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Modélisation et simulation de paramètres critiques de la
première station du spectromètre dimuons d’ALICE
David Guez
To cite this version:
David Guez. Modélisation et simulation de paramètres critiques de la première station du spectromètre
dimuons d’ALICE. Physique Nucléaire Théorique [nucl-th]. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2003.
Français. �tel-00006047�
HAL Id: tel-00006047
https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00006047
Submitted on 10 May 2004
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1. Cadre physique
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2. Description des détecteurs d’ALICE
II. Simulation du détecteur
49
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3. Modélisation du détecteur
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4. Simulation des défaillances électroniques et influence sur les performances
du détecteur.
69
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III. Tests sous faisceau
115
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5. Développement de l’outil d’analyse en ligne TB2
2
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6. Prises de données au PS du CERN
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7. Conclusions générales
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A. Rapidité et pseudo-rapidité
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B. Format des fichiers de configurations électroniques
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Description générale
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1. Cadre physique
1.1. Introduction
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1.2. Le Plasma de Quarks et de Gluons
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Electron
Electron
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Positon
Interaction forte
quark
Positon
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Nparticules
Nanti−particules
1.3.2. Scénario d’évolution du système après la collision
µtÌ?À³J–½>¬~­³JÂG±G­±–¯¿#»¼d­³`½°$ÂÀ²#¿2½kÀ³T¼–¿‹Àj½­$¼G´±²#¯TÂG²#¾0³½­¼o¯Ð°$³¾0Ñ!Ò³­$¼z¼G­v¯±G¾I½»²¼À³J–À»`Ñ!¾0Ñ!­³JÂ
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Åy­³»³²ÂG° c = 1Æ^¯kÀ±
τ 2 = t2 − z 2 ⇒ t =
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τ ~20 fm/c
z
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τ ~5 fm/c
Freeze out
Gaz de Hadrons
Phase mixte
QGP
Pré−équilibre
τ <1 fm/c
τ =0
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1.4. Signatures du QGP
1.4.1. Les différentes signatures proposées
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Mécanismes indépendants de l’existence d’un QGP
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­\ÂjÄ]ù,×D¶8Ó]Æ\Í9·^­_½°\­´\­$»±c¼G­$±ÌI²#±GÀ!ڀ¿@¬;²½­³JÂG² á ´À?²¾0³4½T­¼j¯kÀ±O²#´$»¿#­$¼^½>¬~²#Ñ!¯»¿¼G²¾0³¼´¾0тË
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·^­/½°$ÂG­´$ÂG­»±^­¼ÂH½°½²°]»³²º2»­Ñ!­³JÂcÚ¿‘¬~²#½­$³2ÂG² á ´À?²¾0³!½­¼H¯À±ÂG²#´»T¿#­¼$Í·^­$¿#»²à˓´$²‘¹J´¾Ñ4Ñ!­
¼¾0³ª³¾0Ñ ¿‘¬~²#³T½²#º2»­?¹H­¼O ¯¿»¼F¼G¯9°´$² á º2»­$Ñ4­$³2 °$ÂG»½²#°ƒ¯9¾0»±F½°\­´\­$± ­$²½­³J² á ­±F¿­¼
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×DÄ]ì/¾³Rô ¯9­´\±¾0Ñ4­\­$± ~ñ —ø PHOS
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±°¼¾0¿#»TÂG²#¾0³¼G­$±À!»T²¿#²#¼°¯s¾0»T±±­´|Э$±G´|Э$±_¿#­¼M´¾³½²ÂG²#¾0³T¼²³²ÂG²‹À¿­¼H½» Ñ4²¿#²#­$»½»R¼OÔ ¼OÂÒ$Ñ4­
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½T°$­$´$ÂG°­¼À á ³½­_Áy¾0»±³²#±^½­¼M²#³TÁy¾±GÑ4À?²¾0³i¼»±j¿#­vé­$ÂO˓º2»­$³´|в#³TÃÍ
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¼­±OÌ ²±À‚½kÀ³T¼M¿#À‚½° á ³T²Â²¾0³½»¯±G­$Ñ4²­±H³T²Ì0­À»½­_±G²Ã0Ã0­$±Í
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´|ÐÀº2»­´$¾0¿#¿²#¼²#¾0³>¹IÀ á ³,½­¿#À€´¾0±±G°¿­±jÀ»I®À»TÂG±G­¼j¾0ÏT¼G­±OÌ?ÀÏ¿#­$¼j½­¿@¬;­É® ¯s°$±G²#­$³´­?Í
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2.2. Le bras dimuons
^· ­4½°$ÂG­´$ÂG­»±­¼O€½°$½²#°4Ú,¿#À±­´¾³¼ÂG±G»´\²#¾³&½­$¼Â±GÀ´­$¼`½­$¼`р»T¾0³¼`²¼G¼»¼½T­¼`½T°´±¾0²#¼¼À³T´­¼
½­$¼_Ñ4°$¼G¾0³T¼_¿#¾0»±½¼]½­‚¿#ÀiÁŠÀÑ!²#¿#¿­½­¼
­$½­$¼ Íb×o¾0»T±_±G­´$¾0³¼O±G»T²#±G­‚¿­¼]ÂG±ÀÎé­$´$¾²#±G­$¼]½­$¼
¯kÀ?±Â²´»¿­¼$¹ ¿­]ϱÀ?¼H½²#Ñ`»¾0³¼H­$¼Âj´$¾0³¼ÂG²J/Ψ
ÂG»°]½>¬~»³F­³¼Υ­Ñ€ÏT¿#­_½­ î ã`½°$ÂG­´$ÂG­»±¼j½²#¼¯s¾0¼°¼c½­\Ì?À³JÂ=¹
½kÀ?³¼^­\ÂH½­$±G±G²Ò±­/»³À?²#Ñ4À³JÂ=Í2«{­¼H½T²‰®!¯±­Ñ!²#­±¼v½T°$­$´$ÂG­»±¼c¼G¾0³JÂH½T­¼H´|ÐkÀ?рϱG­$¼cÚ á ¿#¼^½T­¼ÂG²#³°$­¼
ڃÑ4­$¼G»±­±¿#­$¼4¯9¾0²³2ÂG¼½­F¯kÀ¼G¼GÀÃ0­½­¼4¯kÀ±O²#´$»¿#­$¼Íg«{­$¼i½­$» ®›½­±³²#­$±G¼$¹½T­¼4Ç׍· ŊÇM­$¼G²#¼O²‰Ì0­
×g¿‹Àp­F·^ÐkÀ?рÏs­$±G¼Æ\¹z¼­±ÌI²±G¾0³J¯±²#³´$²#¯kÀ¿­Ñ!­³J€½T­¼ÔI¼ÂGÒÑ!­½T­½°´$¿#­³T´|ЭÑ!­³JÂRŠ±²#Ã0Ã0­$¡± ÆÉÍ
«g¬;À²#Ñ4À³JÂ^¼­±OÂMڀ´¾0»±Ïs­$±H¿‹À(±ÀSé­´$ÂG¾0²#±­]½­$¼c¯kÀ±ÂG²#´$»¿#­$¼HÀ á ³½T­_¯s­$±GÑ!­$ÂGÂG±G­]½b¬;°\ÌÀ?¿#»­$±H¿‹À`³T¾0±GÑ!­
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¿­¼Dр»¾0³T¼¹J»³!­³¼­Ñ€ÏT¿#­M½­ р»±¼ ½­MÑ4À?²ұG­c­$¼Âv½²#¼¯s¾¼G°MÚ(½T²Ýs°±G­$³J¼¯s¾0²³J¼g½»4¼ÔI¼ÂGÒÑ!­Í
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2.2.1. Dipôle du bras dimuons
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¿#ÀÂG±G¾0²¼G²#Ò$Ñ4­_¼OÂ|À?ÂG²#¾0³½­(±ÀSé­´$ÂG¾0Ã0±GÀ¯Ð²­ÍQ«{­¼¯±G²³´²¯kÀ¿#­$¼j´=À±GÀ´$ÂG°±G²¼ÂG²#º2»­¼½­(´­$Â]À²#Ñ4À³JÂí ïw
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ïð
* acceptance:
θ = 2° − 9
η = 2.5− 4
* front absorber
≈11λ C +Concrete
heavy metal shield (W or Pb)
* beam shield
θ < 2°, ri = 4cm, r o < 29 cm heavy metal (mainly W)
* dipole magnet
B=0.7T, Bl = 3 Tm
r = 1.9 m
* tracking chambers
10 logical planes,
high resolution & granularity
* hadron absorber
≈11λ Fe
* trigger chambers
2 logical planes,
ñ
low resolution & granularity
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Ñ4ÀÃ0³°\²ºI»T­_½­¿‘¬;À²#Ñ4À³JÂ=¹I¯s­$±GÑ!­$±À€½T­(½T°$­$±GÑ!²#³­$±j¿‹À€³¾0±Ñ4­_½T­(¿@¬;²Ñ4¯T»¿#¼²#¾0³4½­´­¼Mр»¾³¼Í
«tÀ€Áy¾0±GÑ!­_½»´|ÐkÀÑ!¯FÑiÀó°$ÂG²#º2»­_­¼OÂj­¿¿#­_º2»­¿#­$¼c±ÀSé­´$ÂG¾0²#±­¼c½­$¼¯À±ÂG²#´»T¿#­¼c¼¾0³JÂM´¾0»±Ïs°$­¼
¼­¿#¾³„»³T­ ½²±G­´\²¾0³X½¾0³³°$­¹³¾0Ñ!Ñ4°$­F½kÀ³¼!¿‹Àƒ¼G»²‰Â­½²#±­´\²#¾³›Ï9­³T½²#³ÃTÍv«{­¼G´|а$ÑiÀK½­¿‹À
á û±G­ ï Í;ñ‚Ñ4¾³2ÂG±G­]¿@¬;­\Ýb­\Âj½»F´|ÐkÀÑ!¯FÑiÀó°$ÂG²#º2»­]¼»±j»³Fр»¾0³F½­ î !Ù_­n[ú ?´?ÍQì]³Ì0¾0²‰Âcº2»­¿‹À
¯kÀ?±Â²´»¿­‚³>¬~­¼Â`¯kÀ¼(½°$ÌI²°­i¼»±(¿‘¬;Àp® ­4³¾Ñ4Ñ!° ³¾³ ˓Ï9­³½T²#³¬
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2.2.2. Disposition et description des absorbeurs
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½»,ϱÀ?¼/½²Ñ€»¾0³¼$Ís·^¾0Ñ4Ñ!­¼G­$»¿#¼¿#­¼Mр»¾³¼¼¾0³JÂ]±­´|Э$±G´|а$¼¹{»³,­³¼­Ñ€Ï¿­`½>¬;Àϼ¾0±GÏ9­»T±G¼/­$¼Â
½²¼G¯9¾0¼G°¯s¾»±^°$¿#²#Ñ!²#³T­±À»Ñ!²#­$» ®4¿#­¼vÐkÀ½±¾0³¼H­\Âc³­]¿#À²#¼¼G­$±v¯kÀ?¼G¼G­$±cº2»­]¿#­$¼^р»T¾0³¼Í·^­ á ¿‰Â±À?Ã0­
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2.2.3. Système de déclenchement
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Y : axe bending
200
100
0
−100
−200
−200 −100
0
100
200
X : axe non−bending
Z :Axe de la collision (cm)
ñï
−1500−1000−500 0
−1500−1000−500 0
500 1000 1500
300
Y : Axe bending (cm)
X : axe non−bending (cm)
Z : axe de la collision (cm)
200
100
0
−100
500 1000 1500
−300
−200
−100
0
100
−200
200
−300
300
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ZONE 3
ZONE 2
ZONE 2
ZONE 1
ZONE 1
rayons en mm
0
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2.3.1. Cahier des charges
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Mass Resolution (MeV)
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110
100
90
80
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60
50
40
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150
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Lignes de derive des electrons d’une trajectoire ionisante
direction non-bending [cm]
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6
-0.8
-1
direct
ion be
ñø
nding
-2
-1.8
-1.6
-1.4
-1.2
-1
-0.8
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
1.2
0.8
0.4
0
-0.4
-0.8
-1.2
-1.2
[cm]
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1
2
3
K2 =
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2
K1 =
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K3
2
√
K2 K
3
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4 arctan K3
1−
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120
100
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60
40
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RESIDUALS (µm)
2000
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
−1000
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
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F G8
F G8
F G8
F G8
F I8
F I8
F I8
F I8
F I8
F I8
F IH GF
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H G8
H G8
H G8
H G8
H G8
F G8
F G8
F G8
F G8
F G8
F G8
F G8
F G8
F G8
F G8
F G8
F G8
F G8
F G8
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F G8
F G8
F G8
F I8
F I8
F I8
F I8
F I8
F I8
F IH GF
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F G8
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F G8
F G8
F G8
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F I8
F I8
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F I8
F I8
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F 110100...
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F G8
F G8
F G8
F G8
F G8
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F IH GF
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F G8
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Controle des
MANAS et
ADC, stockage
des piedestaux et
supression de zéro.
Dialogue avec l’acquisition.
ï Í îÎï ͉ÖQô ´|ÐT°Ñ4À4½­(¯±G²³´²¯s­_½T­¼M´=À±O­¼/ù,µ/È/ÊÍs·^ÐkÀ?´»³­½­(´­¼´=À±O­$¼¯9­±Ñ4­\¿#À‚Ñ4²¼G­
­$³ Áy¾0±GÑ!­¹k¿#À4½²Ã0²ÂÀ¿#²¼À?ÂG²#¾0³4­$Â/¿‘¬~­³JÌ0¾0²{Ì­±G¼/¿‘¬;À´º2»²¼G²ÂG²#¾0³F½­$¼/¼²#Ã0³kÀ?» ®,²#¼G¼»¼/½T­`íã
¯kÀ?½¼Í
Track & Hold
Clock
Clear
MANAS
Entrée 1
CP FLT SHP
K1
K2
CP : Préampli de Charge
FLT : Filtre
SHP : Mise en forme
C : Mémoire analogique
C
........
Entrée 16
Sortie analogique multipléxée
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Niveaux de regroupement
2.4. Algorithmes de reconstruction
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2.4.1. Reconstruction des points d’impact
Recherche des clusters par routage
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pad
pad
Évaluation des positions des points d’impact
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2.4.2. Reconstruction des traces et reconstruction des masses
invariantes
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Deuxième partie .
