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ȱ
˜ȱ’—’’ŒŠ—ȱ›˜‹•Ž–œȱ’‘ȱ
Š›˜•ȱǯȱ
˜Ž‘—Ž›Ȃœȱ‘›˜—˜•˜¢ȱȱ
˜ȱ‘Žȱ’Žȱ˜ȱ‘›’œȱ
ȱ
Š–ȱǯȱ–’‘ȱ
ȱ
ȱ
’—ŒŽȱ’œȱ’—›˜žŒ’˜—ȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŽŠ›•¢ȱ—’—ŽŽŽ—ȬœŽŸŽ—’Žœȱ
Š›˜•ȱ
˜Ž‘—Ž›Ȃœȱ
‘›˜—˜•˜’ŒŠ•ȱœ™ŽŒœȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ’Žȱ˜ȱ‘›’œȱǻŠ••Šœȱ‘Ž˜•˜’ŒŠ•ȱŽ–’—Š›¢ȱŗşŝřǰȱŗşŝŚǰȱŗşŝśǰȱ
Š—ȱ‘Žȱ˜—Ž›ŸŠ—ȱ˜›™˜›Š’˜—ǰȱŗşŝŝǼȱ‘Šœȱ‹ŽŒ˜–ŽȱŠȱœŠ—Š›ȱ›ŽŽ›Ž—ŒŽȱ˜›ȱ–Š—¢ȱ
Œ˜—œŽ›ŸŠ’ŸŽǰȱ™›Ž–’••Ž——’Š•ȱœžŽ—œȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ’‹•Žǯȱ
˜Ž‘—Ž›Ȃœȱ ˜›”ȱ™›˜Ÿ’ŽœȱŠ—ȱŽ¡ŒŽ••Ž—ȱ
’œŒžœœ’˜—ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŒ‘›˜—˜•˜’ŒŠ•ȱŠœ™ŽŒœȱ˜ȱ–Š—¢ȱ’–™˜›Š—ȱŠŒŽœȱ˜ȱ‘›’œȂœȱ•’ŽȱŠ—ȱ
–’—’œ›¢ǰȱ’—Œ•ž’—DZȱ‘ŽȱŠŽȱ˜ȱ‘’œȱ‹’›‘ǰȱ‘ŽȱŒ˜––Ž—ŒŽ–Ž—ȱ˜ȱ‘’œȱ–’—’œ›¢ǰȱ‘ŽȱŠ¢ȱŠ—ȱ
¢ŽŠ›ȱ˜ȱ‘’œȱŒ›žŒ’’¡’˜—ǰȱŠ—ȱ‘ŽȱœŽŸŽ—¢Ȭ ŽŽ”œȱ™›˜™‘ŽŒ¢ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ˜˜”ȱ˜ȱŠ—’Ž•ǯȱ‘Ž›ŽȱŠ›Žǰȱ
‘˜ ŽŸŽ›ǰȱŠȱŽ ȱ™›˜‹•Ž–œȱ ’‘ȱ
˜Ž‘—Ž›ȂœȱŒ‘›˜—˜•˜¢ȱ‘Šȱœ‘˜ž•ȱ‹Žȱ—˜Žǯȱ—ȱ‘’œȱ™Š™Ž›ȱ
‘ŽȱŠž‘˜›ȱŠ›ŽœœŽœȱ ˜ȱ’–™˜›Š—ȱ’œœžŽœDZȱŗǼȱ
˜Ž‘—Ž›ȂœȱŒŠ•Œž•Š’˜—œȱŒ˜—ŒŽ›—’—ȱ
Š—’Ž•ȂœȱŽŸŽ—¢ȱŽŽ”œǰȱŠ—ȱŘǼȱ‘’œȱŒ˜—Œ•žœ’˜—ȱ‘Šȱ‘›’œȂœȱ›’ž–™‘Š•ȱ—›¢ȱ’—˜ȱ
Ž›žœŠ•Ž–ȱ˜ŒŒž››Žȱ˜—ȱŠȱ˜—Š¢ȱ›Š‘Ž›ȱ‘Š—ȱŠȱž—Š¢ǯŗȱ
ȱ
›˜‹•Ž–œȱ ’‘ȱ
˜Ž‘—Ž›ȂœȱŒ‘›˜—˜•˜¢ȱ˜ȱŠ—’Ž•ȂœȱŽŸŽ—¢ȱŽŽ”œȱ›˜™‘ŽŒ¢ȱ
‘’•Žȱ›ǯȱ
˜Ž‘—Ž›ȱ–Š”Žœȱ–Š—¢ȱŸŠ•žŠ‹•Žȱ˜‹œŽ›ŸŠ’˜—œȱ›ŽŠ›’—ȱ‘ŽȱŒ‘›˜—˜•˜¢ȱ
˜ȱŠ—’Ž•ȂœȱŽŸŽ—¢ȬŽŽ”œȱ›˜™‘ŽŒ¢ǰȱŠœȱ Ž••ȱŠœȱ˜‹œŽ›ŸŠ’˜—œȱ˜—ȱ’›ȱ˜‹Ž›ȱ—Ž›œ˜—Ȃœȱ
™›’˜›ȱŒŠ•Œž•Š’˜—œȱ›ŽŠ›’—ȱ‘Žȱ™›˜™‘ŽŒ¢ǰȱ‘Ž›ŽȱŠ›Žȱœ˜–Žȱœ’—’’ŒŠ—ȱ™›˜‹•Ž–œȱ ’‘ȱ‘’œȱ
Š—Š•¢œ’œǯȱ
ȱ
ŗǯȱ‘ŽȱœŠ›ȬŠŽȱ˜ȱŠ›Œ‘ȱśȱǻŚŚŚȱǯǯǼȱ‘Šȱ
˜Ž‘—Ž›ȱ’ŸŽœȱ˜›ȱ’œŠ—ȱŗȱǻ‘Žȱ™›Žœž–Žȱ
œŠ›ȬŠŽȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽŸŽ—¢ȬŽŽ”œȱ›˜™‘ŽŒ¢Ǽȱ’œȱ’—Œ˜››ŽŒDzȱŠ›Œ‘ȱśǰȱŚŚŚȱǯǯȱŽ••ȱ˜—ȱ
ȱŠ›ȱŘǰȱ ‘’•Žȱ’œŠ—ȱŗȱŽ••ȱ˜—ȱ™›’•ȱŘǯŘȱ’”Ž•¢ȱ‘Žȱ›ŽŠœ˜—ȱ˜›ȱ‘’œȱŽ››˜›ȱ ŠœȱŠȱŠ’•ž›Žȱ˜ȱ
›ŽŒ˜—’£Žȱ‘ŠȱŚŚśȦŚŚŚȱǯǯȱǻ¢ŽŠ›ȱřřŗŝȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ
Ž‹›Ž ȱŠ•Ž—Š›Ǽȱ ŠœȱŠȱ¢ŽŠ›ȱ ’‘ȱŠ—ȱ
’—Ž›ŒŠ•Š›¢ȱ–˜—‘ǯȱ‘Žȱ’Ž›Ž—ŒŽȱ‹Ž ŽŽ—ȱȱŠ›ȱŘȱŠ—ȱ’œŠ—ȱŗȱ’œȱŘŞȱŠ¢œǯȱ‘žœȱŠȱ‘Žȱ
˜žœŽǰȱ
˜Ž‘—Ž›ȂœȱŒŠ•Œž•Š’˜—ȱ Šœȱ‘›˜ —ȱ˜ȱ‹¢ȱŘŞȱŠ¢œǯȱȱȱ
ȱ
Řǯȱ—Ž›Žœ’—•¢ǰȱ
˜Ž‘—Ž›ȱŒ˜››ŽŒ•¢ȱŒŠ•Œž•ŠŽȱ‘Žȱ—ž–‹Ž›ȱ˜ȱŠ¢œȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ’›œȱœ’¡¢Ȭ—’—Žȱ
ŽŽ”œȱŠœȱŗŝřǰŞśśǰȱ‹žȱ‹Ž•’ŽŸ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŒ˜››ŽŒȱ—ž–‹Ž›ȱ˜ȱ‹ŽȱŗŝřǰŞŞŖȱǻœ’—ŒŽȱŜşȱ ŽŽ”œȱ¡ȱŝȱ
¢ŽŠ›œȦ ŽŽ”ȱ¡ȱřŜŖȱŠ¢œȦ¢ŽŠ›ȱŽšžŠ•œȱŗŝřǰŞŞŖȱŠ¢œǼȱ‘Žȱ‘˜ž‘ȱ‘ŽȱŒŠ•Œž•Š’˜—ȱ—ŽŽŽȱŠȱŘśȬ
