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JPS5094917

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DESCRIPTION JPS5094917
2. · · · · · · · inventorship 7 Ligana) same name as the patent applicant 4 list of attached documents
■ Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 50-949170 published Japanese Patent No. 50.
(1975) Request for examination for 7 這 9 examination (in order of all V) Office serial number ·
646555-'Specification 1', title of the invention
Electro-acoustic transducer
3. Detailed Description of the Invention The present invention relates to electro-acoustic
transducers such as speakers, earphones and microphones. 0t parallel plate carrying a plurality
of parallel conductors and relatively flat, wide-area magnets Common surface kfl Magnetize 4t-iin a straight direction, stripes opposite polarity adjacent islands An electrodynamic electroacoustic transducer in the form of a round flat plate using a magnet unit is known in the prior
art. ている。 The electro-acoustic transducer is considered as a full-scale drive system driven
directly from the point of vibration of the moving body-the book is not unreasonable, and the
level of sound, slight delicacy, and bulk harmonic distortion is low. , O can be used to take
advantage of features such as flatness of frequency characteristics, but the electroacoustic
transducer is expensive to manufacture and cost, and the back work is complicated, and the
magnet 1 is effective from the composition of the magnetic circuit configuration. The efficiency
of electroacoustic conversion is low due to the limitation of the width of the magnetization band,
and the speed, the vibration area becomes large when using an electroacoustic transducer as
force, and the directivity is sharp. Become. In the case of Yumi Gou used as a, ホ ン, the electric
signal from the earphone terminal · · · The level of the output sound is awkward, amplification,
the device 忙 ス 忙 terminal must be connected busy and use is cumbersome. EndPage: The
advantages and disadvantages of the electrostatic drive type electroacoustic transducer, which is
coupled to the armature of the drive unit at the center of the moving body occupying EndPage: 1,
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and the electrostatic type electroacoustic transducer will be described. As an electrical button
with low impedance can be directly connected to the amplifier, the efficiency of electro-acoustic
conversion is high, powerful sound is obtained, the production cost is relatively cheap, and the
stability is high. As a disadvantage, it is difficult to vibrate at the same speed due to the
concentrated drive system, and parasitic frequencies other than the signal frequency occur. This
is one factor in the formation of relatively high level harmonic distortion. Towards a vibrating
body. Frequency characteristics are difficult to obtain flat characteristics up to higher frequency
than electrostatic type. Electrostatic transducers of electrostatic type have the advantage that
very thin and light diaphragms are used, flat to full drive, and push-pull harmonic distortion
which is a parasitic frequency other than k and many signal frequencies. Level can be lowered.
Disadvantages are the high DC bias and the need for an 'adapter for matching'. Since a high
voltage is applied between the electrodes and excessive input is weak and easy to be damaged,
and it is not necessary to protect it because it is weak against dust and moisture, using the
electro-acoustic transducer for a speaker increases the vibrating body area When used as an
earphone, it is accompanied by an ear writing terminal. The purpose of the electroacoustic iconverter according to the present invention is basically that the efficiency of the electroacoustic
conversion of the electrodynamic transducer in the form of a flat plate is high by 11 jK, and a
thin and light moving body is totally driven. Low electrical impedance
By taking advantage of the above, it is possible to reduce the area of the vibrating body and
obtain a powerful sound without requiring an adapter, which is an advantage of the
electrokinetic electroacoustic transducer of the centralized drive system, and it is possible to
achieve stability and Features such as length of usability and advantages of the electroacoustic
transducer of the electrostatic type, such as frequency characteristics flat up to high frequency,
low level of harmonic distortion, delicate sound quality etc. The first objective is to make the
vibration body have a spherical shape or an arc-like curved surface, making it possible to have
high directivity without widening by frequency. The purpose of achieving the acupuncture
speaker is a book that makes it possible. According to the configuration of the electro-acoustic
transducer of the present invention, the magnetic members having a plurality of parallel
projecting portions are paired so that the projecting portions face each other, and the pair of
magnetic members are separately magnetically connected to different poles of the permanent
magnet, The conductor of the electric signal is carried on the moving body so that the electric
signal is transmitted to the recent device, and the moving body carrying the conductor is the pair
by making the protrusion of the pair of magnetic members have opposite polarity. Magnetism.