Simulation du détecteur
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3. Modélisation du détecteur
3.1. Introduction
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3.2. Cartographie des voies électroniques de la
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¸D³`¾0»T±­¹Î¿#­´¾I½­¾Ýs±G­¿#­Ñ4¾SÔ0­$³`½­v±G°$´»¯9°±­±–¿­¼d³2»Ñ4°$±G¾0¼o½­¯kÀ½¼–À½péGÀ´$­³JÂgÚM»³`¯kÀ?½`½¾0³T³°Í
¶“¿g¯s­$±GÑ!­$ÂÀ»¼¼G²g½­¯kÀ±´¾0»T±G²#±_»T³e­$³¼G­$рϿ#­½­¯kÀ?½¼½kÀ³¼»³­±°Ã0²¾0³ƒÃ0°¾0Ñ!°$ÂG±G²ºI»T­‚½¾0³³°$­¹
½kÀ³¼!»³ŽÑ!¾ÂG²Á½¾0³³°?¹À»›Ì¾0²#¼²#³kÀ?Ã0­F½>¬;»T³Ž¯kÀ½›¾0»„½kÀ³¼Â¾0» Â4»T³Žº2»kÀ±OÂi½­´|ÐkÀÑ`ϱG­?Í^·^­$´²
ÁŠÀ´²¿#²ÂG­`¿@¬;°$´±G²‰Â»±­€½»ƒ´¾I½­½kÀ³T¼_½­³¾0рϱ­»¼­¼¼G²‰Â»kÀp²#¾³¼]¾ ²¿z­¼O³°´$­¼G¼GÀ²#±­½>¬ˆÀ?¯¯¿#²º2»­±
»³KÀ¿#Ã0¾±G²ÂGÐÑ!­(¼»±_»³­$³¼G­$рϿ#­`½­‚¯kÀ½¼$¹>¼À?³¼À=Ì0¾0²±]Ú¼G­‚¼¾0»´$²#­±/½­‚¿‹ÀÁŠÀâ¾0³½T­‚¯kÀ±G´$¾0»±²#±
´­¼c½T­±G³T²#­±¼ÍT·^­]´¾³´­$¯TÂc­¼OÂc¿‹À?±GÃ0­$Ñ4­$³2Âv»TÂG²#¿#²¼G°j½kÀ³T¼H¿#­´¾I½­/½­/¼G²#Ñ`»¿‹À?ÂG²#¾0³µ¿#²‹Çj¾I¾Â=¹0­\Âc¯9­»TÂ
èï
Mass Resolution (MeV)
120
ϒ
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
1
2
3
4
5
6
Chamber Thickness (% of X0)
9ñ Í ï ͉ÖQÇj°¼G¾¿#»TÂG²#¾0³½­¿#À€ÑiÀ¼¼G­²#³JÌ?À±²‹À³J­/­³FÁy¾0³´$ÂG²#¾0³F½­¿@¬;°$¯kÀ²#¼¼G­$»±j½­¿‹À€´|ÐkÀÑ`ϱG­ ã Í
À ²³¼G²›$ÂG±G­‚²Ñ4¯¿°Ñ!­³J°±Ҽ]¼²#Ñ!¯¿#­$Ñ4­$³JÂ]¿#¾±G¼/½T­€¿‘¬~»T²¿#²¼À?ÂG²#¾0³F½»´$¾ ½­`½­‚´=À±O¾0ñÀ¯ÐT²#­`½À³¼
¿­_´¾I½­_½­¼G²Ñ€»¿‹Àp²#¾³>Í
3.3. Modélisation de la matière présente dans le
détecteur
g« ¬~°¿#­$´$ÂG±G¾0³²º2»­c½­M¿#­´\»±­j­¼ÂÏ±GÀ³´|а$­/À?»4¯¿»¼D¯±GÒ$¼D½­¼¯kÀ½¼D¯9¾0»±D±G­$¼G¯9­´\­±¿#­$¼D´¾0³J±GÀ²#³JÂG­¼
­$³,­$±GÑ!­½T­`ϱ»²ÂM°¿­´\±G¾³²#º2»­iÅy̾0²#±M´|ÐkÀ¯²‰Â±­ ï Í;ñTÍ~ã2Æ\Í9·^­$¼]´¾Ñ4¯9¾0¼À?³2ÂG¼°$¿#­$´$±¾0³²ºI»T­¼M²#³J±¾?Ë
½»T²#¼G­$³JÂi½­,¿‹ÀÑ4À?²ұG­F¼»±4¿­Â±ÀSé­$Â4½­¼4¯kÀ±ÂG²#´$»¿#­$¼Í¸g³Ž²#³JÂG­±À?Ã0²#¼¼À³JÂ4À=Ì0­´ ´­$­ÑiÀp²#Ò$±G­?¹
¿­¼€Ñ€»T¾0³¼‚¼G¾³2½T°$ÌI²#°$¼!½T­¿#­»T±`±GÀÎé­´\¾0²±G­¹–´­º2»²cÀ?Ýs­´\­F¿‹À,±G°¼¾0¿#» ²#¾³ ½­±G­$´¾0³¼O±»´$ÂG²#¾0³
½­$¼_ÑiÀ?¼G¼G­$¼4ÅyÌ0¾²#± á û±G­ñTÍ ï ÆÉÍ>×o¾»±´­$­‚±GÀ²#¼¾0³>¹b»T³­°$»T½­‚½°$ÂÀ²#¿¿#°½­‚´|ÐkÀº2»­°¿°Ñ!­³J½»
½°\­$´$­$»±Åy°¿#­$´$ÂG±G¾0³²º2»­½T­`¿#­$´$ÂG»±G­´¾0Ñ!¯±G²¼G­=ÆMÀ!°$°­$Ýs­´\»°$ó
­ ~ãJí Íb·^­$­°$»T½­‚À4¯9¾0±O°`¼»±
½­$» ®À¼¯s­$´$ÂG¼½­¿#À€½²#¼O±G²Ï»TÂG²#¾0³½­Ñ4À?²ұ­€Ö
«tÀ€º2»kÀ³JÂG²Â°/½­_ÑiÀp²#Ò$±G­½­_´|ÐkÀº2»­_“ÔI¯s­_½T­_ÑiÀ?ÂG°±²‹À»iÀ€°$°_°\Ì?À¿#»°$­
Quantité de matière
¯T±G°´$²#¼°Ñ!­³JÂ=¹k­$³,¼°¯kÀ±GÀ³JÂM¿#­¼j½²‰Ýb°$±G­$³2ÂG­¼j´¾Ñ4¯9¾0¼À?³2ÂG­¼j½­´|ÐkÀº2»­(°¿°Ñ!­³J¼$Í
·^ÐkÀº2»­ÑiÀ?ÂG°±²‹À»¯±°¼G­$³J­]»³T­´$­±ÂÀ²#³T­¼»±ÁŠÀ´$­½T­$Ì?À³JÂH»³!ÁŠÀ²#¼8Ë
Sections géométriques
´$­=À»i½±G¾0²‰Â­$ÂH¯9­±¯s­$³½²´»¿#À²#±­Ú(¿‹À´|ÐkÀрÏT±G­Í «{­/±GÀ¯¯9¾0±Âv½­/´$­$­/¼»±ÁŠÀ?´­]Ú(¿‘¬~­³¼­Ñ€ÏT¿#­
½T­€¿‹À ¾0³­À?´$²‰Ì0­½¾0³³­‚¿#À4¼­´$ÂG²#¾0³P­ !´=À´$­‚Ã0°¾0Ñ!°$ÂG±G²ºI»T­`½>¬~²#³J­$±À´\²¾0³À=Ì0­$´‚´­€Ñ4À?°ÉË
±²‹À»b¹=´¬~­¼OÂgÚj½²#±­¿#Àc¯±G¾0ÏÀϲ#¿²ÂG°z¯s¾»±o»T³­v¯À±ÂG²#´»T¿#­g½­±G­$³´¾0³JÂG±G­±o¿#­DÑ4À?°$±G²‹À?»(´$¾0³¼²#½°$±G°
¼»±j¼G¾0³F±GÀÎé­$ÂÍ
«{­¼½²#¼O±²#Ï»TÂG²#¾0³T¼M½T­`Ñ4À?²ұG­(À²³¼G²tÑ!­¼»±G°$­¼]¼¾0³JÂ/¾»pé¾0»±¼/Ñ!²#¼G­$¼­$³R±G­$ÃJÀ±½RÀ=Ì0­$´€¿‹À!³kÀ?»T±G­
½­^¿‹ÀÑ4À?ÂG²#Ò±­vÂG±À=Ì0­$±G¼G°$­Í2¸g³‚­$Ýs­$¹½kÀ?³¼z¿‹ÀMÂа$¾0±G²­^½­jù¾0¿#²Ò±G­vº2»²T½°$´±²Âg¿#À½²‰Ýb»¼²#¾0³`р»¿ÂG²#¯¿­¹
¿@¬ˆÀ³TÃ0¿#­½­½T²Ýs»¼G²¾0³¯s¾»±c»³­¯kÀ±O²´»¿­_½­´|ÐkÀ±Gí(­\ÂM½>¬;²Ñ4¯T»¿#¼²#¾0³½T¾0³³°$­(­$¼Â­¼O²#Ñ!°_¯kÀ±
15M eV
θ0 =
Eβ 2
r
X
X0
¾
­$¼Â€¿@¬;°$¯kÀ²¼G¼G­$»±(½­iÑ4À?²ұ­ÂG±À=Ì0­$±G¼°­¹o­$ ±G­¯T±G°¼­³J­i¿‹ÀF¿#¾0³Ã»­»±(½­4±À½²#À?²¾0³ƒ½­
¿#ÀiÑiXÀp²#Ò$±G­(±À=Ì­±G¼°­?¹{­$Â θ ­¼O¿‘¬~°´=À?±Âˑ“ÔI¯s­€½T­‚¿‹XÀi½²¼ÂG±G²#ÏT»T²¾0³ ½­‚¯T±G¾0ÏkÀ?ϲ#¿²Â°½­‚¿@¬ˆÀ?³Ã0¿#­½­
½²‰Ýb»T¼G²#¾³ θ ¹?½° á ³T²k¼G»±g¿#À á Ã0»±­cñTÍ;ñkÅ@À0Æ\Í0«tÀ]Ã0±GÀ³½­$»±DÚ]´¾³2ÂG±GÞ0¿­±z³b¬;­$¼ÂD½¾0³T´c¯kÀ¼z¿@¬;°$¯kÀ²#¼¼G­$»±g½­
Ñ4À?²ұ­(ÂG±À=Ì0­$±G¼G°$­‚­¿¿#­`Ñ Ñ!­¹9Ñ4À²#¼M´­\ÂG­`°¯kÀ²¼G¼­»±$¹b³¾0±ÑiÀ?¿#²#¼°­Úi¿‹À4¿#¾0³Ã»­»±M½­€±GÀ½²#À?²¾0³
½»Ñ4À?°$±G²‹À?»>¹ ´À±À?´$°$±G²¼Â²º2»­½­´­¿»²‰Ën´²@Í
0
0
èñ
Angle deviation, on (xz) plane
2000
1800
Direction aprés diffusion
1600
1400
1200
hstAngleX
Nent = 38387
Mean = 7.467e-06
RMS = 0.002037
Under =
0
Over =
1
Chi2 / ndf = 461.5 / 75
Constant = 1975 ± 13.23
Mean = 1.651e-05 ± 9.82e-06
Sigma = 0.001908 ± 8.183e-06
1000
Diréction initiale
θ
800
600
400
200
0
-0.01
-0.005
0
0.005
0.01
Deviation in degrees
sñTÍ;ñT͉Ök«tÀ á û±G­½­/½±¾0²ÂG­±­¯±°¼­³J­_¿#À(½²¼ÂG±G²#ÏT»T²¾0³4½T­¼vÌ?À¿­»±¼^½­$¼HÀ³TÃ0¿#­$¼v½­½²Ýs»¼²#¾0³
¿¾0±G¼½­!¿‹À±GÀ=Ì0­±¼G°$­½>¬~»³­i´$¾0»´|Эiо0Ñ!¾0Ã0Ò³T­4½­!Ñ4À?²ұG­?Í θ ­¼Â`½° á ³²v´$¾0Ñ!Ñ4­
θ
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¼G²¾0³>¹I¼G»±^»³¯¿‹À?³ƒÅ ®öì SÆv´$¾0³J­$³kÀ³JÂc¿‹À½²#±­´$ÂG²#¾0³4²#³²‰Â²#À¿#­c½­/¿‹À¯À±ÂG²#´»T¿#­‚Å á Ã0»±­/½­
ÃJÀ»T´|ЭSÆÉÍ
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½­`ÁŠÀâ$¾0³ ±°=À¿²#¼ÂG­¿#À4½²‰Ýb»T¼G²#¾³,р»T¿Â²¯¿#­½­$¼]¯kÀ±O²´»¿­¼Í9×d¾0»±/´$­`ÁŠÀ²±G­¹k»T³­€¯±­Ñ!²#Ò±­°\Â|À¯9­€À
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Objet
Plan cathodique
Matériaux
Surface
objet
X/X0 ref.
/surf motif
X/X0 ref
/surf obj
Sect eff
ref/surfmot
Rapport
X0 materi Epaisseur à sim Volume/X0
surf ref/surf obj
simul
sur surf obj
Cuivre
FR4
1529,44
1479,17
0,328
0,206
0,363
0,236
91,83
99,73
101,677
114,177
14,300
194,000
0,052
0,458
5,554
3,488
FR4
Foam
793,44
793,44
0,103
0,125
0,220
0,267
49,82
49,82
106,331 194,000
106,331 7880,000
0,426
21,023
1,744
2,117
900,00
0,288
0,541
42,8206
80,571
14,300
0,077
4,871
456,00
0,171
0,634
7,24888
26,920
8,560
0,054
2,890
284,75
90,00
0,131
0,699
0,781
13,158
5,31
1,92
31,579
36,127
392,000
14,300
3,062
1,882
2,224
11,842
1693,44
1693,44
0,147
0,355
0,147
0,355
71,54
65,51
71,540
65,510
194,000
14,300
0,285
0,051
2,489
6,012
1449,00
1449,00
0,221
0,681
0,258
0,795
83,888
80,8064
98,040
94,438
194,000
14,300
0,501
0,114
3,740
11,524
Plan mécanique
Kapton
Cuivre
Connecteurs 66 pts(sur pads)
Sn/Pb
Connecteur 80 pts (Berg)
Plastique
Cuivre
Carte mère
FR4
Cuivre
Carte fille
FR4
Cuivre
QñTÍ;íT͉ÖúD»­­$³i¼­Ñ!²‰ËnÂG±À³T¼G¯kÀ±­³´$­½b¬;»³T­Ï±²#º2»­M½­MÏkÀ¼G­½»iÑ!¾I½Ò¿­c½°$ÂÀ²#¿¿#°c½­M¿‹À_Ã0°$¾0Ñ4°ÉË
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½T­Ã0±°¼FÅ 0, 602 Ñ!±À?½QÆ]­$€¿#À¯9­±O­4½>¬;°$³­±Ã0²#­!Ñ!¾ÎÔ­³³T­½­ 1, 7 M eV ¹d½T¾0³J€­³JÌI²#±¾0³
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n
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500
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−3
7,1
2
0
0
èö
fE {fPdgCode==553}
empile
empile
100
80
1000
Mean
159.8
Mean
0.03423
RMS
70.8
RMS
0.02164
Underflow
0
Overflow
0
1000
Integral
60
empile
Entries
Entries
30
25
1000
Underflow
0
Overflow
20
0
1000
Integral
15
40
10
20
0
0
5
200
400
600
800
1000
Ìã͋Î:Z{ÑÉßNÐqÔÒÑÉݗÜMÐqÑÉØPÙöÕÆÙ[MÆٗÕ.Ô\PÑÉÕ'×MÕÆß
fE {fPdgCode==13 || fPdgCode==-13}
0
0
1200
200
180
2000
Mean
79.91
RMS
52.07
Underflow
0
160
Overflow
0
140
Integral
2000
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.2
Υ
empile
Entries
40
2000
Mean
0.08298
35
RMS
0.03458
30
Overflow
Underflow
25
0
0
2000
Integral
20
100
80
15
60
10
40
5
20
0
0
0.06
empile
Entries
120
0.04
Ì°ÝÎZ{ÑÉßNÐqÔÒÑÉݗÜMÐqÑÉØPÙöÕÆÙÔæÍX—ÑÛ×MÑÈÐ+M ×MÕÅß
Υ
empile
220
0.02
100
200
300
Ì]ÆP Î^›
Z ÑÛßDÐÒÔqÑÉݗÜMÐÒÑÈ؋Ù
Q`ܗ؋Ùwß
400
500
600
700
800
Õ.ÙMÆٗÕ.Ô\PÑÉÕº×MÕÆß
0
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.2
Ì°×Î_{
Z ÑÉßNÐqÔÒÑÈÝwÜMÐqÑÉØPÙºÕÆْÔÒÍSX—ÑÛ×MÑ Ð M×MÕÅß
Q`ÜwØPÙwß
sñTÍ ö ͉ÖkÓ/²¼Â±²#Ï» ²#¾³¼H½­$¼c²#Ñ!¯»¿#¼²#¾0³T¼^­$Âj½T­¼c°³T­±Gò#­¼j½­$¼ Υ ­\Âj½­¼ µ ²¼G¼G»T­¼c½­$¼Mð³°$±ÀpË
­$»±G¼_¼OÂ|À³T½kÀ±G½T¼]½­‚¿‹À!¼G²Ñ€»¿‹Àp²#¾³,µ¿#²‹Çj¾I¾Â=ÍQ«{­¼ Υ ¹bº2»²–¼¾0³JÂ_¿‘¬~»³­`½­¼_¯kÀ?±Â²´»¿­¼
±G­$´|Э±´|а¼­$³R¯kÀ±O²#´$»¿#²­±c½kÀ?³¼/¿­(ÏT±À¼½²#р»T¾0³¼¹Q¼¾0³JÂ]Ã0°$³°±°¼_Ú!¯kÀ±ÂG²#±j½­½²#¼O±G²àË
Ï»TÂG²#¾0³T¼(¯T±G°½T° á ³²­¼$͖«tÀÌ0¾0²­4½­½°$´±¾0²#¼¼À³´$­iр»T¾0³²#º2»­­$¼Â`À¿#¾0±¼²#Ñ!¯s¾0¼°­‚¯9¾0»±
´|ÐkÀ´$»³+½­4´­$¼ Υ ¹dÀ á ³e½>¬~¾0ϼG­$±Ì­±€½­!¿‹À½²‰Ýb»T¼G²#¾³eр»T¿Â²¯¿#­`¼G»±»³­!½²#¼O±G²Ï»TÂG²#¾0³
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`bacRyd6570/­y /{Re4-©y{5f$1
Angle deviation, on (xz) plane
2400
2200
hstAngleX
Entries
Mean
RMS
Underflow
Overflow
χ2 / ndf
Constant
Mean
Sigma
2000
1800
1600
1400
76173
1.135e-06
0.004228
1
2
1655 / 145
2143 ± 10.58
-1.084e-05 ± 1.267e-05
0.003448 ± 1.138e-05
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
g
y
-0.04
-0.02
0
fhd$7Rf™y ij{51k3 1mlni1mfod$1lp3Bqram/41f¨'51
Map of average energy loss
hstMap1
Entries
29524
Mean x
-0.1406
Mean y
-0.5058
RMS x
5.7630.006
RMS y
2.03
0
0
0
0
48
00.005
0
0
0
3
2
1
0
0.004
-1
0.003
-2
0.002
-3
0.001
-4
-10
-8
-6
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
8
0
0.02
0.04
Deviation in degree
`Ë5lsd$f6z2e$d6578/63 1lni1fhd$1lp3Cqra/ 1f¨'51
Energy loss
hstEnj
700
600
500
Entries
76173
Mean
1.673
RMS
0.988
Underflow
0
Overflow
0
400
300
200
100
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Deposit energy (MeV)
9ñTÍ ø ÍÖÓ/²#¼O±G²Ï»TÂG²#¾0³­\´À±ÂG¾0Ã0±GÀ¯Ð²­]½­¼M½°\Ì ²#À?²¾0³¼jÀ³TÃ0»¿‹À?²#±G­$¼H­$ÂM½­$¼j¯s­$±Â­$¼½b¬;°$³­±Ã0²#­$¼Í
èð
X/X0(%)
Comparison between models and reference data
Complex model
reference
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
Zone number
sñTÍ;ðT͉ÖtÅ@À0ÆDÓ° á ³²‰Â²¾0³½­¼`¾0³T­¼½­jэ$Ñ4­c°$¯kÀ²#¼¼G­$»±]Åy­³!»³²‰Â°c½­ X ÆgÚ¯À±ÂG²#±g½»!Ñ4¾I½Ò$¿#­
½°\Â|À²¿#¿#°?ÍzÅyÏQÆMúÀ¿­»±¼]½­ˆåTwå ±­³´$¾0³J±G°$¼¯s¾0»T±]´|ÐkÀº2»­|¾³­‚½kÀ³¼_¿#Ài¼G²Ñ€»¿#À?²¾0³
Ŋ´$­±´¿#­$¼|ÆD­$ÂH¯À±v¿­´À¿#´$»¿oŊ´$±G¾0²à®kÆÉÍI«t­M¯±­Ñ!²#­±D¯9¾0²#³JÂv´¾0±±G­$¼G¯9¾0³½Ú(¿‹À±G°Ã²#¾0³!½­³T¼G­¹
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0
0
3.3.2. Méthode de définition des modèles simplifiés
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3.4. Impact du nouveau modèle géométrique sur les
performances des algorithmes de reconstruction.