Š¢ȱŠ“žœ–Ž—ǯȱřȱŽ’——’—ȱ ’‘ȱŠ—ȱ’—Œ˜››ŽŒȱœŠ›’—ȱŠŽȱǻŠ›Œ‘ȱśǰȱŚŚŚȱǯǯǼȱ‘›˜ž‘ȱŠȱ
Œ˜–‹’—Š’˜—ȱ˜ȱŽ››˜›œȱ‘ŽȱŒŠ•Œž•ŠŽȱ‘ŽȱŽ›–’—Š•ȱ™˜’—ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱœ’¡¢Ȭ—’—‘ȱ ŽŽ”ȱ˜ȱ‹Žȱ
1
A portion of the discussion presented here can also be found in the author’s work, The Olivet Discourse:
A Reconstruction of the Text From Matthew, Mark, and Luke, with Commentary, Biblical Reader
Communications, 2010. pp. 201-207.
2
Dates other than Hebrew dates are Julian.
3
He started with a date that was 28 days too early (March 5, instead of April 2), added 25 days to adjust for
the difference between 173,855 days and 173,880 days, then made another 4 day error in computation. The
result was that his terminal date was +1 day off—March 30 instead of March 29 (cf. Hoehner, page 138).
Š›Œ‘ȱřŖǰȱǯǯȱřřǯŚȱ
Šȱ‘Žȱ‹Žž—ȱ ’‘ȱ‘ŽȱŒ˜››ŽŒȱœŠ›’—ȱŠŽȱ˜›ȱ’œŠ—ȱŗȱǻ™›’•ȱŘǰȱ—˜ȱ
Š›Œ‘ȱśǼȱŚŚŚȱǯǯȱŠ—ȱŒŠ•Œž•ŠŽȱ‘ŽȱŽ—ȬŠŽȱŒ˜››ŽŒ•¢ǰȱ›ŽŒ˜—’£’—ȱ‘Šȱ‘Ž›ŽȱŠ›Žȱ
ŗŝřǰŞśśȱŠ¢œȱǻ‘Žȱ—ž–‹Ž›ȱ˜ȱŠ¢œȱ’—ȱŽ¡ŠŒ•¢ȱŚŝŜȱœ˜•Š›ȱ¢ŽŠ›œǼȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ’›œȱœ’¡¢Ȭ—’—Žȱ ŽŽ”œȱ
ǻ—˜ȱŗŝřǰŞŞŖȱŠ¢œǼǰȱ‘ŽȱŽ›–’—Š•ȱŠŽȱ ˜ž•ȱ‘ŠŸŽȱŒ˜–™žŽȱ˜ȱŠ›Œ‘ȱŘşǰȱǯǯȱřřǰȱ‘Žȱ
ŸŽ›¢ȱŠ¢ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ›’ž–™‘Š•ȱ—›¢ȱ˜ȱ‘›’œȱ’—˜ȱŽ›žœŠ•Ž–ȱ’ŸŽȱŠ¢œȱ‹Ž˜›Žȱ‘’œȱ
Œ›žŒ’’¡’˜—ǯśȱȱ’œȱŒ›’’ŒŠ•ȱ˜ȱ›ŽŒ˜—’£Žȱ‘Šȱ‘Žȱ™›˜™‘ŽŒ¢ȱŒŠ•Œž•ŠŽœȱŒ˜››ŽŒ•¢ȱ ‘Ž—ȱ‹ŠœŽȱ
˜—ȱ ‘˜•Žȱœ˜•Š›ȱ¢ŽŠ›œǰȱ’ǯŽǯǰȱŚŝŜȱ¢ŽŠ›œǰȱ—˜ȱŚŝŜǯŖŜŝŜŝŚŚȱ¢ŽŠ›œǯŜǰȱŝȱ
ȱ
řǯȱ‘ŽȱŽ››˜›œȱ™˜’—Žȱ˜žȱŠ‹˜ŸŽȱ’—ȱŠŽȱŒ˜—ŸŽ›œ’˜—œȱŠ›ŽȱŽŠœ¢ȱ˜ȱ’Ž—’¢Dzȱ‘˜ ŽŸŽ›ǰȱœ’—ŒŽȱ
˜Ž‘—Ž›ȱ˜Žœ—Ȃȱœ‘˜ ȱŠ••ȱ˜ȱ‘’œȱŒŠ•Œž•Š’˜—œȱ’ȱ’œȱ’–™˜œœ’‹•Žȱ˜ȱ”—˜ ȱ‘˜ ȱœ˜–ŽȱŽ››˜›œȱ
Ž›Žȱ–ŠŽȱ’—ȱŒŠ•Œž•Š’—ȱ‘ŽȱŽ—ȬŠŽȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ’›œȱœ’¡¢Ȭ—’—Žȱ ŽŽ”œǯȱ
ŽȱœŽŽ–œȱ˜ȱ’–™•¢ȱ
‘Šȱ›˜–ȱŠ›Œ‘ȱśǰȱŚŚŚȱǯǯȱ˜ȱŠ›Œ‘ȱśǰȱǯǯȱřřȱ ŠœȱŗŝřǰŞśśȱŠ¢œǰȱ˜ȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ’ȱ˜—ŽȱŠŽȱ
ŘśȱŠ¢œǰȱ‘Ž¢ȱ ˜ž•ȱŠ››’ŸŽȱŠȱŠ—ȱŽ—ȬŠŽȱ˜ȱŠ›Œ‘ȱřŖǰȱǯǯȱřřǰȱ‘Ž›Žȱ‹Ž’—ȱŗŝřǰŞŞŖȱŠ¢œȱ
’—ȱ‘Žȱ’›œȱœ’¡¢Ȭ—’—Žȱ ŽŽ”œȱǻ’ǯŽǯǰȱŝȱ¢ŽŠ›œȦ ŽŽ”ȱ¡ȱŜşȱ ŽŽ”œȱ¡ȱřŜŖȱŠ¢œȦ ŽŽ”ǼǯŞȱ
˜ ŽŸŽ›ǰȱ
Š›Œ‘ȱśǰȱŚŚŚȱǯǯȱ˜ȱŠ›Œ‘ȱřŖǰȱǯǯȱřřȱ’œȱ—˜ȱŗŝřǰŞŞŖȱŠ¢œǰȱŠœȱ
˜Ž‘—Ž›ȂœȱŒŠ•Œž•Š’˜—ȱ
™›Žœž–Žœǰȱ‹žȱŗŝřǰŞśşȱŠ¢œȯŠȱž••ȱŘŗȱŠ¢œȱ˜ǯşȱȱ
ȱ
4
This involved multiple errors, for starting from Nisan 1, 444 B.C. and adding 173,880 days gives a
terminal date of April 23, A.D. 33, not March 30 as Hoehner indicates. Actually neither of these dates
