɟɪɢɹ ɏɢɦɢɹ. Ȼɢɨɥɨɝɢɹ. ɗɤɨɥɨɝɢɹ. –
2012. – Ɍ.12, ȼɵɩ.4. – ɋ.39–44.
5. Brzezinski M., Marzec M. Correction factors used for estimating prey biomass in the diet
of American Mink // Acta theriologica. – 2003. – Vol.48. – P.247–254.
6. Fisher C., Ferrari N., Weber J. Exploitation of food resourse in the Swiss Jura Montain. –
London: J. Zool, 2005. – 131 p.
7. Lockie J. The food of the pine marten Martes martes in west Ross Shire Scotland //
Journal of zoological society of London. – 2001. – Vol. 53. – P.187–195.
SOME PECULIARITIES OF POLECAT (MUSTELA PUTORIUS L.) ECOLOGY IN
THE MIDDLE ZONE OF THE VOLGOGRAD RESERVOIR
A.O. Filipechev, A.A. Savonin
Saratov State University named N.G. Chernyshevsky, Saratov, [email protected]
Polecat is a common species for the middle zone of Volograd reservoir; its
settlements confined mainly to the human settlements and the valleys of small
rivers and streams. The number of the polecat was 0.3-0.5 individuals/ha, the
average size of individual area was 40.6±3.6. The main components of feeding
during almost all seasons were the amphibians (35% BIO) and mammals (27.9%
BIO). Important additional food resource was birds, reptiles, poultry and rabbits.
ɍȾɄ 598.115.33
ɇȿɄɈɌɈɊɕȿ ɏȺɊȺɄɌȿɊɂɋɌɂɄɂ ɎɈɅɂȾɈɁȺ
ȽȺȾɘɄɂ ɇɂɄɈɅɖɋɄɈȽɈ, PELIAS BERUS NIKOLSKII
(VEDMEDERJA, GRUBANT, RUDAEVA, 1986), ɇȺ ɌȿɊɊɂɌɈɊɂɂ
ȼɈɊɈɇȿɀɋɄɈɃ ɂ ɅɂɉȿɐɄɈɃ ɈȻɅȺɋɌȿɃ
ȿ.ɇ. Ɏɪɨɥɨɜɚ, Ɇ.ȼ. ɍɲɚɤɨɜ, Ⱥ.ɋ. Ʉɥɢɦɨɜ
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɢɣ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ, ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ, Ɋɨɫɫɢɹ
ɉɨ 83 ɨɫɨɛɹɦ, ɨɬɥɨɜɥɟɧɧɵɦ ɜ 2008 - 2013 ɝɝ. ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɢ
Ʌɢɩɟɰɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɟɣ, ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɳɢɬɤɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɝɚɞɸɤ
ɇɢɤɨɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ (Pelias berus nikolskii) – ɩɨɞɜɢɞɚ ɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɝɚɞɸɤɢ.
201
Ɉɬɦɟɱɟɧ ɩɨɥɨɜɨɣ ɞɢɦɨɪɮɢɡɦ ɝɚɞɸɤ, ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɵ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɧɵɟ
ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ ɳɢɬɤɨɜ ɢ ɢɯ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɟ ɦɨɪɮɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɹɦ
ɩɨɞɜɢɞɚ.
Ƚɟɪɩɟɬɨɮɚɭɧɚ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɢ Ʌɢɩɟɰɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɟɣ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɧɟɜɵɫɨɤɭɸ
ɢɡɭɱɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ. Ƚɚɞɸɤɢ ɞɨɥɝɨɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ, ɡɚ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɦɢ ɢɫɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɹɦɢ,
ɨɫɬɚɜɚɥɢɫɶ ɜɧɟ ɫɮɟɪɵ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜ ɭɱɺɧɵɯ. ȼ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ ɝɨɞɵ
ɚɤɬɢɜɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɥɢɫɶ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɩɨ ɷɬɢɦ ɬɚɤɫɨɧɚɦ ɢ ɬɪɟɛɭɸɬɫɹ ɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɢɟ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ.
ȼ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɢ Ʌɢɩɟɰɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɹɯ ɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɚɹ ɝɚɞɸɤɚ, Pelias
berus (Linnaeus, 1758), ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɚ ɫɜɨɢɦ ɩɨɞɜɢɞɨɦ — ɝɚɞɸɤɨɣ
ɇɢɤɨɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ, P. b. nikolskii (Vedmederja, Grubant, Rudaeva, 1986) [6].
ɂɡɭɱɟɧɢɟ ɦɨɪɮɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɢɡɦɟɧɱɢɜɨɫɬɢ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɩɨɞɜɢɞɚ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɚɟɬ
ɨɫɬɚɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɢ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɜ ɰɟɧɬɪɟ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ ɝɟɪɩɟɬɨɥɨɝɨɜ.
ɋɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ, ɱɬɨ ɜ ɡɨɧɚɯ ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɚ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɣ
ɧɨɦɢɧɚɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɞɜɢɞɚ ɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɝɚɞɸɤɢ, P. b. berus, ɢ ɝɚɞɸɤɢ
ɇɢɤɨɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ ɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɬɫɹ «ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɧɵɟ» ɮɨɪɦɵ ɫ ɩɪɨɦɟɠɭɬɨɱɧɵɦɢ
ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹɦɢ ɦɨɪɮɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɟɣ [4, 7].
ɐɟɥɶɸ ɧɚɲɟɣ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɟ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɮɨɥɢɞɨɡɚ
ɝɚɞɸɤɢ ɇɢɤɨɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ.
Ɇɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɵ ɢ ɦɟɬɨɞɵ
Ɇɚɬɟɪɢɚɥ ɛɵɥ ɫɨɛɪɚɧ ɜ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɫ 2008 ɩɨ 2013 ɝɨɞ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɢ Ʌɢɩɟɰɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɟɣ. ȼ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɝɚɞɸɤ
ɨɬɥɚɜɥɢɜɚɥɢ ɜ ɨɤɪɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɹɯ ɩɨɫɺɥɤɚ Ɇɢɪɨɜɨɣ Ɉɤɪɹɛɪɶ ɢ ɫɟɥɚ Ȼɨɝɚɧɚ
Ȼɨɪɢɫɨɝɥɟɛɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ, ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɍɫɦɚɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɛɨɪɚ, ɜ ɨɤɪɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɹɯ
Ȼɍɇɐ «ȼɟɧɟɜɢɬɨɧɨɜɨ» ɢ ɜ ɧɚɝɨɪɧɨɣ ɞɭɛɪɚɜɟ ɭ ɝɨɪɨɞɚ Ⱥɧɧɚ. ȼ Ʌɢɩɟɰɤɨɣ
ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɨɬɥɨɜ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɢ ɜ Ʉɭɥɢɤɨɜɫɤɨɦ ɥɟɫɭ ɢ Ʉɪɢɜɟɰɤɨɦ ɥɟɫɧɢɱɟɫɬɜɟ.
ȼɫɟɝɨ ɨɬɥɨɜɥɟɧɨ 83 ɨɫɨɛɢ, ɢɡ ɧɢɯ 50 ɫɚɦɰɨɜ ɢ 33 ɫɚɦɤɢ, ɫɪɟɞɢ ɧɢɯ
ɩɨɥɨɜɨɡɪɟɥɵɦɢ ɛɵɥɢ 46 ɫɚɦɰɨɜ ɢ 30 ɫɚɦɨɤ. Ʉ ɩɨɥɨɜɨɡɪɟɥɵɦ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɥɢ
ɨɫɨɛɟɣ ɫ ɞɥɢɧɨɣ ɬɟɥɚ ɛɨɥɟɟ 450 ɦɦ ɫɪɟɞɢ ɫɚɦɨɤ ɢ 350 ɦɦ ɫɪɟɞɢ ɫɚɦɰɨɜ [2].
ɍ ɝɚɞɸɤ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɥɢɫɶ ɦɟɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɢ ɦɟɪɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɢ. ɋɪɟɞɢ
ɦɟɪɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɨɜ ɩɨɞɫɱɢɬɵɜɚɥɢɫɶ: ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɛɪɸɲɧɵɯ ɳɢɬɤɨɜ
(Ventr.), ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɩɚɪ ɩɨɞɯɜɨɫɬɨɜɵɯ ɳɢɬɤɨɜ (S. cd.), ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɪɹɞɨɜ
ɱɟɲɭɣ ɜɨɤɪɭɝ ɫɟɪɟɞɢɧɵ ɬɭɥɨɜɢɳɚ (Sq.), ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɝɨɪɥɨɜɵɯ ɱɟɲɭɣ (Nf.),
ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɜɟɪɯɧɟɝɭɛɧɵɯ ɳɢɬɤɨɜ (Lab.), ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɧɢɠɧɟɝɭɛɧɵɯ ɳɢɬɤɨɜ
(Sub. lab.), ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɥɨɛɨɧɚɞɝɥɚɡɧɢɱɧɵɯ ɳɢɬɤɨɜ (S. cir.), ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ
ɡɚɞɧɟɧɨɫɨɜɵɯ ɳɢɬɤɨɜ (Lor.), ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɳɢɬɤɨɜ ɜɨɤɪɭɝ ɝɥɚɡɚ, ɧɟ ɫɱɢɬɚɹ
ɧɚɞɝɥɚɡɧɢɱɧɨɝɨ (S. or.) (ɪɢɫ. 1). Ⱦɥɹ ɛɢɥɚɬɟɪɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɨɜ ɱɚɫɬɨɬɵ
ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɟɦɨɫɬɢ ɜɵɱɢɫɥɹɥɢɫɶ ɤ ɨɛɳɟɦɭ ɱɢɫɥɭ ɫɬɨɪɨɧ, ɬɨ ɟɫɬɶ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɟɣ
ɧɚɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɹ ɹɜɥɹɥɚɫɶ ɧɟ ɨɫɨɛɶ, ɚ ɟɺ ɩɨɥɨɜɢɧɚ. ɋɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ, ɨɛɴɺɦ
ɜɵɛɨɪɤɢ ɜ ɷɬɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɥ 2n [1].
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Ɋɢɫ. 1. ɓɢɬɤɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɝɨɥɨɜɵ ɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɝɚɞɸɤɢ (Ⱦɭɧɚɟɜ, Ɉɪɥɨɜɚ, 2012):
1 – ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɚɩɢɤɚɥɶɧɵɟ; 2 – ɛɨɤɨɜɵɟ ɚɩɢɤɚɥɶɧɵɟ; 3 – ɡɚɞɧɟɧɨɫɨɜɵɟ; 4 –
ɩɪɟɞɝɥɚɡɧɢɱɧɵɟ; 5 – ɩɨɞɝɥɚɡɧɢɱɧɵɟ; 6 – ɡɚɝɥɚɡɧɢɱɧɵɟ; 7 – ɧɚɞɝɥɚɡɧɢɱɧɵɟ;8 –
ɥɨɛɨɧɚɞɝɥɚɡɧɢɱɧɵɟ; 9 – ɥɨɛɧɵɣ; 10 – ɬɟɦɟɧɧɵɟ.
Ɉɩɢɫɚɧɢɟ ɮɨɥɢɞɨɡɚ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɨɫɶ ɜ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɢ ɫ ɪɟɤɨɦɟɧɞɚɰɢɹɦɢ ɂ.
ɋ. Ⱦɚɪɟɜɫɤɨɝɨ [2]. ɋɪɟɞɧɢɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɫɪɚɜɧɢɜɚɥɢɫɶ ɫ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ ɤɪɢɬɟɪɢɹ
ɋɬɶɸɞɟɧɬɚ. ɉɨɫɥɟ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɞɫɱɺɬɨɜ ɜɫɟ ɡɦɟɢ ɛɵɥɢ ɜɵɩɭɳɟɧɵ ɜ ɦɟɫɬɚ
ɩɨɢɦɤɢ.
Ɋɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɢ ɨɛɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɟ
ȼ ɯɨɞɟ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɛɵɥɨ ɨɬɥɨɜɥɟɧɨ 83 ɝɚɞɸɤɢ, ɢɡ ɧɢɯ 50 ɫɚɦɰɨɜ ɢ 33
ɫɚɦɤɢ. ɋɪɟɞɢ ɧɢɯ ɩɨɥɨɜɨɡɪɟɥɵɦɢ ɛɵɥɢ 46 ɫɚɦɰɨɜ ɢ 30 ɫɚɦɨɤ. Ʉ
ɩɨɥɨɜɨɡɪɟɥɵɦ ɛɵɥɢ ɨɬɧɟɫɟɧɵ ɨɫɨɛɢ ɫ ɞɥɢɧɨɣ ɬɟɥɚ ɛɨɥɟɟ 450 ɦɦ ɫɪɟɞɢ
ɫɚɦɨɤ ɢ 350 ɦɦ ɫɪɟɞɢ ɫɚɦɰɨɜ (Ⱦɭɧɚɟɜ, Ɉɪɥɨɜɚ, 2012). ɋɪɟɞɢ ɫɚɦɰɨɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɟ
ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɛɪɸɲɧɵɯ ɳɢɬɤɨɜ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɨ 150.1±0.38 (145 – 156). ɍ ɫɚɦɨɤ
ɫɪɟɞɧɟɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɛɪɸɲɧɵɯ ɳɢɬɤɨɜ ɪɚɜɧɨ 152.9±0.52 (147 – 158). ɋɪɟɞɧɟɟ
ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɩɚɪ ɩɨɞɯɜɨɫɬɨɜɵɯ ɳɢɬɤɨɜ ɭ ɫɚɦɰɨɜ ɪɚɜɧɨ 39.9±0.34 ( 34 - 45), ɭ
ɫɚɦɨɤ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɩɚɪ ɩɨɞɯɜɨɫɬɨɜɵɯ ɳɢɬɤɨɜ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɨ 33.1±0.59
(24 - 43). Ɉɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɵ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɹ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɫɚɦɰɚɦɢ ɢ ɫɚɦɤɚɦɢ ɩɨ ɱɢɫɥɭ
ɛɪɸɲɧɵɯ ɢ ɩɨɞɯɜɨɫɬɨɜɵɯ ɳɢɬɤɨɜ: ɭ ɫɚɦɨɤ ɛɪɸɲɧɵɯ ɳɢɬɤɨɜ ɛɨɥɶɲɟ (tst =
4.45, df = 81, p = 0.999), ɚ ɩɨɞɯɜɨɫɬɨɜɵɯ ɦɟɧɶɲɟ, ɱɟɦ ɭ ɫɚɦɰɨɜ (tst = 10.17, df
= 81, p = 0.999). ɋɚɦɰɵ ɢ ɫɚɦɤɢ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɩɨ ɞɥɢɧɟ ɬɟɥɚ ɢ ɞɥɢɧɟ
ɯɜɨɫɬɚ: ɞɥɢɧɚ ɬɟɥɚ ɫɚɦɨɤ ɛɨɥɶɲɟ, ɱɟɦ ɭ ɫɚɦɰɨɜ (tst = 3.89, df = 75, p = 0.999)
ɚ ɞɥɢɧɚ ɯɜɨɫɬɚ ɦɟɧɶɲɟ (tst = 4.60, df = 75, p = 0.999). Ⱦɥɹ ɝɚɞɸɤ ɢɡ ɇɢɠɧɟɝɨ
ɉɨɜɨɥɠɶɹ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɵ ɫɯɨɞɧɵɟ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ [5].
ɋɪɟɞɧɟɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɝɨɪɥɨɜɵɯ ɱɟɲɭɣ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɨ ɭ ɫɚɦɨɤ — 7.7±0.35, (5
- 12) ɚ ɭ ɫɚɦɰɨɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɱɟɲɭɣ — 6.9±0.28, (4 - 12).
Ⱦɨɫɬɨɜɟɪɧɵɯ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɣ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɫɚɦɰɚɦɢ ɢ ɫɚɦɤɚɦɢ ɧɟ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɨ.
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Ʉɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɪɹɞɨɜ ɱɟɲɭɣ ɜɨɤɪɭɝ ɫɟɪɟɞɢɧɵ ɬɭɥɨɜɢɳɚ ɭ ɫɚɦɰɨɜ ɤɨɥɟɛɚɥɨɫɶ ɨɬ
21 ɞɨ 24. 21 ɪɹɞ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɥɫɹ ɜ 77.5% ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ, 22 — ɜ 8.2% ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ, 23 —
12.2%, 24 — 2.0%. ɍ ɫɚɦɨɤ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɪɹɞɨɜ ɱɟɲɭɣ ɜɨɤɪɭɝ
ɫɟɪɟɞɢɧɵ ɬɭɥɨɜɢɳɚ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɨ 23, ɦɢɧɢɦɚɥɶɧɨɟ — 19. 19 ɪɹɞɨɜ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɥɨɫɶ
ɜ 3.0% ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ, 20 — ɜ 6.1% ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ, 21 — ɜ 72.7%, 22 — ɜ 3.0%, 23 — ɜ
15.2% ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ.
ɋɪɟɞɢ
ɛɢɥɚɬɟɪɚɥɶɧɵɯ
ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɨɜ
ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɥɨɫɶ
ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟ
ɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢɣ ɩɪɚɜɨɣ ɢ ɥɟɜɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ. Ɍɚɤ ɭ ɫɚɦɰɨɜ ɩɪɢ ɪɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɢɢ ɱɢɫɥɚ
ɥɨɛɨɧɚɞɝɥɚɡɧɢɱɧɵɯ ɳɢɬɤɨɜ ɛɵɥɨ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɨ 13 ɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢɣ. ɇɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ
ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɺɧɧɨɟ ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɟ ɥɟɜɨɣ ɢ ɩɪɚɜɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ — 3/3,
ɨɧɨ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɥɨɫɶ ɜ 27.7% ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ, ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɟ 3/2 ɛɵɥɨ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɟɧɨ ɜ 19.5%
ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ, 2/2 — ɜ 14.9% ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ, 2/3 — 12.8%. Ⱦɪɭɝɢɟ ɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢɢ
ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɥɢɫɶ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɪɟɠɟ: 4/4, 2/1 ɢ 1/1 — ɜ 4.3% ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ;1/2, 4/3, 2/4,
5/5, 4/5, 4/1 — ɜ 2.1% ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ.
ɍ ɫɚɦɨɤ ɩɪɢ ɪɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɢɢ ɷɬɢɯ ɠɟ ɳɢɬɤɨɜ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɨ 15
ɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢɣ. ɋɪɟɞɢ ɧɢɯ ɫɚɦɨɣ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɧɨɣ, ɤɚɤ ɢ ɭ ɫɚɦɰɨɜ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ
ɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢɹ 3/3, ɨɧɚ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ 24.2% ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ, ɦɟɧɟɟ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɺɧɧɚɹ
ɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢɹ ɳɢɬɤɨɜ 4/4 ɛɵɥɚ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɟɧɚ ɜ 12,1% ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ. ȼɫɟ ɞɪɭɝɢɟ
ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɥɢɫɶ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɪɟɠɟ. Ʉɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢɢ 3/4, 3/2, 4/2, 5/4, 2/2,
1/1, 4/4 ɛɵɥɢ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɵ ɜ 6.1% ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ, ɚ ɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢɢ 4/2, 6/7, 6/5, 2/1,
4/5, 2/3 — ɜ 3.0% ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ.
