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JPS58162199

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DESCRIPTION JPS58162199
[0001]
The present invention ff relates to a photoelectric conversion type vibration pickup microphone
that is particularly effective under high noise, which converts living body sound into an optical
signal and further converts an optical signal into an electric signal. Conventional vibration pickup
microphones include an electromagnetic type and an acceleration type. The electromagnetic
vibration pickup microphone converts body sound such as bone conduction sound into
mechanical vibration, and converts mechanical vibration into an electric signal according to the
same principle as a normal microphone. In addition, the acceleration type vibration pickup
microphone supports the bimorph whose weight is fixed at the open end in a cantilever shape in
the holding case, and the biological sound transmitted through the holding case is deflected by
the bimorph. It converts into an electric signal by changing to the size of. However, the
electromagnetic vibration pickup microphone has a complicated mechanical structure of the
power generation unit and is difficult to manufacture. For this reason, there existed a fault that
cost became high. Also, in order to obtain a sufficient output level, it is necessary to make the
movable part large, and the movable part becomes large and heavy. For this reason, it is not
possible to efficiently pick up minute sound changes and high frequency components. Therefore,
there is a disadvantage that a sufficiently clear signal sound can not be obtained and the
sensitivity is poor. On the other hand, the acceleration type vibration pickup microphone has a
mechanical sound transmission mechanism between the movable part and the fixed part. For this
reason, there is a disadvantage that damping of vibration sound, reflection or resonance of an
acoustic transmission mechanism occurs. In addition, since the mass of the movable portion is
large, it is not possible to efficiently pick up minute sound changes and high frequency
components. Therefore, there is a disadvantage that a sufficiently clear signal sound can not be
taken. In addition, the structure is complicated, and there is a disadvantage that it is expensive to
manufacture <<. Furthermore, in the case of the above-mentioned electromagnetic type and
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acceleration type, there is a drawback that the shape and the shape (both are large and the user f
may feel uncomfortable). It is an object of the present invention to eliminate the drawbacks of the
prior art devices described above, and to provide a vibration pickup microphone with good
quality and clarity and at the same time. The feature of the present invention is that the main
body case, a light source attached to the inside of the main body case, and a light source that
outputs a constant source light, and a light amount that changes according to the sound
transmitted through the living body is converted into an electric signal The photoelectric
conversion element is provided to convert the sound into the magnitude of the amount of light
and further convert it into an electrical signal. The invention will now be described by way of
example.
FIG. 1 is a cross sectional view of a first embodiment of the present invention. In the figure, 1 is a
main body case, 2 is a fixing base fixed to the main body case 1, 3 is a light source comprising a
light emitting diode attached to the fixing base 2, 4 (photodiode mounted to the fixing base 2) , A
photoelectric conversion element formed of a phototransistor or the like, 5 is a first lead for
supplying power to the light source 3, 6 is a second lead for extracting an electric signal from the
photoelectric conversion element 4, 7 (silicon It is a pad which has moderate elasticity, such as
rubber. Moreover, 8 shows a living body. It is to be noted that the light source 3 may have a
wavelength shorter than the limit wavelength for generating the electron-hole pair in the
photoelectric conversion element 4 as the light source 3. The vibration pickup microphone
having the above-described configuration is attached to the living body 8 through the pad 7 as
shown in FIG. When a body sound such as a heart sound is transmitted from inside the body to a
body surface direction, it vibrates according to the surface of the body 8 (one body sound. On the
other hand, light from the light source 3 (although light having a wavelength shorter than the
limit wavelength is output with a constant light quantity, light emitted from the light source 3 is
reflected on the surface of the living body 8 and enters the photoelectric conversion element 4) .
Now, assuming that the surface of the living body 8 vibrates according to the living body sound,
the light path length until the light emitted from the light source 3 strikes the surface of the
living body 8 and is reflected and enters the photoelectric conversion element 4, 1 and 1 in FIG.
1 change in response to the vibration of the surface of the living body 8. As is well known, the
illuminance is inversely proportional to the distance from the light source. Therefore, in the
present embodiment, the surface of the living body 8 is shaken to the light source 3 side by
vibration, for example, and the distance l in FIG. And 12 are shortened by Δl, the light source 3.
The optical path length connecting the surface of the living body 8 and the photoelectric
conversion element 4 changes from 11 + 1, to l, + 12-2Δl. Therefore, the illuminance on the
photoelectric conversion element 4 is (11 + 12) ′ ′ / C11 + 1, −2Δl) 2 times. Conversely, if
the surface of the living body 8 is moved by vibration, for example, to the opposite side of the
light source 3 and the distance ml and 7I2 become longer by Δl, the optical path length becomes
11 + 12 to l, +12 + 2 Δl Change. The illuminance on the photoelectric conversion element 4 at
this time is (4 + 6) 2 / (71! 1 + 12 + 2 Δl) 2 times. Such a change in illuminance is a change in
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the amount of light incident on the photoelectric conversion element 4. Generally, in the
photoelectric conversion element, the electric output changes in accordance with the amount of
incident light. For this reason, the vibration of the surface of the living body 8 is converted into
an electrical signal.