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Masse invariante autour du Upsilon
hInvMassRes
Entries
9019
Mean
9.563
RMS
0.1405
Underflow
23
Overflow
1
Integral
8995
52.1 / 8
χ2 / ndf
Prob
1.611e-08
Constant
1721 ± 24.39
Mean
9.573 ± 0.001107
Sigma
0.1001 ± 0.0009666
1800
1600
1400
1200
Efficacite = 86,4 %
Resolution = 100,1 Mev/c
2
1000
800
Masse invariante autour du Upsilon
1600
1400
Efficacite = 84,8 %
1200
1000
Resolution = 108,3 MeV/c
8905
Mean
9.566
RMS
0.1515
18
Overflow
Integral
χ2 / ndf
800
Prob
Constant
Mean
400
400
hInvMassRes
Entries
Underflow
2
600
600
Sigma
0
8887
25.67 / 8
0.001196
1574 ± 22.29
9.573 ± 0.001228
0.1083 ± 0.001066
200
200
0
8
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9
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10
10.5
11
2
Masse invariante (Mev/c )
0
8
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9
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10
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Masse invariante (Mev/c )
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4. Simulation des défaillances
électroniques et influence sur les
performances du détecteur.
4.1. Introduction
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FONCTIONS
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5 entrees Bus PATCH
Quart 4 (Q4)
Quart 1 (Q1)
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Q3
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ÂG²#¾0³‚¼­MÁŠÀ?²Âg¯kÀ?±»T³4­$³¼G­$рϿ#­j½­jÃJÀ?Ñ4Ñ!­H½>¬~²#³½T²#´­$¼D½­¼¯kÀ½¼$Í2¸g³ á ³>¹2½kÀ³T¼¿#À_½­¼´±G²¯T²¾0³
¯TÐ2ÔI¼²#º2»­¹s²#¿{­$¼Â_¯9¾0¼G¼²#Ï¿­½­`¼¯s°$´² á ­±/»T³R­³¼­Ñ€ÏT¿#­`½T­Áy­"³ $±­¼]ð¾0Ñ!°$ÂG±G²#º2»­Ú!ÂG±À=Ì0­$±G¼
¿­»±¼c´¾I¾0±G½T¾0³³°$­¼M¼G¯kÀ?ÂG²‹À¿­¼Åy­³´ÑiÆ\Í
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Section règle
x`y!z{
öñ
Charge induite + bruit
après application du seuil
Charge induite + bruit
Position du point reconstruit
Bruit homogène−−>
Seuil homogène
1
2
Numéro de pad
3
Charge induite + bruit
après application du seuil
Charge induite + bruit
1
2
3
Numéro de pad
Position du point reconstruit
Bruit inhomogène−−>
Seuil inhomogène
Numéro de pad
Numéro de pad
9ãÍ ï ͉Ök¸zÝb­\Âz½­v¿‘¬~²#³ÐT¾0Ñ4¾Ã0°³°$²ÂG°g½»€Ï±»²Âd°¿­´\±G¾³²#º2»­v¼G»±o¿‹Àj±G­´$¾0³¼O±G»T´$²¾0³€½­$¼–´$¿#»¼O­±¼Í
Ó]À³T¼_¿#­€¼­´¾³½ƒ´=À¼$¹>¿‹À!¯s¾0¼²ÂG²#¾0³R­$¼Â_½T°Ã0±GÀ½°­‚´À±]¿#Ài½²Ýs°±­³´$­‚½­€Ï±»²Â]­³J±­‚¿#­
¯±­Ñ!²#­±­\Â`¿­!½T­±G³T²#­±¯kÀ?½&­³JÂG±À #³­ºI»T­i¼G­$»¿D¿#­¯±­Ñ!²#­±½>¬~­³JÂG±G­i­$» ®K­¼OÂ`¯T±G²#¼­$³
´¾Ñ4¯TÂG­¿#¾0±¼H½­¿‹À‚±G­$´¾0³T¼Â±»´$ÂG²#¾0³½­¿‹À€¯9¾0¼²Â²¾0³½»´¿»¼ÂG­±Í
1
2
3
1
2
3
½>¬;À¼G¼¾ ´$²#­±_»T³e­$³¼G­$рϿ#­‚½T­!¯À±ÀÑ!Ò$ÂG±G­$¼_½­‚±G°$¯s¾0³T¼G­¼(°¿­´\±G¾³²#º2»­$¼!Å é­»K½­‚¼­´$ÂG²#¾0³T¼ ¯kÀ±GÀÑ4­\­$± ÆcÀSÌ­´(»³­³¼­Ñ€Ï¿­½­_Ì0¾0²­¼j°¿­´$ÂG±G¾0³T²#º2»­¼Åˆé­»½­¼G­´\²¾0³¼ ±G°Ã²#¾0³éÆÉÍ
ʳK´¾0Ñ!¯9¾0±ÂG­Ñ!­³JÂ_¯kÀ±_½T°$ÁŠÀ»T¼»²Ì?À³JÂ(¿#­`³I»TÑ4°$±G¾F½­|¾0³T­¹{º2»²g±G­\äkÒ$ÂG­¿#­¼_½T²Ýs°±G­$³J­¼
Â|À²¿#¿­¼/½T­!¯À½¼¹{¯9­» Â(À»¼G¼'² $ÂG±G­½° á ³²g­³KÀ¼¼G¾I´²‹À?³2»T³K³2»Ñ!°±¾F½|­ ¾0³­!Ú»³ié­»ƒ½­
¯kÀ±GÀÑ4Ò\±­¼°¿­´$ÂG±G¾0³T²#º2»­¼$Ío·^­!´$¾0Ñ!¯s¾0±O­$Ñ4­$³2¼­±GÀ,»TÂG²#¿#²¼G°€¯9¾0»±_¿­¼_Ì0¾²#­¼º2»²D³­¼G¾³2Â
±GÀ²ÂG°­¼¯kÀ?±À»´»T³­ À?»T±­±GÒÿ#­ÍDÊM³ ­¼OÂi½T­FÌ?À¿²#½²‰Â°4­¼Â!¯kÀ?±4À?²#¿#¿­»±¼`­\Ýb­$´$»T°,¯9¾0»±
¼¬;À¼G¼»±G­$±/º2»­(¾0»TÂG­¼M¿#­$¼j̾0²#­$¼°$¿#­$´$±¾0³²ºI»T­¼M¼G¾0³JÂ/À¼G¼¾ ´$²#°­$¼]Ú»³­(±GÒ$Ã0¿#­(À»,Ñ4¾0²³¼jÀ á ³
½>¬~°$ÌI²ÂG­±j¿#­$¼M´$¾0Ñ!¯s¾0±O­$Ñ4­$³2ÂG¼c²#³½T°$­$±GÑ!²#³°$¼Í
«t­$¼ ½°\Â|À²¿#¼Â­$´|г²ºI»T­¼ ¼»±¿#­ƒÁy¾0±GÑ4À?ÂF½­K´­$¼ á ´|в­±¼,¼¾0³J Áy¾0»±³²#¼F½kÀ?³¼,¿@¬ˆÀ?³³­\® ­eç/ÍM¸g³
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¯s­$±GÑ!­$‚½>¬~а$±G²ÂG­±€½b¬;»³X´$¾0Ñ4¯9¾0±O­Ñ!­³J Œ“¼ÂÀ³½kÀ±½ Ž4­³X³­¼¯s°$´² á À³J‚º2»­F¿#­¼`¯kÀ±ÂG²#­$¼€º2»²^­$³
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4.3.2. Premiers résultats
d« ÀR±­´$¾0³¼ÂG±G»´\²¾0³ ½­¼‚´$¿#»¼O­$±G¼‚­¼O‚ÏkÀ¼°­¼»±‚¿#­4±À¯¯9¾0±O‚½­¼`´|ÐkÀ±Gí¼‚½­$¼‚¯kÀ½¼À½ÎéGÀ´­$³2ÂG¼Í
×o¾0»±j´$­$ÂGÂG­_±À²¼G¾0³b¹¿‘¬~о0Ñ!¾0Ã0°$³°²‰Â°/½T­_¿‹À€±G°$¯s¾³¼G­_½­$¼j½²Ýs°±­³J¼j¯kÀ½T¼oé¾0»­_»³F±GÞ¿#­]²Ñ4¯9¾0±ÂÀ³JÂ
¼G»±¿@¬ˆÀ?¿#Ã0¾0±²ÂGÐÑ4­i½­R±G­$´¾0³T¼Â±»´$ÂG²#¾0³bÍ^¸g³ ¯kÀ±O²´»¿²#­±$¹g¿‹ÀK±G°¯9¾0³¼­RÀ»I®ŽÁŠÀ²Ï¿#­$¼4´|ÐÀ±GÃ0­$¼¯9­»TÂ
$±­i¯9­±½»­¿¾0±G¼½­4¿‘¬;À¯¯¿²#´=Àp²#¾³½>¬;»T³+¼G­$»²#¿°¿­´$ÂG±G¾0³T²#º2»­4ÂG±G¾0¯eÐkÀ»TÂÍdÓ]À³¼€´$­i´À¼¹d²#¿D¯9­»TÂ
À±G±²Ì0­$±¹Q¯kÀ±j­É®T­$Ñ4¯T¿#­¹kº2»>¬~»³­¼G²‰Â»kÀ?ÂG²#¾0³F²³²ÂG²‹À¿­/¼ÔIÑ!°$ÂG±G²#º2»­(´¾³½»²¼G­Ú!½­$¼/±°¯9¾0³¼G­$¼º2»²t³­
´¾0³¼­±OÌ0­³J¯kÀ¼4´­\ÂG­ ¼ÔIÑ4°\±²#­Í^·^­´$²]¯9­»TÂÀ±G±²Ì0­$±i¼²»³ ¯À½>¹ºI»T²/¯9¾0¼G¼Ò½­R»T³ ϱG»²‰Âi¯T¿#»¼
°¿#­\Ì0°ºI»T­¿­¼MÀ»TÂG±G­¼$¹Q­¼Â¿#­_¼­»¿oÚ³­¯kÀ¼M¯kÀ¼G¼­±M¿#­¼G­$»²#¿@¹k´¾0Ñ!Ñ!­_´­¿#À!­$¼Â¼G´|а$ÑiÀp²#¼°¼G»±M¿‹À
á Ã0»±­(ãTÍ ï Í
ì_±$¹S²#¿0­$¼Âo¾0ϼ­±Ì°vº2»­¿#­gÏT±G»²‰Ât°¿#­$´$ÂG±G¾0³²º2»­D­¼Âo½°$¯s­$³½kÀ³JÂo½­D¿‹ÀHÂ|À²¿#¿­–½­$¼o¯kÀ?½¼ÍΫtÀcÌÀ?±G²‹À?ϲ#¿²Â°
¼ÔI¼ÂG°Ñ4À?²ºI»T­(½T­_´­¼j¯kÀ?±ÀÑ!Ò$ÂG±G­¼c´$¾0³½»T²Âj½¾0³T´Ú€»³­¼ÂG±G»´\»±­(³T¾0³Fо0Ñ!¾0Ã0Ò³T­]½­¼j³²‰Ì0­À» ®
öã
½­ ϱG»²‰Âi½T­¼½²‰Ýb°$±G­³JÂG¼¯kÀ½¼$ÍH×oÀ±´¾³¼G°$ºI»T­³´$­¹c¿#­$¼i³²‰Ì0­À» ®Ž½­R¼G­$»²#¿¼À¯T¯¿#²ºI»T°¼iÌ?À±²#­³J¹
¯»T²#¼Gº2»>¬~²#¿¼c¼G¾0³J¯±G¾¯s¾0±O²¾0³³­$¿#¼jÀ» ®ÏT±G»²‰Â¼j¯kÀ±j¯kÀ½bÍ9¶“¿t²Ñ4¯9¾0±ÂG­]½¾0³T´½­(¯±­³½±­­$³ ´$¾0Ñ4¯ ­
´$­¼cÌ?À±G²#Àϲ#¿²ÂG°¼^¿¾0±G¼^½­¼M½²Ýs°±­³J­$¼j°$»T½­¼$Í
×d¾0»±H´$­¿‹À ¹T¿#­$¼^³²‰Ì0­À» ®½T­_¯²#°$½­¼OÂ|À» ®i­$Âj½T­]ϱG»T²Â¼^»T²¿#²#¼°¼½kÀ³¼c´$­$­]¼²#р»¿#À?²¾0³!¼G¾0³JÂjÏkÀ¼°¼
¼»±]½­$¼ á ´|в­±G¼/Ñ4­$¼G»±°¼_¼G»T±]»³Rº2»kÀ±OÂ_½­€¯T¿‹À³R±°­$¿–²#¼¼G»¼/½­¼/ÂG­¼O¼_º2»²–¼­±¾0³JÂ_¯±G°$¼G­$³2ÂG°¼(À»
´|ÐkÀ?¯²ÂG±G­‚íTÍ{·^­¼³²Ì­=À»I®ƒ¼G¾0³J¯±°¼­³J°$¼¹t¯s¾»±_´|ÐkÀº2»­‚Â|À?²#¿#¿­½T­‚¯kÀ½¼$¹{¼G»±_¿#À á Ã0»±­‚ã͈ñ Í>Ó/­
´$­FÁŠÀ?²Â=¹–¿#­¼¯kÀ?±ÀÑ!Ò$ÂG±G­¼°$¿#­´\±¾0³²#º2»­$¼!À²#³¼²c²#³J±¾ ½T»²ÂG¼‚½kÀ³¼¿‹À¼²#р»¿#À?²¾0³+¯±°¼­³J­$³2Âi»³­
²³Ð¾0Ñ!¾0Ã0°$³°²‰Â°/­\ÂM»³­¼ÂG±G»´\»±­±°=À¿²#¼ÂG­¼$Í
«g¬~²#³J±¾ ½»T´$²¾0³R½>¬~»³­‚½T²#¼ÂG±G²Ï»T²¾0³¼]±°­$¿#¿#­½­¼¯²°½­$¼ÂÀ» ®ƒ­\Â_½­¼Ï±»²ÂG¼]±G°$¼G»¿‰Â­‚­$³e»³ƒ°$¿‹À±8Ë
Ã0²¼G¼­Ñ!­³J€½­i¿‹À,±°¼¾0¿#»TÂG²#¾0³e­³+Ñ4À¼¼G­½» Υ ½­ î ù,­nTú ?´ ­\‚­³+»T³­ÏkÀ²¼G¼­½>¬~‹­ !´=À´$²ÂG°½­