Ȼɵɥɨ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɨ 7 ɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢɣ ɜɟɪɯɧɟɝɭɛɧɵɯ ɳɢɬɤɨɜ ɫɪɟɞɢ ɫɚɦɰɨɜ.
ɋɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɟ 9/9 ɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɥɨ, ɢ ɛɵɥɨ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɨ ɜ 54.0% ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ, ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ
8/9 ɢ 8/8 — ɜ 10.0% ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ, 9/8 — ɜ 8.0% ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ, 10/9, 10/10 ɢ 9/10 — ɜ
6.0%. ɍ ɫɚɦɨɤ ɛɵɥɨ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɨ 9 ɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢɣ ɜɟɪɯɧɟɝɭɛɧɵɯ ɳɢɬɤɨɜ.
ɋɚɦɨɣ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɧɨɣ ɨɤɚɡɚɥɚɫɶ 9/9, ɜɫɬɪɟɱɟɧɚ ɜ 60.6% ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ, ɜɫɟ
ɨɫɬɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ ɦɟɧɟɟ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɵ. Ɍɚɤ ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɟ 9/10 ɛɵɥɨ
ɜɫɬɪɟɱɟɧɨ ɜ 12.1% ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ, 10/9 — 9.1%, ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ 10/10, 8/8, 9/8, 8/9, 7/9 ɢ
8/7 — 3.0%.
ɋɪɟɞɢ ɧɢɠɧɟɝɭɛɧɵɯ ɳɢɬɤɨɜ ɭ ɫɚɦɰɨɜ ɛɵɥɨ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɨ 13
ɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢɣ, ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɧɚɹ 10/10 ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ 18.0% ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ,
ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ 9/9, 9/10 ɢ 11/10 ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɜ 14.0% ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ, 10/9 — ɜ 10.0%,
ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ 8/10, 9/8, 11/9, 10/11 — ɜ 4,0% ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ, 9/11, 12/10, 12/11 — ɜ
2.0%. ɍ ɫɚɦɨɤ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɨ 12 ɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢɣ ɧɢɠɧɟɝɭɛɧɵɯ ɳɢɬɤɨɜ. ɋɪɟɞɢ ɧɢɯ
ɫɚɦɚɹ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɧɚɹ 10/10 ɛɵɥɚ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɚ ɜ 24.2% ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ.
Ʉɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢɹ 10/9 ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ 18.2% ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ, ɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢɢ 10/11, 9/10 ɢ 8/9
— ɜ 9.1%; ɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢɢ 8/8, 11/11 ɢ 9/9 — ɜ 6.1% ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ, ɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢɢ 10/8,
9/8 ɢ 9/11 — ɜ 3.1% ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ.
ɉɪɢ ɪɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɢɢ ɳɢɬɤɨɜ ɜɨɤɪɭɝ ɝɥɚɡɚ ɫ ɥɟɜɨɣ ɢ ɩɪɚɜɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ ɭ
ɫɚɦɰɨɜ ɛɵɥɨ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɨ 15 ɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢɣ. ɇɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɧɚɹ —
9/9, ɨɧɚ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɚ 38.0%, ɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢɹ 9/10 ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɚ 12.0%, 8/8 ɢ 10/11 —
ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɢ ɩɨ 8.0%, ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ 9/8 ɢ 8/8 ɛɵɥɢ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɟɧɵ ɜ 8.0% ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ, 10/8
ɢ 11/10 — ɜ 8.0% ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ, ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ 11/11, 8/10, 8/9, 9/11, 10/9, 12/10, 9/12
— ɜ 2.0% ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ. ɍ ɫɚɦɨɤ ɛɵɥɨ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɨ 13 ɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢɣ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ
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ɳɢɬɤɨɜ. ɇɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɧɚɹ 9/9 ɛɵɥɚ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɚ ɜ 27.3% ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ.
ɋɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ 10/10 ɢ 10/9 ɛɵɥɢ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɵ ɜ 15.2% ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ, 8/9 — ɜ 9.1%,
ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ 8/8 ɢ 11/10 — ɜ 6.1%, ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ 9/10, 9/11,12/10, 10/8, 8/7, 9/12 ɢ
8/11 ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɢ ɩɨ 3.0%.
ɍ ɫɚɦɰɨɜ ɛɵɥɨ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɨ 6 ɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢɣ ɡɚɞɧɟɧɨɫɨɜɵɯ ɳɢɬɤɨɜ.
ɇɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɧɚɹ 3/3 ɛɵɥɚ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɚ ɜ 42,0% ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ,
ɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢɹ 2/2 ɛɵɥɚ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɚ ɜ 22.0% ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ, 2/3 — ɜ 18.0%, 3/2 — ɜ
14.0%. ɋɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ 4/3 ɢ 3/4 ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɢ ɩɨ 2.0%. ɍ ɫɚɦɨɤ ɛɵɥɨ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɨ 4
ɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢɢ ɡɚɞɧɟɧɨɫɨɜɵɯ ɳɢɬɤɨɜ. ɇɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɺɧɧɨɣ ɨɤɚɡɚɥɚɫɶ
ɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢɹ 3/3, ɨɧɚ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɚ 66.7%. Ʉɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢɢ 3/2 ɢ 2/3 ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɢ ɩɨ
12.1%, 2/2 — 9.1%. ɑɚɫɬɨɬɵ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɟɦɨɫɬɢ ɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɛɢɥɚɬɟɪɚɥɶɧɵɯ
ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɨɜ ɞɥɹ ɨɛɟɢɯ ɫɬɨɪɨɧ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵ ɜ ɬɚɛɥɢɰɟ 1.
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 1
ȼɫɬɪɟɱɚɟɦɨɫɬɶ ɛɢɥɚɬɟɪɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɨɜ ɮɨɥɢɞɨɡɚ ɭ ɝɚɞɸɤɢ ɇɢɤɨɥɶɤɨɝɨ
Ʉɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ
ɱɟɲɭɣ
1
ȼɫɬɪɟɱɚɟɦɨɫɬɶ ɛɢɥɚɬɟɪɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɨɜ, %
S. cir.*
ƃ
Ƃ
Lab.
ƃ
Sub. lab.
ƃ
Ƃ
Ƃ
S. or.
ƃ
Lor.
Ƃ
ƃ
Ƃ
2n=94 2n=66 2n=100 n=66 2n=100 n=66 2n=100 n=66 2n=100 n=66
8.5
9.1
2
35.1
16.7
39.0
21.2
3
44.7
37.9
59.0
78.8
4
8.5
25.8
2.0
5
3.2
6.1
6
3.1
7
1.5
8
3.1
19.0
1.5
7.6
4.0
13.6
15.0
15.2
9
69.0
75.8
30.0
27.3
51.0
43.9
10
12.0
13.6
40.0
45.5
23.0
30.3
11
4.0
13.6
9.0
6.1
12
2.0
2.0
3.1
*S. cir ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɥɨɛɨɧɚɞɝɥɚɡɧɢɱɧɵɯ ɳɢɬɤɨɜ, Lab. – ɱɢɫɥɨ ɜɟɪɯɧɟɝɭɛɧɵɯ ɳɢɬɤɨɜ, Sub.
lab. – ɱɢɫɥɨ ɧɢɠɧɟɝɭɛɧɵɯ ɳɢɬɤɨɜ, S. or. – ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɳɢɬɤɨɜ ɜɨɤɪɭɝ ɝɥɚɡɚ, ɧɟ ɫɱɢɬɚɹ
ɧɚɞɝɥɚɡɧɢɱɧɨɝɨ, Lor. – ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɡɚɞɧɟɧɨɫɨɜɵɯ ɱɟɲɭɣ.
Ɂɚɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟ
Ɇɨɪɮɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɝɚɞɸɤ V. berus complex Ʉ.Ⱦ. Ɇɢɥɶɬɨ ɢ Ⱥ.ɂ. Ɂɢɧɟɧɤɨ
ɫɜɨɞɹɬ ɜ ɬɪɢ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ: ɝɪɭɩɩɭ berus ɫ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɚɦɢ ɧɨɦɢɧɚɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɞɜɢɞɚ,
205
ɝɪɭɩɩɭ nikolskii ɫ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɚɦɢ ɥɟɫɨɫɬɟɩɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɞɜɢɞɚ ɢ ɝɪɭɩɩɭ ɫɨ
ɫɦɟɲɚɧɧɵɦɢ ɢɥɢ ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɧɵɦɢ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɚɦɢ berus/nikolskii, ɨɛɭɫɥɨɜɥɟɧɧɭɸ
ɧɚɥɢɱɢɟɦ ɡɨɧɵ ɢɧɬɟɪɝɪɚɞɚɰɢɢ ɞɜɭɯ ɩɨɞɜɢɞɨɜ [4, 7]. ȼ ɪɚɛɨɬɟ Ɇ.ȼ. ɍɲɚɤɨɜɚ
ɢ Ⱥ.ɂ. Ɂɢɧɟɧɤɨ [6]) ɩɨɤɚɡɚɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɦɵɟ ɩɨɞɜɢɞɵ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɚɸɬɫɹ
ɥɢɲɶ ɩɨ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɭ ɛɪɸɲɧɵɯ ɳɢɬɤɨɜ ɢ ɱɢɫɥɭ ɡɚɞɧɟɧɨɫɨɜɵɯ ɳɢɬɤɨɜ.
ɉɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɣ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɫɞɟɥɚɬɶ ɜɵɜɨɞ, ɱɬɨ ɩɨ ɛɪɸɲɧɵɦ
ɳɢɬɤɚɦ ɫɚɦɰɵ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɢ nikolskii, ɚ ɫɚɦɤɢ — ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɧɨɣ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ.
ɉɨɞɫɱɺɬ ɠɟ ɡɚɞɧɟɟɧɨɫɨɜɵɯ ɳɢɬɤɨɜ ɜ ɷɬɨɣ ɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɰɢɢ ɨɬɥɢɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɨɬ
ɩɨɞɫɱɺɬɚ ɜ ɫɬɚɬɶɟ (Milto, Zinenko, 2005) [7], ɜɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟ ɱɟɝɨ ɩɨ ɷɬɨɦɭ
ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɭ ɝɚɞɸɤɚ ɇɢɤɨɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ ɧɟ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɜ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɟ ɤ
ɦɨɪɮɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɝɪɭɩɩɟ.
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. Ⱥɫɬɚɭɪɨɜ Ȼ. Ʌ. ɂɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɧɚɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɝɚɥɬɟɪɨɜ ɭ Drosophila
melanogaster Schin // ɇɚɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɢ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ. — Ɇ.: ɇɚɭɤɚ, 1974. — ɋ. 9–53.
2. Ɋɭɤɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ ɩɨ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɸ ɡɟɦɧɨɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɢ ɩɪɟɫɦɵɤɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ / ɂ. ɋ. Ⱦɚɪɟɜɫɤɢɣ [ɢ
ɞɪ.]. – Ʉɢɟɜ, 1989, 172 ɫ.
3. Ⱦɭɧɚɟɜ ȿ. Ⱥ. Ɂɟɦɧɨɜɨɞɧɵɟ ɢ ɩɪɟɫɦɵɤɚɸɳɢɟɫɹ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ: ɚɬɥɚɫɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟɥɶ / ȿ. Ⱥ.
Ⱦɭɧɚɟɜ, ȼ. Ɏ. Ɉɪɥɨɜɚ. – Ɇɨɫɤɜɚ: ɂɡɞɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ Ɏɢɬɨɧ +, 2012. 320 ɫ.
4. Ɂɢɧɟɧɤɨ Ⱥ. ɂ. Ɉɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɦɨɪɮɨɥɨɝɢɢ Vipera berus (Linnaeus, 1758) ɢ Vipera
nikolskii Vedmederja, Grubant et Rudaeva, 1986 – ɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟ ɢɧɬɪɨɝɪɟɫɫɢɜɧɨɣ
ɝɢɛɪɢɞɢɡɚɰɢɢ? / Ⱥ. ɂ. Ɂɢɧɟɧɤɨ // Ɂɦɟɢ ȼɨɫɬɨɱɧɨɣ ȿɜɪɨɩɵ: Ɇɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɵ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɣ
ɤɨɧɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɢ. – Ɍɨɥɶɹɬɬɢ, 2003ɛ. – ɋ. 20 – 22.
5. Ɍɚɛɚɱɢɲɢɧ ȼ. Ƚ. ɋɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɟ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɢ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɢ
ɝɚɞɸɤɢ ɇɢɤɨɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ ɧɚ ɫɟɜɟɪɟ ɇɢɠɧɟɝɨ ɉɨɜɨɥɠɶɹ / ȼ. Ƚ. Ɍɚɛɚɱɢɲɢɧ, ɂ. ȿ. Ɍɚɛɚɱɢɲɢɧɚ,
ȿ. ȼ. Ɂɚɜɶɹɥɨɜ // ɉɨɜɨɥɠɫɤɢɣ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɠɭɪɧɚɥ. – 2003. ʋ1. – ɋ.82 – 86.
6. ɍɲɚɤɨɜ Ɇ. ȼ. ȼɢɞɨɜɚɹ ɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɝɚɞɸɤɢ (Serpentes:
Viperidae) ɢɡ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɢ Ʌɢɩɟɰɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɟɣ / Ɇ. ȼ. ɍɲɚɤɨɜ, Ⱥ. ɂ. Ɂɢɧɟɧɤɨ //
ȼɟɫɬɧɢɤ Ɍɚɦɛɨɜɫɤɨɝɨ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬɚ. – Ɍɚɦɛɨɜ, 2013. – Ɍ.18, ɜɵɩ. 6. –
ɋ. 3025 – 3028.
7. Milto K. D. Distribution and morphological variability of Vipera berus in Eastern Europe
/ K. D. Milto, O. I. Zinenko // Herpetologia Pertopolitana: Proc. Of the 12th Ordinary General
Meeting of the Societas Europaea Herpetologica. – St. Petersburg, 2005. P. 66 – 73.
SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF FOLIDOSIS NIKOLSKY'S VIPER (PELIAS BERUS
NIKOLSKII (VEDMEDERJA, GRUBANT, RUDAEVA, 1986)) IN THE TERRITORY
OF THE VORONEZH AND LIPETSK AREAS
E.N. Frolova, M.V. Ushakov, A.S. Klimov
Voronezh State University, Voronezh, Russia
In 2008 – 2013 in Voronezh and Lipetsk Regions 83 viper-snakes were caught.
Analisis of a scalation of Nikolski’s viper (Pelias berus nikolskii), subspecies of
the common viper, is carried out. Sexual dimorphism of the vipers is noted, the
most distributed combinations of the scales and their compliance to morphological
features of subspecies are given.
206
ɍȾɄ 591.557.8
ɉȿɊɋɉȿɄɌɂȼɕ ɉɊɂɆȿɇȿɇɂə ɉɊɂɁɇȺɄȺ «ɁȺȼɂɋɂɆɈɋɌɖ»
ɉɊɂ ɂɁɍɑȿɇɂɂ ɉȺɊȺɁɂɌɂɁɆȺ
ȼ.Ɏ. ɏɚɛɢɛɭɥɥɢɧ
Ȼɚɲɤɢɪɫɤɢɣ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ, ɝ.ɍɮɚ, [email protected]
ɉɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɧɹɬɢɹ «ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶ» ɩɪɢ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɢ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɢɡɦɚ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ
ɧɚɩɪɹɦɭɸ ɢɡɦɟɪɢɬɶ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤ, ɩɨ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɦɭ ɩɚɪɬɧɟɪɵ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɬ
(ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɶ, ɫ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɵ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɹɸɬ ɬɤɚɧɢ ɯɨɡɹɢɧɚ), ɬ.ɟ.
ɱɬɨ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬ ɧɚ ɫɚɦɨɦ ɞɟɥɟ ɞɟɥɚɟɬ, ɚ ɧɟ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɹ ɷɬɨɝɨ. ȼɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ
ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɟ «ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɟɣ» ɩɨ ɨɞɧɨɦɭ ɢɥɢ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɦ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɚɦ, ɞɥɹ ɨɞɧɨɣ
ɢɥɢ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɦ ɩɚɪɚɦ ɩɚɪɬɧɟɪɨɜ.
ȼ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɟ ɞɥɹ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɧɹɬɢɹ «ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɢɡɦ»
ɩɪɢɜɥɟɤɚɟɬɫɹ, ɩɨɦɢɦɨ ɩɪɨɱɢɯ, ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤ «ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶ» [3]. Ɉɞɢɧ ɢɡ
ɩɚɪɬɧɟɪɨɜ ɦɟɠɜɢɞɨɜɨɝɨ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ – ɡɧɚɱɢɬ, ɢɫɩɵɬɵɜɚɟɬ
ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɶ, ɧɭɠɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɞɪɭɝɨɦ ɩɚɪɬɧɟɪɟ ɩɨ ɤɚɤɨɦɭ-ɥɢɛɨ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɭ. ȼ
ɞɚɧɧɨɣ ɪɚɛɨɬɟ ɦɵ ɪɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɢɦ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɚ ɩɪɢ
ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɢ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɢɡɦɚ.
ɋɧɚɱɚɥɚ ɩɪɨɚɧɚɥɢɡɢɪɭɟɦ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɭɸ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɩɨ ɨɞɧɨɦɭ
ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɭ, ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶ ɤ ɫɢɧɬɟɡɭ ɤɚɤɨɝɨ-ɥɢɛɨ ɜɟɳɟɫɬɜɚ. ȼ
ɢɫɯɨɞɧɨɣ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ ɨɞɢɧ ɢɡ ɩɚɪɬɧɟɪɨɜ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɟɧ, ɚ ɜɬɨɪɨɣ ɧɟ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɟɧ ɤ
ɫɢɧɬɟɡɭ ɧɟɤɨɟɝɨ ɜɟɳɟɫɬɜɚ, ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɝɨ ɤɚɠɞɨɦɭ ɢɡ ɧɢɯ. ɉɪɢ
ɧɟɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɢ ɤ ɫɚɦɨɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɭ ɫɢɧɬɟɡɭ ɜɬɨɪɨɣ ɩɚɪɬɧɟɪ ɩɨɥɭɱɚɟɬ
ɞɚɧɧɨɟ ɜɟɳɟɫɬɜɨ ɨɬ ɩɟɪɜɨɝɨ, ɬ.ɟ. ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ ɨɬ ɧɟɝɨ ɩɨ ɷɬɨɦɭ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɭ.
ɉɨɦɢɦɨ ɤɪɚɣɧɢɯ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɣ (ɚɛɫɨɥɸɬɧɚɹ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɢɥɢ ɧɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶ),
ɦɨɠɧɨ ɜɵɹɜɢɬɶ ɩɪɨɦɟɠɭɬɨɱɧɵɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɜɵɪɚɡɢɬɶ ɢɯ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ:
ɨɞɢɧ ɢɡ ɩɚɪɬɧɟɪɨɜ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ ɨɬ ɞɪɭɝɨɝɨ ɩɨ ɞɚɧɧɨɦɭ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɭ ɧɚ ɯ%
(=ɭɞɨɜɥɟɬɜɨɪɹɟɬ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɨɫɬɶ ɜ ɞɚɧɧɨɦ ɜɟɳɟɫɬɜɟ ɧɚ ɯ% ɡɚ ɫɱɟɬ ɜɬɨɪɨɝɨ
ɩɚɪɬɧɟɪɚ). ɂɡɦɟɧɹɹ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɢ ɤ ɫɚɦɨɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɭ ɫɢɧɬɟɡɭ
ɜɟɳɟɫɬɜɚ (ɬ.ɟ. ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɩɨ ɷɬɨɦɭ ɜɟɳɟɫɬɜɭ ɨɬ ɩɚɪɬɧɟɪɚ), ɦɨɠɧɨ
ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɨɬɪɚɡɢɬɶ ɤɨɧɬɢɧɭɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɷɬɨɣ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ 0 ɞɨ 100%.