Between materials IC! It is configured to be intervened moveably to enable electroacoustic
conversion. The plurality of projections of the magnetic material may be equal to OK. When the
protruding part of one magnetic material is in the button position where only the protruding part
of the other magnetic material is in front of or a little inside of it, and the structure of the
vibrating part is flat as a whole, the former magnetic circuit 2 and It is preferable to use a gateshaped diaphragm for the vibrator. When the structure of the vibrating portion is a spherical or
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arc-shaped curved surface, it is preferable to use the former magnetic circuit and use a spherical
or arc-shaped curved vibrating membrane. The configuration and effects will be described by
roughly dividing it into examples. An embodiment of the electro-acoustic transducer of the
present invention in which the structure of the vibration portion is flat will be described with
reference to FIG. 1 to FIG. 1 to 7 will be referred to for the configuration of an embodiment in
which a flat vibrating film is used for the 024 EndPage: 2 vibrator. . FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional
view taken along v-v @ K of FIG. 2, which is a one-off view of the electro-acoustic transducer of
the present invention partially cut away. A yoke 3 made of a magnetic material such as 5 soft
iron, a plurality of parallel protrusions 3.4 made of 5 magnetic material are magnetically
connected to face each other so as to face each other. It is located in front of the projecting shaft
4 only. The magnetic flux generated by the magnet 5 magnetized in the direction shown by the
arrow in FIG. 1 is separately magnetically transmitted to the different poles of the magnet 5
(through the yokes 1 and 2 connected 1.
A magnetic circuit is formed so as to extend over a plurality of gaps of the protrusions 3 and 4,
the vibrating film 6 carries a conductor in a space, and in adjacent gaps, the directions of the
magnetic field are parallel to each other. Head towards a direction where 6 is neither a
contradiction nor b. The diaphragm 8 is supported by a support 9 as a hole which is open at 1.2.
This structure has an electric-acoustic transducer O drive. The principle of the invention will be
described with reference to FIG. 3 which is a partially enlarged view of FIG. The corners of the tip
of the non-peak portion 3 ° 4 provided on the yokes 1 and 2 in FIG. The strength of the
magnetic field is uniform at any location in the air gap formed by the plane that is approximately
45 degrees with the plane of the plane, and the 'direction of the magnetic field is a vibrating
membrane? In each of the adjacent air gaps, 90.degree. From the ridge 3 to the protrusion 4 as
shown in FIG. . They are neither parallel nor antiparallel to each other in different directions, but
they are in the same direction every other time. Is the distance of one void more than one?
1.. For example, the strength of the magnetic field is equal at each air gap. Parallel to 7e, 7b,
7d, and 7f, the current is perpendicular to the surface of the paper in electricity 7a from the
outside in the direction from the front to the back, as indicated by the broken arrow,
approximately 045 degrees with the surface of the diaphragm 6, The directions are the same,
and the sizes are equal. The component of the force in the direction parallel to the surface of the
vibrating membrane 6 has a certain degree of tension applied to the adjacent conductor portion
6, so it is erased by internal stress and has no acoustic influence on the outside 1. The
component of the force in the direction perpendicular to the surface of the vibrating film 60 is in
the same direction. Of course, it is possible to make the vibrating film 6 have a full surface area
1. The protrusion 3a in FIG. 4 is intended to reduce the magnetic leakage from that in FIG. 3, the
protrusion 3b in FIG. 5 is for C to indicate what is permitted when the width of the conductor is
narrow, and The protrusion 3d shown in FIG. 7 shows that the distance between adjacent
conductors is narrowed even if the magnetic leakage increases a little. The embodiment of the 20
electric sound i converter according to the present invention having the structure of FIG. 1 to FIG.
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7 vibrates too much, and the speaker for the high frequency band where the vibration of the film
is very small. • Suitable for equipment applications such as earphones and microphones. Next,
the configuration of an embodiment using a diamond 5 flap having a rugation shape as a
vibrating body will be described with reference to FIGS. . A plurality of the x1i magnetic members
are parallel to one another, and the protrusions 1 are positioned only to some extent between the
protrusions 130, and the yoke 10 ° 1.1 has different poles of the magnet. Since it is connected
magnetically to the air gap formed by the opposing flat surfaces of the porcelain bowl portion, it
also interlinks vertically with the surface of the diaphragm 14 in parallel with one another.