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2
4.4. Simulation des défaillances d’éléments critiques.
·^¾0Ñ!Ñ!­´$­¿#À&Àe°\°½°´$±G²‰Â­³„²#³J±¾ ½T»´$ÂG²#¾0³>¹g¿­ä¾Âi½b¬;²³TÁy¾0±GÑ4À?ÂG²#¾0³¼$¹z½­$¯»²#¼!¿#­$¼4½T°¯9Þ¼4½­¼
|´ ÐkÀ?±GÃ0­$¼]¼G»±¿#­$¼/¯kÀ½T¼é»¼Gº2»>¬;Úi¿@¬;­$³±G­$Ã0²#¼O±G­$Ñ4­$³JÂ]¼G»T±/½²¼Gº2»­€¼¾0»¼/Áy¾0±Ñ4­(³2»Ñ!°±G²º2»­`­$¼Â_¼O±G»T´\Ë
ÂG»±G°‚­$³K½T²Ýs°±G­$³J¼_³²‰Ì0­=À?» ®½­‚±­Ã0±¾0»¯9­Ñ!­³J½­‚¿@¬;²³TÁy¾0±GÑ4À?ÂG²#¾0³>¹T¼G»±_½­$¼°¿#°$Ñ4­$³J¼]´$¾0Ñ4Ñ`»³¼
ÅyÑ4¾0³JÂG±G°¼g½À³¼g¿#­^¼G´|а$ÑiÀãÍˆè ¹0¯kÀí öø ÆÉÍ2·^­$­j¼ÂG±G»´\»±­M²Ñ4¯T¿#²#º2»­º2»>¬~»³4½ Ô ¼OÁy¾0³´\²#¾³³­Ñ!­³JÂ
À»F³²‰Ì0­À»F½>¬;»T³,´$¾0Ñ4¯9¾0¼GÀ³JÂj­³J±GÀ ‹³­_¿#À€¯s­$±ÂG­(½T­]¾0»TÂG­¼j¿#­$¼c²#³TÁy¾±GÑ4À?²¾0³¼^º2»²{­$³F½°¯9­³½T­³JÂ=Í
Ó/²‰Ì0­$±G¼H¼´°³À±G²¾0¼H½­]¯À³³­$¼c¼G¾0³JÂc½¾³´]­³JÌI²#¼GÀÃ0°$¼c­$Âc»³T­]°$ÂG»½­_¼ÔI¼O°Ñ4À?ÂG²#º2»­]½­/¿#­»T±H²#Ñ!¯kÀ´\Â
¼»±¿­¼(À¿Ã0¾0±G²‰ÂÐÑ!­¼/½­4±­´$¾0³¼ÂG±G»´\²¾0³e­$¼Â°$ÂG»½²#°$­Íd«{­¼(¼G²Ñ€»¿‹Àp²#¾³¼]­³JÌI²#¼GÀÃ0°$­¼`²´²g¯9¾0±ÂG­³JÂ
½¾³´j¼G»±D½­$¼v¯kÀ?³³­¼DÁy±À?³´|Э¼$¹2´¬~­¼ÂHÚ_½²#±­M´$­¿¿#­¼g¾ 4¿­¼gÌ0¾0²­¼D´¾³¼G²½°±°­¼±G­$³JÌ0¾0²­³JÂvÂG¾0»pé¾0»T±G¼
»³T­/Ì?À¿#­$»±v³2»¿¿#­M¯s¾»±^¿#À´|ÐkÀ±Ã0­Í·^­´$²>´¾0±±G­$¼G¯9¾0³½½¾0³T´]Ú`»³T­]¯s­$±ÂG­/¾ÂÀ¿#­M½>¬~²#³TÁy¾±GÑ4À?²¾0³­$Â
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­$³K¯T¿#»¼²#­»T±G¼­\® ­Ñ!¯¿#À²#±­¼¹s¯s¾»±_¯s­$±GÑ!­$±G­¿#À¿#­´\»±­‚½­‚¾0» ­¼¿­¼]Ì0¾²#­¼°$¿#­´\±¾0³²#º2»­$¼Ít«{­
³¾Ñ€Ï±G­D¾?Â|À¿2½>¬~°¿°Ñ!­³J¼o½²Ýs°±­³J¼z¯T±G°¼­³J¼–½kÀ³¼o¿‹À´|ÐÀ ‹³­v½­^¿­´\»±­^½­v¿‹Àj¯±G­$Ñ4²Ò±G­¼ÂÀ?²¾0³
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´$­¼!¯kÀ³³­$¼¹­$Â!Ñ!¾0²#³¼‚­$³´¾±G­½­ÂG¾0»TÂG­¼!¿#­¼´$¾0рϲ³kÀ²#¼¾0³¼‚½­¯kÀ³T³­¼$ÍvÊM³Ž¯±­Ñ!²#­$±€Â±À=Ì?À²¿
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±­¯±°¼G­$³J­±i¿‘¬~­$Ýs­$½T­¼i½T°$ÁŠÀ²¿#¿‹À?³´­$¼!´À±À?´$°$±G²¼Â²º2»­¼$¹^Ú&´|ÐÀº2»­R°´|ÐT­¿#¿­ÍvÓ]À³¼4¿‹ÀK¼G»²‰Â­¹D¿­¼
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4.5. Simulations des défaillances aux petites échelles
4.5.1. Définition de la simulation
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°$¿#°Ñ!­³JÂG¼v´$¾0³J±GÞ¿‹À³JÂvÀ»i¯T¿#»¼víã̾0²#­$¼v°$¿#­$´$±¾0³²ºI»T­¼Í Ó]À³T¼^´­$¼^´À¼¹I¿‹À¯±G¾¯s¾0±O²¾0³½­/¿@¬ˆÀ´$´­$¯ Ë
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ô »±OÁŠÀ´­½­$¼M̾0²#­$¼j­³¯kÀ³³­ 67, 7
ô »T±ÁŠÀ´$­(½T­¼cÌ0¾0²­¼j¯kÀ±c¯T¿‹À³ = 2, 7.10 ' 0, 25%
À»FÑ4Àp® ²#р»TÑ Åy¯s¾0»T±c¿#­¼ù,µ/È/Ê ´¾³2ÂG±GÞ0¿#À³JÂj¿#­$¼c¯kÀ½¼M½­Ã0±À?³½­¼j½²Ñ4­$³¼G²¾0³¼Æ
Définition de l’échelle de la simulation
4
öè
File data/pedestal_1.dat
2003-04-04 11:17:08
hst
Entries
300
250
64
Mean
29.65
RMS
17.61
Underflow
0
Overflow
0
Integral
200
File data/noise_1.dat
2003-04-04 11:18:03
1
0.8
1.486e+04
0.6
hst
Entries
150
0.4
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Â|À³´$­¹o½kÀ³¼¿‹À,Ñ!­¼»±G­4¾ +¼­»¿¿‘¬~­$Ýs­$Â ÐxÎs½¿ ÐH½­i¿#À,¯kÀ?³³­i­$¼Â‚±­´|Э$±G´|а?Íg«tÀ,Â|À?²#¿#¿­‚½­¼¯kÀ½¼
é¾0»­j¯kÀ±g´$¾0³J±G­c»T³4±Þ0¿#­Hº2»>¬~²#¿ ÁŠÀ»TÂD¯±­³½±­j­³!´¾0Ñ!¯T­c­\ÂD¿‘¬~°$ÂG»½­c­¼O½¾0³´HÁŠÀ²‰Â­H¯9¾0»±g´|ÐÀ´»³T­
½­¼½²Ñ4­$³¼G²¾0³¼_½­‚¯kÀ?½¼Ít×oÀ±À²#¿¿#­$»±G¼$¹s¿­€ÁŠÀ²Â/ºI»T­!¿­!ù,µ]Èʟ´¾0³¼²#½°$±G°‚¼¾0²ÂϱGÀ³´|а¼»±¿#­
¯¿‹À³ƒÏ9­³½T²#³ÃF¾0»ƒ³¾0³KÏ9­³½²³ÃF­¼OÂ`À?»¼G¼²DÚ¯±­³½T±G­­³K´¾0Ñ!¯TÂG­Í{«{­¼¼²#р»¿#À?²¾0³¼¼G¾0³JÂ(½¾0³´
­$Ýs­´$ÂG»°­$¼/¯9¾0»±c´|ÐkÀ?´»³,½­¼M¯¿‹À?³¼Í
Grandeurs pertinentes
­³JÌI²#¼À?Ã0°¼(Ö
Simulations effectuées
Ó]À³¼¿‹À‚¯±G­$Ñ4²Ò±­(°\»½T­¹9ºI»À?±­(“ÔI¯9­¼/½T­¼²Â»À?²¾0³¼c¼G¾³2½¾0³T´
 ¾0»TÂG­¼j¿#­$¼cÌ0¾0²­¼j°¿­´$ÂG±G¾0³T²#º2»­¼j±°¯9¾0³½­$³2ÂM³¾±GÑ4À¿#­$Ñ4­$³2ÂÍ
¿­¼ î í/̾0²#­$¼gº2»²¿#»T²T¼G¾³2À?¼G¼G¾I´²°­$¼±­³JÌ0¾²#­³JÂgÂG¾0»pé¾0»±¼g»³­HÌ?À¿­»±z³2»¿¿#­?Í
MANAS en panne
¿­¼(ñ ï Ì0¾0²­¼(±G­$Ã0±G¾0»T¯s°$­¼(½kÀ³¼(´­\Â`°$¿#°Ñ!­³JÂ(±G°$¯s¾³½­³J¼ÔI¼ÂG°Ñ4À?²º2»­Ñ!­³JÂ
ADC en panne
TÍ
¿#­$¼oí?ãM̾0²#­$¼o½»€ù,µ]Èʛ±­³JÌ0¾²#­³JÂo¿‹ÀcÌ?À¿#­$»6± TÍp«g¬;°\»½T­v½­´­D“ÔI¯s­
Tout le MANU en panne
½­i¯À³³­!ÃJÀ±½­4»T³+¼G­$³¼`½kÀ?³¼`¿#ÀFÑ!­¼»±G­4¾ &´|ÐÀº2»­i´|ÐkÀ?рϱG­4¯s¾¼G¼GÒ$½­ ï ÁŠÀ´­$¼`­\Â`¾
¿‘¬;Àϼ­³´$­`½>¬~²#³TÁy¾±GÑ4À?²¾0³F¼G»±¿‘¬~»³­(½>¬;­$³J±G­­¿¿#­¼M¯9­»T $ÂG±G­¹9½kÀ³T¼/»³­´­$±Â|À?²#³­(Ñ4­$¼G»±­¹
¯kÀ¿¿#²#°$­c¯kÀ±¿‘¬~²#³TÁy¾±GÑ4À?²¾0³€½­M¿‘¬;À»TÂG±G­cÁŠÀ´­€ÅyÂG¾0»TÂvÀ»iÑ!¾0²³¼D½kÀ³¼¿‹[À ¾0³T­½­¯s­\²‰Â¼D¯kÀ½¼Æ\Í
·^ÐkÀ´»T³­½­´$­¼€°\»½­$¼À °$ÂG°­$Ýs­´\»°$­¼G»±
±G°$Ã0²#¾0³T¼`½­iÂG­¼O‚½²Ýs°±­³J­$¼€´¾±G±G­$¼G¯9¾0³½kÀ?³2Â
À» ® M•—–užq£ ÂÀ²#¿¿#­¼½­¯kÀ½¼!­$Â4À» ® ˜›©š™¹ “ÔI¯s£@­$žD¼i¹ ½­ÁŠÀ´$­¼!­\® ²#¼OÂ|À³J Ŋ´$­´$²Àƒ½¾0³T³°,¿²#­$»„ڐ½­
³¾0рϱ­»¼­¼M¼G²Ñ€»¿‹Àp²#¾³¼¹ ºI»T²{¼G¾0³JÂM±G°$¼G»Ñ!°­$¼½kÀ?³¼j¿#­]Â|À?Ï¿#­À»FãÍ;ãJÆ\Í
«t­$¼,½T¾0³³°$­¼ ½T­eÏkÀ?¼G­K¼G¾0³JÂ,¾0ÏT­$³2»­¼­³Ü­³JÌ0¾SÔJÀ?³2ÂR»³ªÁŠÀ?²#¼G´$­=À»ª¯¿#À?½­ƒÑ€»¾0³¼,Ú Â±À=Ì­±G¼
¿#­Ã0°$³°±GÀ?­$»±4½T­µ¿#²#ÇM¾I¾Â=¹d¼G»T±!»T³­Áy­³³ \±G­F½¾³2Â!¿­¼½²#Ñ!­³T¼G²#¾³¼€´¾±G±G­$¼G¯9¾0³½­$³JÂÀ»I®X¯kÀ½¼
´¾0³³T­´$ÂG°¼À»ù,µ]ÈÊ Úi°$ÂG»½²­±Íb·^­€¯±¾ á ¿d½­`ÁŠÀ²¼G´$­=À»R­$¼Â_´|ÐT¾0²#¼²o¯9¾0»±½²#¼O±G²Ï»­$±¿­äk» ®,½­
р»¾0³¼½­MÁŠÀâ¾0³4о0Ñ!¾0Ã0Ò$³­j¼G»±v¿‹À_¼G»±OÁŠÀ´­½»ùµ]È/ʪ´¾0³T¼G²#½T°±G°?ÍT«{­$¼v½²‰Ýb°$±G­$³2ÂG­¼v°$Â|À?¯s­$¼^½­M¿‹À
¼G²#Ñ`»¿‹À?ÂG²#¾0³(¼G¾³2À?¿#¾0±¼–­$Ýs­´\»°$­¼jÖð³°$±À?ÂG²#¾0³€½T­¼z±GÀ´­$¼¹ÂG±À³T¼G¯9¾0±Â–½­¼g¯kÀ?±Â²´»¿­¼$¹²#¾³²#¼GÀ?²¾0³
½kÀ³¼¿#­‚ÃJÀ !½­!¿‹À´|ÐkÀÑ`ϱG­?¹dð³°$±À?ÂG²#¾0³K½»&¼²#Ã0³À¿g¼G»±(¿#­$¼´=À?ÂGо ½T­¼¹d½²Ã0²ÂÀ¿#²¼À?ÂG²#¾0³­$­³ á ³
±G­´|ÐT­±G´|ÐT­4½­`Ã0±G¾0»T¯s­$¼]½­‚¯kÀ½T¼/¾0»T´|а¼4Ŋ´$¿#»¼O­$±G¼|ÆM­$Â_±­´¾³³kÀ²¼G¼À?³´­‚½­$¼_¯s¾²#³J¼]½T­€¯kÀ¼¼ÀÃ0­
½­¿‹À‚¯kÀ±O²#´$»¿#­?Í
Situation nominale
4.5.2. Résultats des simulations
Efficacité de reconstruction des clusters
‹
D« ¬~­ !´À´²‰Â°R½­,±G­$´¾0³¼O±»´$ÂG²#¾0³ ­$¼Â½T° á ³²­ ½kÀ?³¼»³ ¯T±G­Ñ!²#­$±!ÂG­Ñ!¯¼i´$¾0Ñ!Ñ4­¿#­±À¯T¯s¾0±O½»
³¾0рϱ­]½>¬~°$Ì°³­$Ñ4­$³2ÂG¼½T¾0³³kÀ³JÂc¿²#­$»Ú€¿‹À`±­´$¾0³³kÀ²¼G¼GÀ³´­_½b¬;»³´$¿#»¼O­$±c»³²#º2»­/¼G»±c¿­/³¾0Ñ`ϱG­
½>¬;°\Ì0°$³­Ñ!­³J¼o³­D´¾0Ñ!¯9¾0±ÂÀ³JÂ>º2»>¬~»³­D±À?´­Í=«t­$¼t°$Ì0°$³­Ñ!­³JÂG¼–À=ÔJÀ?³2Âd½¾³³°D¿#²­»_Úc¿‹ÀHð³°$±À?ÂG²#¾0³
½­]¯kÀ±O²´»¿­¼¼G­´$¾0³½kÀ?²#±G­$¼H¼G¾³2Â^½¾0³´/­\® ´¿»¼Í «tÀ á Ã0»±­/ãÍ;í`Ñ!¾0³J±­¿@¬;²³Täk»­$³´­½­¼H½T²Ýs°±G­$³J­¼
¯kÀ³³­$¼¼»±j´­\ÂG­(Ã0±GÀ³½­$»±Í
¶“¿kÀ¯¯kÀ?±À Âgº2»­j¿#­¼–¯kÀ³³­$¼D¼G»±D¿#­^¯¿‹À³‚Ï9­³T½²#³Ã_¾³2ÂD»T³!²Ñ4¯À´$ÂgÏT²#­³‚¯T¿#»¼g²Ñ4¯9¾0±ÂÀ³JÂz¼»±g´­\ÂG­
­‹!´=À´$²ÂG°cºI»T­H´­$¿#¿#­$¼z¼G»T±z¿#­H¯T¿‹À³€³T¾0³ ˓Ï9­³T½²#³Ã‚Å ε ¯s­$»TÂD½­¼´­$³½±G­MÚ ï ôÿ½À³¼z¿­^¯±­Ñ!²#­±o´=À¼
´¾0³J±­ ø í ô ½kÀ³¼¿#­¼G­$´¾0³T½QÆ\Íb·^­´$²o­$¼Â³½ ÷À»FÁŠÀ²ÂMº2»­(¿‘¬;À¿#þ0±G²‰ÂÐÑ!­/½­±G­$´¾0³¼O±»´$ÂG²#¾0³+Ŋ½¾0³JÂ