could be the correct terminal date of the first sixty-nine weeks (given Nisan 1, 444 B.C. as the starting
date). Starting from Nisan 1, 444 B.C. and adding 173,855 days (the number of days in the first six-nine
weeks) gives a terminal date of Nisan 9 (March 29), A.D. 33, which was the date of Christ’s Triumphal
Entry into Jerusalem. Hoehner’s miscalculation of the terminal date as March 30 is likely the reason he
believed the Triumphal Entry to have taken place on Monday instead of Sunday (see Hoehner, p. 143).
That the Triumphal Entry took place on Sunday is well attested from the Gospel of Mark (see the
discussion further along in this paper).
5
This is where Hoehner made a critical error; he added the fractional portion of a solar year (0.0676744
solar years being 25 days), which should have been dropped when the 476.0676744 solar years were
computed (see the computation further along). By adding the additional 25 days and making another 4-day
unspecified error in calculation, he appeared to have a nearly correct date (recall that his starting date was
off by 28 days); this left the calculation off by +1 day (Monday, March 30, A.D. 33 instead of the correct
date: Sunday, March 29, A.D. 33), which he reconciled by simply moving the Triumphal Entry to Monday
rather than Sunday. (While there is no necessity for the sixty-nine weeks to end on the day of the
Triumphal Entry, it would seem reasonable that it would end on some significant day.)
6
He assumes that 173,855 days plus 25 days (173,880 days) from Nisan 1, 444 B.C. terminated on Nisan
10 (March 30), A.D. 33 when it actually terminated April 23, A.D. 33 (Nisan 1, 444 B.C. is Julian Day
Number (JDN) 1,559,344; that date plus 173,880 days is JDN 1,733,224, or April 23, A.D. 33). Of course,
April 23, A.D. 33 would overshoot the crucifixion by 17 days and could not be correct.
7
Both Anderson and Hoehner assume that Nisan 1 was intended since a specific day in the month is not
mentioned in Nehemiah 2:1. The author’s calculation also uses Nisan 1 as the start-date. Actually, any
start-date between Nisan 1 and Nisan 5 (444 B.C.) would satisfy the requirements of the prophecy that the
sixty-nine weeks would terminate prior to the death of Messiah (Dan. 9:25-26).