ɇɚ ɲɤɚɥɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɧɨ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɶ ɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɣ (0 – 100%).
Ɉɛɥɚɫɬɶ ɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɣ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɶɫɹ ɭɠɟ ɤ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ
ɞɪɭɝɨɝɨ ɩɚɪɬɧɟɪɚ (ɟɝɨ ɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɨ) ɨɬ ɢɡɭɱɚɟɦɨɝɨ ɧɚɦɢ ɩɟɪɜɨɝɨ ɩɚɪɬɧɟɪɚ,
ɩɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɧɚɦɢ ɧɟ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ.
Ⱦɚɥɟɟ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɪɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɟɬɶ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɩɚɪɬɧɟɪɨɜ ɩɨ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɦ
ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɚɦ, ɩɨ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɦ ɩɚɪɬɧɟɪɚɦ. Ɂɚɤɥɸɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɲɚɝ – ɚɧɚɥɢɡ
ɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɣ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɩɨ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɦ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɚɦ (ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɢ 1, 2, 3, …)
ɢ ɩɨ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɦ ɩɚɪɬɧɟɪɚɦ (ɩɚɪɬɧɟɪɵ Ⱥ, Ȼ, ȼ, …), ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɢ
ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ. ɉɨɫɥɟ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ ɜɫɟɯ ɩɨɡɢɰɢɣ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɥɭɱɢɦ «ɫɩɟɤɬɪ
ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ». ɉɚɪɬɧɟɪ Ⱥ (ɚɤɰɟɩɬɨɪ) ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ ɨɬ ɩɚɪɬɧɟɪɚ Ȼ (ɞɨɧɨɪ) (ɩɨ
207
ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɭ 1 – ɧɚ x%, ɩɨ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɭ 2 – ɧɚ n% ɢ ɬ.ɩ.), ɨɬ ɩɚɪɬɧɟɪɚ ȼ (ɩɨ
ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɭ 1 ɧɚ y%, ɩɨ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɭ 2 ɧɚ z% ɢ ɬ.ɩ.), ɨɬ ɩɚɪɬɧɟɪɚ Ƚ ɢ ɬ.ɞ.
Ⱥɧɚɥɨɝɢɱɧɨ: ɩɚɪɬɧɟɪ Ȼ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ… ȼ ɢɬɨɝɟ ɦɵ ɦɨɠɟɦ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɬɶ ɫɜɨɟɝɨ ɪɨɞɚ
«ɩɚɫɩɨɪɬ» ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɟɣ ɩɨ ɤɚɠɞɨɦɭ ɩɚɪɬɧɟɪɭ. ɍ ɤɚɠɞɨɝɨ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦɚ ɤɚɤ
ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɚ ɦɟɠɜɢɞɨɜɵɯ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɣ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɫɜɨɣ ɧɚɛɨɪ ɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɤ
ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɦɭ ɩɚɪɬɧɟɪɭ. ɗɬɨɬ ɧɚɛɨɪ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɭɡɤɢɦ, ɟɫɥɢ ɢɦɟɟɬɫɹ
ɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɨɫɬɶ (ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶ) ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɜ ɨɞɧɨɦ ɢɥɢ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɯ ɩɚɪɬɧɟɪɚɯ ɩɨ
ɨɞɧɨɣ ɢɥɢ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɦ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɹɦ; ɧɨ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɢ ɲɢɪɨɤɢɦ, ɟɫɥɢ ɢɦɟɟɬɫɹ
ɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɨɫɬɶ ɜɨ ɦɧɨɝɢɯ ɩɚɪɬɧɟɪɚɯ ɩɨ ɦɧɨɝɢɦ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɹɦ.
Ɍɟɨɪɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɞɜɚ ɢ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɩɚɪɬɧɟɪɚ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨ
ɭɞɨɜɥɟɬɜɨɪɹɬɶ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɩɨ ɨɞɧɨɦɭ ɢ ɬɨɦɭ ɠɟ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɭ ɡɚ ɫɱɟɬ ɞɪɭɝ
ɞɪɭɝɚ, ɜ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ ɩɪɨɩɨɪɰɢɹɯ. ȼɡɚɢɦɨɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɩɚɪɬɧɟɪɨɜ
ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ, ɚ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɢ ɧɟ ɛɵɬɶ ɫɢɦɦɟɬɪɢɱɧɨɣ (ɤɨɝɞɚ ɤɚɠɞɵɣ ɢɡ ɩɚɪɬɧɟɪɨɜ ɜ
ɪɚɜɧɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ ɨɬ ɞɪɭɝɨɝɨ); ɤɚɤ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ, ɨɞɢɧ ɢɡ ɩɚɪɬɧɟɪɨɜ
«ɫɭɦɦɚɪɧɨ» ɛɨɥɟɟ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦ, ɱɟɦ ɞɪɭɝɨɣ. Ɉɪɝɚɧɢɡɦ ɤɚɤ ɛɵ ɩɪɟɞɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ
ɦɧɨɝɨɮɚɤɬɨɪɧɭɸ – ɩɨ ɱɢɫɥɭ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɨɜ, ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɸɳɢɯ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶ –
ɥɢɰɟɧɡɢɸ ɧɚ ɩɚɪɬɧɟɪɫɬɜɨ: ɤɬɨ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɬɨɱɧɨ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɢɬ ɩɨɞ ɫɩɟɤɬɪ
ɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɣ, ɤɬɨ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɩɨɥɧɨ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɟɧ ɭɞɨɜɥɟɬɜɨɪɢɬɶ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɩɨ
ɜɫɟɦ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɚɦ ɜ ɧɭɠɧɨɦ ɨɛɴɟɦɟ – ɬɨɬ ɢ ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɬɫɹ ɤɚɤ ɩɚɪɬɧɟɪ.
ɉɪɨɢɥɥɸɫɬɪɢɪɭɟɦ ɢɡɥɨɠɟɧɧɨɟ ɧɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɟ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɣ «ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬ-ɯɨɡɹɢɧ».
ɂɡɜɟɫɬɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɝɟɥɶɦɢɧɬɵ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɵ ɩɨɝɥɨɳɚɬɶ ɢɡ ɬɟɥɚ ɯɨɡɹɢɧɚ ɜɢɬɚɦɢɧɵ
ɝɪɭɩɩɵ ȼ: ɬɢɚɦɢɧ, ɪɢɛɨɮɥɚɜɢɧ, ɤɨɛɚɥɚɦɢɧ ɢ ɮɨɥɢɟɜɭɸ ɤɢɫɥɨɬɭ [2].
ɋɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɢɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɨɰɟɧɢɬɶ, ɩɨ ɤɚɤɢɦ
ɢɦɟɧɧɨ ɜɢɬɚɦɢɧɚɦ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ ȼ ɢ ɧɚ ɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɩɪɨɰɟɧɬɨɜ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ ɞɚɧɧɵɣ ɜɢɞ
ɝɟɥɶɦɢɧɬɚ ɨɬ ɞɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɜɢɞɚ ɯɨɡɹɢɧɚ; ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɝɟɥɶɦɢɧɬɨɜ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ (ɩɨ
ɷɬɨɣ ɠɟ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ – ɧɟ/ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶ ɤ ɫɢɧɬɟɡɭ ɜɢɬɚɦɢɧɨɜ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ ȼ) ɨɬ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɠɟ
ɜɢɞɚ ɯɨɡɹɢɧɚ; ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɧɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɝɟɥɶɦɢɧɬɨɜ ɨɬ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ
ɯɨɡɹɟɜ ɩɨ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɦɨɦɭ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɭ. ɉɪɢ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɲɢɪɨɤɨɦ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɟ
ɫɱɢɬɚɟɬɫɹ, ɱɬɨ ɩɪɢ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɢɡɦɟ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɪɟɞɭɤɰɢɹ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ
ɮɟɪɦɟɧɬɚɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚ, ɩɪɢ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɢ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɜɵɝɨɞɧɨɝɨ – ɫ
ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɬɨɱɤɢ ɡɪɟɧɢɹ – ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɮɟɪɦɟɧɬɚɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ
ɯɨɡɹɢɧɚ [1]. ɉɪɢ ɬɚɤɨɦ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɟ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɟɧ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ
ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɩɨ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɦ ɮɟɪɦɟɧɬɚɦ ɢ ɰɟɥɵɦ ɮɟɪɦɟɧɬɚɬɢɜɧɵɦ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɦ
ɞɥɹ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɯ ɩɚɪ «ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬ-ɯɨɡɹɢɧ». Ⱦɪɭɝɨɣ ɩɪɢɦɟɪ – ɜɡɚɢɦɨɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶ
ɦɟɠɞɭ ɷɧɞɨɫɢɦɛɢɨɧɬɧɨɣ ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢɟɣ Buchnera sp. ɢ ɟɟ ɯɨɡɹɢɧɨɦ, ɝɨɪɨɯɨɜɨɣ
ɬɥɟɣ [6]. ɉɪɢɦɟɪɧɨ ɬɪɟɬɶ ɜɫɟɯ ɦɟɬɚɛɨɥɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɣ ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢɢ ɨɛɫɥɭɠɢɜɚɟɬ
ɫɢɧɬɟɡ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɯ ɯɨɡɹɢɧɭ ɚɦɢɧɨɤɢɫɥɨɬ. Ȼɨɥɟɟ ɬɨɝɨ, ɦɟɬɚɛɨɥɢɡɦ ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢɢ
ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧ ɬɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɱɬɨ ɞɥɹ ɫɢɧɬɟɡɚ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɯ ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢɢ ɩɭɪɢɧɨɜɵɯ
ɫɨɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɣ ɫɧɚɱɚɥɚ ɞɨɥɠɟɧ ɛɵɬɶ ɫɢɧɬɟɡɢɪɨɜɚɧ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɣ ɟɟ ɯɨɡɹɢɧɭ
ɝɢɫɬɢɞɢɧ. ȼ ɬɚɤɨɦ ɪɚɤɭɪɫɟ ɯɨɡɹɢɧ (ɬɥɹ) ɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹ ɟɳɟ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɵɦ ɨɬ
ɫɜɨɟɝɨ ɷɧɞɨɫɢɦɛɢɨɧɬɚ (ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢɢ), ɧɨ ɢ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɣ ɦɟɧɹɟɬɫɹ, ɜɤɥɸɱɚɹ ɜ ɫɜɨɣ
ɦɟɬɚɛɨɥɢɡɦ «ɢɡɛɵɬɨɱɧɵɣ» ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬ, ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɣ ɟɟ ɯɨɡɹɢɧɭ. ɋɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɟ ɫ
ɦɟɬɚɛɨɥɢɡɦɨɦ ɷɬɚɥɨɧɧɨɣ Escherichia coli ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɨɰɟɧɢɬɶ (ɜ
27%) ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɦɟɬɚɛɨɥɢɡɦɚ Buchnera sp. ɢ, ɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ, ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ
208
ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɯɨɡɹɢɧɚ.
Ⱦɨɫɬɨɢɧɫɬɜɨɦ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɚ «ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶ» ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ
ɩɟɪɟɧɨɫ ɚɤɰɟɧɬɚ ɫ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɢɫɯɨɞɚ ɦɟɠɜɢɞɨɜɵɯ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ ɧɚ ɨɰɟɧɤɭ (ɜ
ɬɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɭɸ) ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɯ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɫɥɚɝɚɸɬ ɷɬɢ
ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ. ɇɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɩɪɢ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɟ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ
«ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬ-ɯɨɡɹɢɧ» ɢɡɦɟɪɹɸɬ ɧɟ ɤɨɫɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ (ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɟ)
ɩɪɢɫɩɨɫɨɛɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɯɨɡɹɟɜ [4], ɚ ɧɚɩɪɹɦɭɸ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤ, ɩɨ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɦɭ ɩɚɪɬɧɟɪɵ
ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɬ (ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɶ, ɫ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɵ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɹɸɬ
ɬɤɚɧɢ ɯɨɡɹɢɧɚ), ɬ.ɟ. ɱɬɨ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬ ɧɚ ɫɚɦɨɦ ɞɟɥɟ ɞɟɥɚɟɬ, ɚ ɧɟ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɹ
ɷɬɨɝɨ [5].
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. Ʉɪɵɥɨɜ ɘ.Ɇ. Ɇɨɥɟɤɭɥɹɪɧɵɟ ɢ ɝɟɧɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɵ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɢɡɦɚ ɭ ɷɭɤɚɪɢɨɬ:
ɷɜɨɥɸɰɢɹ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɣ ɜ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ «ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬ-ɯɨɡɹɢɧ» // ɗɜɨɥɸɰɢɹ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ: ɦɚɬ-ɥɵ I
ȼɫɟɫɨɸɡ. ɫɢɦɩɨɡɢɭɦɚ. - Ɍɨɥɶɹɬɬɢ: ɂɗȼȻ Ⱥɇ ɋɋɋɊ, 1991. - ɋ. 163-167.
2. Ʌɟɭɬɫɤɚɹ Ɂ.Ʉ. Ȼɢɨɯɢɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɚɞɚɩɬɚɰɢɢ ɜ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬ-ɯɨɡɹɢɧ // ɗɜɨɥɸɰɢɹ
ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ: ɦɚɬ-ɥɵ I ȼɫɟɫɨɸɡ. ɫɢɦɩɨɡɢɭɦɚ. - Ɍɨɥɶɹɬɬɢ: ɂɗȼȻ Ⱥɇ ɋɋɋɊ, 1991. - ɋ. 158162.
3. Cheng T.C. General parasitology. General Parasitology, 2nd edition. Orlando: Academic
Press College Division, 1986. 827 p.
4. Oliver T.H., Leather S.R., Cook J.M., 2009. Tolerance traits and the stability of
mutualism // Oikos. V. 118. ʋ 3. P. 346-352.
5. Poulin R., Combes C., 1999. The concept of virulence: interpretations and implications //
Parasitology Today. V. 15. ʋ. 12. P.474-475.
6. Thomas G.H., Zucker J., Macdonald S.J., Sorokin A., Goryanin I., Douglas A.E. A fragile
metabolic network adapted for cooperation in the symbiotic bacterium Buchnera aphidicola //
BMC Syst. Biol., 2009. - ʋ 3. - P. 24.
PROSPECTS OF APPLICATION OF THE TERM “DEPENDENCE” IN RESEARCH
OF PARASITISM
V.F. Khabibullin
Bashkir State University, Validi str., 32, Ufa, 450074, Russia, [email protected]
The term “dependence” can be applied as useful criterion for a study of hostparasite interactions. This term allows to evaluate the relationships by themselves
(i.e. the speed of host’s tissues consumed by parasite), but not their consequences.
209
ɍȾɄ 592. (075.8)
ȾɂɇȺɆɂɄȺ ɎɈɊɆɂɊɈȼȺɇɂə ɎȺɍɇɕ ɂ ɎɅɈɊɕ ɇȺ
ɇȿɄɈɌɈɊɕɏ Ʌȿɋɇɕɏ ɍɑȺɋɌɄȺɏ ȽȺɊȿɃ ȻɂɈɅɈȽɂɑȿɋɄɈȽɈ
ɍɑȿȻɇɈ-ɇȺɍɑɇɈȽɈ ɐȿɇɌɊȺ «ȼȿɇȿȼɂɌɂɇɈȼɈ» ɂ ȿȽɈ
ɈɄɊȿɋɌɇɈɋɌȿɃ ȼ ɍɋɆȺɇɋɄɈɆ ȻɈɊɍ
Ɇ.ȼ. ɑɟɪɤɚɫɫɤɢɯ, ɇ.ɂ. ɉɪɨɫɬɚɤɨɜ,
ɇ.Ⱥ. ɋɚɥɨɜ, ɂ.ɉ. ɑɟɛɨɬɚɪɟɜ
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɢɣ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ
Ʌɟɬɨɦ 2010 ɝɨɞɚ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɭɱɟɛɧɨ-ɧɚɭɱɧɨɝɨ
ɰɟɧɬɪɚ (Ȼɍɇɐ) «ȼɟɧɟɜɢɬɢɧɨɜɨ» ɩɪɨɲɟɥ ɫɢɥɶɧɟɣɲɢɣ ɥɟɫɧɨɣ ɩɨɠɚɪ,
ɩɪɢɱɢɧɚɦɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ ɫɬɚɥɢ ɚɧɨɦɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɠɚɪɚ ɢ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɞɪɭɝɢɟ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɵ.
ɉɨ ɞɚɧɧɵɦ ɥɟɫɨɭɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜɚ, ɩɨɠɚɪɨɦ ɛɵɥɨ ɩɨɜɪɟɠɞɟɧɨ ɢ ɭɧɢɱɬɨɠɟɧɨ ɧɚ
ɭɱɚɫɬɤɟ ɥɟɫɧɨɝɨ ɮɨɧɞɚ, ɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɚɳɟɝɨ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɭ ɭɱɟɛɧɨ-ɧɚɭɱɧɨɦɭ
ɰɟɧɬɪɭ «ȼɟɧɟɜɢɬɢɧɨɜɨ» ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɝɨ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬɚ, 65
ɝɚ ɥɟɫɚ.
ɉɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɹ ɩɨɠɚɪɚ ɧɟ ɦɨɝɥɢ ɧɟ ɨɬɪɚɡɢɬɶɫɹ ɧɚ ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɦ ɩɨɤɪɨɜɟ,
ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɢ ɢ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɛɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ ɜ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɚɯ ɜɢɞɚɯ
ɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ, ɧɚ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɢ ɫɥɨɠɢɜɲɢɯɫɹ ɦɧɨɝɨɥɟɬɧɢɯ
ɛɢɨɰɟɧɨɡɨɜ. Ɋɚɫɬɟɧɢɹ ɜɵɝɨɪɟɥɢ ɩɨɥɧɨɫɬɶɸ, ɱɚɫɬɶ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɜɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ
ɩɨɠɚɪɚ ɩɨɝɢɛɥɚ, ɱɚɫɬɶ ɛɵɥɚ ɜɵɧɭɠɞɟɧɚ ɦɢɝɪɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ.
Ʌɟɫɧɵɟ ɩɨɠɚɪɵ ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɬ ɝɥɭɛɨɤɨɟ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ ɧɚ ɩɨɱɜɟɧɧɵɣ
ɩɨɤɪɨɜ, ɮɚɭɧɭ ɥɟɫɚ ɢ ɜɵɡɵɜɚɸɬ ɤɨɪɟɧɧɵɟ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ, ɩɪɟɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɬ ɫɪɟɞɭ
ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɦɧɨɝɢɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ, ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɦɟɧɹɸɬɫɹ ɩɪɢɜɵɱɧɵɟ ɞɥɹ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ
ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ.