¿#­M¯±G²³´²¯s­j½­MÁy¾0³´$ÂG²#¾0³T³­Ñ!­³JÂv­¼Â^­\® ¯¿²#º2»°À»i´|ÐkÀ?¯²ÂG±G­ ï ÆD²Ñ4¯T¿#°Ñ!­³JÂG°M½À³¼^µ¿#²#ÇM¾I¾ÂzÂG±À²‰Â­
½­ÁŠÀâ$¾0³ ³T¾0³R¼ÔIÑ!°$ÂG±G²#º2»­¿#­$¼²³TÁy¾0±GÑ4À?ÂG²#¾0³¼^²#¼G¼»­¼/½­¼½­» ®,¯¿#À³¼$¹9Ñ Ñ!­(¯s¾0»T±¿­¼ ¾0³­$¼/½­
¯s­\²ÂG¼j¯kÀ½¼j¾ F¿‹À‚¼­Ã0Ñ!­³JÂ|Àp²#¾³­¼Â²#½T­³J²ºI»T­_¯s¾0»T±c´­¼M½­$» ®¯¿‹À?³¼Í
ø
rec
εrec (%)
100
zone 1
zone 2
zone 3
90
80
70
60
50
Bending
40
30
20
10
0
nominal
manas(16)
adc(32)
manu(64)
objet en panne
εrec (%)
100
90
80
70
60
50
Non-bending
zone 1
zone 2
zone 3
40
30
20
10
0
nominal
manas(16)
adc(32)
εrec (%)
100
manu(64)
objet en panne
zone 1
zone 2
zone 3
90
80
70
60
50
Les deux plans cathodiques
40
30
20
10
0
nominal
manas(16)
adc(32)
objet en panne
kãÍ;íT͉Ök¶“³Täk»­$³´­(½­¿‹À€¯kÀ?³³­À»F¼G­²³,½b¬;»³T­(´À±ÂG­ù,µ]ÈÊÿ¼»±j¿‘¬~­‹!´=À?´²ÂG°_½­±G­$´¾0³¼O±»´\Ë
²#¾³½­$¼z¯9¾0²#³J¼d½>¬~²#Ñ!¯kÀ´\Â=Ípʳ­Â“ÔI¯s­H½T­^¯kÀ³T³­cÀÏT²#­³`¯¿#»¼d½>¬~²#³Tä»­³´$­H¼¬~²#¿I´¾³´­$±G³­
¿#­¼j¯kÀ?½¼½T» ¯¿#À³FÏs­$³½²#³TÃRÅ á Ã0»±­½»,ÐkÀ»TÂ|ÆHºI»T­`³¾0³I˓Ï9­³½²³Ã Å á Ã0»T±G­½» Ñ!²#¿²#­$»QÆ\Í
זÀ±­\® ­Ñ!¯¿#­?¹s»T³µ]Ó_· ´¾³2ÂG±GÞ0¿#À³JÂ]½­$¼]¯kÀ½T¼]½ˆ­ $¾0³­ î ­$³¯kÀ³³T­¹b´$¾0³½»T²Â/Úi»³­
‹­ !´=À´$²ÂG°R½­ ö ¦
è ôý½kÀ³T¼¿#­R¯±­Ñ!²#­$±i´=À?¼¹^´$¾0³J±­ ø0ø ô ½À³¼¿#­,¼G­$´¾0³½ª´=À?¼ÍH«tÀ
Áy¾0±GÑ!­i³¾³›Ñ!¾0³¾?¾0³­4½»XÃ0±À?¯Ð²#º2»­i½kÀ³¼¿#­4´=À¼‚½b¬;»³T­¯À³³­¼»±‚¿#­¯T¿‹À³ ³¾³ Ë
Ïs­$³½²#³TÃiÑ!¾0³J±G­(º2»­€¿­³¾Ñ€Ï±G­½­Ì¾0²#­$¼/´$¾0³J±GÞ¿#°­$¼]¯kÀ±M»³R°$¿#°$Ñ4­$³2Â/³>¬~­¼Â]¯kÀ¼/¿­
¼G­»T¿{¯kÀ±À?Ñ4Ò\±G­_½T°$­$±GÑ!²#³kÀ?³2Âj¿@¬;P­ !´=À´$²Â°_½T­(±­´$¾0³¼ÂG±G»´\²¾0³>Í
øTî
Position du point d’impact reconstruit
Cas a − sans panne : la répartition de
charges consuit à un seul point d’impact
reconstruit
Position du point d’impact reconstruit
Position du point d’impact reconstruit
ô õÓ
ô õÓ
ô õô
õÓ
ô õÓ
ô õô
õôÓõÓ
Cas b − un pad en panne entouré de pads
en état de marche.
La meme situation conduit à la reconstruction
de deux points d’impacts séparés.
Pad en panne
9ãÍ ö ͉Ök¸zÝb­\ÂM½>¬;»T³­¯kÀ³³­¼»±j»³,¯À½F¿#¾0±¼Gº2»­_¿#­$¼j¯kÀ½¼jÀ½ÎéGÀ´­$³2ÂG¼±­³JÌ0¾²#­³JÂM»³­±°¯9¾0³¼G­
³¾0³I˓³2»¿#¿­Í
–× À±‚À?²#¿#¿­»±¼¹t¼G²v¿‘¬~­‹!´=À?´²ÂG°i½°$´±¾#‚¿²#³°À²#±­Ñ!­³JÂÀ=Ì0­´¿­i³¾Ñ€Ï±G­i½­iÌ0¾²#­¼`­³ ¯kÀ³T³­¼G»T±‚¿#­
¯¿‹À³ªÏ9­³½²³Ã¹j´­K´¾Ñ4¯9¾0±ÂG­Ñ!­³J³­&¼­e±­$ÂG±G¾0»TÌ­&¯kÀ?¼ ¯9¾0»±F¿#­$¼,¯kÀ?³³­¼,¼G»±¿#­ƒ¯¿#À³ª³¾0³ Ë
Ïs­$³½²#³TÃ͖×g¿»¼€­³T´¾0±­¹–½À³¼€´$­i´=À?¼¹–¿@¬;­P!´=À´$²Â°4­¼O‚Ñ4­$²#¿¿#­»T±G­¯s¾»±€ñ ï Ì0¾0²­¼`­$³ ¯kÀ³³T­ƒÅŠ»³
µ]Ó_·cÆvº2»­¯s¾»± î íÌ0¾0²­¼]Ŋ»³ù,µ]ÈMµ_ôÆÉÍ×o¾»±^´$¾0Ñ4¯T±G­³T½±G­´­´$²‘¹2²#¿kÁŠÀ» Â^¼°¯kÀ±­±H½T­» ®4´=À?»¼G­$¼
½>¬;²³‹­ !´À´²‰Â°c­³Áy¾0³´\²¾0³‚½»!³¾0рϱ­c½­c´¿»¼ÂG­±¼±­´$¾0³¼ÂG±G»²‰Â¼$Í2¸D³­\Ýb­\Â=¹J»³°$Ì°³­$Ñ4­$³JÂHÚ_»³­
±À?´­¹bÑiÀ±º2»°€´¾Ñ4Ñ!­€³¾0³P­ !´=À´$­Ñ!­³JÂ(±G­´$¾0³¼O±G»T²Â=¹s¯s­$»T¿‘¬ $ÂG±G­€¼¾0²Â/¯kÀ±´­‚º2»>¬~²#¿z³­`½¾0³³­
¿#²#­$»Úc¿‹ÀH±G­$´¾0³T¼Â±»´$ÂG²#¾0³(½>¬;À»´$»³´$¿#»¼O­$±¹=¼¾0²Ât¯kÀ?±G´­Dº2»>¬~²#¿0´$¾0³½»T²ÂtÚc¯¿»¼G²­»±¼{´¿#»T¼Â­$±G¼t¼G°$¯kÀ±°¼Í
«dÀ,¯±G¾0¯9¾0±O²#¾³&½>¬~²#³P­ !´=À´$²Â°4½»­iÚ ´|ÐkÀ´$»³­½­4´­¼`½­» ®+´=À»T¼G­¼`½°¯9­³½ ½T­¿‹À±G°¯À±ÂG²Â²¾0³
Ã0°¾0Ñ!°$ÂG±G²ºI»T­_½­¼j¯kÀ½T¼c­³¯kÀ³³­?ÍQ¸g³­\Ýb­\ÂM¼G²>»³¯kÀ½F­$³¯À³³­­¼OÂÀ½péGÀ´$­³JÂMڂ»³,ñG¾0»¯9­]½­
¯kÀ½¼M­³°$ÂÀ?Âj½­_Áy¾0³´\²#¾³³­Ñ!­³J¹¿‹À‚±G°$¯kÀ±O²ÂG²#¾0³i½­¼M´|ÐkÀ±Ã0­¼jÑ!­¼G»T±G°­$¼¯9­» ¼­_±À?½»²#±­_¯kÀ±
¿‹À4±­´$¾0³³kÀ²¼G¼GÀ³´­½­`¯T¿#»¼²#­»T±G¼M´¿#»T¼Â­$±G¼$¹b´¾Ñ4Ñ!­½kÀ³¼¿‘¬~­\® ­Ñ!¯¿#­¯±°¼­³J°‚¼»±/¿­(¼´|аÑ4Ài½­
¿‹À á Ã0»±­ãÍ ö Í
ì_±²¿DÀ¯¯kÀ±GÀ #Â]ºI»T­i¿‹À±°¯kÀ±O²‰Â²#¾³½­¼(¯kÀ½¼À?ÂÂ|À´|а$¼`ÚF»³&ù,µ]ÈMµ_ôƒ¯±G°$¼G­³JÂG­iϲ­³K¯¿#»¼½­
¯kÀ½¼(²#¼¾0¿#°$¼]º2»­4½À³¼¿#­‚´À¼½b¬;»³Kµ]Ó]·—Åy̾0²#±¿#À á Ã0»±­!ãTÍ ø ÆÉÍt·^­´$²D­¼Â(³½ ÷eÚF½­¼´¾³2ÂG±À²³J­¼
Ã0°¾0Ñ!°$ÂG±G²ºI»T­¼j½>¬~²#Ñ!¯¿‹À³JÂÀ?²¾0³i½­$¼M̾0²#­$¼¹k­$³,¯kÀ?±Â²´»¿²#­$±Í
¶“¿c­³X±G°$¼G»¿‰Â­Fº2»­F¿#­iÂÀ» ®X½­´$¿#»¼O­$±G¼Ñ€»¿‰Â²#¯T¿#­¼­¼OÂ4¯T¿#»¼‚²Ñ4¯9¾0±ÂÀ³J€¯9¾0»±‚»³„ù,µ/ȵ]ôX­$³
¯kÀ³³­iºI»T­½kÀ³¼`¿#­!´=À¼€½b¬;»³ µ/Ó_·/¹oÂÀ³½²¼º2»­i¿#­i³T¾0рϱ­i½>¬~°$Ì°³­$Ñ4­$³2ÂG¼¼À³¼´¿»¼ÂG­±G¼`­¼Â
¯¿#»¼j²Ñ4¯9¾0±ÂÀ³JÂH¯9¾0»±j»³µ]Ó_·•­³¯kÀ³³T­iÅ Ì0¾0²±c¿‹À á Ã0»T±G­ãÍ;ðJÆ\Í
«dÀ!´¾0³T´»±±G­³T´­€­$³2ÂG±G­´­¼/½­» ®Â“ÔI¯9­¼/½b¬;²³‹­ !´=À?´²ÂG°¼­\® ¯¿#²º2»­º2»­½kÀ³¼¿#­(´=À¼M½>¬~»³­¯kÀ³³­
¼G»±¿­ ¯¿#À³ ³¾0³I˓Ï9­³½²³Ã ­$­³ ¯kÀ±O²´»¿²#­±!¯9¾0»±¿­
¼ $¾0³­¼ ï ­$ÂñT¹¿‘¬~‹­ !´=À?´²ÂG° ¾?Â|À¿­ ¼G¾²Â
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zone 2
zone 3
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objet en panne
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40
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adc(32)
100
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zone 2
zone 3
90
80
70
60
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40
30
30
20
20
10
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zone 2
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40
manas(16)
adc(32)
100
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objet en panne
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zone 2
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90
80
70
60
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40
30
30
20
20
10
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0
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ºI»T²zÌ ²­³J½>¬ $ÂG±G­Ñ4¾³2ÂG±G°‚¯9¾0»±]¿­€¯¿#À³ƒ³¾0³ ËnÏs­$³½²#³Tùb»³ƒÑ4À³º2»­‚½>¬~²#³ Áy¾0±GÑ4À?²¾0³ ¼»±_¿#­‚¯T¿‹À³
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ÁŠÀâ¾0³&¯±G²¾0±G²‰Â|À²±G­€¿­¼(²#³TÁy¾0±ÑiÀp²#¾³¼_½>¬~»³+½­$¼`½­$» ®+¯T¿‹À³¼iŊ²´²@¹{¿#­!¯¿‹À³K³¾0³I˓Ï9­³½²³Ã2ÆɹdÑ Ñ!­
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«t­$¼H±G°$¼G»¿‰Â|À?ÂG¼^¯±°¼­³J°$¼c²#´²9¯9­±GÑ!­$­$³2Â^½­/¼¾0»¿²#Ã0³­$±v¿@¬;²Ñ4¯9¾0±OÂ|À³´$­c½­]¿#À(¯±²#¼­/­³i´¾0Ñ!¯T­½­¼
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Résolution spatiale
t« ­M±G°$¼G²½»4¼¯kÀ?ÂG²‹À¿¯9¾0»±D´|ÐkÀ?ºI»T­/°$Ì°³­$Ñ4­$³JÂH¯kÀ¼¼À³JÂv¿#­c´$±G²ÂGÒ±­M½b¬;­P4´À´²‰Â°M­¼OÂ^½° á ³²Q´¾Ñ4Ñ!­c¿‹À
½²#¼OÂ|À³´$­]­³JÂG±G­_¿‹À¯s¾0¼²ÂG²#¾0³4½»¯s¾²#³JÂH½­/¯kÀ¼G¼GÀÃ0­]½T­_¿‹À¯À±ÂG²#´»T¿#­/½À³¼H¿#À`´|ÐkÀрÏT±G­ÅŠÀ»³²Ì­=À»
½»¯¿#À³4½T­ÃJÀSÆg­$Âv¿‹À¯s¾0¼²ÂG²#¾0³±G­$´¾0³T¼Â±»²ÂG­/Ú(¯kÀ±O²#±D½­$¼^²³TÁy¾0±GÑ4À?ÂG²#¾0³¼–½²#Ã0²‰Â|À¿²#¼°­¼$¹¯±¾pé­$ÂG°­$¼
¼G»±M´|ÐkÀº2»­Àp® ­ÍQ«{­¼j½²¼ÂG±G²#ÏT»T²¾0³¼H½­´$­¼MÃ0±À³T½­»±¼j¼G¾0³JÂM±G­$¯±G°$¼G­³JÂG°­¼/¼G»±j¿‹À á Ã0»±G­ãÍ î ñTÍ
øí
εrec (%)
100
zone 1
zone 2
zone 3
90
80
70
60
50
Bending
40
30
20
10
0
nominal
manas(16)
adc(32)
εrec (%)
100