The electric signal is carried through, and the conductor 15 is carried on the palm of the
diaphragm 14 and the protrusion @ 12. "Because it is located in the middle of the air gap of 13
double relays, reverse current flows in the adjacent conductors of 20EndPage: 3, 6), conductor
15aK: JlF, front to back direction perpendicular to the surface Assuming that a busy current
flows, the force cylinder 91! Indicated by the broken arrow with the direction of the mosquito ', i,
K, and the groove angle support shown in FIG. 16.17e18 / 4 'r 7 y A 14 b * 14 c' and when it is
installed in K, the force shown in Figure 8 is used only for the show of Goo's power. Groove angle
supports 16, IJ '7', 18 are provided on the diaphragms 14b, l: lc, in the case of 9 in the case of 9
", 〆! 12 and 1'3 are diamonds 75 and 14c. The case where the groove angle of 14f is made small
and the case where it is made large are shown. The structure shown in FIG. 812 is longer than
the structure shown in FIG. 13. The structure of the vibration direction in which the earfulm
should produce an output sound can be used for movement, and the movement can be used for
movement. In order to suppress the change in the groove of the groove 図 Figure 4119, '10
'shown in Figure 10. Corner support 1 ′ ′ 117, 18j can be branched, but within the concentric
circle! 'L: 22: indicates that the formation 13' is also formed in a face-centered circular shape k, a
magnet 21 phrase annular ring, and 'L: 22: is formed. The cross-section along the W--W line is as
shown in the i8 ° diagram. A part of the book up to: l! The embodiment of the electroacoustic
transducer according to the present invention is suitable for a speaker having a relatively large
amplitude as the angle, and is particularly suitable for a mid-range levica. Vibration I! From Fig.
15 to Fig. 2-0. ? Fig. 21 illustrates an embodiment in which a monoacoustic transducer according
to the present invention is used for an earphone under a flat plate structure, Fig. 21 shows an
embodiment mainly used for a microphone and four phones. It is a sectional view showing an
example. Fig. IJ5 is a schematic view of one side of the main body when the electro-acoustic
transducer of the present invention is incorporated into an earphone. FIG. 16 is a cross-sectional
view taken along the line X-X in FIG. 15: A large amount of magnetic leakage to the outside at the
end 0 of the yoke le, 2e magnet je- By providing the magnetic material 23 on the plastic 24 for
fixing, magnetic flux leakage to the outside is prevented. The actual protrusion 1 of the earphone
is narrower than that of FIG. 1 and uses a large number of conductors. art, Figure 7 shows the
frequency characteristics of the earphone-. ある 。
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λ is the frequency characteristics of the earphone using the electro-acoustic transducer of the
present invention 1. B. The frequency of the friend earphone using a conventional concentrated
drive electric power type electroacoustic transducer. It is a thing which shows a characteristic.
The electro-acoustic transducer of the present invention and the input from the earphone
terminal are sufficient, and the second harmonic distortion and the third harmonic distortion are
40 dB JI lower than the signal tone of the present invention. On the other hand, the conventional
one is at most 20dB to 30dB lower. Even in the case of the sound quality, the invention of the
present invention gave a very delicate sound and had little pressure. And the electrical
impedance was around 20 ° K and the frequency was flat until the 20 'kilocycle. 26はスペーサ
である。 · The spacer 25.26 has a yoke xf, 2ft1gt2g is a suction force, or a protrusion of 3f due
to a variation in manufacturing accuracy. It prevents the hairs 4f, 3g and 4g from getting into the
vibrating film 6f and 6 parts g. Figure rrIK does not show ice, to prevent electrical contact
between the protrusion and the conductor on the surface of the vibrating membrane (a thin film
<insulator JJF + covering on the surface of the protrusion should be added, further weight
reduction. Reminder, it is also good to partially bend the yoke to lower the height and height of
the protrusions, or to form yokes with several layers of magnetic material to equally distribute
the flow of magnetic flux to the protrusions EndPage : 4 magnets' is used when the electroacoustic transducer of the present invention is used for one in earphones. "Alnico magnet is more
effective than ferrite magnets. I will make it with less than 100 grams. FIG. 20 #i is a schematic
sectional view of an electro-acoustic transducer portion / minute using the electro-acoustic
transducer of the present invention as an earphone for 4-channel reproduction of four sounds. Is
5h a magnet? , 7h show the conductors provided on the vibrating membrane, each having an
independent electrical terminal. 27 is a spacer of nonmagnetic material. J6R-A magnet
magnetized in the same direction may be positioned on the magnet 5h in this part, and an
earphone for 4 channels is very easy to create. 21 i shows a cross-sectional view of the electroacoustic transducer of the present invention in which the magnetic N path is configured as an
inner magnetic type, and a magnetic circuit is shown with a protrusion e4′j facing the
magnet 28 ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ 29 The vibrating membrane 61 vibrates due to the interaction
between the magnetic field of the air gap of the projecting portion 'jr, i, 4i, and the current
flowing to the conductor 71 on the vibrating membrane 61, and the output sound from the hole
81! An internal magnet type is effective for one phone, and a relatively small size, good
performance, a good rate, and a <good performance-microphone can be made.