This electrical output can be made into an electrical signal close to natural sound by
amplification with a logarithmic amplifier. According to this embodiment, since the weak
vibration sound in the living body such as the heart sound is converted into the electric signal
without any mechanical means, it can be converted into the electric signal with high accuracy. In
addition, compared with the conventional electromagnetic bone conduction transmitter, it does
not have parts such as a permanent magnet or an electromagnetic coil, and only the light source
and the photoelectric conversion element are built in the main body case. It has the merit of
being lightweight. Furthermore, even if an air noise is input, there is no film or diaphragm that is
vibrated by the air noise, so all air noise is not received. Also, as for the external sound
transmitted through the skin, the subcutaneous tissue pressed to the bone tissue side by the pad
7 has a high local impedance, so it is greatly attenuated by reflection etc. It does not transmit to
the surface of the living body facing 2. For the reason of the straw, it exerts a great effect on the
weak vibration pickup under high noise. FIG. 2 shows a cross-sectional view of a second
embodiment of the present invention. The difference of this embodiment from the first
embodiment is that a thin film 9 having a rubber-like elasticity is applied between the pads 7 so
that the film 9 adheres to the surface of the living body, and the other structure is the same. It is
the same. According to this embodiment, in addition to the effects of the first embodiment
described above, there is an advantage that the light reflecting surface becomes constant
regardless of the individual difference. In addition, since the wax coating 9 in the present
embodiment is used in close contact with the living body, it is considered as a part of the living
body. For this reason, it is insensitive to air noise. FIG. 3 shows a third embodiment of the present
invention. In the figure, 10 is a suspension, 11 (a shell contact tip, 12 a reflecting plate with a
diffuse reflection surface, 13 (an elastic member such as a swonge, a damper having a light
shielding property, 14 a screw attached to the living case 1 with a screw) It is a lid for holding
the suspension 10, and the reference numerals other than the straw show the same as in FIG. The
reflector 12 is attached to the suspension 10 by, for example, being screwed to the shell contact
tip 11 through the J suspension 10. Since this embodiment has such a structure, it is suitable for
picking up a bone conduction sound. In the present embodiment, the suspension 10 is made of a
phosphor bronze plate or the like, and when the main case 1 of the bone-conduction-type
telephone is pressed against the surface of the living body 8, the suspension 10 has a synthetic
impedance of bone tissue and subcutaneous tissue. Is made to a thickness that has the same
mechanical impedance.
Generally, the force exerted on the living body 8 by the bone conduction transmitter, the head
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band, the headset, etc. is within several hundred grams. In addition, the sponge 13 acts as a
damper for damping an external sound without pressure contact with the human body, for
example, an amount of air, an unnecessary sound due to self-resonance of the suspension itself
when striking the case, and the like. However, when pressed against the living body 8, both the
mass and impedance of bone tissue can be felt and the impedance of the suspension 10 is also
large, so the suspension 10 is forcibly vibrated regardless of the damping of the sponge 13.
Therefore, the pickup sound can be sufficiently taken. Now, if bone conduction sound is
transmitted through the living body 8, the surface of the living body 8 vibrates according to the
bone conduction sound. The vibration on the surface of the living body 8 is transmitted to the
skin contact tip 11, and the reflection plate 12 vibrates. As a result, as described in the first
embodiment, the optical path length connecting the light source 3-the reflector 12-the
photoelectric conversion element 4 changes according to the vibration, and the electric signal
corresponding to the bone conduction sound from the photoelectric conversion element 4 Is
taken out. According to this embodiment, since the mechanical impedance of the suspension is
identical to the synthetic impedance of the bone tissue and the subcutaneous tissue, there is an
advantage that only the bone conduction sound can be picked up effectively. Further, since the
suspension has a significantly large difference in mechanical impedance with air, the air volume
noise isolation (if it is better than that of the first embodiment described above). Therefore, even
under a high noise of 100 horns or so, it is effective for telephone calls. FIG. 4 shows a fourth
embodiment of the present invention. This embodiment differs from the third embodiment in
that an internal light shielding case 16 to which a light source 3 and a photoelectric conversion
element 4 are attached via a diaphragm 15 made of a thin phosphor bronze plate is attached to a
one year old reflecting plate 12 It is a point. Since the bone conduction transmitter according to
the present embodiment is configured as described above, in addition to the effects possessed by
the third embodiment, the following effects can be obtained. In the bone conduction transmitter
according to this embodiment, the self resonance frequency determined by the mass of the
internal light shielding case 16, the light source 3 and the photoelectric conversion element 4
and the rigidity of the diaphragm 15, and the self resonance determined by the suspension 10
and the skin contact tip 11 It is formed to be identical to the frequency. For this reason, there is
an effect of absorbing the impact sound to the main body case 1. Further, since only the light
shielding case 161 holding the light yA 3 and the photoelectric conversion element 4 is
supported by the diaphragm 15, a constant operating point can be held regardless of the
pressure contact force to the living body 8.