manu(64)
objet en panne
zone 1
zone 2
zone 3
90
80
70
60
50
Non-bending
40
30
20
10
0
nominal
manas(16)
adc(32)
εrec (%)
100
manu(64)
objet en panne
zone 1
zone 2
zone 3
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
Les deux plans cathodiques
20
10
0
nominal
manas(16)
adc(32)
objet en panne
kãÍ î0î ֶ͉“³Täk»T­³´$­½T­¿‹À¯kÀ³³­À»+¼G­$²#³ ½>¬~»³­i´=À±O­Fù,µ/È/ʗ¼»±€¿@¬;­P4´À´²‰Â°4²#³J±²#³¼Òº2»­
¾?Â|À¿­½­/±G­´$¾0³¼O±G»T´$²¾0³½­$¼H¯s¾²#³J¼v½>¬;²Ñ4¯À´$Â]Å@À=Ì0­$´_»³­]´$¾0³½²‰Â²¾0³i½­/¯±G¾=® ²#Ñ!²ÂG°
­³JÂG±G­(¿#­_¯9¾0²#³JÂc½>¬~²#Ñ!¯kÀ´\Âj±G°$­¿{­$ÂM±­´¾³¼ÂG±G»²‰ÂÉÆ\Í
øJö
dfe e³B6:y36™
J6
+BV y36
d$aÖlMy0/4l
i75/$d
+6
dfe e³B6:y36™
78/ /6y{5l lMy / 1Ö3 e
3Bq –i
:d^f$a1-
30e
90
80
70
60
50
16 ^V
if65lu1'1/
BV 36
7 –iµd$1
i75/4d3Bq° –iwy :d^f$a1m-
100
εrec (%)
εrec (%)
100
86
d$aÂyÙc81
zone 1
zone 2
zone 3
90
80
70
60
Non-bending
50
zone 1
zone 2
zone 3
40
30
Non-bending
40
30
20
20
10
10
0
nominal
manas(16)
adc(32)
0
nominal
manu(64)
objet en panne
manas(16)
Ì°Í Î
adc(32)
manu(64)
objet en panne
Ì+ÝÎ
9ãÍ îÎï ͉ÖQ·^¾0Ñ!¯kÀ±GÀ²#¼¾0³X½­¼4­$Ýs­$ÂG¼i½>¬~»³­,¯kÀ³³­¼G»T±4¿@¬;­P4´À´²‰Â°½­±G­´$¾0³¼O±G»T´$²¾0³>¹D¼G­$¿#¾0³
º2»­M¿‹À½° á ³²ÂG²#¾0³½­M´­\ÂG­M‹­ !´À´²‰Â°M²#³´$¿#»­ÅŠÏkÆg¾»i³>¬~²#³´$¿#»­c¯À¼]ŊÀJÆz»³­M´¾0³T½²ÂG²#¾0³
½­¯±¾=®T²Ñ4²‰Â°]½T»,¯9¾0²#³JÂj½>¬~²#Ñ!¯kÀ´\Âc±G­$´¾0³T¼Â±»²ÂMÀ=Ì­´(¿#­_¯9¾0²#³JÂj½>¬~²#Ñ!¯kÀ´\Âc±G°$­¿‘Í
Residu sur l’axe de basse resolution
Residu dans la direction de basse resolution
hResidualY0
Entries
Mean
RMS
Underflow
Overflow
Integral
χ 2 / ndf
Prob
Constant
Mean
Sigma
60
hResidualX0
50
Entries
Mean
40
RMS
8338
-0.001433
0.05989
Underflow
Integral
600
500
0
Overflow
30
700
0
8338
400
8338
-4.576e-05
0.008315
3
0
8335
119.7 / 23
4.72e-15
666.9 ± 10.15
4.857e-05 ± 4.385e-05
0.003788 ± 4.08e-05
300
20
200
10
0
-0.3
100
-0.2
-0.1
0
Ì°Í Î
0.1
0.2
0.3
Residu (cm)
0
-0.2
-0.15
-0.1
-0.05
-0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
Residu (cm)
Ì+ÝÎ
9ãÍ î ñT͉ÖkÓ/²¼ÂG±G²#ÏT»T²¾0³½­$¼c±G°¼²#½»T¼c¼G»±c¿@¬ˆÀp® ­]½T­_ÏkÀ¼G¼­4Å@ÀJÆv­\Âc½­_ÐkÀ?»T­_±°¼G¾¿#»TÂG²#¾0³ƒÅyÏQÆv¯9¾0»±
¿#|À $¾0³­ î ÍQÓ]À³T¼¿­_¯±G­$Ñ4²­±c´=À?¼¹Q¿‘¬~­±±G­»T±M½T­(º2»kÀ?³2ÂG² á ´À?²¾0³>¹k½¾³2ÂM¿#À½T²#¼ÂG±G²Ï»T²¾0³
­$¼Â]¯T¿‹À?ÂG­¹Q­¼OÂ]¿‹À¯±²#³´$²#¯kÀ¿­¼G¾0»±´­½­`±°¼G²½»¼$Íb×d¾0»±/¿@¬ˆÀήT­(¯kÀ±GÀ¿#¿Ò¿­À» ® á ¿#¼`ŊÏkÆ\¹
¿­¼c¯9¾0¼G²‰Â²#¾³¼c¼G¾0³JÂM´¾³2ÂG²#³2»­$¼M­\ÂM¿‘¬~­±G±­»±c­$¼Â¯¿#»T¼c¯±G¾I´|Э½>¬~»³­`Ù(À»T¼G¼G²­³³T­Í
ø0ø
0.3
0.2
0.1
hResidualVsRealX0
Entries
8338
Mean x
27.14
Mean y
-0.001433
RMS x
0.819
RMS y
0.05989
0
0
0
0
8338
0
0
0
0
Integral
8338
Residu en fonction de la position du point d’impact
Residu (cm)
Residu (cm)
Residu en fonction de la position du point d’impact
hResidualVsRealY0
Entries
8338
Mean x
23.56
Mean y
-4.553e-05
RMS x
2.003
RMS y
0.008315
0
0
0
0
8334
1
0
3
0
Integral
8334
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
-0
-0.05
-0.1
-0.1
-0.2
-0.3
-0.15
26
26.5
27
27.5
28
28.5
Point d’impact (cm)
-0.2
21
22
23
Ìã͋Î
24
25
26
27
Point d’impact
Ì+ÝÎ
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ÊM³­]½¾0»TÏ¿#­]¼°¿­´$ÂG²#¾0³b¹ °$¿#²#Ñ!²#³À³JÂv¿­¼H°\Ì0°$³­Ñ!­³J¼j½¾³2ÂH¿‹À`´|ÐkÀ?±GÃ0­_¼»±H¿#­¯kÀ½½­_´|ÐÀ±GÃ0­/ÑiÀp® ²àË
р»TÑ ­$¼ÂMÏkÀ¼¼G­4Å ‰ ï è €´À³kÀ»I®µ]Ó]·cÆc¾»ÐÀ»T­!1Å êMñJè €´À³kÀ» ®µ]Ó_·cÆɹk¯s­$»TG $ÂG±G­(À¯¯T¿#²#º2»°$­
¯9¾0»±D³­¯kÀ¼^¯T±G­³T½±G­­³i´$¾0Ñ!¯T­M´­MÂ“Ô ¯9­/½b¬;­\Ýb­\¼ÍT·/¬~­¼ÂcÚ´­\ÂGÂG­¼°¿#­$´$ÂG²#¾0³4ºI»T­/¿‘¬~­\® ¯±­¼¼G²#¾³½­
¼ ¼G­(±À¯T¯s¾0±O­$±À‚½kÀ³¼j¿#À€¼G»²‰Â­Í
½¾0»TÏ¿#­¼G°$¿#­$´$²¾0³F¼G»±j¿­¼c´|ÐkÀ±Ã0­Ê
quant
p
2
√p
12
p
2
øð
2003-04-27 16:35:27
Charge sur le pad max lorsque Xrec-Xhit>pitch
30
Run nominal pour un MANU de la zone 1
25
hst
Entries
107
Mean
1015
RMS
1680
Underflow
Overflow
20
Integral
0
0
107
15
10
5
0
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
Charge sur le pad max (cannaux ADC)
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¿@¬ˆÀp® ­j½­jÏkÀ¼¼G­M±G°$¼G¾0¿»T²¾0³‚­¼OÂ^¼»¯s°$±G²­»±­Ú_»³!½­$Ñ4²à˓¯kÀ¼MÅy½kÀ³¼D¿­c´=À¼³¾0Ñ!²#³kÀ?¿ Æ\Íp¶“¿
À¯T¯kÀ±wÀ #Âg´$¿‹À²±G­Ñ!­³JÂg½T­» ®±°Ã0²Ñ4­$¼z´¾±G±G­$¼G¯9¾0³½kÀ?³2Â^Ú]½­$¼v´|ÐkÀ?±GÃ0­$¼DÁŠÀ?²#Ï¿­¼jÅy¯±G¾I´|Э¼
½­$¼MÌ?À¿­»±¼c½­¯²#°$½­¼OÂ|À»I®kÆH¾0»FÁy¾0±O­¼Å Ì0¾0²­¼c­³¼Àp»±GÀ?²¾0³QÆ\Í
«dÀ á Ã0»T±G­ãÍ î í€Ñ4¾³2ÂG±G­?¹k¯s¾0»T±c´|ÐkÀº2»­Â“Ô ¯9­(½­¯kÀ³³­?¹k¿‹À`Ì?À¿­»±c½»±À?¯¯s¾±Â ε ½° á ³²t¯kÀ±
³T¾0рϱ­(½b¬;°\Ì0°³T­Ñ!­³J¼¾F¿#­_Ï9¾0³ á ¿>­¼OÂÂG±G¾0»TÌ°
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¶“¿jÀ¯¯kÀ±GÀ #¹gÀ=Ì0­$´,´$­$ÂGÂG­F¼G°¿­´\²#¾³>¹zº2»­¿#­¼‚¯À³³­$¼4¼»±¿#­¯¿#À³XÏs­$³½²#³TÃK³b¬;¾0³JÂ!¯±­¼Gº2»­,¯kÀ¼
½>¬;­\Ýb­\¼]¼»±/¿@¬;P­ !´=À´$²Â°(½­±G­´$¾0³¼O±G»T´$²¾0³R½» á ¿‘Ís·^­±G°¼»¿ÂÀ?­¼Â_À?ÂGÂG­³½»,¯s¾»±/¿­¼ ¾0³­$¼/½­
Ñ4¾SÔ0­$³¼€­\€½­Ã±À³½T¼`¯kÀ½T¼¹d¯»²#¼º2»­¿‹ÀF¼G­$Ã0Ñ!­³JÂ|À?ÂG²#¾0³&½­i¯¿#À³&Ï9­³T½²#³Ã,½kÀ³¼`´­Ë¼ ¾0³­$¼`³­
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»³­¯kÀ³³T­(¼»±j¿#­]¯T¿‹À³F³¾0³I˓Ï9­³½²³Ã‚´¾³½»²‰ÂMÚ»T³­_ÏkÀ²¼G¼G­½­ ÏT²#­³¯T¿#»¼c²Ñ4¯9¾0±ÂÀ³J­]º2»­
¯s¾0»T±g¿‹À]Ñ Ñ!­c¯kÀ³³­c¼»±D¿#­c¯¿#À³‚Ï9­³½²³ÃÍJ×oÀ±g­\® ­$Ñ4¯¿­¹0½À³¼Dε¿#­c´À¼g½­j¿‹À]¯kÀ?³³­j½>¬~»³­j´=À±O­
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¯s¾0»T±–¿‘¬;Àp® ­½­HÐkÀ» ­^±°¼¾0¿#»TÂG²#¾0³b¹S²#¿IÀ¯¯kÀ?±À Â–º2»­v¿‘¬;À¿#Ã0¾±G²ÂGÐÑ!­z­Ñ!¯¿#¾SÔ°^²#´$²2³­^²­³JÂo¯kÀ¼–´$¾0Ñ!¯T­
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¼À³¼´­\ÂGÂG­½¾»Ï¿#­c´$¾0»¯»T±G­M­$¿#­$¼g±G°¼»¿ÂÀ?¼D½­M´­\ÂGÂG­M°\»½T­¼¾0³JÂv±­¯9¾0±ÂG°¼½kÀ³¼D¿#À á Ã0»±­ãÍ îÎö ÆÉÍ
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½°Ã0±GÀ½°$¼Í·^­¯9­³½kÀ?³2¹?½À³¼d¿‹Àc¯¿#»T¯kÀ±Âd½­$¼o´À¼¹Î¿@¬;­\Ýb­\Âo¼»±d¿‹Àc±G°$¼G¾0¿»T²¾0³­¼ÂdÁŠÀ²Ï¿#­?¹=¿‹ÀHÌ?À±G²#À?²¾0³
½>¬;P­ !´=À´$²Â°`°$Â|À?³2Â]½­`¿@¬;¾0±½±G­½­‚è4Ú î ôë¯9¾0»±M¿#­¼¯kÀ³³T­¼_½­$¼ù,µ]ÈMµ_ô ¾0» ½­¼]µ/Ó_·/Í{·^­$´²
±À?½»²Â¿#­_ÁŠÀ²‰ÂMºI»T­¹9¯s¾0»T±¿@¬ˆÀp® ­(½­`ÐÀ»T­(±G°$¼G¾0¿»T²¾0³>¹k¿@¬ˆÀ¿Ã0¾0±²ÂÐTÑ4­ ½°$ÂG­´\Â|­ F´¾0±±G­´\­$Ñ4­$³2Â
¿#­¼v´=À¼v¾ i¿@¬;²³TÁy¾0±ÑiÀ?ÂG²#¾0³‚­$¼Â^²#³´$¾0Ñ4¯T¿#Ò$ÂG­¹J­\ÂH±G­“é­$­/¿@¬;­$³¼G­$рϿ­½­¿‘¬~°$Ì°³­$Ñ4­$³2Â^¯¿#» ÂÞÂvº2»­/½­
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f il
f il
f il
f il
ð
gZ h i j (kl2monp q 30 4H Hp h÷ Ó÷
ry
Ž÷åù
–ú
86
/4ln->y63 78e›z2-o1'lua-h1 :d6578/lue f
J6
-h1l
j›y f¨R1
rapport B (%)
80
70
50
20
10
adc(32)
zone 1
zone 2
zone 3
90
80
70
70
50
40
30
30
20
20
10
10
100
80
70
adc(32)
manu(64)
objet en panne
80
70
40
40
30
30
20
20