3 ° □ is a hole in the back, 31 is a support. Figure 22 shows a concentric father-shaped peak in
the electro-acoustic transducer I / c of the present invention, and a conductor for forming a
concentric-shaped conductor # 33 on one side on a vibrating H or diaphragm 332 It's a pattern,
there are 35 conductors drawn from the center. A vibrating membrane having a crystal-2 Re is
suitable for a vibrating membrane of a microphone. In addition, a single conductor #i on the
surface of the moving film or the diamond film 72 is not limited to the left, but a plurality of
arranged conductors or laminates may be provided. Next, the electro-acoustic transducer
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according to the present invention in which the vibrating portion and the structure are in the
form of a spherical or circular arc is described. The invention makes possible the object of the
invention of: m: of the invention with high frequency-frequency band properties. The directivity
is the sound of a species specific direction in which the vibration area of the vibrating body
becomes appreciable until the number of cycles becomes high, if the vibrating body performs
piston movement moving at the same time and the same direction at the same time. It is a book
that shows the phenomenon that the difference in pressure increases and the direction becomes
sharper. The output sound is obtained by the conventional electro-acoustic transducer portion
piston movement. The electro-acoustic transducer of the present invention having a flat plate-like
vibrating portion described above is also named after obtaining an output sound by piston
movement. In order to completely eliminate directivity, the Ka sound source is a point sound
source, or a spherical vibration body is a vibration whose diameter changes from the center. The
sound that radiates, mA <comparison stone , the direction of multiple speakers are changed
to eliminate directivity acuity. Hereinafter, an embodiment of the electroacoustic transducer
according to the present invention of the invention of the present invention having a spherical
surface or an arc-shaped curved surface will be described with reference to the drawings. The
embodiment of the electro-acoustic transducer of the present invention in which the structure of
the vibrating portion is spherical will be described. FIG. 23 is a graph of the present invention
using a spherical, vibrating membrane. FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view of a psychoacoustic
converter. The conductor 37 is circularly disposed on the spherical diaphragm 36 in parallel with
the projecting portion 38.39, and the projecting portions 38 and 39 ° are provided on the
surface of the multi-hole spherical spherical magnetic members 40 and 41. The magnetic flux
generated by the magnet 42 passes through the meter 43.44, and a magnetic field is generated
in nine beams between the Lee 1 protrusion 38 and 3-9. Fig. 24 is an enlarged view of the
vibrating portion of Fig. 23. "The driving method is almost the same as that described in Fig. 3."
When a current sk is applied to the conductor 37-, the magnetic field in the air gap of the
projection 38.39 causes an electric field to generate power. The component of the force in the
direction of contact with the surface of the moving film 36 at a right angle of the conductor '37 K
is canceled by the internal stress, and only the component of the force in the surface vertical
direction and one direction contributes to the drive of the diaphragm 36 There is no acoustic
problem due to the close spacing of any point on the membrane 36 away from the center point.