8
Hoehner, p. 138.
9
March 5, 444 B.C. is JND 1,559,316; March 30, A.D. 33 is JDN 1,733,175; the difference is 173,859 days
(173,880 days – 173,859 days = 21 days).
ŠŽœȱœ’—’’ŒŠ—ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽŸŽ—¢ȬŽŽ”œȱ›˜™‘ŽŒ¢ȱ
ȱ
ȱ
Ž‹›Ž ȱŠ•Ž—Š›ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱž•’Š—ȱŠ•Ž—Š›ȱȱȱȱȱȱž•’Š—ȱŠ¢ȱž–‹Ž›ŗŖȱ ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ’—’’ŒŠ—ŒŽȱ
ȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȱ
ȱ
’œŠ—ȱŗǰȱŚŚŚȱǯǯȱ
™›’•ȱŘǰȱŚŚŚȱǯǯȱ
ŗǰśśşǰřŚŚȱ
›Š¡Ž›¡ŽœȂȱœŽŒ˜—ȱŽŒ›ŽŽȱǻ‘Žȱ
ǻ
Ž‹ǯȱŽŠ›ȱřřŗŝǼȱ
™›Žœž–ŽȱœŠ›’—ȱ™˜’—ȱ˜›ȱ‘Žȱ
œŽŸŽ—¢Ȭ ŽŽ”œȱ™›˜™‘ŽŒ¢Ǽȱ
’œŠ—ȱşǰȱǯǯȱřřȱ
ǻ
Ž‹ǯȱŽŠ›ȱřŝşřǼȱ
Š›Œ‘ȱŘşǰȱǯǯȱ
řřȱ
ŗǰŝřřǰŗşşȱ
Ž›–’—Š•ȱŠŽȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱœ’¡¢Ȭ—’—‘ȱ
ŽŽ”DzȱŠŽȱ˜ȱ‘›’œȂœȱ›’ž–™‘Š•ȱ
—›¢ȱ’—˜ȱŽ›žœŠ•Ž–ȱ
ȱ
¢ȱ˜ —ȱŒŠ•Œž•Š’˜—ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ™›˜™‘ŽŒ¢ȱ’œȱŠœȱ˜••˜ œDZȱ‘Žȱ™›˜™‘Ž’ŒȱŠŠȱ’œȱ’ŸŽ—ȱ’—ȱ
’—ŽŽ›œǯȱ•‘˜ž‘ȱ‘Žȱŝȱ¢ŽŠ›œȦ ŽŽ”ȱ¡ȱŜşȱ ŽŽ”œȱ¡ȱřŜŖȱŠ¢œȦ¢ŽŠ›ȱ’Ÿ’Žȱ‹¢ȱřŜśǯŘŚŘŗşȱ
Š¢œȦœ˜•Š›ȱ¢ŽŠ›ȱŽšžŠ•œȱŚŝŜǯŖŜŝŜŝŚŚȱœ˜•Š›ȱ¢ŽŠ›œȱǻŗŝřǰŞŞŖȱŠ¢œǼǰȱ‘Žȱ—ž–‹Ž›ȱ˜ȱŠ¢œȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ
’—ŽŽ›ȱ›Žœž•ȱǻŚŝŜȱ¢ŽŠ›œǼȱ’œȱ˜—•¢ȱŗŝřǰŞśśȱǻŚŝŜȱ¢ŽŠ›œȱ¡ȱřŜśǯŘŚŘŗşȱŠ¢œȦ¢ŽŠ›Ǽǯȱ—Žȱ–žœȱ
‹ŽŠ›ȱ’—ȱ–’—ȱ‘ŠȱŠ•‘˜ž‘ȱ‘Žȱ™›˜™‘ŽŒ¢ȱ’œȱŒŠ•Œž•ŠŽȱ’—ȱŠ¢œȱ˜›ȱ‘Žȱ™ž›™˜œŽȱ˜ȱ
ŽŽ›–’—’—ȱ‘ŽȱŽ—ȬŠŽȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ’›œȱœ’¡¢Ȭ—’—Žȱ ŽŽ”œǰȱ’ȱ Šœȱ’ŸŽ—ȱ’—ȱ’—ŽŽ›ȱž—’œDzȱ‘žœȱ
‘Žȱœ˜•ž’˜—ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽ—™˜’—ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱœ’¡¢Ȭ—’—‘ȱ ŽŽ”ȱ’œȱ‘Žȱ—ž–‹Ž›ȱ˜ȱŠ¢œȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ’—ŽŽ›ȱ
—ž–‹Ž›ȱ˜ȱœ˜•Š›ȱ¢ŽŠ›œȱ˜›ȱ‘ŽȱŜşȱ ŽŽ”œǯȱ‘Ž—ȱŒŠ•Œž•ŠŽȱ‘’œȱ Š¢ȱ‘Žȱ›Žœž•ȱ’œȱ™›ŽŒ’œŽ•¢ȱ
‘Žȱ—ž–‹Ž›ȱ˜ȱŠ¢œȱ‹Ž ŽŽ—ȱ’œŠ—ȱŗǰȱŚŚŚȱǯǯȱǻ‘Žȱ™›Žœž–ŽȱœŠ›ȬŠŽȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ™›˜™‘ŽŒ¢Ǽȱ
Š—ȱ’œŠ—ȱşǰȱǯǯȱřřǰȱ‘ŽȱŠŽȱ˜ȱ‘›’œȂœȱ›’ž–™‘Š•ȱ—›¢ȱ’—˜ȱŽ›žœŠ•Ž–ȱŠ—ȱ‘’œȱ
›Ž“ŽŒ’˜—ȱ‹¢ȱ‘Žȱ•ŽŠŽ›œȱ˜ȱœ›ŠŽ•ȱ’ŸŽȱŠ¢œȱ‹Ž˜›Žȱ‘’œȱŒ›žŒ’’¡’˜—ǯȱ‘Žȱœ’–™•Žœȱ–Ž‘˜ȱ˜ȱ
ŒŠ•Œž•Š’—ȱ‘ŽȱŽ—ȬŠŽȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱœ’¡¢Ȭ—’—‘ȱ ŽŽ”ȱ’œȱ˜ȱŽŽ›–’—Žȱ‘Žȱž•’Š—ȱŠ¢ȱž–‹Ž›ȱ
ǻǼȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱœŠ›’—ȱ™˜’—ȱǻ’œŠ—ȱŗǰȱŚŚŚȱǯǯȱ’œȱȱŗǰśśşǰřŚŚǼȱŠȱŗŝřǰŞśśȱŠ¢œǰȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ
’ŸŽœȱ‘Žȱȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽ›–’—Š•ȱŠŽȱǻŗǰśśşǰřŚŚȱƸȱŗŝřǰŞśśȱƽȱȱŗǰŝřřǰŗşşǼǰȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ Šœȱ
’œŠ—ȱşȱǻŠ›Œ‘ȱŘşǼǰȱǯǯȱřřȱǻŠȱž—Š¢Ǽǰȱ‘ŽȱŠŽȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ›’ž–™‘Š•ȱ—›¢ǯȱ‘Ž—ȱ˜—Žȱ
‘’œȱ Š¢ȱ‘ŽȱŒŠ•Œž•Š’˜—ȱ’œȱœ’–™•Žǰȱ™›ŽŒ’œŽǰȱŠ—ȱ›Žšž’›Žœȱ—˜ȱŠ“žœ–Ž—œȱ˜ȱŠ—¢ȱ”’—ǰȱ˜—•¢ȱ
Šȱ›ŽŒ˜—’’˜—ȱ‘Šȱ‘ŽȱŠŠȱ Šœȱ’ŸŽ—ȱ’—ȱ ‘˜•Žȱ—ž–‹Ž›œȱŠ—ȱ‘Žȱœ˜•ž’˜—ȱ•’Žœȱ’—ȱ
ŠŸŠ—Œ’—ȱ›˜–ȱ‘ŽȱœŠ›ȬŠŽȱŽ¡ŠŒ•¢ȱŚŝŜȱœ˜•Š›ȱ¢ŽŠ›œǯŗŗȱ
10
All Julian Day Numbers (JDN) are 12h UT. (Julian Day Numbers are also referred to as “Serial Day
Numbers.”)
11
Note that a decimal number was used in this calculation (365.24219 days/solar year). If, as the point has
been made, the correct solution must be an integer, one might ask why a decimal number was used in the
intermediate computation. The answer is simple: the number of days in a solar year is, for all practical
purposes, a natural constant (rather than data); the other numbers (those given in the prophecy or deduced
from other prophetic material) are all integer data. It is only the result (i.e., the number of years) that must
be an integer. Thus in computing the solution we are allowed to distinguish between constants (which may
be decimal numbers) and data (which is only given to a particular level of specificity—in this case
integers). The result of a calculation cannot be more specific than the data; in this case the result cannot be
more specific than a whole year.
‘ŽȱŒ‘›˜—˜•˜¢ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŠœœ’˜—ȱŽŽ”ȱ
˜Ž‘—Ž›ȂœȱŒ‘›˜—˜•˜¢ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ’›œȱ‘Š•ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŠœœ’˜—ȱŽŽ”ȱǻž—Š¢ȱ‘›˜ž‘ȱ
Ž—ŽœŠ¢ǼȱŠ•œ˜ȱŒ˜—Š’—œȱŠȱ–Š“˜›ȱ™›˜‹•Ž–ǰȱ•’”Ž•¢ȱžŽȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ’—Œ˜››ŽŒȱŒŠ•Œž•Š’˜—ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ
Ž›–’—Š•ȱ™˜’—ȱ˜ȱŠ—’Ž•Ȃœȱœ’¡¢Ȭ—’—‘ȱ ŽŽ”ǰȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ
˜Ž‘—Ž›ȱŒŠ•Œž•ŠŽȱ˜ȱ‹Žȱ˜—Š¢ǰȱ
’œŠ—ȱŗŖȱǻŠ›Œ‘ȱřŖǼȱǯǯȱřřȱ’—œŽŠȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŒ˜››ŽŒȱŠŽȱ˜ȱž—Š¢ǰȱ’œŠ—ȱşȱǻŠ›Œ‘ȱŘşǼǯȱ
˜›ȱ›ŽŠœ˜—œȱ‘Žȱ˜Žœȱ—˜ȱŽ¡™•Š’—ǰȱ
˜Ž‘—Ž›ȱ’—œŽ›œȱŠȱ˜—ŽȱŠ¢ȱ‹›ŽŠ”ȱ‹Ž ŽŽ—ȱ˜‘—ȱŗŘDZŞȱŠ—ȱ
ŗŘDZşȱ ‘Ž›Žȱ—˜ȱ‹›ŽŠ”ȱ’œȱ’—’ŒŠŽȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ‹’‹•’ŒŠ•ȱŽ¡ǯȱ‘’œȱ–’œŠ”Žȱ™•ŠŒŽœȱ‘Žȱ›’ž–™‘Š•ȱ
Ž—›¢ȱ˜—ȱ˜—Š¢ȱ’—œŽŠȱ˜ȱž—Š¢ȱŠœȱ’—’ŒŠŽȱ’—ȱŠ›”Ȃœȱ˜œ™Ž•ǯȱ‘Žȱ’—œŽ›’˜—ȱ˜ȱ‘’œȱ
‹›ŽŠ”ȱ’œȱ•’”Ž•¢ȱžŽȱ˜ȱ‘’œȱ Š—’—ȱ‘Žȱœ’¡¢Ȭ—’—‘ȱ ŽŽ”ȱ˜ȱŠ—’Ž•Ȃœȱ™›˜™‘ŽŒ¢ȱ˜ȱŽ›–’—ŠŽȱ
˜—ȱŠȱœ’—’’ŒŠ—ȱŠ¢ǯȱ‘ŽȱŽŽŒȱ˜ȱ‘’œȱ–’œŠ”Žȱ’œȱ‘ŠȱŠ••ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽŸŽ—œȱ‘Žȱ•’œœȱ˜›ȱž—Š¢ȱ
‘›˜ž‘ȱŽ—ŽœŠ¢ȱŠ›Žȱ˜ȱ‹¢ȱ˜—ŽȱŠ¢ǯȱȱ
ȱ
˜Ž‘—Ž›ȂœȱŒ‘›˜—˜•˜¢ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŠœœ’˜—ȱŽŽ”DZȱ
ȱ
‘›’œȱ››’ŸŽȱŠȱŽ‘Š—¢ȱ ȱ
ȱ
ȱ
Šž›Š¢ǰȱŠ›Œ‘ȱŘŞȱ
›˜ œȱŠȱŽ‘Š—¢ȱ ȱ
ȱ
ȱ
ȱ
ž—Š¢ǰȱŠ›Œ‘ȱŘşȱ
‘Žȱ›’ž–™‘Š•ȱ—›¢ȱ ȱ
ȱ
ȱ
ȱ
˜—Š¢ǰȱŠ›Œ‘ȱřŖȱ
ž›’—ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ’ȱ›ŽŽȱȦȱŒ•ŽŠ—œ’—ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽ–™•Žȱ
žŽœŠ¢ǰȱŠ›Œ‘ȱřŗȱ
’—Š•ȱŸ’œ’ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽ–™•ŽȱȦȱ•’ŸŽȱ’œŒ˜ž›œŽȱ ȱ
Ž—ŽœŠ¢ǰȱ™›’•ȱŗȱ
Šœœ˜ŸŽ›ȱ–ŽŠ•ǰȱ‹Ž›Š¢Š•ǰȱŠ››Žœǰȱ›’Š•ȱ ȱ
ȱ
‘ž›œŠ¢ǰȱ™›’•ȱŘȱ
‘›’œȱ›’ŽȱŠ—ȱŒ›žŒ’’Žȱ
ȱ
ȱ
ȱ
›’Š¢ǰȱ™›’•ȱřȱ
‘›’œȂœȱ›Žœž››ŽŒ’˜—ȱ ȱ
ȱ
ȱ
ȱ
ž—Š¢ȱ™›’•ȱśȱ
ȱ
ȱ
˜Ž‘—Ž›ȱ‹Ž’—œȱ‘ŽȱŠœœ’˜—ȱŽŽ”ȱ ’‘ȱŽœžœȂȱŠ››’ŸŠ•ȱŠȱŽ‘Š—¢ǰȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ‘Žȱ
Œ˜››ŽŒ•¢ȱœŠŽœȱ ŠœȱŠž›Š¢ǰȱŠ›Œ‘ȱŘŞDzȱ—˜Žȱ‘ŠȱŽœžœȱŠ››’ŸŽȱœ’¡ȱŠ¢œȱ‹Ž˜›Žȱ‘Žȱ
›’Š¢ȱŠœœ˜ŸŽ›ȱǻ—ǯȱŗŘDZŗȬŗŗǼǯȱ
˜ ŽŸŽ›ǰȱ ’‘˜žȱœŠ’—ȱŠ—¢ȱ“žœ’’ŒŠ’˜—ȱ
˜Ž‘—Ž›ȱ‹Ž’—œȱ
‘Žȱ—Ž¡ȱŠ¢ȱǻž—Š¢ǼȱŠȱ˜‘—ȱŗŘDZşǰȱ ‘Ž›Žȱ—˜ȱ‹›ŽŠ”ȱ’œȱ’—’ŒŠŽǰȱ™•ŠŒ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŠ‘Ž›’—ȱ˜ȱ
Ž œȱ’—ȱŽ‘Š—¢ȱ˜—ȱž—Š¢ȱ’—œŽŠȱ˜ȱŠž›Š¢ǯȱ‘’œȱŒ›’’ŒŠ•ȱŽ››˜›ȱŠŸŠ—ŒŽœȱ‘Žȱ
›Ž–Š’—Ž›ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ ŽŽ”ǰȱ‘›˜ž‘ȱŽ—ŽœŠ¢ǰȱ‹¢ȱ˜—ŽȱŠ¢ǯȱ‘Žȱ›’ž–™‘Š•ȱ—›¢ȱ’—˜ȱ
Ž›žœŠ•Ž–ȱ Šœȱ˜—ȱ‘Žȱ—Ž¡ȱŠ¢ȱǻž—Š¢Ǽǰȱ—˜ȱ˜—Š¢ȱŠœȱ
˜Ž‘—Ž›ȱ’—’ŒŠŽœǯȱ
˜ ȱ˜ȱ Žȱ
”—˜ ȱ‘’œǵȱŽœžœȱ ŠœȱŒ›žŒ’’Žȱ˜—ȱŠȱ›’Š¢ȱǻ‘ŽȱŠ¢ȱ‹Ž˜›Žȱ‘ŽȱŠ‹‹Š‘ǰȱŒǯȱ”ȱŗśDZŚŘȱŠ—ȱ
”ǯȱŘřDZśŚǰśŜǼǰȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ ŠœȱŠ•œ˜ȱŠȱŠœœ˜ŸŽ›ȱǻ—ǯȱŗşDZřŗǼǰȱŠ—ȱŠ›”ȂœȱŠŒŒ˜ž—ȱ’—’ŒŠŽœȱ‘Žȱ