0
nominal
manas(16)
90
50
10
zone 1
zone 2
zone 3
100
60
Les deux plans cathodiques
Non-bending
0
nominal
manu(64)
objet en panne
zone 1
zone 2
zone 3
90
manu(64)
objet en panne
80
60
adc(32)
adc(32)
90
40
manas(16)
manas(16)
100
Non-bending
0
nominal
zone 1
zone 2
zone 3
0
nominal
manu(64)
objet en panne
rapport B (%)
manas(16)
100
rapport A (%)
->y
Bending
40
10
0
nominal
rapport A (%)
50
30
50
j6y0fSR1
70
20
60
6
80
30
50
86
->y3078e›z2-o1klua-h1 :d6578/^lue f
90
60
zone 1
zone 2
zone 3
Bending
40
60
oú ÷@ù
100
90
60
*6
c01
rapport B (%)
rapport A (%)
100
s
ú:ù
Les deux plans cathodiques
zone 1
zone 2
zone 3
10
manas(16)
adc(32)
objet en panne
0
nominal
manas(16)
adc(32)
objet en panne
kãÍ î íT͉ÖkÇMÀ¯¯9¾0±Â/­³J±­‚¿#­€³¾Ñ€Ï±G­µ ½>¬~°$Ì°³­$Ñ4­$³2ÂG¼¾¿#­ á ¿–¿#­`¯¿#»¼¯±G¾I´|Э‚­$¼Âϲ­³R±­\Ë
´¾³¼ÂG±G»²‰Â=¹J­$¿­M³T¾0рϱ­jÂG¾Â|À?¿k盽b¬;°\Ì0°³T­Ñ!­³J¼H¾4¿@¬ˆÀ¿Ã0¾0±²ÂÐTÑ4­D±¾0»TÌ0­M»³!´¿»¼ÂG­±
»³²º2»­ÍQÓ]À?³¼¿#À€¯kÀ±O²#­_½T­(½T±G¾0²‰Â­¹ »³­(¼G°$¿#­´\²¾0³F¼G»¯¯T¿#°Ñ!­³JÂÀ²#±­_¼G»±j¿#­$¼c´|ÐkÀ±Ã0­¼
­¼OÂg­$Ýs­´\»°$­(Ŋ´|ÐkÀ?±GÃ0­H¼»±z¿#À¯kÀ½`½­H´|ÐkÀ±Ã0­HÑ4Àp® ²#р»TÑ ´¾0Ñ!¯±²#¼G­v­³J±­ ï è ­$Âgñ0è ´=À?³kÀ» ®µ/Ó_·cÆ\Í
ðî
2,t uvw x2
ÿ
ry
0/4ln->y
90
80
86
3078e›z2-o1'lua-h1 :d6578/lue f->y
6
j6y0fSR1
50
Žú
s
86
Bending
40
30
20
10
adc(32)
Resolution Spatiale - σY (µm)
zone 1
zone 2
zone 3
90
80
70
Non-bending
40
30
20
adc(32)
60
50
Bending
40
30
20
manas(16)
adc(32)
80
70
60
manu(64)
objet en panne
zone 1
zone 2
zone 3
90
Non-bending
50
40
30
20
zone 1
zone 2
zone 3
90
80
70
Les deux plans cathodiques
40
30
20
10
0
nominal
0
nominal
manu(64)
objet en panne
manas(16)
adc(32)
100
Resolution Spatiale - σY (µm)
manas(16)
100
Resolution Spatiale - σY (µm)
70
10
0
nominal
50
-©y
vers 160 µm
zone 1
zone 2
zone 3
100
10
60
80
j6y f¨R1
0
nominal
manu(64)
objet en panne
Resolution Spatiale - σY (µm)
manas(16)
100
50
90
6
10
0
nominal
60
86
c01 ¾-©y3 78e{z;-h1Ölua-h1 :d6578/^lue4f
100
zone 1
zone 2
zone 3
70
60
÷@ù
Resolution Spatiale - σY (µm)
Resolution Spatiale - σY (µm)
100
÷
90
80
70
Les deux plans cathodiques
manu(64)
objet en panne
zone 1
zone 2
zone 3
60
50
40
30
20
10
manas(16)
adc(32)
objet en panne
0
nominal
manas(16)
adc(32)
objet en panne
9ãÍ îÎö ֶ͉“³Tä»­³´$­½T­(¿#À‚¯kÀ³³­½>¬~»³ ù,µ]ÈÊ ¼G»±j¿#­$¼c¯s­$±Áy¾0±ÑiÀ?³´­$¼M²³J±G²³¼GÒ$º2»­¼j½>¬~»³½°\Ë
ÂG­´$ÂG­»±Åy±G°¼¾0¿#» ²#¾³¼–½­c±­´$¾0³¼ÂG±G»´\²¾0³½­¼Dр»¾³¼g¼G»±g¿@¬ˆÀήT­^½­cÐkÀ»TÂG­c±G°$¼G¾0¿»T²¾0³QÆ
À=Ì0­$´_­$Â^¼À³¼_ŊÃJÀ»T´|Э]­$ÂH½±G¾0²‰Â­?¹I±­¼¯s­$´$²‰Ì0­$Ñ4­$³2Â|Æ^»³­½¾0»Ï¿­/¼°¿#­$´$ÂG²#¾0³¼»±H¿#À(Ì?ÀpË
¿­»±c½­¿#À´|ÐÀ±GÃ0­½»¯kÀ½FÑ4Àp® ²#р»TÑ,Í
ðï
Recherche de paramètres caractéristiques
µ á ³i½­MÃ0»²½­±¿‹À¼G»T±Ì0­$²#¿¿‹À³´$­j­$Âv¿‹À¯±G²¼G­M­³i´$¾0Ñ!¯T­M½­/´$­¼v¯kÀ³³­$¼¹I½­¼v´±²ÂÒ$±G­$¼v¯9¾0±ÂÀ³JÂ^¼»±
½­$¼`¯kÀ?±ÀÑ!Ò$ÂG±G­¼(Ñ!­¼G»T±ÀÏ¿­¼(­$º2»²v¯T»²#¼¼G­³J€Áy¾»±G³²±»³­!²#³½²´=À?ÂG²#¾0³ƒ¼»±`¿­!³T²Ì0­À»+½­ÌI±À²àË
¼­Ñ€Ï¿#À³´$­(½T­¿@¬;­É®T²¼ÂG­³´$­½>¬~»³­¯kÀ³³T­¼¾0³JÂ/±­´|Э$±G´|а$¼Í>Ó/À³¼/¿#À‚Ñ4­$¼G»±­¾¿#­$¼½T°$ÁŠÀ²¿#¿‹À?³´­$¼
½°$´±²Â­$¼c²#´$²b´¾³´­$±G³­$³2ÂM½­$¼j¯kÀ³³­$¼HÁy±À³T´|Э¼$¹k»³FÑ4°$´=À³²¼GÑ!­]½­_¼»±Ì­²#¿¿‹À³T´­]°\Ì0°³T­Ñ!­³JÂM¯kÀ±
°\Ì0°³T­Ñ!­³JÂc­¼OÂH­$³Ñ4­$¼G»±­/½­½°$ÂG­´\­±^»³­Ì¾0²#­°¿­´$ÂG±G¾0³T²#º2»­M±G°¯9¾0³½À³JÂ^¾»pé¾0»±¼^»³­MÌ?À¿#­$»±
´$¾0³¼ÂÀ³J­?͖¸g³&½T­Ð¾0±¼`½­4´­$¼Â­$¼ÂG¼`¼ÔI¼O°Ñ4À?ÂG²#º2»­¼$¹o½b¬ˆÀ» ±G­$¼`¯kÀ?±ÀÑ!Ò$ÂG±G­¼(¯9¾0»TÌ?À³JÂÀ¯¯9¾0±ÂG­±
½­$¼j²#³TÁy¾0±ÑiÀp²#¾³¼^»TÂG²#¿­¼c¼G¾³2ÂM­É®T¯T¿#¾0±°¼Í
«dÀK¯±G­$Ñ4²Ò±­ ½­$¼Ã0±À?³½­»T±G¼i°\»½T²#°­$¼²#´$²j­¼Â¿‹Àe´|ÐÀ±GÃ0­,¼G»±i¿#­¯kÀ½
º2»²z¯9¾0±O­‚¿‹À´|ÐÀ±GÃ0­Ñ4Àp® ²#р»TÑþ½T­¼´¿»¼ÂG­±G¼$Íd·^¾0Ñ!Ñ4­€¾³K¯9­» ¿#­€Ì0¾²#±]¼»±¿‹À á Ã0»T±G­‚ãÍ îSø ¹s¿‹À
½²¼ÂG±G²#ÏT»T²¾0³R½­‚´$­$ÂGÂG­Ã0±À³T½­»±­É®TÐT²#Ï9­‚»³­!À»Ã0Ñ!­³JÂÀ?²¾0³R½»K³¾0рÏT±G­‚½­‚´À¼¾ƒ¿‹À´|ÐkÀ±Ã0­
Ñ4Àp® ²#р»TÑ ­$¼Â±G­¿#À?²‰Ì0­$Ñ4­$³2ÂÏÀ¼G¼­ÍdʳƒÂ­$¼Â(½­!´­$­‚Ì?À¿#­$»±_¯9­»T½¾0³´‚Áy¾0»T±G³²±_»³­²#³½T²#´=ÀÎË
ÂG²#¾0³¼G»±M¿‘¬~­\® ²¼Â­$³´­½>¬~»³­`½T°$ÁŠÀ²¿#¿‹À?³´­?Ík¸g³R­$Ýs­$¹9¿#À á Ã0»±G­ãÍ î ð!Ñ!¾0³J±­º2»­?¹s¯9¾0»±j¾»T­$¼¿­¼
¯kÀ?³³­¼$¹¿#­±À¯T¯s¾0±OÂH­$³2ÂG±G­_¿­/³¾0Ñ`ϱG­]½b¬;°\Ì0°³T­Ñ!­³J¼M¾ ¿‹À(´|ÐkÀ±Ã0­_­¼OÂj²#³TÁy°$±G²#­$»±G­/Ú ï è ´=À³kÀ?» ®
µ/Ó_·ó­$¿#­!³¾0Ñ`ϱG­½>¬~°$Ì°³­$Ñ4­$³2ÂG¼€Â¾ÂÀ¿g¼À?³¼¼GÀ?»T±À?ÂG²#¾0³ŽÅŠ´|ÐkÀ?±GÃ0­ ‰ ñ0è F´=À³kÀ?» ®eµ]Ó_·cÆɹd­$¼Â
À¯T¯±G¾=® ²#Ñ4À?²‰Ì0­$Ñ4­$³2ÂH²#³½°$¯s­$³½kÀ³J½­¿‹À€Â|À?²#¿#¿­/½­$¼¯À½¼j¾ ,À!¿²#­»´$­$­(¯kÀ³³­4Åy½kÀ³¼M´|ÐkÀº2»­
²ÑiÀí¹I¿#­¼j´$¾0»±GÏ9­¼j½­$¼MÂG±G¾0²¼ ¾0³T­¼j´¾0³T´¾0±½­³JÂ/Ú4|è ô ¯T±GÒ¼Æ\Í
Charge maximum
Ê ³­(À» ±G­_ñÀ³½T­»±c°\»½²°­­¼OÂM¿‹À€¯±¾0¯s¾±Â²¾0³½­¿‹À€´|ÐÀ±GÃ0­]ÂG¾Â|À?¿#­_¯9­±OË
½»T­€½kÀ³¼»³´¿»¼ÂG­±½»RÁŠÀ²Â½­¿‹À4¯À³³­€°\»½T²#°­?Í>×d¾0»±]´$­¿‹À ¹s¿#À4½°$Ã0±À½À?²¾0³ ½» ±G°¼²#½»¼»±
¿@¬ˆÀp® ­H½T­HÐkÀ»TÂG­c±G°$¼G¾0¿»T²¾0³€­¼OÂD¯s¾±Â°$­H­³‚Áy¾0³T´$²¾0³€½­^¿‹À/¯±¾0¯9¾0±ÂG²#¾0³€½T­c¿‹À/´|ÐkÀ?±GÃ0­^ÂG¾Â|À?¿#­^¯9­±½»­
¯kÀ?±]´¿»¼ÂG­±Í{·^­$ÂGÂG­‚½­±³²#Ò$±G­‚Ã0±GÀ³½­$»±]¯9­»T[ \±­‚½° á ³T²#­‚¯±°´²¼G°$Ñ4­$³2­$³ƒ´¾0Ñ!¯kÀ±GÀ³JÂ=¹b°\Ì0°$³­\Ë
Ñ!­³JÂj¯kÀ±j°\Ì0°³T­Ñ!­³JÂ=¹9¿#­$¼M½T¾0³³°$­¼M½­¼M¼G²Ñ€»¿‹Àp²#¾³¼^½­(±G°\Áy°±­³´$­`À=Ì0­$´´$­¿¿#­¼j½­$¼¼²#р»T¿‹À?ÂG²#¾0³¼
½>¬~°¿°Ñ!­³J¼j½°\ÁŠÀ²#¿¿‹À³JÂG¼ÍQ·^­\ÂG­À¯¯T±G¾I´|Э¯9­±Ñ4­\ÂM½­½T°´­$¿#­$±»³­$Ýs­$¼ÔI¼O°Ñ4À?ÂG²#º2»­(½kÀ³¼M´­$±OË
ÂÀ²#³¼(´=À?¼FŊ´$¾0Ñ4Ñ!­iÑ!¾0³J±°i¼»±€¿‹À á Ã0»±­ãÍ ï JÆɹoÑ4À²#¼(³­¯9­» €¯kÀ˼ $±­»TÂG²#¿#²¼G°$­¹t½kÀ³¼`´­$­
Áy¾0±Ñ4­?¹T¼»±j½­¼M½¾0³³T°­¼M±G°$­¿¿#­¼$Í
×d¾0»±i´$­¿#ÀT¹D»³ À» ±G­,Ñ4¾SÔ­³ ¯9¾0¼G¼²#Ï¿­,½b¬;°\ÌÀ?¿#»kÀ?ÂG²#¾0³X½­,¿‹ÀK´|ÐkÀ±Gí ¯9­±G½T»­ ¯kÀ?±4´$¿#»¼O­±4¯s­$»TÂ
\±G­ÏkÀ¼°€¼G»±/¿‘¬~»T²¿#²#¼GÀ?²¾0³½­$¼]²#³TÁy¾±GÑ4À?²¾0³¼j½­¼/½­» ® ¯¿#À³¼ÍsÓ/­€´$­$­`ÁŠÀâ$¾0³>¹9­³¼»¯¯9¾0¼À³JÂ
º2»­?¹ ¿¾ ´À¿#­$Ñ4­$³2¹0¿‘¬~»³­M½­$¼^½­$» ®!ÁŠÀ´­$¼HÀ»!Ñ4¾²#³¼D³­´¾0³J²­³JÂv¯kÀ¼½­/¯kÀ?³³­¹2¿#À(¯±¾0¯9¾0±ÂG²#¾0³!½­
´|ÐkÀ?±GÃ0­H¯9­±½»­c¯9­»T $±­c­¼O²#Ñ!°­^¯kÀ±z¿­^±À?¯¯s¾±Â
¾
Ŋ±G­$¼G¯>Í Q Æd±G­¯T±G°¼­³J­
Q
¿#À ´|ÐkÀ±Ã0­Â¾ÂÀ¿#­4½» ´¿»¼ÂG­±‚¼»±‚¿#­¯T¿‹À³+¾ ´­$­´|ÐkÀ?±GÃ0­­$¼ÂÑ4Àp® ²#р»Ñ Åy±G­¼¯>ÍgÑ!²#³²Ñ€»ÑiÆ\Í
Ó]À?³¼_´­´=À?¼_´­¯9­³T½kÀ³JÂ=¹t¿‹À4½²#¼¯s­$±G¼G²¾0³ƒ½­‚´¾±G±G°$¿‹À?ÂG²#¾0³ ½­‚¿‹À´|ÐkÀ?±GÃ0­Ñ!­¼G»T±G°­‚­$³J±G­¿­¼_½­$» ®
´À?ÂоI½­$¼/­¼OÂ_»³­¼G¾0»T±G´­`½>¬;²³´­$±ÂG²Â»T½­Íb·^­$­€½²¼G¯9­±¼G²#¾³ ­¼OÂ_¯±°¼G­$³J°­‚½À³¼]¿#À á û±G­€ãTÍ ï î ¹
¾ 4²#¿9À¯¯À±À ÂºI»T­/¿#­$¼v¯T¿#»¼vÃ0±À³T½­¼v´|ÐkÀ±Gí¼^´$¾0±G±­¼¯s¾0³T½­³JÂjÀ»I®i¯T¿#»¼Ã0±À?³½­¼v½²#¼¯s­$±G¼²#¾0³¼v½­
Ñ!­¼»±G­­³JÂG±G­¿#­$¼M½T­» ®F¯T¿‹À³¼$Í
«{­i±°¼»¿ÂÀ?‚­¼O‚Ñ!¾0³J±G°4¼G»±`¿‹À á û±G­4ãÍ ïï ¹o¾ ¿#­i´$¾0Ñ!¯s¾0±O­$Ñ4­$³2Â`¼ÔI¼ÂG°Ñ4À?²º2»­½°$´±G²‰Â€¯¿»¼