Therefore, it can be designed focusing only on matching the synthetic impedance of the bone
tissue and the subcutaneous tissue determined by the rigid pressure contact force of the
suspension 10. Thus, the design of the bone marrow microphone is facilitated. Next, a fifth
embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to FIG. In the figure, 17 is a
joint metal fitting of the main body case 1 and the diaphragm 15, 18 is a press-cum-lid of the
joint metal fitting 17, 19 is a screw for attaching the reflecting plate 12 to the joint metal fitting
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17. It shows the same thing as 4 figures. In the present embodiment, when the bone conduction
sound is transmitted through the living body 8, the body case 1 vibrates according to the bone
conduction sound. When the main body case 1 vibrates, the internal light shielding case 16 to
which the light source 3 and the photoelectric conversion element 4 are attached via the
diaphragm 15 vibrates in an accelerated manner. In addition to the effects of the fourth
embodiment, this embodiment has the advantage that the bone conduction microphone is
strongly pressed against the living body 8 and the operating point does not change at all. In the
first to fifth embodiments described above, the living body sound is converted into an electrical
signal by using the reflected light of the light source, so it can be said to be a reflection type
vibration pickup microphone. Reflective microphones are characterized in that they are simple in
construction and easy to manufacture. Next, FIG. 6 shows a cross sectional view of a sixth
embodiment of the present invention. The difference of this embodiment from the third
embodiment is that the light source 3 is disposed opposite to the photoelectric conversion
element 4 attached to the suspension IO. Now, assuming that the suspension 10 vibrates
according to the bone conduction sound and the distance between the light source 3 and the
photoelectric conversion element 4 changes, that is, the optical path length l changes by ± Δl,
the illuminance incident on the photoelectric conversion element 4 becomes l ′ ′ / (1 ± Δl) is
doubled. Since the electrical output of the photoelectric conversion element 4 corresponds to the
change in illuminance, bone conduction noise can be converted into an electrical signal according
to this embodiment. Seventh aspect of the present invention The eighth embodiment is shown in
FIG. It is shown in FIG. The embodiment of the straw is the same as the fourth one. In the fifth
embodiment, the light source 3 and the photoelectric conversion element 4 are disposed to face
each other, and the photoelectric conversion element 4 is attached to the diaphragm 15. The
reference numerals in FIGS. 7 and 8 indicate the same or equivalent parts as those in FIGS. In the
above sixth to eighth embodiments, since the light source and the photoelectric conversion
element are made to face each other, it can be said to be an opposite type bone conduction
transmitter. Since it is possible to directly guide the light from the light source to the
photoelectric conversion element with the opposed bone conduction type transmitter, there is an
advantage that the output level of the electric signal obtained from the photoelectric conversion
element is large.
Of course, in the present embodiment, the positions of the light source and the photoelectric
conversion element may be reversed. A ninth embodiment of the present invention is shown in
FIG. In this embodiment, the light source 3 and the photoelectric conversion element 4 are
attached to the main body case 1 so that the line connecting the light source 3 and the
photoelectric conversion element 4 is parallel to the suspension 10. In addition, a light shielding
plate 20 is attached to the shell contact chip 11 fixed to the suspension 1-0, and arranged so that
the light amount of light emitted from the light source 3 blocks half of the light source 3 when
no signal I'm waiting. The suspension 10 has the rigidity as described in the third embodiment.
Now, assuming that bone conduction sound has been transmitted through the living body 8, the
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skin contact tip 11 vibrates according to the bone conduction sound. Then, as described above,
since the light shielding plate 20 is fixed to the outer skin contact tip 11, the light shielding plate
20 vibrates together with the outer skin contact tip 11 according to the bone conduction sound.