ɀɢɜɨɬɧɵɣ ɦɢɪ, ɩɨɫɬɪɚɞɚɜɲɢɣ ɨɬ ɩɨɠɚɪɚ ɥɟɫɚ, ɧɟɫɤɨɪɨ ɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɬɚɟɬ
ɫɜɨɣ ɩɪɟɠɧɢɣ ɨɛɥɢɤ. ɇɚ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ ɥɟɫɚ ɫ ɟɝɨ ɫɥɨɠɧɨɣ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɞɢɮɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɪɨɜɤɨɣ ɠɢɡɧɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚ ɜɧɟɡɚɩɧɨ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɟɬ ɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɣ
ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬ, ɧɟɩɪɢɝɨɞɧɵɣ ɞɥɹ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɚ ɞɟɧɞɪɨɮɢɥɶɧɵɯ
ɜɢɞɨɜ ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɣ.
Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɠɢɡɧɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɵ ɜ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɟ ɩɨ ɫɭɬɢ ɫɜɨɟɣ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ
ɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɧɵɦɢ, ɧɟɩɪɟɪɵɜɧɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɢ ɢɡɦɟɧɹɸɬɫɹ. ɂ ɷɬɨ ɤɚɫɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɟ
ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɣ, ɠɢɜɵɯ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜ, ɧɨ ɢ ɰɟɥɵɯ ɛɢɨɰɟɧɨɡɨɜ.
Ɍɚɤ, ɜɵɝɨɪɟɜɲɢɟ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɢ ɥɟɫɚ, ɭɧɢɱɬɨɠɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɨɠɚɪɨɦ, ɩɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɨ ɜɧɨɜɶ
ɡɚɩɨɥɧɹɸɬɫɹ ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɚɫɫɨɰɢɚɰɢɹɦɢ, ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚɦɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ.
ɗɬɨɬ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫ ɫɭɤɰɟɫɫɢɢ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɢ ɪɚɫɬɹɧɭɬ ɩɨ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ. ɉɪɢ
ɫɭɤɰɟɫɫɢɢ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɪɟɝɟɧɟɪɚɰɢɹ ɛɢɨɰɟɧɨɡɚ ɫ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɸ
ɜɡɚɢɦɨɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɯ
ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ ɢ ɫɦɟɧɚ ɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ ɞɪɭɝɢɦ ɜ
ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɣ ɦɨɦɟɧɬ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ. Ɉɛɪɚɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɧɨɜɚɹ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ ɛɢɨɰɟɧɨɡɚ,
ɨɬɥɢɱɚɸɳɚɹɫɹ ɨɬ ɩɪɟɞɵɞɭɳɟɣ,
ɫ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɦɢ, ɧɟ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɵɦɢ ɞɥɹ
ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɚ ɨɛɢɬɚɜɲɢɯ ɡɞɟɫɶ ɩɪɟɠɞɟ ɜɢɞɨɜ. ȼɨɡɧɢɤɚɸɬ ɩɪɢɟɦɥɟɦɵɟ
210
ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɣ, ɢɡ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɨɜ, ɫɭɦɟɜɲɢɯ ɨɫɜɨɢɬɶ
ɨɫɜɨɛɨɞɢɜɲɢɟɫɹ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɢ. Ɂɚ ɜɧɨɜɶ ɩɨɹɜɢɜɲɢɦɢɫɹ ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɹɦɢ ɩɪɢɯɨɞɹɬ
ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɟ, ɚ ɡɚ ɧɢɦɢ ɯɢɳɧɢɤɢ.
Ʌɟɫɧɵɟ ɩɨɠɚɪɵ ɡɚɧɢɦɚɸɬ ɨɫɨɛɨɟ ɦɟɫɬɨ ɜ ɪɹɞɚɯ ɫɭɤɰɟɫɫɢɢ. Ɉɧɢ
ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɬɪɚɧɫɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɸɬ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɭ ɥɟɫɨɜ. Ɉɫɨɛɭɸ ɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ
ɞɚɧɧɨɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɬɚɟɬ ɜ ɫɜɟɬɟ ɪɚɡɪɭɲɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɥɟɫɧɨɝɨ
ɩɨɠɚɪɚ, ɭɧɢɱɬɨɠɢɜɲɟɝɨ ɜ 2010 ɝɨɞɭ ɦɧɨɝɢɟ ɬɵɫɹɱɢ ɝɟɤɬɚɪɨɜ ɥɟɫɚ. ȼ
ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɜɵɝɨɪɟɥɚ ɥɟɫɧɚɹ ɩɨɞɫɬɢɥɤɚ ɢ ɝɭɦɭɫ ɧɚ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɭ 10-15 ɫɦ,
ɦɟɫɬɚɦɢ ɧɚ 28 ɫɦ, ȼ ɫɜɹɡɢ, ɫ ɱɟɦ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɜɧɢɦɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɩɪɨɫɥɟɞɢɬɶ
ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɣ ɷɬɚɩ ɫɭɤɰɟɫɫɢɢ ɱɟɪɟɡ 3 – 5 ɥɟɬ ɢ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɥɟɬ ɜ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ
ɛɢɨɰɟɧɨɡɚɯ.
ȼ ɧɚɲɢɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹɯ ɜ 2011 ɝ. ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɧɟ ɨɬɦɟɱɚɥɨɫɶ ɤɚɤɢɯ
ɥɢɛɨ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɣ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹɯ, ɨɩɭɫɬɨɲɟɧɧɵɯ ɩɨɠɚɪɨɦ, ɬ.ɤ. ɥɟɫɧɚɹ
ɩɨɞɫɬɢɥɤɚ, ɝɭɦɭɫ ɢ ɬɪɚɜɹɧɢɫɬɚɹ ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɧɟ ɜɨɡɨɛɧɨɜɥɹɥɢɫɶ. ȼɟɫɧɨɣ
2012 ɝ. ɜ ɩɨɧɢɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɜɥɚɠɧɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ, ɝɞɟ ɦɧɨɝɨ ɩɟɩɥɚ ɦɨɡɚɢɱɧɨ ɧɚɱɚɥɢ
ɩɨɹɜɥɹɬɶɫɹ ɩɟɪɜɵɟ ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɹ – ɨɫɨɤɚ ɜɨɥɨɫɢɫɬɚɹ, ɩɵɪɟɣ ɩɨɥɡɭɱɢɣ, ɜɟɣɧɢɤ
ɧɚɡɟɦɧɵɣ ɢ ɩɨɹɜɢɥɨɫɶ ɫɟɦɟɧɧɨɟ ɜɨɡɨɛɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɛɟɪɟɡɵ ɛɨɪɨɞɚɜɱɚɬɨɣ ɢ
ɬɨɩɨɥɹ ɞɪɨɠɚɳɟɝɨ (ɨɫɢɧɵ), ɩɨɹɜɢɥɚɫɶ ɩɨɪɨɫɥɶ ɨɬ ɛɭɡɢɧɵ ɱɟɪɧɨɣ, ɚɤɚɰɢɢ,
ɪɚɤɢɬɧɢɤɚ ɪɭɫɫɤɨɝɨ, ɛɟɪɟɫɤɥɟɬɨɜ ɛɨɪɨɞɚɜɱɚɬɨɝɨ ɢ ɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɢ ɞɪ.
ɤɭɫɬɚɪɧɢɤɨɜ. ȼ 2013 ɝ. ɧɚ ɝɨɥɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ ɧɚɱɚɥɨɫɶ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɟ ɩɪɨɢɡɪɚɫɬɚɧɢɟ
ɜɵɲɟ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɯ ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɣ ɢ ɩɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɧɨɜɵɯ ɬɚɤɢɯ, ɤɚɤ ɢɜɚɧ-ɱɚɣ,
ɤɚɧɚɞɫɤɢɣ ɦɟɥɤɨɥɟɩɟɫɬɧɢɤ, ɛɭɡɢɧɚ ɤɪɚɫɧɚɹ, ɪɚɤɢɬɧɢɤ ɪɭɫɫɤɢɣ, ɜɢɲɧɹ
ɫɬɟɩɧɚɹ, ɩɨɪɨɫɥɟɜɨɟ ɜɨɡɨɛɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɞɭɛɚ ɱɟɪɟɲɱɚɬɨɝɨ, ɛɟɪɟɡɵ ɩɨɜɢɫɥɨɣ ɢ
ɞɪ.
Ɉɰɟɧɤɟ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɥɟɫɧɵɯ ɩɨɠɚɪɨɜ ɧɚ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɭ ɢ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɭ
ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜ ɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɨ ɛɨɥɶɲɨɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɧɚɭɱɧɵɯ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɰɢɣ. ɉɨ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɭ ɬɪɚɧɫɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜ ɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ
ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɣ ɫɪɚɜɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨ, ɧɟɫɦɨɬɪɹ ɧɚ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ
ɧɚɭɱɧɵɣ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫ. ɗɬɨ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɨ ɫ ɬɟɦ, ɱɬɨ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɨɝɨ ɦɢɪɚ
ɨɱɟɧɶ ɪɚɫɬɹɧɭɬ ɩɨ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɢɡ-ɡɚ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɢ
ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɚ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ, ɱɬɨ ɜ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɦɟɪɟ
ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɟɬ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɟ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚ.
ɋɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɩɨɞɱɟɪɤɧɭɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɩɨɞɨɛɧɨɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɜɟɞɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ
ɷɬɨɣ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɜɩɟɪɜɵɟ, ɛɟɡɭɫɥɨɜɧɨ, ɞɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɦɨɧɢɬɨɪɢɧɝ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɢɬ
ɜɵɹɜɢɬɶ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɟ ɡɚɤɨɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɫɬɢ ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪ
ɛɢɨɬɨɩɨɜ ɧɚ ɩɨɫɬɪɚɞɚɜɲɢɯ ɨɬ ɩɨɠɚɪɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹɯ ɢ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɢɬ
ɭɩɪɚɜɥɹɬɶ ɞɚɧɧɵɦɢ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚɦɢ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɨɛɨɝɚɬɢɬ ɧɚɲɢ ɡɧɚɧɢɹ ɨɛ
ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɹɯ ɫɭɤɰɟɫɫɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɜ. Ʉɪɨɦɟ ɬɨɝɨ, ɷɬɨ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ
ɞɚɫɬ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɢɬɶ ɞɨɥɝɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɪɨɝɧɨɡɵ ɤɚɫɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ
ɜɢɞɨɜɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ, ɨɛɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ ɧɚ ɝɚɪɹɯ.
Ɇɟɬɨɞɢɤɚ ɢ ɦɟɫɬɨ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ
ɐɟɥɶɸ ɧɚɲɟɣ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ: ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɜɢɞɨɜɨɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɚ
ɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɧɚ ɥɟɫɧɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ, ɩɨɞɜɟɪɝɧɭɜɲɢɯɫɹ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɸ
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ɩɨɠɚɪɨɜ, ɢ ɜ ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɟ ɨɛɳɚɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɢɯ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ. ɂɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ
ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɨɫɶ ɜ ɥɟɬɧɢɟ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɵ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɛɢɨɰɟɧɬɪɚ ȼȽɍ
«ȼɟɧɟɜɢɬɢɧɨɜɨ» ɢ ɟɝɨ ɨɤɪɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɜ ɍɫɦɚɧɫɤɨɦ ɛɨɪɭ, ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɝɨ
ɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɟɝɨ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɸ.
ȼ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɟ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɹ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɧɚɦɢ ɫɬɚɜɢɥɢɫɶ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɡɚɞɚɱɢ:
-ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ, ɩɨɹɜɢɜɲɢɯɫɹ ɧɚ ɝɚɪɹɯ ɢ ɧɚ
ɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɩɪɢɦɵɤɚɸɳɢɯ ɤ ɧɢɦ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹɯ;
-ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɦɚɫɫɨɜɨɝɨ ɜɢɞɚ ɧɚ ɦɨɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ
ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ ɢ ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɟ ɫ ɞɪɭɝɢɦɢ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹɦɢ.
Ɋɢɫ. Ʉɚɪɬɚ – ɫɯɟɦɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɭɱɟɛɧɨ-ɧɚɭɱɧɨɝɨ
ɰɟɧɬɪɚ ȼȽɍ «ȼɟɧɟɜɢɬɢɧɨɜɨ».
Ⱦɥɹ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɧɚɦɢ ɛɵɥ ɜɵɛɪɚɧ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɶɧɵɣ ɭɱɚɫɬɨɤ
ɛɢɨɰɟɧɬɪɚ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɶɸ 65 ɝɚ ɜ ɤɜɚɪɬɚɥɟ 22. ȼɵɛɨɪ ɛɵɥ ɨɩɪɚɜɞɚɧ ɜ ɩɥɚɧɟ
ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɜ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɬɟɦ, ɱɬɨ ɥɟɫ ɜ ɷɬɨɦ ɦɟɫɬɟ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ
ɩɨɫɬɪɚɞɚɥ ɨɬ ɩɨɠɚɪɚ. Ʉɪɨɦɟ ɬɨɝɨ, ɧɚɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɹ ɜɟɥɢɫɶ ɢ ɧɚ ɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ
ɩɪɢɦɵɤɚɸɳɢɯ ɤ ɝɚɪɹɦ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ.
Ɋɚɛɨɬɚ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɚɫɶ ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɧɚ ɬɪɟɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ ɜ ɪɚɣɨɧɟ
ɛɨɥɨɬɚ Ʉɥɸɤɜɟɧɧɨɟ-1, ɛɨɥɨɬɚ Ʉɨɡɶɟ ɢ ɨɡɟɪɚ ɑɢɫɬɨɟ.
ȼɪɟɦɹ ɭɱɟɬɚ ɩɪɢɯɨɞɢɥɨɫɶ ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦ ɧɚ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɫ 10 ɱɚɫɨɜ ɞɨ 13 ɢ ɫ 14
ɱɚɫɨɜ ɞɨ 17. Ɉɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɢɫɶ ɜ ɫɭɦɟɪɟɱɧɨɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ.
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ɉɪɢ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɢ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɧɚɦɢ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɢɫɶ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɜɢɡɭɚɥɶɧɵɟ
ɧɚɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɹ ɜɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɷɤɫɤɭɪɫɢɣ ɢ ɩɪɢ ɩɪɨɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɢ ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɚɥɶɧɵɯ
ɦɚɪɲɪɭɬɨɜ, ɜ ɯɨɞɟ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɨɬɦɟɱɚɥɢɫɶ ɫɥɟɞɵ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ. Ⱦɚɧɧɵɟ ɨɛɨ ɜɫɟɯ
ɜɫɬɪɟɱɟɧɧɵɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ
ɡɚɧɨɫɢɥɢɫɶ ɜ ɩɨɥɟɜɨɣ ɞɧɟɜɧɢɤ. Ⱦɥɹ ɭɱɟɬɚ
ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɦɚɫɫɨɜɨɝɨ ɜɢɞɚ, ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɧɚɦ ɧɚ
ɝɚɪɹɯ, ɦɵ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɥɢ ɦɟɬɨɞ ɦɚɪɲɪɭɬɧɨɝɨ ɭɱɟɬɚ. Ⱦɥɹ ɷɬɨɣ ɰɟɥɢ ɛɵɥɨ
ɜɵɛɪɚɧɨ 3 ɦɚɪɲɪɭɬɚ ɜ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɭɟɦɨɦ ɤɜɚɞɪɚɬɟ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɨɣ ɩɪɨɬɹɠɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɫ
ɲɢɪɢɧɨɣ ɭɱɟɬɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɨɫɵ 5 ɦ. ɉɪɢ ɩɪɨɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɢ ɨɬɦɟɱɚɥɨɫɶ ɱɢɫɥɨ ɨɫɨɛɟɣ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɭɟɦɨɝɨ ɜɢɞɚ. Ɂɚɬɟɦ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɦ ɷɤɫɬɪɚɩɨɥɹɰɢɢ ɩɟɪɟɫɱɢɬɵɜɚɥɢɫɶ
ɧɚ 1 ɤɦ ɞɥɹ ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɫɨɛɟɣ.
Ⱦɥɹ ɭɱɟɬɚ ɦɟɥɤɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɥɢɫɶ ɞɚɜɢɥɤɢ ɢ
ɠɢɜɨɥɨɜɤɢ, ɪɚɛɨɬɚ ɫ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɦɢ ɜɟɥɚɫɶ ɩɨ ɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɧɨɣ ɫɯɟɦɟ.
ɂɡ ɩɪɟɠɧɢɯ ɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɨɛɢɬɚɬɟɥɟɣ ɥɟɫɚ ɧɚ ɝɚɪɹɯ ɨɫɬɚɸɬɫɹ ɥɢɲɶ
ɧɟɦɧɨɝɢɟ ɜɢɞɵ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɧɟ ɧɭɠɞɚɸɬɫɹ ɜ ɥɟɫɧɨɦ ɦɢɤɪɨɤɥɢɦɚɬɟ, ɢ
ɧɟ ɠɢɜɭɬ ɧɚ ɞɟɪɟɜɶɹɯ ɢ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɵ ɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɭɛɟɠɢɳɚɦɢ ɩɨɞ ɩɧɹɦɢ,
ɜ ɤɭɱɚɯ ɯɜɨɪɨɫɬɚ, ɜ ɬɪɚɜɟ ɢ ɬ.ɩ. ȼɦɟɫɬɟ ɫ ɬɟɦ, ɩɨɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɨɛɢɬɚɬɟɥɢ
ɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɯ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɩɪɢɜɥɟɤɚɟɬ ɧɚɥɢɱɢɟ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɯ
ɤɨɪɦɨɜɵɯ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ, ɛɨɥɶɲɢɯ ɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɯ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜ, ɫ ɩɨɧɢɠɟɧɧɵɦɢ
ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɹɦɢ ɜɥɚɠɧɨɫɬɢ.
ɇɚɦ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɨɹɥɨ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɶ ɤɚɤɢɟ ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɜɢɞɵ
ɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɦɵ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɥɢ ɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɢ
ɤɨɫɜɟɧɧɨ ɩɨ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɵɦ ɫɥɟɞɚɦ ɢɯ ɠɢɡɧɟɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɶ
ɩɟɪɜɵɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɧɚɱɢɧɚɸɳɢɯ ɡɚɫɟɥɹɬɶ ɝɚɪɢ. Ⱦɥɹ ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɲɢɯ
ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɜ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɵ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɧɵɟ ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɢ [1-12].
Ɋɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɢ ɨɛɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɹ
ɇɚ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɶɧɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ ɧɚɦɢ ɛɵɥ ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɧɵɣ ɜɢɞɨɜɨɣ
ɫɨɫɬɚɜ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɢ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɚ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɦɚɫɫɨɜɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɜ
ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ.