™ŠœœŠŽȱ˜ȱŠ¢œȱ˜›ȱ‘’œȱ’—Š•ȱ ŽŽ”ǯȱ˜••˜ ’—ȱ‘ŽȱœŽšžŽ—ŒŽȱ’ŸŽ—ȱ’—ȱŠ›”Ȃœȱ˜œ™Ž•ǰȱ Žȱ
’—ȱ‘Šȱ‘›’œȂœȱ›’ž–™‘Š•ȱ—›¢ȱ’—˜ȱŽ›žœŠ•Ž–ȱǻ”ǯȱŗŗDZŗȬŗŗǼȱ Šœȱ˜••˜ Žȱ‘Žȱ—Ž¡ȱ
Š¢ȱ‹¢ȱ‘ŽȱŒž›œ’—ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ’ȱ›ŽŽȱŠ—ȱ‘ŽȱŒ•ŽŠ—œ’—ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽ–™•Žȱǻ”ǯȱŗŗDZŗŘȬŗşǼDzȱœ˜–Žȱ˜ȱ
ŽœžœȂȱŽŠŒ‘’—œǰȱ’—Œ•ž’—ȱ‘Žȱ•’ŸŽȱ’œŒ˜ž›œŽǰȱ˜ŒŒž››Žȱ‘Žȱ˜••˜ ’—ȱŠ¢ȱǻ”ǯȱŗŗDZŘŖȬ
ŗřDZřŝǼDzȱŽœžœȂȱŠ—˜’—’—ȱ‹¢ȱŠ›¢ǰȱŠ—ȱžŠœȂȱŠ››Š—Ž–Ž—ȱ˜ȱ‹Ž›Š¢ȱ‘’–ȱ˜ŒŒž››Žȱ‘Žȱ
—Ž¡ȱŠ¢ȱǻ”ǯȱŗŚDZŗȬŗŗǼDzȱ‘ŽȱŠœœ˜ŸŽ›ȱ–ŽŠ•ȱŠ—ȱŽœžœȂȱ‹Ž›Š¢Š•ȱŠ—ȱŠ››Žœȱ˜ŒŒž››Žȱ‘Žȱ
—Ž¡ȱŠ¢ȱǻ”ǯȱŗŚDZŗŘȬŝŘǼDzȱ‘ŽȱŒ›žŒ’’¡’˜—ȱ˜ŒŒž››Žȱ‘Žȱ˜••˜ ’—ȱŠ¢ȯ›’Š¢ȱǻ”ǯȱŗśDZŗȬ
ŚŝǼǯȱ‘žœȱ Žȱ‘ŠŸŽȱŠ—ȱž—‹›˜”Ž—ȱœŽšžŽ—ŒŽȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŠœœ’˜—ȱŽŽ”ȱ’—ȱŠ›”Ȃœȱ˜œ™Ž•ǰȱ›˜–ȱ‘Žȱ
›’ž–™‘Š•ȱ—›¢ȱ˜—ȱž—Š¢ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŒ›žŒ’’¡’˜—ȱ˜—ȱ›’Š¢ȱǻŠœœ˜ŸŽ›Ǽǯȱ˜Žȱ‘Žȱ˜••˜ ’—ȱ
’—˜›–Š’˜—ȱ›˜–ȱŠ›”Ȃœȱ˜œ™Ž•ȱǻŗŗDZŗȬŗŜDZŞǼȱŠ—ȱ˜‘—ȱŗŘDZŗȬŗŗDZȱ
˜››ŽŒȱ‘›˜—˜•˜¢ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŠœœ’˜—ȱŽŽ”DZȱ
ȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱŠ¢ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱ ȱ
ȱȱȱŸŽ—ȱȱ
ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱŽŽ›Ž—ŒŽȱ ȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱȱŽšžŽ—ŒŽȱ˜ȱŠ¢œȱ
ȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȏȱ
ȱ
Šž›Š¢ȱ
ǻŠ›Œ‘ȱŘŞǰȱ
ǯǯȱřřǼȱ
ŽœžœȱŠ››’ŸŽȱŠȱŽ‘Š—¢ȱŠ—ȱŠŽȱ
Šȱ–ŽŠ•ȱ ’‘ȱŠ£Š›žœȱŠ—ȱ˜‘Ž›œDzȱ
‘Žȱ ŠœȱŠ—˜’—Žȱ‹¢ȱŠ›¢Dzȱ–Š—¢ȱ
Ž œȱŠ‘Ž›Žȱ˜ȱœŽŽȱ‘’–ȱ
—ǯȱŗŘDZŗȬŗŗȱ
‘Žȱ›’ž–™‘Š•ȱ—›¢ȱ’—˜ȱ
Ž›žœŠ•Ž–ȱǻ—ǯȱŗŘDZŗŘȬŗşǼȱ
˜ŒŒž››Žȱȱȃ—ȱ‘Žȱ—Ž¡ȱ
Š¢dzȄȱǻ—ǯȱŗŘDZŗŘǼȱ
ž—Š¢ȱ
ǻŠ›Œ‘ȱŘşǼȱ
‘Žȱ›’ž–™‘Š•ȱ—›¢ȱ˜ȱ‘›’œȱ
’—˜ȱŽ›žœŠ•Ž–ȱ
”ǯȱŗŗDZŗȬŗŗȱ
ŒŒž››Žȱ‘ŽȱŠ¢ȱ‹Ž˜›Žȱ
‘ŽȱŒž›œ’—ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ’ȱ›ŽŽȱ
Š—ȱ‘ŽȱŒ•ŽŠ—œ’—ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ
Ž–™•Žȱǻ”ǯȱŗŗDZŗŘȬŗşǼȱ
˜—Š¢ȱ
ǻŠ›Œ‘ȱřŖǼȱ
‘ŽȱŒž›œ’—ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ’ȱ›ŽŽȱŠ—ȱ
‘ŽȱŒ•ŽŠ—œ’—ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽ–™•Žȱ
”ǯȱŗŗDZŗŘȬŗşȱ
ŒŒž››Žȱȃdz˜—ȱ‘Žȱ—Ž¡ȱ
Š¢dzȄȱǻ”ǯȱŗŗDZŗŘǼǰȱ’ǯŽǯǰȱ‘Žȱ
Š¢ȱŠŽ›ȱ‘Žȱ›’ž–™‘Š•ȱ