Since the moving film 36 of a spherical shape uses a thin film such as a polymer film, as partially
shown in FIG. 24, the vibrating film 36 is used to maintain the spherical shape of the EndPage: 5
vibrating film 36. A low-density, elastic, well-circulating substance 45 may be inserted between
the and the perforated magnetic material 40.4'1 having the projections 38..39. The substance
has the effect of suppressing high-order split vibration of the vibrating membrane. The g-nucleus
substance which has the effect of suppressing the high-order split vibration adds a mechanical
impedance of vibration as mass 9 elasticity and resistance of air circulation in semi-acting film
shaking. It goes without saying that, at high frequencies, the amplitude of the vibration of the
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vibrating membrane is very large, so it is not a problem. The substance is also provided on the
outside of the spherical diaphragm 36 in FIG. 24, but removing it is better. am 、=!
Between 38 ° and 39 °. Air-groove uniformity, light, formation of haze due to non-uniformity
of magnetic field is a problem, but the output sound due to the vibration of the spherical
diaphragm 36-is based on the fact that it is a spherical wave, the area of the diaphragm is The
amplitude of the vibration of the vibration can be very small at relatively high frequencies of f to
high. In fact, harmonic distortion due to inhomogeneity of the magnetic field from 1500 cycles to
2 kilocycles or more is a full angle non-directional range compared to the signal sound, a solid
angle formed by the center of the spherical surface and the edge of the spherical vibrating film In
the interior of, and in the direction slightly deviated from it, approximately the same sound
pressure occurs. Therefore, the directivity by the frequency does not matter at all as long as it is
heard in front of the front of the speaker. Since a thin and light film with high tensile strength
such as a polymer thin film is used as the vibration film, the vibration body using the metal for
the conventional high frequency speaker so-called tweeter which uses a metal having a relatively
small density for the vibration body Aside from the inherent flaws of sound quality, soft natural
sounds can be expected. FIG. 25 is a plan view of the yoke 44 formed of the magnetic material of
FIGS. 23 and 24 as viewed from above. The yoke is necessary for forming the perforated
magnetic material 40 of FIG. 23 and FIG. 24 in an air gap between the projecting portions 38. It
is a thing. Since the yoke is located in front of the spherical diaphragm, the spherical wavefront is
disturbed by tb. It is intended to evenly distribute the flow of magnetic flux to the projections
rationally so that it occupies less area, and the regularly different height heights of the books
shown in 46.47.48. Set up. FIG. 26 is a perspective view showing the inner spherical magnetic
material 47 and the protrusion 4 of the vibration -36 of FIG. 23 and FIG. A plurality of holes 39a
are provided on the perforated magnetic material 41a and are removed.
The protrusion 39a may not have a circular cross section as shown by the ridge 39 in FIG. FIG.
27 shows a perspective view of the entire vibrating membrane 36 of FIG. It is preferable to form
the emboss film by etching after bonding a thin surface aluminum having a surface diameter
approximately the same as that of the polymer film having a partial surface. The low-density
material 45 between the spherical diaphragm 36 and the perforated magnetic material 41 in FIG.
24 has a substantially uniform thickness in the desired portion of the vacuum suction method for
making a speaker cone. When nuclear material is provided ↓ 14 ° Next, the structure of the
vibrating portion is an arc-shaped curved vibrating membrane. Embodiments of the device will be
described with reference to the drawings. FIG. 28 is for the purpose of forming the vibrating
membrane 49 in a circular arc-shaped curved surface, providing the conductor 50 on the
vibrating membrane 49 in parallel in a circular arc shape, and broadening the directivity showing
that it is connected in series. It is a partially cutaway cross-sectional view of the electroacoustic
transducer of the present invention. The conductor 50 on the arc-shaped curved vibrating film
49 is parallel to the protrusions 511 and 52 provided on the magnetic material yoke 53.54. Due
to the interaction between the magnetic field produced in the air gap of the projecting portions
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51 and 52 by the magnet 55 and the current flowing in the conductor 50, the left one point on
the vibrating membrane 49 is also vibrated in the vertical direction with the weir of the vibrating
membrane 49. When i is set, the vibrating membrane 49 vibrates by changing the diameter of
the circle. In order to increase the magnetic flux density of the air gap between the protrusions
51.52 to increase the efficiency of the speaker, the yoke 53 needs to be thickened to achieve
magnetic saturation. FIG. 30 shows a part of the electroacoustic transducer of the present
invention for the purpose of forming a vibrating film 56 into a curved surface in an arc shape
and widening the half post perpendicular to the arc on the moving film 56 EndPage: 6 conductor
57 It is a cutaway sectional view. FIG. 31 is a cross-sectional view of the imaging unit taken along
the line Z-Z of FIG. The conductor 57 on the arc-shaped curved surface δ imaging film 56 is in
contact with the projecting portion 58 and the magnet 61 which also function as the yoke of the
magnetic material, and is provided parallel to the projecting portions 59 provided on each yoke
60 The vibrating membrane 56 vibrates in a form of changing the diameter of the circle by the
interaction between the magnetic field generated in the space between the projecting portions 58
and 59 and the magnetic field flowing in the conductor 57 and the driving force. The principle of
driving may be considered to be similar to that described in FIG. 3 because the distance between
the conductors is narrow. The yoke must be made high enough to prevent magnetic saturation,
but it hardly disturbs the sound wave front.