This vibration is generated for the line connecting the light source 3 and the photoelectric
conversion element 4. It turns in the direction. Therefore, the amount of light 1t emitted from the
light source 3 is blocked by the light shielding plate 20, and the amount of light incident on the
photoelectric conversion element 4 is changed. Therefore, an electrical signal corresponding to
the bone conduction sound can be extracted from the photoelectric conversion element 4. Next,
the tenth. The eleventh embodiment is shown in FIGS. 10 and 11, respectively. In each of these
embodiments, the same idea as that of the ninth embodiment is referred to, for example, the
fourth. This embodiment is applied in place of the light source, photoelectric conversion element
and reflector of the bone conduction transmitter shown in the fifth embodiment. It is to be noted
that the symbols in FIG. 10.11 (the same as the symbols in FIGS. 4 and 5 except for age 20, or
the equivalent are shown. The above ninth to eleventh embodiments convert the bone
conduction sound into an electrical signal by blocking light with a λ-fluorescent plate, and thus
can be called a light shielding type bone conduction transmitter. This type of bone conduction
transmitter directly shields the light corresponding to the bone conduction sound, so the P-P
value (Peak to Peak value) of the electric signal output from the photoelectric conversion element
becomes large. FIG. 12 shows a twelfth embodiment of the present invention. As apparent from
the figure, the mounting bracket 21 of the reflection plate 22 is integrally fixed to the outer skin
contact tip 11. The light source 3 and the photoelectric conversion element 4 are disposed side
by side with the reflection plate 22. Therefore, the light emitted from the light source 3 is
reflected by the reflection plate 22 and enters the photoelectric conversion element 4. In
addition, when there is no signal, the reflecting plate 22 is adjusted to reflect only about half of
the amount of light emitted from the light source 3.
Therefore, when a bone conduction sound is transmitted through the living body 8 and the cover
contact tip 11 vibrates, the reflecting plate 22 supported by the mounting bracket 21 is centered
on the position at the time of the no signal, as shown in FIG. It vibrates from side to side. For this
19-, the amount of light reflected by the reflecting plate 22 and incident on the photoelectric
conversion element 4 changes, and an electrical signal according to the bone conduction sound is
obtained from the photoelectric conversion element 4. FIGS. 13 and 14 collectively show a 13.14
embodiment of the present invention. Each embodiment of the present invention applies the
same idea as the twelfth embodiment, for example, instead of the light source, the photoelectric
conversion element and the reflector of the bone conduction microphone shown in the fourth
and fifth embodiments. It is. The same reference numerals as in FIGS. 4 and 5 in FIG. 13.14
indicate the same or equivalent parts as in FIGS. In the above description of the sixth to
fourteenth embodiments, the description of the effects of the individual embodiments has been
omitted. The twelfth embodiment is the third embodiment and also the seventh, tenth,. The
thirteenth embodiment is the fourth embodiment, and further, the eighth embodiment. 11th. It is
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obvious that the fourteenth embodiment has almost the same effect as the fifth embodiment. As
described above, according to the present invention, the living body sound or 20- detects the
bone conduction sound by the change of the light i :, so that no mechanical sound transmission
mechanism is required between the movable part and the fixed part. It is. For this reason, the
attenuation reflection of sound and the resonance of the sound transmission mechanism do not
occur, and a clear signal sound can be obtained. In addition, since the mass of the movable
portion can be sufficiently reduced, it is possible to efficiently pick up minute sound changes and
high frequency components, and there is an effect of being clear and having high sensitivity. In
addition, the vibration pickup microphone according to the present invention can achieve
sufficient effects if the distance between the light source and the photoelectric conversion
element or the distance between the light source and the reflection plate is 2 or more, so it is
lightweight and compact compared to the conventional bone conduction transmitter. It is.
Therefore, there is a great advantage that the user does not feel uncomfortable. In addition, since
the structure is simple, it is easy to manufacture. Therefore, there is an effect of cost reduction.
Furthermore, since the power generation structure does not require a mechanical transmission
mechanism, it has the effect of being robust and having a long life.
[0002]
Brief description of the drawings
[0003]
441, 2nd.
Third. 4 and 5 (J respectively of the reflection type bone conduction microphone according to the
present invention. 2nd 第 3. Sectional views of fourth and fifth embodiments, sixth; @ 7 and FIG.
8 are the opposite type bone conduction microphones according to the present invention
according to the present invention g6. Sectional views of the seventh and eighth embodiments;
FIGS. 10 and 11 show that the light transmitting type bone conduction microphone according to
the present invention is the ninth. JIO and sectional views of 11th embodiment, 12th. FIGS. 13
and 14 show the combination of the reflection-and-beam combination type bone conduction
transmitter according to the present invention. Figure 14 shows a cross-sectional view of the
thirteenth and fourteenth embodiments. DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 ... Body case 2, 2 ...
Fixation stand, 3 ... Light source, 4 ... Photoelectric conversion element, 5, 6 ... Lead wire, 7 ... Pad,
8 ... Living body, 9 ... · · · · · Elastic coating, 10 · · · suspension · 11 · · · shell contact tip, 12 · · ·
reflector, 13 · · · damper, 15 · · · diaphragm · 16 · · internal light shielding case, 17 · · · · · · 18 · · · · ·
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