—›¢Dzȱ‘’œȱŠ¢ȱŽ—Žȱ
ȃ ‘Ž—ŽŸŽ›ȱǽ’ǯŽǯǰȱ ‘Ž—Ǿȱ
ŽŸŽ—’—ȱŒŠ–ŽȄȱǻ”ǯȱŗŗDZŗşǼȱ
žŽœŠ¢ȱ
ǻŠ›Œ‘ȱřŗǼȱ
‘Žȱ’—Š•ȱŸ’œ’ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽ–™•ŽȱŠ—ȱ
‘Žȱ•’ŸŽȱ’œŒ˜ž›œŽȱ
”ǯȱŗŗDZŘŖȬŗřDZřŝȱ
‘ŽȱŠŒŒ˜ž—ȱ˜ȱ‘’œȱŠ¢ȱ
™’Œ”œȱž™ȱȃdzŠœȱ‘Ž¢ȱ Ž›Žȱ
™Šœœ’—ȱ‹¢ȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ–˜›—’—Ȅȱ
ǻ”ǯȱŗŗDZŘŖǼȱ
Ž—ŽœŠ¢ȱ
ǻ™›’•ȱŗǼȱ
ŽœžœȱŠ—˜’—Žȱ‹¢ȱŠ›¢DzȱžŠœȱ
Š››Š—ŽȱŽœžœȂȱ‹Ž›Š¢Š•ȱ
”ǯȱŗŚDZŗȬŗŗȱ
ȃdz‘ŽȱŠœœ˜ŸŽ›ȱŠ—ȱ
—•ŽŠŸŽ—Žȱ›ŽŠȱ Šœȱ ˜ȱ
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‘ž›œŠ¢ȱ
ǻ™›’•ȱŘǼȱ
ŽœžœȱŠ—ȱ‘’œȱ’œŒ’™•Žœȱ
ŒŽ•Ž‹›ŠŽȱ‘ŽȱŠœœ˜ŸŽ›ȱ–ŽŠ•Dzȱ
žŠœȂȱ‹Ž›Š¢Š•DzȱŽœžœȂȱŠ››Žœȱ
Š—ȱ—’‘Ȭ’–Žȱ›’Š•ȱ
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ŒŒž››Žȱȃdzȱ˜—ȱ‘Žȱ’›œȱ
Š¢ȱ˜ȱ—•ŽŠŸŽ—Žȱ›ŽŠȱ
‘Ž—ȱ‘ŽȱŠœœ˜ŸŽ›ȱ•Š–‹ȱ
Šœȱ‹Ž’—ȱœŠŒ›’’ŒŽdzȄȱ
ǻ”ǯȱŗŚDZŗŘǼȱ
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”ǯȱŗśDZŗȬŚŝȱ
ȱȃ—ȱŽŠ›•¢ȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ–˜›—’—ȱ
‘ŽȱŒ‘’Žȱ™›’Žœœȱ ’‘ȱ‘Žȱ
Ž•Ž›œȱŠ—ȱœŒ›’‹ŽœǰȱŠ—ȱ‘Žȱ
‘˜•Žȱ˜ž—Œ’•ǰȱ
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Œ˜—œž•Š’˜—DzȱŠ—ȱ‹’—’—ȱ
Žœžœǰȱ‘Ž¢ȱ•Žȱ
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Šž›Š¢ȱ
ǻ™›’•ȱŚǼȱ
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ǻŽšž’›Žȱ‹¢ȱ‘ŽȱŽŸŽ—œȱ˜ȱ
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ŒŒž››Žȱȃdz ‘Ž—ȱ‘Žȱ
Š‹‹Š‘ȱ Šœȱ˜ŸŽ›dzŸŽ›¢ȱ
ŽŠ›•¢ȱ˜—ȱ‘Žȱ’›œȱŠ¢ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ
ŽŽ”Ȅȱǻ”ǯȱŗŜDZŗȬŘǼȱ
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Šž›Š¢ȱǻŠ›Œ‘ȱŘŞǼȱŠ—ȱŠŽȱŠȱ–ŽŠ•ȱ ’‘ȱŠ£Š›žœȱŠ—ȱ˜‘Ž›œȱŠ—ȱ ŠœȱŠ—˜’—Žȱ‹¢ȱŠ›¢ǯȱ
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˜Ž‘—Ž›ȂœȱŒŠ•Œž•Š’˜—ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽŸŽ—¢ȬŽŽ”œȱ
›˜™‘ŽŒ¢ȱ Šœȱ˜—ŽȱŠȱŠȱ’–Žȱ ‘Ž—ȱœžŒ‘ȱŠŽȱŒŠ•Œž•Š’˜—œȱ Ž›Žȱ—˜ȱœ˜ȱœ›Š’‘˜› Š›ǯȱȱ
Š•œ˜ȱœŽŽ–œȱ•’”Ž•¢ȱ‘Šȱ
˜Ž‘—Ž›Ȃœȱ’—Œ˜››ŽŒȱŒ‘›˜—˜•˜¢ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŠœœ’˜—ȱŽŽ”ȱ’œȱ•’—”Žȱ˜ȱ
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›˜™‘ŽŒ¢ǯȱȱ‘Š—”ž••¢ǰȱ ’‘ȱ‘ŽœŽȱŠ“žœ–Ž—œȱ
˜Ž‘—Ž›Ȃœȱ ˜›”ȱœ’••ȱ™›˜ŸŽœȱ˜ȱ‹ŽȱŠ—ȱ
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’ŽȱŠ—ȱŽ™ž‹•’œ‘ŽȱŽ™Ž–‹Ž›ǰȱŘŖŗŚȱ
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