In Fig. 28 and 30 @ arc-shaped curved vibrating membrane 49. 56, by providing a material with
a small density, an elastic, good air flow 1 inertia, high-order division of the vibrating membrane
Vibration should be suppressed. The electroacoustic transducer of the present invention using
the vibration of the vibrating film 49.56 of the arc-shaped curved surface of FIGS. 2 and 8 is
mainly used as a high frequency range speaker, but the center p, mH Within a certain degree of
angle, the fan-like planar directionality of the arc and the center point disappears. However, since
the width of the arc-shaped curved diaphragm 49.56 is small, the directivity in the direction
deviated from the fan-shaped plane is also almost lost, and the directivity according to the
frequency is from the position of the human ear to the front of the speaker. Tsutomu. らなくなる
。 The high frequency speaker using this arc-shaped curved surface can also expect soft sound
quality.
4. Brief description of the drawings FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional view of an embodiment of the
electroacoustic transducer of the present invention using a flat diaphragm, and FIG. 2 has a
structure of FIG. 3 is a partially enlarged view of FIG. 1, FIG. 4 to FIG. 7 are cross-sectional views
for explaining the shape of the projecting portion, and FIG. 8 is a corrugated diamond shape, 9 is
a partial sectional view of an embodiment of the electroacoustic transducer according to the
present invention, FIG. 9 is a view showing a diaphragm, FIG. 11 is a view of a yoke and a
projection, FIG. Fig. 13 is a partial cross-sectional view when changing the groove angle of the
diamond plum, Fig. 14 is a plan view with nine parts cut out using concentric-shaped da iya fram,
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Fig. 1 is an earphone Use I, a simplified drawing at the time of use, Fig. 16 is a partial crosssectional view taken along line X-X in Fig. 15, Fig. 17 is a frequency characteristic diagram of an
earphone, Fig. 18 · · · 9 is a partial cross-sectional view showing fines, FIG. 20 is a schematic
cross-sectional view when used in a 4-channel earphone, FIG. 21 i is a cross-sectional view of a
magnetic type, and 221 is a conductor pattern FIG. 23 is a cross-sectional view of an
embodiment of the electroacoustic transducer of the present invention using a spherical
diaphragm, FIG. 24 is an enlarged view of FIG. FIG. 26 is a perspective view of an annular
projection, FIG. 27 is a perspective view of a spherical diaphragm, and FIG. 28 is an arc-shaped
curved vibration or electroacoustic transducer of the present invention using a membrane 29 is a
cross-sectional view taken along the line Y-Y of FIG. 28, and FIG. 30 is a partially cutaway
perspective view of an embodiment using a curved film with a circular arc surface, 31 is a crosssectional view taken along line z-2 of FIG. 1.2 · · · · 3, 4 · · · protruding portion, 5 · · · magnet, 60 ·
vibrating membrane, 70 · conductor, 8 · · · hole 10, 11 · · · · · · · · · 13 · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · diaphragm. ,
15: conductor, 36: spherical vibration film, 3.7φ · · · conductor, 38, 39 · · · · · · · · ·. 41 · · ·
Perforated magnetism 500 · Conductor 51, s 52 · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · diaphragms of arcshaped curved surface Protrusion. Patent Assignee Yuji Toyama-Husband EndPage: 7 Fig. 14 End
Page: 8 Japanese Patent Publication No. 50-94917 (: 9) Fig. 21 Fig. 21 Fig. 22: $ 23 EndPage: 9
Fig. 27 EndPage: 10
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