ÐkÀ?»TÂMÀ¯¯kÀ?±À ÂjÀ»¼¼G²‘Í
Charge perdue
Qmax −Qmin
Qmax
max
min
ð0ñ
y2 pz{w|}mz~4z &08^-€ &z p
Žú
–ú
Cú
ôTÀ³¼j¯kÀ?³³­
ú
ú
Charge du pad de charge maximum par cluster
220
hPeakCharge0
Entries
8338
Mean
712.9
RMS
834.7
Underflow
0
Overflow
0
Integral
8338
277.7 / 214
χ2 / ndf
Prob
0.00219
Constant
1071 ± 18.58
MPV
235.5 ± 3.43
Sigma
123.4 ± 1.848
200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
זÀ?³³­(¼G»±j»³ ù,µ]ÈMµ_ô
3500
4000
Charge (canaux ADC)
Charge du pad de charge maximum par cluster
hPeakCharge0
Entries
7483
Mean
635.4
RMS
793.6
Underflow
0
Overflow
0
Integral
7483
294.1 / 209
χ2 / ndf
Prob
9.468e-05
Constant
1047 ± 18.7
MPV
160.9 ± 5.51
Sigma
119.3 ± 1.959
200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
×oÀ³³­(¼G»T±M»T³µ/Ó_·
3000
3500
4000
Charge (canaux ADC)
Charge du pad de charge maximum par cluster
hPeakCharge0
Entries
6205
Mean
565.1
RMS
777.6
Underflow
0
Overflow
0
Integral
6205
2
534.2 / 201
χ / ndf
Prob
0
Constant
1136 ± 61.45
MPV
12.52 ± 17.87
Sigma
111.4 ± 2.316
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
Charge (canaux ADC)
9ãÍ îSø ͉ÖTúÀ¿­»±/½­¿‹À´|ÐkÀ±Ã0­‚½»ƒ¯kÀ½K¯9¾0±ÂÀ³JÂ_¿‹À´|ÐkÀ?±GÃ0­Ñ4Àp® ²#р»Ñü½»ƒ´$¿#»¼O­±¯9¾0»±]½T²Á‹Ë
Áy°$±G­³JÂG­¼(¯kÀ³³­$¼¼»±(»³­´=À±O­4ù,µ/È/ÊÍo·^­$¼(Ì?À¿­»±¼_´¾0±±G­¼¯s¾³½­³J€À»ƒ¯¿‹À³ƒ½­
ÐkÀ?»T­±G°$¼G¾0¿»T²¾0³>¹ ½kÀ³¼j¿‹¡À $¾0³­½­¯s­\²‰Â¼c¯kÀ½T¼Í
ðã
gZ h i jB>f z fv (‚@mnp2 ƒ0 ^H€
Rapport A/B (%)
h÷ Ó÷
÷@ù
:ùú
ú:ù
100
–ú
Žú
Bú
zone 1
zone 2
zone 3
90
80
70
60
50
Bending
40
30
20
10
Rapport A/B (%)
0
nominal
manas(16)
adc(32)
100
manu(64)
objet en panne
zone 1
zone 2
zone 3
90
80
70
60
50
Non-bending
40
30
20
10
Rapport A/B (%)
0
nominal
manas(16)
adc(32)
100
manu(64)
objet en panne
zone 1
zone 2
zone 3
90
80
70
60
50
Les deux plans cathodiques
40
30
20
10
0
nominal
manas(16)
adc(32)
objet en panne
kãÍ î ðT͉Ök×g±G¾0¯9¾0±O²#¾³€­³J±­j¿#­^³T¾0рϱ­cµ ½>¬~°$Ì0°$³­Ñ!­³JÂG¼v¾¿#À/´|ÐkÀ±Ã0­¼g¼»±g¿#­H¯À½‚¯s¾±Â|À?³2Âz¿‹À
´|ÐkÀ±Ã0­]Ñ4Àp® ²#р»Tџ­¼Â^ÁŠÀ²#Ï¿­€Å ï è(´=À³kÀ?» ®µ/Ó_·/¹²´² Æz­\Âc¿#­³¾0рϱ­ÂG¾Â|À¿s玽>¬~°$Ì°\Ë
³­$Ñ4­$³2ÂG¼j¾ F´­$­´|ÐkÀ±Ã0­³>¬~­¼ÂM¯kÀ?¼c­³¼À?ÂG»±À?ÂG²#¾0³KÅy´|ÐkÀ±Ã0­ ‰ ñJ耴=À³kÀ?» ®Fµ]Ó]·cÆ\Í
Ó]À³T¼¿­¼_´=À?¼(½b¬;»³T­4¯kÀ?³³­¼G»±¿­‚¯¿‹À³ƒÏ9­³½T²#³Ã¹b¿#­¼_ÂG±G¾0²¼_´¾0»±Ïs­$¼±G­¯T±G°¼­³JÂ|À?³2Â
¿#­$¼¯kÀ³³­$¼½T­¼Â±G¾²#T¼ ¾³­¼(¼G¾0³JÂ(¼G²Ñ4²¿‹À²±G­$¼Íb·^­´²D²Ñ4¯¿²#º2»­ºI»T­4¿­‚±À¯¯9¾0±OµTç
´¾³¼G²½°±°(­$¼Âϲ#­$³>¹½kÀ?³¼j´­´=À¼$¹Q»³F²#³½²´=À?ÂG­»±c½T»Â“ÔI¯9­(½b¬;°$¿#°Ñ!­³JÂM­³¯kÀ³T³­Í
ðJè
Residu (cm)
Residu en fonction de la proportion de charge perdue
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
hDeltaYvsDeltaQ
Entries
2280
Mean x
68.98
Mean y
-0.0453
RMS x
31.68
RMS y
0.2832
0
1
0
6
2261
0
0
12
0
Integral
2261
-0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6
-0.8
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Proportion de la charge totale perdue (%)
9ãÍ ï T͉ÖQ·^¾0±±G°$¿‹À?ÂG²#¾0³­$³J±G­_¿­/±°¼G²½»F¼G»±c¿@¬ˆÀήT­/½­]ÐkÀ» ­_±G°$¼G¾0¿»T²¾0³­\Âj¿‹À`¯±¾0¯9¾0±ÂG²#¾0³4½­_¿‹À
´|ÐkÀ?±GÃ0­(¾ÂÀ¿#­¯9­±G½T»­`½kÀ?³¼¿­´$¿#»¼O­$±½»,ÁŠÀ²ÂM½>¬~»³­½°$ÁŠÀ²¿#¿#À³´­_½b¬;»³ù,µ]ÈÊ÷½­
¿#ˆÀ ¾0³­ñ‚½»¯¿‹À³½T­(ÐÀ»T­±°¼G¾¿#»TÂG²#¾0³>Í
Charge sur le plan non bending
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
Charge sur le plan bending
9ãÍ ï î ͉ÖQ·^¾0±±G°$¿‹À?ÂG²#¾0³ƒ½­4¿‹ÀF´|ÐkÀ±Gí4­$³2ÂG±G­4¿#­¼(½­$» ®+¯T¿‹À³¼½­4´=À?ÂGоI½­4¯9¾0»±(¿‹ÀF¼G²Ñ€»¿#À?²¾0³
³¾Ñ4²³kÀ¿#­€ÅŠ¼GÀ³¼M¯kÀ³³­=ÆH½kÀ³¼j¿‹ˆÀ $¾0³­½­Ñ!¾ÎÔ­³¼M¯kÀ½T¼Í
ð0í
Residu (cm)
Residu vs Estimation de la charge perdue
0.8
hDeltaYVsDeltaQ
Entries
2314
Mean x
67.29
Mean y
-0.04634
32.01
RMS x
0.2835
RMS y
0
1
0
0
2298
1
0
14
0
2298
Integral
0.6
0.4
0.2
-0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6
-0.8
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Ecart relatif des charges totale des deux plans (%)
kãÍ ï0ï ͉ÖQ·^¾0±±G°¿#À?²¾0³­³J±­v¿­D±G°¼²#½»¼G»±d¿‘¬;Àp® ­D½­ÐkÀ»TÂG­v±°¼G¾¿#»TÂG²#¾0³(­$Âd¿‹Àj½²‰Ýb°$±G­³T´­­³J±­v¿­¼
´|ÐkÀ±Ã0­¼M½­$¼M½T­» ®F¯T¿‹À³¼c½T­(´À?ÂÐT¾ ½­?¹½kÀ³T¼M¿­_´=À¼c½b¬;»³T­(½T°$ÁŠÀ²¿#¿‹À?³´­]½b¬;»³,ù,µ/È/Ê
½­¿‹¡À $¾0³­(ñ‚½»,¯T¿‹À³F½­ÐkÀ» ­±G°$¼G¾0¿»T²¾0³>Í
4.6. Simulations des défaillances aux moyennes
échelles
4.6.1. Définition des simulations
Définition de l’échelle de la simulation
«{­¼/°¿#°$Ñ4­$³J¼/´$¾0³J±Þ0¿‹À³JÂ/½­€¯¿»¼/Ã0±GÀ³½¼/­³¼­Ñ€Ï¿­¼ÅŠÚi¯kÀ±O²±½­‚è4Ï»¼×9µgæM·HÄ ´¾0±±G­$¼G¯9¾0³ Ë
½kÀ?³2Â(Ú»³KÓ_ô ×ÜÁy±G¾0³JÂÀ¿ Ƽ¾0³J¾0»¼_°\»½T²#°¼¼OÔ ¼O°$ÑiÀ?ÂG²#º2»­$Ñ4­$³2ÂÑ4À²¼]­³ƒÂ­$³kÀ³J´¾0Ñ!¯TÂG­‚½­¼
´$¾0³¼G²½°±GÀ?²¾0³¼_½­!¼ÔIÑ!°$ÂG±G²#­,Åy¯kÀ±­\® ­Ñ!¯¿­¹{¿#­$¼ÐI»T²Â(º2»kÀ½±GÀ³J¼`¾³2Â(»³K±GÞ¿#­°º2»²‰ÌÀ?¿#­³JÂ(­$Â(²¿
³>¬~­¼O€½¾³´4¯À¼³T°´­$¼G¼GÀ²#±­i½­4¿‹À³´$­±¿#­$¼ ø ¼G²Ñ€»¿#À?²¾0³¼_´¾±G±G­$¼G¯9¾0³½kÀ?³2ÂG­¼$ÍzÓ]À³T¼´$­i´=À?¼¹t»³­
¼­»¿­(¼²#р»T¿‹À?ÂG²#¾0³­$¼ÂMÁŠÀ²ÂG­SÆ\Ík·^­¼/¯À³³­$¼¯9¾0±ÂG­³J¼G»±M½­¼M¼G»T±ÁŠÀ´$­¼/¼"» !¼ÀÑ!Ñ!­³JÂ/¿#À±Gí¼c¯9¾0»±
À=Ì0¾²#±t»³­v²#³Täk»T­³´$­^³¾0³³°Ã¿#²#í=ÀÏ¿­g¼G»±d¿#­$¼o¯9­±OÁy¾0±GÑ4À³´$­¼dÃ0¿#¾ÏkÀ¿#­$¼t½»`½°\­$´$­$»±Í0·^­¯9­³½À³JÂ=¹
À»I®€Ñ!¾SÔ0­³T³­¼g°$´|Э¿¿#­¼g¯T±G°¼­³J°$­¼D²#´$²‘¹p¿‹À/¯T±G°¼­³´$­j½­H¿‹À½­» ® ²ÒÑ!­H´|ÐkÀрÏT±G­H¯9¾0»±z¿#À/¯±­Ñ!²#Ò±­
¼OÂ|À?ÂG²#¾0³Áy¾0»±³²Â»T³­i±­½¾0³T½kÀ³´$­4¼"» !¼À³J­گkÀ?¿#¿#²­±]¿­‚ÑiÀ?³º2»­4½b¬;²³TÁy¾0±GÑ4À?ÂG²#¾0³¼/¼G»±(¿‹À¯±­\Ë
Ñ!²#Ò$±G­´|ÐkÀрÏT±G­¹9´¾Ñ4Ñ!­¾³ ¿#­Ì0­$±G±GÀi½kÀ³¼/¿‹À¼G­´\²¾0³R¼G»T²Ì?À³J­?ÍsÓ/À³¼]´$­`´=À?¼¹9¿#­¼°$ÂG»½­¼/¼G¾0³JÂ
½¾³´`ÁŠÀ²‰Â­¼M­³±­$ÂG²#±À?³2Â/¿‘¬~²#³TÁy¾±GÑ4À?²¾0³½­€¿#Ài¼G­$´¾0³½T­‚´|ÐkÀрϱ­ÍbזÀ±/À²#¿¿#­»T±G¼¹Q»³T­€¼G²Ñ€»¿‹Àp²#¾³
½­±°$Áy°±­³´$­¹Q¼À?³¼j¯kÀ³³­?¹Q­¼ÂM­\Ýb­$´$»T°­(¯s¾0»T±c¼G­±OÌI²#±j½­ÏkÀ¼­(½T­(´$¾0Ñ!¯kÀ±À?²#¼G¾³>Í
Variables pertinentes
]Ó À?³¼´|ÐkÀº2»­K´=À¼$¹H¿#­$¼Ã0±À?³½­»T±G¼F½­¼G¾±Â²­¼»TÂG²#¿²#¼G°$­¼4¼G¾0³J¿‘¬~­‹!´=À?´²ÂG°R­$ÂF¿#À+±G°$¼G¾0¿»T²¾0³ ½­
±­´¾³¼ÂG±G»´\²#¾³ ½­ÑiÀ?¼G¼G­ ²#³JÌ?À±G²#À³J­ ½T» Υ ÍH«g¬;­P!´=À´$²Â°­$¼Â½T° á ³²­´¾0Ñ!Ñ!­ ¿#­,±À¯T¯s¾0±O½­
¿@¬;²³2ÂG°Ã0±GÀ¿#­M½­_¿#À`½²#¼O±²#Ï»TÂG²#¾0³i½­¼cÑ4À¼G¼­¼j±G­$´¾0³T¼Â±»²ÂG­¼c½kÀ?³¼c¿‹À`Ã0ÀÑ4Ñ!­ˆ~ðT¹;ñ¹kðT¹ ø è ù,­nú[?´ Í
2
ðö
d« À€±°¼¾0¿#»TÂG²#¾0³4­¼OÂj¿‘¬~°´=À?±Âˑ“ÔI¯s­½­_¿‘¬;ÀÎ黼O­Ñ!­³JÂcÙ(À»T¼G¼G²­³Fڀ´$­$ÂGÂG­]½²¼Â±²#Ï» ²#¾³i½kÀ³T¼H¿‹À`ÑÑ!­
ÃJÀÑ!Ñ4­?Í
Simulations effectuées
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Recherche des variables déterminantes
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