Ʉ ɫɨɠɚɥɟɧɢɸ, ɢɡ-ɡɚ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɩɨɞɫɱɟɬɚ ɢ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤ
ɪɚɫɱɟɬ ɛɵɥ ɫɞɟɥɚɧ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɞɥɹ ɨɫɨɛɟɣ ɞɜɭɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ, ɲɢɪɨɤɨ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɯ
ɧɚ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɭɟɦɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ. ȼ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɷɬɨ ɛɵɥɨ ɫɞɟɥɚɧɨ ɞɥɹ ɩɪɵɬɤɨɣ
ɹɳɟɪɢɰɵ - Lacerta agilis L.
ȼ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ, ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɯ ɩɨɞɫɱɟɬɨɜ, ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ
ɩɪɵɬɤɨɣ ɹɳɟɪɢɰɵ ɧɚ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɟ ɭ ɨɡɟɪɚ ɑɢɫɬɨɟ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɚ 24 ɨɫɨɛɢ ɧɚ ɤɦ; ɜ
ɪɚɣɨɧɟ ɛɨɥɨɬɚ Ʉɨɡɶɟ - 6.37 ɨɫɨɛɟɣ ɧɚ ɤɦ. ɇɚ ɛɨɥɨɬɟ Ʉɥɸɤɜɟɧɧɨɟ-1 ɩɪɢ
ɩɪɨɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɢ ɦɚɪɲɪɭɬɚ ɧɟ ɛɵɥɨ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɨ ɧɢ ɨɞɧɨɣ ɨɫɨɛɢ ɩɪɵɬɤɨɣ
ɹɳɟɪɢɰɵ, ɯɨɬɹ ɞɨ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɨɧɚ ɨɬɦɟɱɚɥɚɫɶ ɬɚɦ ɧɟɨɞɧɨɤɪɚɬɧɨ, ɱɬɨ, ɫɤɨɪɟɟ
ɜɫɟɝɨ, ɫɜɹɡɚɧɨ ɫ ɧɟɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɵɦɢ ɩɨɝɨɞɧɵɦɢ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɦɢ. Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ,
ɜ ɰɟɥɨɦ ɫɪɟɞɧɹɹ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɵɬɤɨɣ ɹɳɟɪɢɰɵ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɚ
15.1 ɨɫɨɛɢ ɧɚ ɤɦ.
Ȼɨɥɶɲɚɹ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɵɬɤɨɣ ɹɳɟɪɢɰɵ ɨɬɦɟɱɚɥɚɫɶ ɜɛɥɢɡɢ ɨɡɟɪɚ
ɑɢɫɬɨɟ, ɩɨ-ɜɢɞɢɦɨɦɭ, ɫɜɹɡɚɧɚ ɫ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɨɦ ɧɟɬɪɨɧɭɬɵɦ ɩɨɠɚɪɨɦ, ɛɨɥɟɟ
ɜɵɫɨɤɢɦ ɬɪɚɜɨɫɬɨɟɦ ɢ ɫ ɧɢɡɤɨɣ ɡɚɯɥɚɦɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɭɟɦɨɝɨ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚ.
213
Ⱦɥɹ ɩɪɵɬɤɨɣ ɹɳɟɪɢɰɵ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɵ ɢɦɟɧɧɨ ɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɟ ɦɟɫɬɚ ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɫ
ɜɤɪɚɩɥɟɧɢɟɦ ɤɭɫɬɚɪɧɢɱɤɨɜ ɢ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɝɨ ɬɪɚɜɨɫɬɨɹ, ɱɬɨ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɢɦ ɭɫɩɟɲɧɨ
ɨɯɨɬɢɬɶɫɹ ɢ ɫɤɪɵɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɨɬ ɩɪɟɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɟɣ, ɜ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɛɥɚɝɨɞɚɪɹ
ɛɨɥɶɲɨɦɭ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɭ ɞɪɟɜɟɫɧɵɯ ɩɨɪɭɛɨɱɧɵɯ ɨɫɬɚɬɤɨɜ, ɩɧɟɣ, ɢ ɬ.ɩ., ɫɥɭɠɚɳɢɯ
ɞɥɹ ɹɳɟɪɢɰ ɯɨɪɨɲɢɦ ɭɤɪɵɬɢɟɦ. Ʉɪɨɦɟ ɬɨɝɨ, ɩɨɱɜɟɧɧɚɹ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɶ ɬɚɤɨɝɨ
ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚ ɥɭɱɲɟ ɩɪɨɝɪɟɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɢ ɨɫɜɟɳɚɟɬɫɹ, ɱɬɨ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɧɟɦɚɥɨɜɚɠɧɵɦ
ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɦ ɞɥɹ ɠɢɡɧɟɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɯɥɚɞɧɨɤɪɨɜɧɵɯ ɩɪɟɫɦɵɤɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ. ȼɦɟɫɬɟ ɫ
ɬɟɦ, ɧɚ ɝɚɪɹɯ ɲɢɪɨɤɨ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɵ ɧɟ ɜɪɟɞɨɧɨɫɧɵɟ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɟ
ɛɟɫɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɟ, ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɸɳɢɟ ɹɳɟɪɢɰɟ ɤɨɪɦɨɜɭɸ ɛɚɡɭ.
ɋɪɟɞɢ ɩɪɟɫɦɵɤɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɱɚɫɬɨ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɭɠ –
Natrix natrix L. Ɉɧ ɞɨɜɨɥɶɧɨ ɦɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧ ɧɚ ɜɫɟɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɭɟɦɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ, ɧɨ
ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɢ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɥɢ ɜ ɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɛɥɢɡɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ
ɜɨɞɨɟɦɨɜ, ɱɬɨ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɨ ɫ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɟɣ ɜɢɞɚ. ɉɨɞɫɱɟɬ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ
ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɛɵɥ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧ ɞɥɹ ɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɚ - ɛɨɥɨɬɚ Ʉɨɡɶɟ, ɝɞɟ
ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɨ 15.9 ɨɫɨɛɟɣ ɧɚ ɤɦ.
ɋɯɨɞɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɟɣ ɨɛɥɚɞɚɟɬ ɬɚɤɨɣ ɜɢɞ ɡɦɟɣ, ɤɚɤ ɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɚɹ
ɝɚɞɸɤɚ – Vipera berus L. Ɉɫɨɛɶ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɜɢɞɚ ɛɵɥɚ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɚ ɜɨɡɥɟ ɛɨɥɨɬɚ
Ʉɥɸɤɜɟɧɧɨɟ-1.
Ʉɪɨɦɟ ɬɨɝɨ, ɜ ɪɚɣɨɧɟ ɨɡɟɪɚ ɑɢɫɬɨɟ ɛɵɥɚ ɩɨɣɦɚɧ ɪɟɞɤɢɣ ɜɢɞ - ɦɟɞɹɧɤɚ
– Coronilla austriaca Laur. ɗɬɨɬ ɜɢɞ ɨɬɦɟɱɚɥɫɹ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɛɢɨɰɟɧɬɪɚ
ɤɪɚɣɧɟ ɪɟɞɤɨ ɢ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɟɟ ɭɩɨɦɢɧɚɧɢɟ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɫɹ ɤ 2008 ɝɨɞɭ. ȼɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ, ɟɟ
ɩɪɢɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɤɨɫɜɟɧɧɨ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɨ ɫ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɹɦɢ ɩɨɠɚɪɚ ɢ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚɦɢ
ɫɭɤɰɟɫɫɢɣ, ɬɚɤ ɤɚɤ ɞɚɧɧɵɣ ɜɢɞ ɨɬɞɚɟɬ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɬɟɧɢɟ ɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɦ, ɯɨɪɨɲɨ
ɩɪɨɝɪɟɜɚɟɦɵɦ ɦɟɫɬɚɦ ɫ ɩɧɹɦɢ ɢ ɤɭɫɬɚɪɧɢɱɤɚɦɢ, ɢɡɨɛɢɥɭɸɳɢɦɢ
ɭɤɪɵɬɢɹɦɢ.
ɂɡ ɡɟɦɧɨɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɧɚ ɝɚɪɹɯ ɧɚɦ ɜɫɬɪɟɬɢɥɢɫɶ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɨɫɨɛɟɣ 2 ɜɢɞɨɜ ɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɚɹ ɱɟɫɧɨɱɧɢɰɚ – Pilobates fuscus Laur ɢ ɧɚ ɩɨɧɢɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ
– ɨɫɬɪɨɦɨɪɞɚɹ ɥɹɝɭɲɤɚ – Rana arvalis Nils. ɋɤɨɪɟɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ, ɢɯ ɩɪɢɜɥɟɤɥɚ
ɨɛɲɢɪɧɚɹ ɤɨɪɦɨɜɚɹ ɛɚɡɚ, ɤɨɬɨɪɭɸ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟ ɛɟɫɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɟ,
ɧɚɥɢɱɢɟ ɡɚɳɢɬɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ ɢ ɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɵɣ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɧɵɣ ɪɟɠɢɦ.
ȼɩɨɥɧɟ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɢɯ ɩɟɪɟɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɩɨ ɝɚɪɹɦ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ
ɦɢɝɪɚɰɢɣ.
Ɂɚɪɚɫɬɚɸɳɢɟ ɝɚɪɢ ɩɪɢɜɥɟɤɚɸɬ ɢ ɛɨɥɶɲɨɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɧɚɫɟɤɨɦɨɹɞɧɵɯ ɢ
ɡɟɪɧɨɹɞɧɵɯ
ɩɬɢɰ,
ɩɪɢɥɟɬɚɸɳɢɯ
ɤɨɪɦɢɬɶɫɹ
ɧɚ
ɷɬɢɯ
ɦɟɫɬɚɯ,
ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɢɡ ɫɨɫɟɞɧɢɯ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɨɜ. ɋɪɟɞɢ ɧɢɯ ɛɵɥɢ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɵ ɬɚɤɢɟ
ɨɛɵɱɧɵɟ ɜɢɞɵ ɫ ɫɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɚ ȼɨɪɨɛɶɢɧɵɟ, ɤɚɤ ɞɪɨɡɞ ɪɹɛɢɧɧɢɤ, ɩɟɜɱɢɣ ɞɪɨɡɞ,
ɡɹɛɥɢɤ, ɩɨɥɟɜɵɟ ɜɨɪɨɛɶɢ ɢ ɢɡ ɫɟɦɟɣɫɬɜɚ ȼɪɚɧɨɜɵɟ - ɫɟɪɚɹ ɜɨɪɨɧɚ ɢ ɜɨɪɨɧ.
Ȼɨɥɶɲɢɟ ɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɟ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚ ɜɟɫɶɦɚ ɩɪɢɜɥɟɤɚɬɟɥɶɧɵ ɞɥɹ ɯɢɳɧɵɯ
ɩɬɢɰ. Ɂɞɟɫɶ ɢɦ ɝɨɪɚɡɞɨ ɥɟɝɱɟ ɨɬɵɫɤɢɜɚɬɶ ɢ ɞɨɛɵɜɚɬɶ ɞɨɛɵɱɭ. ɇɚɦɢ
ɧɟɨɞɧɨɤɪɚɬɧɨ ɨɬɦɟɱɚɥɨɫɶ ɩɪɢɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟ ɧɚ ɝɚɪɹɯ ɬɚɤɨɝɨ ɜɢɞɚ, ɤɚɤ ɛɨɥɨɬɧɵɣ
ɥɭɧɶ, ɱɟɪɧɵɣ ɤɨɪɲɭɧ.
ɉɨɜɫɟɦɟɫɬɧɨ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɞɹɬɥɵ – ɛɨɥɶɲɨɣ ɢ ɦɚɥɵɣ ɩɟɫɬɪɵɟ ɞɹɬɥɵ,
ɠɟɥɧɚ, ɩɪɢɜɥɟɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɨɛɢɥɢɟɦ ɧɚɫɟɤɨɦɵɯ ɤɫɢɥɨɮɚɝɨɜ – ɠɭɤɨɜ ɭɫɚɱɟɣ,
ɬɨɩɨɥɟɜɵɯ ɭɫɚɱɟɣ, ɤɨɪɨɬɤɨɭɫɵɯ ɡɥɚɬɨɤ, ɠɭɤɨɜ ɤɨɪɨɟɞɨɜ, ɜ ɦɚɫɫɨɜɨɦ
214
ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɧɚ ɩɨɜɪɟɠɞɟɧɧɵɯ, ɨɫɥɚɛɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɩɨɠɚɪɨɦ ɢ
ɦɟɪɬɜɵɯ ɞɟɪɟɜɶɹɯ. ɇɚ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɭɟɦɨɦ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɟ ɜ ɤɜ. 22 ɛɵɥɢ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɵ
ɛɨɥɶɲɨɣ ɢ ɦɚɥɵɣ ɫɨɫɧɨɜɵɟ ɥɭɛɨɟɞɵ, ɫɨɫɧɨɜɚɹ ɡɥɚɬɤɚ, ɜɟɪɲɢɧɧɵɣ ɤɨɪɨɟɞ,
ɲɟɫɬɢɡɭɛɵɣ ɤɨɪɨɟɞ, ɱɟɪɧɵɣ ɫɨɫɧɨɜɵɣ ɭɫɚɱ ɢ ɞɪ. ɋɟɣɱɚɫ ɧɚ ɞɚɧɧɨɦ
ɭɱɚɫɬɤɟ ɜɵɲɟ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɯ ɜɪɟɞɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɧɟ ɨɫɬɚɥɨɫɶ.
Ȼɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɵɟ ɞɥɹ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɫɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɞɥɹ ɫɬɟɩɧɵɯ
ɩɬɢɰ. ɇɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɧɚɥɢɱɢɟ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɯ ɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɯ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜ, ɩɧɟɣ ɢ
ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɭɤɪɵɬɢɣ ɫɨɡɞɚɟɬ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɭɞɨɞɚ ɢ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɣɤɢ ɢɦ
ɝɧɟɡɞɚ, ɬ.ɤ. ɨɧ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɢɬɚɟɬ ɫɟɥɢɬɶɫɹ, ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦ, ɜ ɞɭɩɥɚɯ, ɬɪɭɯɥɹɜɵɯ
ɩɧɹɯ, ɫɩɥɟɬɟɧɢɢ ɜɟɬɜɟɣ ɢ ɬ.ɞ. ɇɚɦɢ ɧɟ ɟɞɢɧɨɠɞɵ ɨɬɦɟɱɚɥɨɫɶ ɩɪɢɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟ
ɷɬɢɯ ɩɬɢɰ ɜ ɪɚɣɨɧɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ. Ɍɚɤɢɟ ɠɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɯɨɪɨɲɨ
ɩɨɞɯɨɞɹɬ ɫɨɪɨɤɨɩɭɬɭ-ɠɭɥɚɧɭ, ɭɞɨɞɭ ɢ ɞɪ.
ɇɚ ɝɚɪɹɯ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ, ɩɨɞɯɨɞɹɳɢɟ ɞɥɹ ɦɧɨɝɢɯ ɝɪɭɩɩ
ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ. Ɉɛɲɢɪɧɵɟ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚ, ɨɛɢɥɢɟ ɤɭɫɬɚɪɧɢɤɨɜɨɣ
ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɢɜɥɟɤɚɟɬ ɫɸɞɚ ɡɚɣɰɚ-ɪɭɫɚɤɚ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ
ɤɨɩɵɬɧɵɯ, ɞɥɹ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɩɨɦɢɦɨ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɫɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɩɪɢɜɵɱɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ
ɞɥɹ ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ. Ɍɚɤ, ɨɛɲɢɪɧɵɟ ɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɟ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɸɬ ɩɪɢ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ
ɭɛɟɠɚɬɶ ɢ ɫɤɪɵɬɶɫɹ ɨɬ ɯɢɳɧɢɤɚ ɜ ɛɥɢɠɚɣɲɢɯ ɡɚɪɨɫɥɹɯ ɤɭɫɬɚɪɧɢɤɚ. ɇɚɦɢ
ɛɵɥɢ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɵ ɫɥɟɞɵ ɤɚɛɚɧɚ, ɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɣ ɤɨɫɭɥɹ, ɡɚɣɰɚ-ɪɭɫɚɤɚ ɢ
ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɦɟɥɤɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ. Ʉ ɫɨɠɚɥɟɧɢɸ, ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ
ɜɢɞɨɜ, ɡɚ ɢɫɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɡɚɣɰɚ-ɪɭɫɚɤɚ, ɧɚɦ ɧɟ ɭɞɚɥɨɫɶ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɬɶ
ɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ, ɨɞɧɚɤɨ, ɧɟɨɞɧɨɤɪɚɬɧɨ ɛɵɥɢ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɵ ɫɥɟɞɵ ɢɯ
ɩɪɟɛɵɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɭɟɦɨɣ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ.
ɑɬɨ ɠɟ ɤɚɫɚɟɬɫɹ ɦɵɲɟɜɢɞɧɵɯ ɝɪɵɡɭɧɨɜ, ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɢɬɶ ɢɯ ɩɪɢ ɩɨɦɨɳɢ
ɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɧɵɯ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɜ ɧɟ ɭɞɚɥɨɫɶ, ɱɬɨ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɨ ɫ
ɧɟɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɵɦɢ ɩɨɝɨɞɧɵɦɢ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɦɢ. Ʉɪɨɦɟ ɬɨɝɨ, ɢɯ ɧɢɡɤɚɹ
ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɨɬɦɟɱɚɥɚɫɶ ɧɚ ɩɪɨɬɹɠɟɧɢɢ ɜɫɟɣ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɢ ɢ ɧɚ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ
ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹɯ, ɧɟ ɡɚɬɪɨɧɭɬɵɯ ɩɨɠɚɪɨɦ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ, ɦɵ ɫɤɥɨɧɧɵ ɩɨɥɚɝɚɬɶ, ɱɬɨ
ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɜɢɞɵ ɜ ɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɟɦ ɩɨɹɜɹɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɬɚɤɢɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ.
ɇɚɦɢ ɛɵɥɨ ɬɚɤ ɠɟ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɧɵɯ
ɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɩɪɢɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɧɚ ɜɟɱɟɪɧɢɟ ɢ
ɧɨɱɧɵɟ ɱɚɫɵ ɢ ɜ ɬɟɩɥɭɸ ɩɨɝɨɞɭ.
ȼɵɜɨɞɵ
Ȼɥɚɝɨɞɚɪɹ ɛɨɥɶɲɨɦɭ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɭ ɭɤɪɵɬɢɣ, ɢɡ ɞɪɟɜɟɫɧɵɯ
ɩɨɪɭɛɨɱɧɵɯ ɨɫɬɚɬɤɨɜ, ɩɧɟɣ, ɧɚ ɝɚɪɹɯ, ɜ ɩɟɪɜɭɸ ɨɱɟɪɟɞɶ, ɩɨɫɟɥɹɸɬɫɹ
ɧɚɫɟɤɨɦɵɟ – ɤɫɢɥɨɮɚɝɢ. Ɂɚ ɧɢɦɢ, ɜ ɫɜɨɸ ɨɱɟɪɟɞɶ, ɫɥɟɞɭɸɬ ɧɚɫɟɤɨɦɨɹɞɧɵɟ
ɩɬɢɰɵ, ɞɥɹ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɛɟɫɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɟ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɤɨɪɦɨɜɨɣ ɛɚɡɨɣ.
ɋɟɣɱɚɫ ɧɚ ɫɭɛɫɬɪɚɬɚɯ, ɨɛɢɥɶɧɨ ɭɞɨɛɪɟɧɧɵɯ ɡɨɥɨɣ ɨɬ ɩɨɠɚɪɨɜ, ɡɚɦɟɬɧɨ
ɧɚɱɢɧɚɟɬ ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɬɪɚɜɹɧɢɫɬɚɹ, ɤɭɫɬɚɪɧɢɱɤɨɜɚɹ ɢ ɤɭɫɬɚɪɧɢɤɨɜɚɹ
ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ.
ɇɚ ɩɨɹɜɢɜɲɢɦɢɫɹ ɝɚɪɹɯ ɜɧɨɜɶ ɫɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɫɥɨɠɧɵɟ ɬɪɨɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ
ɬɢɩɵ ɫɜɹɡɟɣ. Ɉɛɪɚɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɫɜɨɣ ɭɧɢɤɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɛɢɨɬɨɩ, ɫɨɫɬɨɹɳɢɣ ɢɡ ɜɢɞɨɜ,
ɩɪɢɫɩɨɫɨɛɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɤ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɦ, ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɵɦ ɞɥɹ ɞɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɦɟɫɬɨɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ.
215
Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɡɚɤɥɸɱɢɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɢ ɝɚɪɟɣ ɥɟɫɧɨɝɨ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚ
ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ
ɭɱɟɛɧɨ-ɧɚɭɱɧɨɝɨ
ɰɟɧɬɪɚ
ȼȽɍ
«ȼɟɧɟɜɢɬɢɧɨɜɨ»
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɧɚɭɱɧɵɣ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫ ɜ ɩɥɚɧɟ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɢ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ
ɮɚɭɧɵ, ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜ ɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɤɥɚɫɫɨɜ, ɱɬɨ ɞɚɟɬ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɨ ɞɨɥɝɨɫɪɨɱɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚɯ, ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɹɳɢɯ ɜɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ
ɫɭɤɰɟɫɫɢɢ.
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. Ȼɚɪɚɛɚɲ-ɇɢɤɢɮɨɪɨɜ ɂ.ɂ. Ɂɜɟɪɢ ɸɝɨ-ɜɨɫɬɨɱɧɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɑɟɪɧɨɡɟɦɧɨɝɨ ɰɟɧɬɪɚ.
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ: ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ ɤɧ. ɂɡɞ-ɜɨ, 1957. – 370 ɫ.
2. Ƚɟɩɬɧɟɪ ȼ.Ƚ., ɇɚɫɢɦɨɜɢɱ Ⱥ.Ⱥ., Ȼɚɧɧɢɤɨɜ Ⱥ.Ƚ. Ɇɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɟ
ɋɨɜɟɬɫɤɨɝɨ
ɋɨɸɡɚ. Ɇ. : ȼɵɫɲ. ɲɤ., 1961. 776 ɫ.
3. Ƚɨɥɭɛ ȼ.Ȼ., ɉɪɨɫɬɚɤɨɜ ɇ.ɂ., ɑɟɪɧɟɧɤɨ ɘ.ɂ. ȼɪɟɞɢɬɟɥɢ ɥɟɫɧɵɯ ɧɚɫɚɠɞɟɧɢɣ ɜ
ɋɪɟɞɧɟɪɭɫɫɤɨɣ ɥɟɫɨɫɬɟɩɢ: ɜɢɞɨɜɨɣ ɫɨɫɬɚɜ ɢ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɹ. – ɭɱɟɛ. ɩɨɫɨɛɢɟ. – ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ: ɂɉɎ
«ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ», 2011. – 113 ɫ.
4. Ƚɨɥɭɛ ȼ.Ȼ., ɉɪɨɫɬɚɤɨɜ ɇ.ɂ., ɏɢɰɨɜɚ Ʌ.ɇ. Ⱦɢɧɚɦɢɤɚ ɩɨɜɪɟɠɞɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɤɪɨɧɵ ɞɭɛɚ
ɲɢɪɨɤɨ ɦɢɧɢɪɭɸɳɟɣ ɦɨɥɶɸ ɜ ɍɫɦɚɧɫɤɨɦ ɛɨɪɭ (ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɚɹ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɶ). – ɂɡɜɟɫɬɢɟ
ɋɚɧɤɬ-ɉɟɬɟɪɛɭɪɝɫɤɨɣ ɥɟɫɨɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɚɤɚɞɟɦɢɢ. – Ʌ.-ȼɵɩ. 196. – ɋɉɛ ȽɅɌȺ, 2011. ɋ.
29-36.
5. Ʉɥɢɦɨɜ Ⱥ.ɋ., ɉɪɨɫɬɚɤɨɜ ɇ.ɂ. Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟɥɶ ɡɟɦɧɨɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɢ ɩɪɟɫɦɵɤɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɘɝɨɜɨɫɬɨɱɧɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɑɟɪɧɨɡɟɦɧɨɝɨ ɰɟɧɬɪɚ. - ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ, 2007.-56ɫ.
6. ɇɨɜɢɤɨɜ Ƚ.Ⱥ. ɢ ɞɪ. Ȼɢɨɥɨɝɢɹ ɥɟɫɧɵɯ ɩɬɢɰ ɢ ɡɜɟɪɟɣ. ɍɱɟɛɧɨɟ ɩɨɫɨɛɢɟ ɞɥɹ ɥɟɫɯɨɡɨɜ
ɢ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɜɭɡɨɜ / ɩɨɞ ɨɛɳɟɣ ɪɟɞɚɤɰɢɟɣ Ƚ.Ⱥ. ɇɨɜɢɤɨɜɚ.- ɂɡɞ. 3-ɟ,
ɢɫɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɨɟ ɢ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɟɧɧɨɟ. Ɇ.: «ȼɵɫɲɚɹ ɲɤɨɥɚ», 1975. - 384 ɫ.
7. ɇɭɦɟɪɨɜ Ⱥ. Ⱦ., Ʉɥɢɦɨɜ Ⱥ.ɋ., Ɍɪɭɮɚɧɨɜɚ ȿ.ɂ. ɉɨɥɟɜɵɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɚɡɟɦɧɵɯ
ɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ / ɭɱɟɛ. ɩɨɫɨɛɢɟ / Ⱥ.Ⱦ. ɇɭɦɟɪɨɜ, Ⱥ.ɋ. Ʉɥɢɦɨɜ, ȿ.ɂ. Ɍɪɭɮɚɧɨɜɚ - ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ:
ɂɡɞɚɬɟɥɶɫɤɨ-ɩɨɥɢɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɰɟɧɬɪ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɝɨ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ̛̛̱̦̖̬̭̯̖̯̏̌,
2010.–301̭.
8. Ɉɝɧɟɜ ɋ.ɂ., ȼɨɪɨɛɶɟɜ Ʉ.Ⱥ. Ɏɚɭɧɚ ɧɚɡɟɦɧɵɯ ɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɝɭɛɟɪɧɢɢ. –
Ɇ.: ɇɨɜɚɹ ɞɟɪɟɜɧɹ, 1923. – 78 ɫ.
9. ɉɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɵ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ. ɉɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɟ. Ʉɚɞɚɫɬɪ. ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ: Ȼɢɨɦɢɤ. 1996.-225ɫ.
10. ɉɪɨɫɬɚɤɨɜ ɇ.ɂ., Ɉɛɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɧɫɤɢɣ ɋ.ɂ. ɉɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɟ ɸɝɨ-ɡɚɩɚɞɧɨɣ
ɱɚɫɬɢ ɍɫɦɚɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɛɨɪɚ ɢ ɢɯ ɨɯɪɚɧɚ //ɋɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɢ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɍɫɦɚɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɛɨɪɚ. –
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ, 1992. – ɋ. 6-18 (Ɍɪ. ɛɢɨɥ. ɭɱɟɛ.-ɧɚɭɱɧ. ɛɚɡɵ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ. ɝɨɫ. ɭ-ɬɚ
«ȼɟɧɟɧɜɢɬɢɧɨɜɨ»; ȼɵɩ 1).
11. ɉɪɨɫɬɚɤɨɜ ɇ.ɂ., Ⱦɟɥɢɰɵɧɚ Ʌ.Ɏ. ɉɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɟ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɟ Ȼɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɭɱɟɛɧɨɧɚɭɱɧɨɝɨ ɰɟɧɬɪɚ (Ȼɍɇɐ) «ȼɟɧɟɜɢɬɢɧɨɜɨ» (ɷɤɨɥɨɝɨ-ɮɚɭɧɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɨɛɡɨɪ): ɍɱɟɛɧɨɟ
ɩɨɫɨɛɢɟ/ɇ.ɂ.ɉɪɨɫɬɚɤɨɜ, Ʌ.Ɏ.Ⱦɟɥɢɰɵɧɚ: ɩɨɞ ɨɛɳɟɣ ɪɟɞ. ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɨɪɚ ɇ. ɂ. ɉɪɨɫɬɚɤɨɜɚ. ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ: ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɢɣ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ, 2011.- 60 ɫ.
12. Ɋɟɩɢɬɭɧɨɜ ɋ.ȼ. ɉɥɨɬɧɨɫɬɶ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɵɬɤɨɣ ɹɳɟɪɢɰɵ ɜ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɯ
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ // ɋɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɢ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɋɪɟɞɧɟɪɭɫɫɤɨɣ ɥɟɫɨɫɬɟɩɢ. ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ,-2005.-ɋ.44-46.-( Ɍɪ. ɛɢɨɥ. ɭɱɟɛ.-ɧɚɭɱɧ. ɰɟɧɬɪɚ ȼȽɍ «ȼɟɧɟɜɢɬɢɧɨɜɨ»; ȼɵɩ.
XIX).
216
ɍȾɄ 595.122
ȼɅɂəɇɂȿ ɗɄɈɅɈȽɂɑȿɋɄɂɏ ɎȺɄɌɈɊɈȼ ɇȺ
ɂɇȼȺɁɂɊɈȼȺɇɇɈɋɌɖ ɉȿɊȼɈȽɈ ɉɊɈɆȿɀɍɌɈɑɇɈȽɈ ɏɈɁəɂɇȺ
OPISTHORCHIS FELINEUS (RIVOLTA., 1884) ɇȺ ɌȿɊɊɂɌɈɊɂɂ
ɋɊȿȾɇȿȽɈ ɉɊɂɈȻɖə
Ɍ.ȼ. ɒɚɪɚɮɭɬɞɢɧɨɜɚ, Ɋ.Ƚ. Ɏɚɬɬɚɯɨɜ
ɎȻɍɇ «Ɍɸɦɟɧɫɤɢɣ ɇɂɂ ɤɪɚɟɜɨɣ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɩɚɬɨɥɨɝɢɢ» Ɋɨɫɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɚɞɡɨɪɚ,
ɝ. Ɍɸɦɟɧɶ, [email protected]
ɉɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɵ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɢ
ɢ ɢɧɜɚɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɟɪɜɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɦɟɠɭɬɨɱɧɨɝɨ ɯɨɡɹɢɧɚ Opisthorchis felineus –
ɦɨɥɥɸɫɤɚ Opistorchophorus trocheli (Paasch, 1842) ɜ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɚɯ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ
ɬɢɩɨɜ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɋɪɟɞɧɟɝɨ ɉɪɢɨɛɶɹ ɫ 2005 ɩɨ 2012 ɝɨɞɵ.
Ɉɛɶ - ɂɪɬɵɲɫɤɢɣ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɤɪɭɩɧɟɣɲɢɦ ɨɱɚɝɨɦ ɨɩɢɫɬɨɪɯɨɡɚ
ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ.
Ⱥɧɚɥɢɡ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɧɵɯ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ ɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ, ɱɬɨ
ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɢɫɶ ɜ ɪɭɫɥɟ ɪ. Ɉɛɢ ɜ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɯ ɤɪɭɩɧɵɯ
ɩɪɚɜɵɯ ɩɪɢɬɨɤɚɯ ɢ ɩɪɢɥɟɝɚɸɳɢɯ ɤ ɧɟɣ ɩɨɣɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɚɯ [2, 4, 5]. Ʌɟɜɵɟ
ɩɪɢɬɨɤɢ ɋɪɟɞɧɟɣ Ɉɛɢ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɧɟ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɵ ɜ ɷɬɨɦ ɩɥɚɧɟ. Ɉɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɭɸɬ
ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɨ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɫɟɡɨɧɧɵɯ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɹɯ ɡɚ ɩɟɪɜɵɦ
ɩɪɨɦɟɠɭɬɨɱɧɵɦ ɯɨɡɹɢɧɨɦ ɝɟɥɶɦɢɧɬɚ ɢ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɨɦ ɷɦɢɫɫɢɢ ɰɟɪɤɚɪɢɣ. ɇɟ
ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɵ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɟ ɬɢɩɵ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɨɜ, ɝɞɟ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɩɟɪɟɞɚɱɚ ɢɧɜɚɡɢɢ ɨɬ
ɩɟɪɜɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɦɟɠɭɬɨɱɧɨɝɨ ɯɨɡɹɢɧɚ ɤɨ ɜɬɨɪɨɦɭ.
ɂɦɟɸɳɢɣɫɹ
ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɢ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɣ ɪɚɡɪɵɜ ɜ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹɯ ɡɚɬɪɭɞɧɹɟɬ
ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɨ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɹɯ ɠɢɡɧɟɧɧɨɝɨ
ɰɢɤɥɚ O. felineus. ȼ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɷɬɢɦ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɟɬ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɜ ɞɚɧɧɨɦ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɋɪɟɞɧɟɝɨ ɉɪɢɨɛɶɹ.
Ɇɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɵ ɢ ɦɟɬɨɞɵ. ɉɨɢɫɤ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɨɜ ɦɨɥɥɸɫɤɨɜ O. trocheli
ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɫɹ ɫ ɦɚɹ ɩɨ ɫɟɧɬɹɛɪɶ 2005-2012 ɝɝ. ɜ ɪɭɫɥɟ ɪ. Ɉɛɢ ɢ ɜ ɩɪɨɬɨɤɢ
ɘɝɚɧɫɤɚɹ Ɉɛɶ, ɜ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɚɯ ɪ. Ȼɨɥɶɲɨɣ ɘɝɚɧ, ɪ. Ȼɨɥɶɲɨɣ Ȼɚɥɵɤ ɢ ɟɝɨ
ɩɪɢɬɨɤɚɯ (ɪ. Ɇɚɥɵɣ Ȼɚɥɵɤ, ɪ. Ȼɨɥɶɲɨɣ Ʉɚɪɶ-ȿɝɚɧ, ɪ. ɉɭɱɢɩ-ɂɝɵɣ ɢ ɪ.
ɉɵɬɶɹɯ), ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɜ ɫɨɪɨɜɵɯ ɨɡɟɪɚɯ, ɧɟɩɨɣɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɚɯ ɢ
ɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɤɚɪɶɟɪɚɯ. ɂɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫ ɦɚɹ ɩɨ ɫɟɧɬɹɛɪɶ 2005-2012ɝɝ
ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɢɫɶ ɫ ɦɚɹ ɩɨ ɫɟɧɬɹɛɪɶ 2005-2012ɝɝ. ȼɫɟɝɨ ɛɵɥɨ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɨ 8822
ɷɤɡ. ɦɨɥɥɸɫɤɨɜ O. trocheli. ɗɤɫɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɢɧɜɚɡɢɢ ɦɨɥɥɸɫɤɨɜ ɥɢɱɢɧɤɚɦɢ
O. felineus ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɥɚɫɶ ɤɨɦɩɪɟɫɫɢɨɧɧɵɦ ɦɟɬɨɞ [1]. ɂɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ
ɜɨɞɨɟɦɵ ɛɵɥɢ ɩɨɞɪɚɡɞɟɥɟɧɵ ɩɨ ɝɢɞɪɨɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɤɥɚɫɫɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢ ɋ.Ⱥ.
Ɂɟɪɧɨɜɚ [3]:
1. Ʌɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɧɚɹ ɩɪɢɭɪɨɱɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɚ ɢ ɟɝɨ ɩɪɨɬɨɱɧɨɫɬɶ.
2. ɋɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɫɟɡɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɟɪɟɫɵɯɚɧɢɹ (ɧɟɩɟɪɟɫɵɯɚɸɳɢɟ, ɩɟɪɟɫɵɯɚɸɳɢɟ ɢ
ɬ.ɞ).
3. ɏɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ ɞɨɧɧɵɯ ɢ ɩɪɢɛɪɟɠɧɵɯ ɝɪɭɧɬɨɜ (ɩɟɫɱɚɧɵɟ, ɢɥɢɫɬɵɟ ɢ ɬ.ɞ.);
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4. ɏɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ ɮɢɬɨɰɟɧɨɡɨɜ (ɹɪɭɫɧɨɫɬɶ ɦɚɤɪɨɮɢɬɨɜ, ɜɢɞɨɜɨɟ
ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟ).
Ɍɢɩ. 1. Ɋɭɫɥɚ ɤɪɭɩɧɵɯ ɪɟɤ ɢ ɩɪɨɬɨɤ (ɪɭɫɥɨ ɪ. Ɉɛɢ ɢ ɩɪɨɬɨɤɢ ɘɝɚɧɫɤɚɹ
Ɉɛɶ).
Ɍɢɩ 2. Ɋɭɫɥɚ ɫɪɟɞɧɢɯ, ɦɚɥɵɯ ɪɟɤ ɢ ɢɯ ɩɪɢɬɨɤɨɜ (ɬɢɩ 2.1-ɩɪɢɬɨɤɢ
ɩɟɪɜɨɝɨ ɩɨɪɹɞɤɚ; ɬɢɩ 2.2.- ɩɪɢɬɨɤɢ ɜɬɨɪɨɝɨ-ɬɪɟɬɶɟɝɨ ɩɨɪɹɞɤɚ).
Ɍɢɩ 3. ɉɨɣɦɟɧɧɵɟ ɨɡɟɪɚ ɧɟɩɟɪɟɫɵɯɚɸɳɢɟ ɢɥɢ ɩɟɪɟɫɵɯɚɸɳɢɟ
ɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɨ, ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨ ɫɨɨɛɳɚɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɫ ɪɭɫɥɨɦ ɪɟɤɢ.
Ɍɢɩ 4. ɉɨɣɦɟɧɧɵɟ ɨɡɟɪɚ, ɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɨ ɩɟɪɟɫɵɯɚɸɳɢɟ ɢ ɫɨɨɛɳɚɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɫ
ɪɭɫɥɨɦ ɪɟɤɢ ɜɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɩɚɜɨɞɤɨɜ.
Ɍɢɩ 5. Ɇɟɥɤɢɟ ɡɚɦɤɧɭɬɵɟ ɩɨɣɦɟɧɧɵɟ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɵ, ɩɨɥɧɨɫɬɶɸ
ɩɟɪɟɫɵɯɚɸɳɢɟ ɜ ɤɨɧɰɟ ɥɟɬɧɟɝɨ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɚ.
Ɍɢɩ 6. ɇɟɩɨɣɦɟɧɧɵɟ ɡɚɦɨɪɧɵɟ ɢ ɧɟɡɚɦɨɪɧɵɟ ɨɡɟɪɚ ɧɚ ɜɨɞɨɪɚɡɞɟɥɚɯ
ɪɟɤ.
Ɍɢɩ 7. ɂɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɤɚɪɶɟɪɵ, ɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɜ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ
ɝɢɞɪɨɧɚɦɵɜɚ.
Ɋɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ. ȼ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ, ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɯ
ɜ 2005-2012ɝɝ. ɜ ɪɭɫɥɟ ɪ. Ɉɛɶ ɢ ɩɪɨɬɨɤɟ ɘɝɚɧɫɤɚɹ Ɉɛɶ ɛɵɥɨ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɨ
ɩɨɥɧɨɟ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɨɜ ɦɨɥɥɸɫɤɨɜ O. troscheli. Ɉɧɢ ɛɵɥɢ ɧɚɣɞɟɧɵ ɜ
ɪɭɫɥɟ ɢ ɩɨɣɦɟ ɢɯ ɩɪɢɬɨɤɨɜ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɜ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɧɟɩɨɣɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɚɯ
(ɬɢɩɵ 2.2,3,4,5,6). ȼ ɩɨɣɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɟɩɟɪɟɫɵɯɚɸɳɢɯ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɚɯ, ɢɦɟɸɳɢɯ
ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɭɸ ɫɜɹɡɶ ɫ ɪɭɫɥɨɦ ɪɟɤɢ, ɜ ɧɚɱɚɥɟ ɥɟɬɧɟɝɨ ɫɟɡɨɧɚ ɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɥɢ
ɝɨɞɨɜɢɤɢ ɢ ɞɜɭɯɥɟɬɧɢɟ ɨɫɨɛɢ. ȼ ɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɟɦ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚɥɨ ɱɢɫɥɨ ɫɟɝɨɥɟɬɨɤ, ɚ
ɞɨɥɹ ɫɬɚɪɲɢɯ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɵɯ ɝɪɭɩɩ, ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɬɪɟɯ- ɢ ɱɟɬɵɪɟɯɥɟɬɧɢɯ ɨɫɨɛɟɣ
ɫɧɢɠɚɥɚɫɶ. ȼ ɩɨɣɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɨɡɟɪɚɯ, ɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɨ ɩɟɪɟɫɵɯɚɸɳɢɯ ɫɨɨɛɳɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ
ɫ ɪɭɫɥɨɦ ɜɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɩɚɜɨɞɤɨɜ, ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɵɟ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ ɦɨɥɥɸɫɤɨɜ ɛɵɥɢ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɪɚɜɧɨɦɟɪɧɨ, ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɤɨɥɟɛɚɧɢɣ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ
ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɵɯ ɝɪɭɩɩ ɧɟ ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɨ. ȼ ɫɟɧɬɹɛɪɟ, ɤ ɤɨɧɰɭ
ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɚ ɨɩɢɫɬɨɪɯɨɮɨɪɭɫɨɜ, ɜ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɚɯ ɨɛɨɢɯ ɬɢɩɨɜ ɱɢɫɥɨ
ɫɟɝɨɥɟɬɨɤ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɢɥɨɫɶ, ɚ ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɭɸɳɢɦɢ ɜɧɨɜɶ ɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɥɢɫɶ ɫɬɚɪɲɢɟ
ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɵɟ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ. ȼ ɡɚɦɤɧɭɬɵɯ ɩɟɪɟɫɵɯɚɸɳɢɯ
ɩɨɣɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɢ ɜ
ɧɟɩɨɣɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɨɡɟɪɚɯ ɤ ɤɨɧɰɭ ɫɟɡɨɧɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɥɨɫɶ ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɞɨɥɢ
ɦɥɚɞɲɢɯ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɵɯ ɝɪɭɩɩ. Ɉɫɧɨɜɭ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɣ ɜ ɩɟɪɟɫɵɯɚɸɳɢɯ
ɩɨɣɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɨɡɟɪɚɯ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɥɢ ɨɫɨɛɢ ɬɪɟɯ-ɱɟɬɵɪɟɯ ɥɟɬ, ɚ ɜ ɧɟɩɨɣɦɟɧɧɵɯ
ɨɡɟɪɚɯ - ɞɜɭɯ-ɬɪɟɯ ɥɟɬ. ȼ ɪɭɫɥɚɯ ɩɪɢɬɨɤɨɜ ɜɬɨɪɨɝɨ ɩɨɪɹɞɤɚ ɜ ɧɚɱɚɥɟ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɚ
ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɨɜɚɥɢ ɨɫɨɛɢ ɫɬɚɪɲɢɯ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɵɯ ɝɪɭɩɩ, ɚ ɫ ɢɸɧɹ ɩɨ
ɚɜɝɭɫɬ ɞɨɦɢɧɚɧɬɚɦɢ ɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɥɢ ɫɟɝɨɥɟɬɤɢ.
Ɂɪɟɥɵɟ ɰɟɪɤɚɪɢɢ O.felineus ɜɵɹɜɥɹɥɢɫɶ ɜ ɦɨɥɥɸɫɤɚɯ ɫ ɩɟɪɜɨɣ ɞɟɤɚɞɵ
ɢɸɥɹ ɩɪɢ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɟ ɜɨɞɵ 19-200ɋ. ɉɨ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɚɦ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ
ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɣ
ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɨɣ
ɢɧɜɚɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɢ
ɨɩɢɫɬɨɪɯɨɮɨɪɭɫɨɜ
ɥɚɜɪɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɮɨɪɦɚɦɢ O.felineus ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɰɟɪɤɚɪɢɹɦɢ ɝɟɥɶɦɢɧɬɚ
ɡɚɪɚɠɟɧɵ ɨɩɢɫɬɨɪɯɨɮɨɪɭɫɵ ɜ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɟ ɞɜɭɯ-ɱɟɬɵɪɟɯ ɥɟɬ ɜ ɩɨɣɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɢ
ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɧɟɩɨɣɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɨɡɟɪɚɯ (Ɋɢɫ.1). ȼ ɩɨɣɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɚɯ
ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɨɫɨɛɟɣ O. trocheli ɜ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɟ ɞɜɭɯ -ɱɟɬɵɪɟɯ ɥɟɬ
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ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɥɚ ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦ ɨɤɨɥɨ 50% ɢ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɫ ɷɤɫɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɢɧɜɚɡɢɢ ɜ ɧɚɱɚɥɟ
ɩɟɪɢɨɞɚ ɷɦɦɢɫɢɢ ɨɬ 1,6% ɞɨ 3,4% ɜ ɩɟɪɜɨɣ ɞɟɤɚɞɟ ɢɸɥɹ ɫ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɦ
ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɟɦ ɞɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɹ ɞɨ 0,1-0,8% ɜ ɩɟɪɜɨɣ ɞɟɤɚɞɟ ɚɜɝɭɫɬɚ.
ɇɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɢɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɷɤɫɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɢɧɜɚɡɢɢ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɵ ɭ ɱɟɬɵɪɟɯɥɟɬɧɢɯ
ɨɫɨɛɟɣ O. trocheli ɜ ɩɨɣɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɟɩɟɪɟɫɵɯɚɸɳɢɯ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɚɯ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨ
ɫɨɨɛɳɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɫ ɪɭɫɥɨɦ ɪɟɤɢ. ȼ ɧɟɩɨɣɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɚɯ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧ
ɧɚɢɦɟɧɶɲɢɣ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɢɧɜɚɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɜɫɟɯ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɵɯ ɝɪɭɩɩ ɦɨɥɥɸɫɤɨɜ,
ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɢɣ ɜ ɧɚɱɚɥɟ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɚ ɷɦɦɢɫɫɢ 1-1,5%
ɫ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɦ
ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɟɦ ɞɨ 0,01 -0,4% ɜ ɚɜɝɭɫɬɟ. ɇɚɢɦɟɧɶɲɚɹ ɢɧɜɚɡɢɹ ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɚ ɭ
ɞɜɭɯɥɟɬɧɢɯ ɦɨɥɥɸɫɤɨɜ ɜ ɧɟɩɨɣɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɨɡɟɪɚɯ.
Ɍɢɩ 3.
Ɍɢɩ 4.
Ɍɢɩ 5
Ɍɢɩ 6.
Ɋɢɫ.1. Ɉɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɚ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɢɧɜɚɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɵɯ ɝɪɭɩɩ
ɦɨɥɥɸɫɤɨɜ O. trocheli ɜ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɚɯ ɫ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɦ ɝɢɞɪɨɪɟɠɢɦɨɦ ɜ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɫ ɢɸɧɹ ɩɨ ɚɜɝɭɫɬ
2005-2012ɝ.
Ɂɚɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟ. ɇɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɭɸ ɷɩɢɞɟɦɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɶ ɞɥɹ
ɡɚɪɚɠɟɧɢɹ ɤɚɪɩɨɜɵɯ ɪɵɛ ɜɨɡɛɭɞɢɬɟɥɟɦ ɨɩɢɫɬɨɪɯɨɡɚ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɫɨɛɨɣ
ɩɨɣɦɟɧɧɵɟ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɵ, ɫɪɟɞɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ
ɩɨ ɭɪɨɜɧɸ ɢɧɜɚɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɢ
ɥɢɞɢɪɭɸɬ ɩɨɣɦɟɧɧɵɟ ɧɟɩɟɪɟɫɵɯɚɸɳɢɟ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɵ, ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨ ɫɨɨɛɳɚɸɳɢɟɫɹ
ɫ ɪɭɫɥɨɦ ɪɟɤɢ. Ɂɚɪɚɠɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɦɨɥɥɸɫɤɨɜ ɝɟɥɶɦɢɧɬɨɦ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɫ
ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɨɦ. Ʉ ɤɨɧɰɭ ɥɟɬɧɟɝɨ ɫɟɡɨɧɚ ɢɧɜɚɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɦɨɥɥɸɫɤɨɜ ɫɧɢɠɚɟɬɫɹ
ɜɨ ɜɫɟɯ ɢɧɜɚɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɵɯ ɝɪɭɩɩɚɯ. Ɉɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟ ɢɧɜɚɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ
ɥɚɜɪɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɮɨɪɦɚɦɢ O.felineus ɦɨɥɥɸɫɤɨɜ O. trocheli ɜ ɪɭɫɥɚɯ ɩɪɢɬɨɤɨɜ
ɜɬɨɪɨɝɨ
ɩɨɪɹɞɤɚ
ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɨ
ɫ
ɦɚɥɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɸ
ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɣ
219
ɨɩɢɫɬɨɪɯɨɮɨɪɭɫɨɜ ɜ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɚɯ ɞɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɬɢɩɚ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɫ ɧɢɡɤɨɣ ɞɨɥɟɣ
ɫɬɚɪɲɢɯ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɵɯ ɝɪɭɩɩ ɜ ɢɯ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɨɣ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɟ.
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
1. Ȼɟɷɪ ɋ.Ⱥ., Ȼɟɥɹɤɨɜɚ ɘ.ȼ., ɋɢɞɨɪɨɜ ȿ.Ƚ. Ɇɟɬɨɞɵ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɦɟɠɭɬɨɱɧɵɯ ɯɨɡɹɟɜ
ɜɨɡɛɭɞɢɬɟɥɹ ɨɩɢɫɬɨɪɯɨɡɚ.- Ⱥɥɦɚ-Ⱥɬɚ: ɇɚɭɤɚ, 1987. - 85 ɫ.
2. Ⱦɪɨɡɞɨɜ ȼ.ɇ. ɉɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɨɱɚɝɨɜɵɟ ɛɨɥɟɡɧɢ: ɦ-ɥɵ ɧɚɭɱ. Ʉɨɧɮ. ɌɇɂɂɄɂɉ.- Ɍɸɦɟɧɶ,
1963.- ɋ.198-200.
3. Ɂɟɪɧɨɜ ɋ.Ⱥ. Ɉɛɳɚɹ ɝɢɞɪɨɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɹ. -Ɇ.-Ʌ.: ɢɡɞ-ɜɨ Ⱥɇ ɋɋɋɊ. 1949.-582ɫ.
4. Ɇɢɬɪɨɯɢɧ ȼ.ɍ. Ʉ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɭ ɨ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɢ, ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɢ Ȼɢɬɢɧɢɢ Ʌɢɱɢ ɜ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɚɯ
ɧɢɡɨɜɶɹ ɂɪɬɵɲɚ ɢ ɡɚɪɚɠɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɦɨɥɥɸɫɤɚ ɥɢɱɢɧɨɱɧɵɦɢ ɫɬɚɞɢɹɦɢ ɨɩɢɫɬɨɪɯɨɜ//
Ɇ-ɥɵ ɤɨɧɮ. ɩɨ ɦɟɞ. ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɥɨɝɢɢ. Ɇɨɫɤɜɚ, 1960. -ɋ.22.
5. Ɏɚɬɬɚɯɨɜ Ɋ.Ƚ. ɗɤɨɥɨɝɢɹ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚɪɧɵɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɨɩɢɫɬɨɪɯɢɞ Ɉɛɶ-ɂɪɬɵɲɫɤɨɝɨ
ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɚ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɩɪɟɫɫɢɢ. (ɚɜɬɨɪɟɮɟɪɚɬ). Ɍɸɦɟɧɶ.1996. - 50 ɫɬɪ.
INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON THE
INVASION LEVEL OF THE FIRST INTERMEDIATE HOST
OF OPISTHORCHIS FELINEUS (RIVOLTA., 1884)
IN THE MIDDLE PRE-OB AREA
T.V. Sharafutdinova, R.G. Fattakhov
FBUN Tyumen regional SCIENTIFIC-RESEARCH INSTITUTE of Infectious Pathology
Rospotrebnadzor, Tyumen
The results of research of regional features of ecology and invasion level of the
first intermediate host of Opisthorchis felineus - mollusk Opistorchophorus
trocheli (Paasch, 1842) in different water bodies in the Middle Pre-Ob area were
given for 2005-2012.
220
ɋɈȾȿɊɀȺɇɂȿ
Ȼɚɥɵɦɛɟɬɨɜ Ʉ.ɋ., Ȼɚɥɵɦɛɟɬɨɜ ɇ.Ʉ., Ʉɚɥɵɦɛɟɬɨɜɚ Ɇ.Ɍ., ɋɚɦɛɚɟɜ ɇ.ɋ.,
ɒɚɦɭɪɚɬɨɜɚ Ƚ.Ɍ.
ɋɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɟ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɒɚɪɞɚɪɢɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚ…….3
Ȼɚɥɵɦɛɟɬɨɜ Ʉ.ɋ., Ʉɚɥɵɦɛɟɬɨɜɚ Ɇ.Ɍ., ɒɚɦɭɪɚɬɨɜɚ Ƚ.Ɍ.
Ɉɰɟɧɤɚ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ ɤɨɪɦɨɜɨɣ ɛɚɡɵ ɨɡɟɪ Ⱥɤɲɚɬɚɭɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ
Ʉɵɡɵɥɨɪɞɢɧɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ....................................................................................6
Ȼɚɥɵɦɛɟɬɨɜ Ʉ.ɋ., Ʉɚɥɵɦɛɟɬɨɜɚ Ɇ.Ɍ., ɒɚɦɭɪɚɬɨɜɚ Ƚ.Ɍ.
Ɉɰɟɧɤɚ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ ɤɨɪɦɨɜɨɣ ɛɚɡɵ ɨɡɟɪ Ʉɚɵɫɬɵɛɚɫɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ
Ʉɵɡɵɥɨɪɞɢɧɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ....................................................................................9
Ȼɚɪɚɧɨɜɫɤɢɣ Ⱥ.ȼ.
ɉɨɡɞɧɟɟ ɝɧɟɡɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɤɨɧɨɩɥɹɧɤɢ ɜ ɝ. Ɋɹɡɚɧɢ………………………………..12
Ȼɨɛɪɟɰɨɜ Ⱥ.ȼ.
ȼɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɧɨɣ ɧɟɨɞɧɨɪɨɞɧɨɫɬɢ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɧɚ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ
ɦɟɥɤɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ ɢ ɢɯ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ…………………………………..14
Ȼɭɛɥɢɤɨɜɚ Ʌ.ɂ., Ƚɭɫɚɤɨɜ ɘ.Ⱥ.
Ɉɰɟɧɤɚ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɷɩɢɞɟɦɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɣ
ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ ɪɨɞɚ Anopheles (Diptera, Culicidae) Ɉɪɥɨɜɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ…………...18
Ȼɭɞɚɟɜɚ ɂ.Ⱥ., Ʉɨɥɭɩɚɟɜ Ⱥ.ɋ., ȼɢɫɥɟɜɫɤɚɹ ȿ.ɘ., Ȼɨɥɝɨɜɚ Ⱥ.ȼ.
Ʉ ɬɚɤɫɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɭ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɭ ɢ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɤɪɨɜɨɫɨɫɭɳɢɯ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ
(Diptera, Culicidae) ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ……………………………………21
Ȼɭɬɚɤɨɜ ȿ.ɂ.
Ɋɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɢɤɫɨɞɨɜɵɯ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢɢ Ⱥɥɬɚɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɤɪɚɹ…...29
Ƚɚɜɪɢɥɨɜ ȼ.ȼ.
Ɋɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɢ ɭɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜɨ ɝɧɟɡɞ ɤɭɥɢɤɨɜ, ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɜ ɬɭɧɞɪɟ
ɋɟɜɟɪɨ-ɜɨɫɬɨɤɚ əɤɭɬɢɢ………………………………………………………..33
Ƚɚɩɨɧɨɜ ɋ.ɉ., ɋɬɟɤɨɥɶɧɢɤɨɜ Ⱥ.Ⱥ.
Ȼɢɨɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɹ ɛɥɨɯ (Siphonaptera) ɝɪɵɡɭɧɨɜ ɢ ɧɚɫɟɤɨɦɨɹɞɧɵɯ ɜ ɭɪɛɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɯ
ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɚ………………………………………………………………………..37
Ƚɥɚɞɤɢɯ Ʉ.Ʉ., Ⱦɟɥɢɰɵɧɚ Ʌ.Ɏ.
ȼɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɜɟɫɟɧɧɢɯ ɩɚɜɨɞɤɨɜ ɢ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ ɧɚ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɵɟ
ɭɥɨɜɵ ɪɵɛɵ ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɚ ȼɟɪɯɧɟɝɨ Ⱦɨɧɚ (ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɚɹ
ɨɛɥɚɫɬɶ)…………………………………………………………………………44
221
Ƚɥɚɞɤɢɯ Ʉ.Ʉ., Ⱦɟɥɢɰɵɧɚ Ʌ.Ɏ.
ɑɟɯɨɧɶ Pelecus cultratus (Linneus, 1758) ɜ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɟ Ⱦɨɧɚ…………………..54
ȿɪɦɚɯɚɧɨɜ Ɂ.Ʉ., ɀɭɛɚɧɨɜ Ʉ.ɍ., Ȼɚɥɵɦɛɟɬɨɜ Ʉ.ɋ., ɋɚɦɛɚɟɜ ɇ.ɋ.,
Ʉɚɥɵɦɛɟɬɨɜɚ Ɇ.Ɍ.
ɋɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɟ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ Ⱥɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ (Ɇɚɥɨɝɨ) ɦɨɪɹ ɩɨɫɥɟ
ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ Ʉɨɤɚɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɣ ɩɥɨɬɢɧɵ............................................................59
ȿɪɦɚɯɚɧɨɜ Ɂ.Ʉ., ɀɭɛɚɧɨɜ Ʉ.ɍ., ɋɚɬɟɤɟɟɜ Ɍ.Ɍ.
Ⱥɧɚɥɢɡ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɚ ɢɯɬɢɨɮɚɭɧɵ ɢ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɚ Ⱥɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɨɪɹ ɜ
ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɤɪɢɡɢɫɚ ɢ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ Ʉɨɤɚɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɣ
ɩɥɨɬɢɧɵ................................................................................................................62
ȿɪɦɚɯɚɧɨɜ Ɂ.Ʉ., ɀɭɛɚɧɨɜ Ʉ.ɍ., ɋɚɬɟɤɟɟɜ Ɍ.Ɍ.
ɂɯɬɢɨɮɚɭɧɚ Ʉɚɧɞɚɪɚɥɶɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɨɡɟɪ ɧɢɡɨɜɶɹ ɪɟɤɢ ɋɵɪɞɚɪɶɹ..............64
ɀɢɥɶɰɨɜɚ Ⱥ.ɘ.
ɉɚɪɚɡɢɬɨ-ɯɨɡɹɢɧɧɵɟ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɝɚɦɚɡɨɜɵɯ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ ɪɨɞɚ Haemogamasus Berlese
(Acari: Gamasina) ɫ ɦɟɥɤɢɦɢ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɦɢ ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɐɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɉɪɟɞɤɚɜɤɚɡɶɹ…………………………………………………………………...67
Ʉɨɜɚɥɺɜɚ ɂ.Ɇ., Ɍɚɪɚɛɨɪɤɢɧ Ʌ.Ⱥ., Ɍɢɭɧɨɜ Ɇ.ɉ., Ʌɟɞɟɧɺɜ ɋ.ɘ.,
Ʌɟɞɟɧɺɜɚ ȿ.ɋ.
Ɇɨɪɮɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɥɟɬɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɩɟɪɟɩɨɧɤɢ Cynocephalus
variegatus (Dermoptera) ɜ ɷɦɛɪɢɨɝɟɧɟɡɟ………………………………………70
Ʉɨɡɨɪɟɡɨɜ Ⱥ.ȼ., Ⱦɨɪɨɠɤɢɧɚ Ɋ.ȼ., ɋɬɺɩɤɢɧ ɘ.ɂ., ɀɭɤɨɜɚ Ⱥ.ɂ., Ƚɟɪɢɤ
ȿ.ɉ., ɉɪɨɫɬɚɤɨɜ ɇ.ɂ., ɉɨɩɨɜɚ Ɍ.ɂ., Ɋɨɦɚɲɨɜ Ȼ.ȼ., Ɋɨɦɚɲɨɜɚ ɇ.Ȼ.,
Ʉɚɪɩɨɜ ɇ.Ⱥ., Ʉɜɚɫɨɜ Ⱦ.Ⱥ.
Ɉ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɟɦɨɫɬɢ ɞɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡɨɦ ɜ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ………………73
Ʉɭɩɪɢɹɧɨɜɚ ɂ.Ɏ.
Ɉɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɪɚɡɦɧɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɤɪɚɫɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɟɜɤɢ ɜ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɨɣ ɟɟ
ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɜ ɉɪɟɞɝɨɪɧɨɦ ɪɚɣɨɧɟ ɋɟɜɟɪɧɨɣ ɬɚɣɝɢ………………………...77
Ʉɭɪɨɜɫɤɚɹ Ʌ.ə., Ʌɵɫɟɧɤɨ ȼ.ɇ.
ȼɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɫɬɪɟɫɫ-ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ ɧɚ ɡɚɪɚɠɟɧɢɟ ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚɦɢ ɢ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ
ɛɢɨɯɢɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ ɪɵɛ-ɜɫɟɥɟɧɰɟɜ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɨɜ ɍɤɪɚɢɧɵ…………….80
Ʌɚɡɚɪɟɧɤɨ ȿ.ȼ.
Ȼɥɨɯɢ (Siphonaptera, Insecta) ɦɟɥɤɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ ɋɬɚɜɪɚɩɨɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ
ɤɪɚɹ ……………………………………………………………………………..84
222
Ʌɢɬɨɜɤɚ Ⱦ.ɂ., ɏɢɰɨɜɚ Ʌ.ɇ.
Ɏɚɤɬɨɪɵ ɨɛɨɫɨɛɥɟɧɢɹ ɚɧɚɞɵɪɫɤɨɣ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɢ ɛɟɥɭɯɢ (ɁɚɩɚɞɧɨȻɟɪɢɧɝɨɜɨɦɨɪɫɤɚɹ ɡɨɧɚ)……………………………………………………….87
Ʌɵɫɟɧɤɨ ȼ.ɇ., Ʉɭɪɨɜɫɤɚɹ Ʌ.ə., ɇɟɛɨɪɚɱɟɤ ɋ.ɂ.
Ɏɚɭɧɚ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ ɪɭɫɫɤɨɝɨ ɨɫɟɬɪɚ (Acipenser guldenstaedtii, Brandt, 1833),
ɢɧɬɪɨɞɭɰɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɜ ɚɤɜɚɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɭ ȼɶɟɬɧɚɦɚ……………………………...94
Ɇɚɪɤɢɧɚ Ɍ.Ⱥ.
ɋɟɡɨɧɧɚɹ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɚ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜ ɦɟɥɤɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ
Ɉɤɫɤɨɝɨ ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɚ…………………………………………………………..97
Ɇɢɪɡɚɟɜ ɍ.Ɍ.
Ɇɨɪɮɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɬɢɛɟɬɫɤɨɝɨ ɝɨɥɶɰɚ Triplophysa stoliczkai
(Cypriniformes, Balitoridae) ɜɨɞɨɟɦɨɜ ɍɡɛɟɤɢɫɬɚɧɚ.......................................101
Ɇɨɥɱɚɧɨɜɚ ȿ.Ⱦ., Ʌɟɲɢɲɚɤ Ⱥ.ȼ., ɒɟɣɤɢɧɚ ȿ.Ȼ.
ȼɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɤɨɪɦɨɜɨɝɨ ɫɭɛɫɬɪɚɬɚ ɞɥɹ ɜɵɤɚɪɦɥɢɜɚɧɢɹ ɝɭɫɟɧɢɰ ɦɟɥɶɧɢɱɧɨɣ
ɨɝɧɟɜɤɢ ɧɚ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ ɛɪɚɤɨɧɚ…………………………….105
Ɇɨɪɨɡɨɜ Ⱥ.ȼ., Ʌɹɯ ɘ.Ƚ.
ɂɧɜɚɡɢɹ ɤɚɤ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɣ ɮɚɤɬɨɪ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɹ ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ
ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢɣ ɫɪɟɞɢ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɧɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ………………………………109
Ɇɹɝɤɨɜɚ ɘ.ə.
Ʉɨɫɬɧɵɟ ɨɫɬɚɬɤɢ ɩɨɡɜɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɢɡ ɫɤɢɮɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɜɹɬɢɥɢɳɚ………………….111
ɇɚɝɚɲɹɧ Ɉ.Ɂ., ɓɟɪɛɚɤɨɜ Ɉ.ȼ.
ɉɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɚɤɚɪɨɡɨɜ ɤɨɲɟɤ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ȿɪɟɜɚɧɚ…………………………….115
ɇɟɞɨɫɟɤɢɧ ȼ.ɘ.
Ʉ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɭ ɨɛ ɢɡɦɟɧɱɢɜɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɧɚɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɨɤɪɚɫɤɢ ɜ ɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɢɯ ɫɢɡɵɯ
ɝɨɥɭɛɟɣ………………………………………………………………………...118
ɇɢɤɢɮɨɪɨɜɚ Ɉ.ȼ., Ɋɟɲɟɬɢɥɨ Ⱥ.ɂ., Ɇɢɯɚɣɥɢɱɟɧɤɨ ȿ.ɇ.
ɗɩɢɡɨɨɬɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ
ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ
ɢ
ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ
ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ
ɩɨɥɢɦɟɪɚɡɧɨɣ ɰɟɩɧɨɣ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɢ ɜ ɞɢɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɤɟ ɞɢɪɨɮɢɥɹɪɢɨɡɚ ɫɨɛɚɤ ɜ ɝ.
ɋɭɦɵ, ɍɤɪɚɢɧɚ………………………………………………………………..121
ɉɟɬɪɭɲɟɧɤɨ T.ɘ., Ɋɹɡɚɧɰɟɜɚ ȼ.Ⱥ., ɑɟɬɜɟɪɢɤɨɜ Ɏ.ȿ.
ɗɧɞɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɢɡɦ ɷɪɢɨɮɢɨɢɞɟɣ: ɧɨɜɵɟ ɜɢɞɵ ɤɥɟɳɟɣ ɪɨɞɚ Novophytoptus
(Acariformes, Eriophyoidea) ɫ ɫɢɬɧɢɤɨɜɵɯ…………………………………..126
223
ɉɥɟɬɧɟɜ Ɇ.ɘ., ɏɢɰɨɜɚ Ʌ.ɇ.
ɉɨɞɯɨɞɵ ɤ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɸ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵ
ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚɦɢ ɡɨɨɩɚɪɤɚ………………………………………………………….130
ɉɨɩɨɜɚ ȿ.ɋ., Ʉɨɧɭɫɨɜɚ Ɉ.Ʌ., Ɉɫɬɪɨɜɟɪɯɨɜɚ ɇ.ȼ., Ƚɨɥɭɛɟɜɚ ȿ.ɉ.
Ʉ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɸ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɤɥɟɳɚ Varroa destructor Anderson et Trueman
ɧɚ ɩɚɫɟɤɚɯ Ɍɨɦɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ…………………………………………………137
ɉɪɨɫɬɚɤɨɜ ɇ.ɂ., ȿɪɟɦɢɧɚ ɇ.Ɇ.
Ʉɚɦɟɧɧɚɹ ɤɭɧɢɰɚ (Martes foina Erst.) ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɪɭɫɫɤɨɣ
ɥɟɫɨɫɬɟɩɢ………………………………………………………………………141
ɋɚɞɵɪɛɚɟɜɚ ɇ.ɇ.
Ɉɰɟɧɤɚ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ ɨɡ. Ȼɚɥɯɚɲ ɩɨ
ɡɨɨɩɥɚɧɤɬɨɧɭ………………………………………………………………….147
ɋɟɞɚɥɢɳɟɜ ȼ.Ɍ., Ɉɞɧɨɤɭɪɰɟɜ ȼ.Ⱥ.
ɋɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɩɭɲɧɨɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɵɯ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ ɜ ɘɝɨ-Ɂɚɩɚɞɧɨɣ əɤɭɬɢɢ……..150
ɋɤɥɸɟɜ ȼ.ȼ.
ɉɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɹ ɠɟɫɬɤɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɝɨɞɵ ɩɨ Ƚ. Ȼɨɞɦɚɧɭɜ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹɯ………………………………………………………………...154
ɋɨɥɨɞɨɜɧɢɤɨɜɚ Ɉ.Ƚ., ɉɥɟɬɧɟɜ Ɇ.ɘ., ɉɥɹɳɟɧɤɨ Ⱥ.ȼ.
ȼɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɟ ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɵ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɚɧɢɦɚɥɨɬɟɪɚɩɢɢ ɜ ɪɚɦɤɚɯ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ
ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɧɨɣ ɤɨɦɧɚɬɵ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɝɨ ɡɨɨɩɚɪɤɚ……………………………...161
ɋɭɛɛɨɬɢɧɚ ȿ.ɘ., Ɇɚɤɫɢɦɨɜɚ ɘ.ȼ.
ȼɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɪɟɤɪɟɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ ɧɚ ɜɢɞɨɜɨɣ ɫɨɫɬɚɜ ɝɪɢɛɧɵɯ ɤɨɦɚɪɨɜ
(Diptera, Sciaroideaɜ ɩɨɞɬɚɟɠɧɵɯ ɛɢɨɝɟɨɰɟɧɨɡɚɯ Ɂɚɩɚɞɧɨɣ ɋɢɛɢɪɢ……...165
Ɍɟɥɟɜɢɧɨɜ Ⱥ.Ⱥ., ɉɪɨɫɬɚɤɨɜ ɇ.ɂ.
ɉɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɹ ɫɭɪɤɚ-ɛɚɣɛɚɤɚ ɧɚ ɫɟɜɟɪɨ-ɡɚɩɚɞɟ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ……....167
Ɍɪɟɬɶɹɤɨɜ Ʉ.Ⱥ.
ɋɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ ɷɤɬɨɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɜ ɞɜɭɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɦɟɥɤɢɯ ɦɥɟɤɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ
ɇɨɜɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ………………………………………………………..176
Ɍɪɭɮɚɧɨɜɚ ȿ.ɂ., Ʉɥɢɦɨɜ Ⱥ.ɋ.
Ʉ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɸ ɝɟɥɶɦɢɧɬɨɜ ɡɟɥɟɧɵɯ ɥɹɝɭɲɟɤ ɍɫɦɚɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɛɨɪɚ (ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɚɹ
ɨɛɥɚɫɬɶ)………………………………………………………………………..179
224
ɍɲɚɤɨɜ Ɇ.ȼ.
Ⱦɚɧɧɵɟ ɩɨ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɸ ɡɟɥɺɧɨɣ ɠɚɛɵ (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae) ɜ
ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɟ «Ƚɚɥɢɱɶɹ ɝɨɪɚ»…………………………………………………183
ɍɲɚɤɨɜ Ɇ.ȼ.
Ⱦɚɧɧɵɟ ɩɨ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɸ ɡɟɥɺɧɨɣ ɠɚɛɵ (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae) ɜ
ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɦ
ɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɧɨ-ɚɪɯɟɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɦ
ɦɭɡɟɟ-ɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɟ
«Ⱦɢɜɧɨɝɨɪɶɟ»………………………………………………………………….187
ɍɲɚɤɨɜɚ Ⱦ.Ɉ., ɇɭɦɟɪɨɜ Ⱥ.Ⱦ.
ɋɟɡɨɧɧɚɹ ɢɡɦɟɧɱɢɜɨɫɬɶ ɨɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɟɣ ɞɪɨɡɞɨɜɢɞɧɵɯ
ɤɚɦɵɲɟɜɨɤ (Acrocephalus arundinaceus), ɝɧɟɡɞɹɳɢɯɫɹ ɜ ɩɨɣɦɟ ɪɟɤɢ
ɉɨɬɭɞɚɧɶ………………………………………………………………………190
Ɏɟɞɨɪɨɜɚ ɋ.ɀ.
Ɇɨɧɢɬɨɪɢɧɝ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɰɟɧɨɡɚ ɫɟɪɨɣ ɤɪɵɫɵ (Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout) ɜ
ɑɭɣɫɤɨɣ ɞɨɥɢɧɟ (ɋɟɜɟɪɧɵɣ Ɍɹɧɶ-ɒɚɧɶ)……………………………………195
Ɏɢɥɢɩɶɟɱɟɜ Ⱥ.Ɉ., ɋɚɜɨɧɢɧ Ⱥ.Ⱥ.
ɇɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɱɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɯɨɪɹ (Mustela putorius L.) ɜ
ɫɪɟɞɧɟɣ ɡɨɧɟ ȼɨɥɝɨɝɪɚɞɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚ……………………………..198
Ɏɪɨɥɨɜɚ ȿ.ɇ., ɍɲɚɤɨɜ Ɇ.ȼ., Ʉɥɢɦɨɜ Ⱥ.ɋ.
ɇɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢ ɮɨɥɢɞɨɡɚ ɝɚɞɸɤɢ ɇɢɤɨɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ, Pelias berus
nikolskii (Vedmederja, Grubant, Rudaeva, 1986), ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠɫɤɨɣ
ɢ Ʌɢɩɟɰɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɟɣ…………………………………………………………201
ɏɚɛɢɛɭɥɥɢɧ ȼ.Ɏ.
ɉɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɵ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɚ «ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶ» ɩɪɢ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɢ
ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɢɡɦɚ……………………………………………………………………207
ɑɟɪɤɚɫɫɤɢɯ Ɇ.ȼ., ɉɪɨɫɬɚɤɨɜ ɇ.ɂ., ɋɚɥɨɜ ɇ.Ⱥ., ɑɟɛɨɬɚɪɟɜ ɂ.ɉ.
Ⱦɢɧɚɦɢɤɚ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɮɚɭɧɵ ɢ ɮɥɨɪɵ ɧɚ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɥɟɫɧɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ
ɝɚɪɟɣ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɭɱɟɛɧɨ-ɧɚɭɱɧɨɝɨ ɰɟɧɬɪɚ «ȼɟɧɟɜɢɬɢɧɨɜɨ» ɢ ɟɝɨ
ɨɤɪɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɜ ɍɫɦɚɧɫɤɨɦ ɛɨɪɭ……………………………………………..210
ɒɚɪɚɮɭɬɞɢɧɨɜɚ Ɍ.ȼ., Ɏɚɬɬɚɯɨɜ Ɋ.Ƚ.
ȼɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ ɧɚ ɢɧɜɚɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɟɪɜɨɝɨ
ɩɪɨɦɟɠɭɬɨɱɧɨɝɨ ɯɨɡɹɢɧɚ Opistorchophorus trocheli (Paasch, 1842) ɧɚ
ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ ɋɪɟɞɧɟɝɨ ɉɪɢɨɛɶɹ………………………………………………217
225
ɇɚɭɱɧɨɟ ɢɡɞɚɧɢɟ
ɋɈȼɊȿɆȿɇɇɕȿ ɉɊɈȻɅȿɆɕ
ɁɈɈɅɈȽɂɂ ɂ ɉȺɊȺɁɂɌɈɅɈȽɂɂ
Ɇɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɵ VI Ɇɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɣ ɧɚɭɱɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɢ
«ɑɬɟɧɢɹ ɩɚɦɹɬɢ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɨɪɚ ɂ.ɂ. Ȼɚɪɚɛɚɲ-ɇɢɤɢɮɨɪɨɜɚ»
(ɝ. ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ, 25 ɦɚɪɬɚ 2014 ɝ.)
ɉɨɞɩ. ɜ ɩɟɱ. 2014. Ɏɨɪɦɚɬ 60×84/16.
ɍɫɥ. ɩɟɱ. ɥ. 13,1. Ɍɢɪɚɠ 100 ɷɤɡ. Ɂɚɤɚɡ 521
ɂɡɞɚɬɟɥɶɫɤɢɣ ɞɨɦ ȼȽɍ
394000, ɝ. ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ, ɩɥ. ɢɦ. Ʌɟɧɢɧɚ, 10
Ɉɬɩɟɱɚɬɚɧɨ ɜ ɬɢɩɨɝɪɚɮɢɢ ɂɡɞɚɬɟɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ ɞɨɦɚ ȼȽɍ.
394000, ɝ. ȼɨɪɨɧɟɠ, ɭɥ. ɉɭɲɤɢɧɫɤɚɹ
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