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FIELD OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to sound collection and playback
devices. Background Canadian patent specification No. 1060350 approved as of August 14,
1979 to applicant Applicant Raymond Warner and No. 1282711 as of April 9, 1991 A
microphone and speaker system intended for sound field recording and outdoor reproduction so
that the reproduced sound field includes directivity and range information from the original
recorded sound field to be detected in the human auditory system Described. The microphones of
these systems are intended to be similar devices of the human auditory organ and detect range
and directional acoustic information that would be detected in the human auditory organ. The
speaker concept of this device illustrates the Hamilton-Jacobi theory of waves. The speaker is
intended to reverse the detection procedure to generate a sound field that includes the inherently
available directivity and range. Overview The present invention relates to certain improvements
of the initial system. According to one aspect of the invention, a cylindrical transducer housing
having a transverse axis and having a central portion and two ends, the central portion being
mirror-symmetrical with respect to a plane perpendicular to the transverse axis Said cylindrical
transducer having oriented non-parallel end faces, said ends having parallel inner end faces
facing respective ones of the end faces of the central portion, said inner end faces of said ends
being non-perforated A housing and two microphone transducers mounted in the center of the
end face of the central portion to receive sound from between the respective end and central
portion. This microphone retains the notion of a centralized sensing gap or slot of the optimal
shadow omniphonic microphone disclosed in Canadian Patent No. 1282711 but with only two
transducers at the end And only use solid baffles. In use, the microphones are placed with the
end faces of the central and end portions in a plane that converges downward and forward. The
planes are preferably intersected at an angle (70 ° 32 ') between two faces of a regular
tetrahedron. It is also preferred that the microphone housing have a circular cross-section such
that the end faces of each part are elliptical. The outer end face of the housing is preferably
parallel to the inner end face of each end. According to another aspect of the invention, a
cylindrical hollow housing having a transverse axis and having a central portion and two ends,
the central portion being mirror-symmetrical with respect to a plane perpendicular to the
transverse axis Said hollow housing having a non-parallel end face oriented in parallel, said end
having a parallel inner end face facing each one of the central end faces, said end having a closed
outer end A central unit, and four speaker transducers mounted in the housing, wherein two
central transducers arranged in the center radiate towards each one of the ends, each end One
end transducer located at the center radiates towards the center, each transducer being sealed
relative to the housing, the center transducer between the two speaker transducers and the two
center transducers Baffle means extending across the When a speaker and means for
communicating between the housing and the resonance prevention chamber means at the rear of
the transducer is provided.
Each transducer thus radiates from an enclosure having a full volume of space including the
volume of the respective periodic chamber. This volume is chosen to be compatible with the
compliance and other properties of the transducer. The chamber is intended to have no inherent
resonance or timbre quality. According to yet another aspect of the present invention, there is
provided a cylindrical hollow housing having a transverse axis with opposite left and right ends
and having a central axis and a central and a left end and a right end, said central portion The
section has non-parallel left and right end faces mirror-symmetrically oriented with respect to a
plane perpendicular to the transverse axis, the end having a parallel inner end face facing one of
each of the central end faces, A central unit including the hollow housing having the closed outer
end, and four speaker transducers mounted in the housing, the central left internal transducer
and the central portion disposed at the central portion The right inner transducer radiates
toward the left end and the right end, and the center left outer transducer located at the left end
and the right edge radiates toward the center, and each transducer is a housing To close across A
left end unit and a right end unit including the above-mentioned speaker converter and
respective cylindrical housings having respective transverse axes aligned with the transverse
axes of the central unit, from the left and right ends of the central unit Each is spaced apart, each
having a central portion and two ends at opposite ends thereof, each central portion having an
inner end surface and an outer end surface parallel to the adjacent end surface of the central
portion in the central unit, Each end of each end unit is a left end unit and a right end unit having
parallel inner end faces facing one of the end faces of the central portion, and two speaker
transducers attached to the center of the left end unit, A speaker converter including an end left
outer transducer and an end left inner transducer radiating toward the left end and the right end
of the center portion of the left end unit; Speaker conversion including two end-to-outside
transducers and end-to-inside transducers that are two speaker transducers attached to the
center of the unit and radiate toward the left end face and the right end face of the center portion
of the right end unit respectively And a speaker including the The end of each end unit
preferably has a central through hole aligned with the axis. A baffle arrangement divides the
space between the transducers in the central part of the end unit into two chambers, which are in
communication with the respective periodic chambers.
The end unit is thus identical in form to the central unit. The periodic chamber is connected to
the speaker housing using a tubular port with a vibration damper. The periodic chamber is itself
filled with a low density fragment-like or fractal-like object so that the chamber's vibrations will
periodically respond. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS In the accompanying drawings
illustrating an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, FIG. 1 is a front view of the
microphone half shown in cross section; FIG. 2 is a top of the microphone half shown in cross
section Fig. 3 is an end view of the microphone; Fig. 4 is an end view of the microphone with the
end removed; Fig. 5 is a front view of the loudspeaker half shown in cross section; Fig. 6 is half
traversed Fig. 7 is a top view of the loudspeaker shown in plane; Fig. 7 is an axial cross-sectional
view of the port: Fig. 8 is a schematic diagram showing the connecting wiring of the speaker
converter to a normal stereo sound source; Fig. 10 is a diagram showing the connection wiring of
the speaker transducer to the recorded signal source using the inventive microphone; Fig. 10 is a
view of the outer and middle ears showing the tympanic membrane and semi-circular canal; FIG.
12 shows a regular tetrahedron oriented at right angles; FIG. 13 shows a regular octahedron in a
perpendicular position; FIG. 14 shows the tetrahedrons in FIGS. 11, 12 and 13 Fig. 15 and 16
show plots of frequency versus sound pressure obtained in tests using the optimal shadow
microphone as a hydrophone; Fig. 17 shows the total in the air. Similar plots as FIGS. 15 and 16
using acoustic microphones; FIG. 18 is a plot similar to FIG. 17 for a remote sound source; FIG.
19 is the same test as FIG. Plot showing phase difference between left channel versus frequency;
FIGS. 20 and 21 are plots similar to FIG. 19; and FIG. 22 is a perspective view of the plot sphere
for position determination A. DETAILED DESCRIPTION Referring to FIGS. 1-4 of the
accompanying drawings, a microphone 10 is shown having a housing 12 supported by a pole 14
on a base 16. The base is provided with an alcohol level 18 so that the microphone can be used
with proper leveling. The microphone housing has a central body with a cylindrical side wall 22
and an oval end wall 24 which slopes downwardly and inwardly towards the front of the
intersecting plane at the apex angle of the tetrahedron ing.
The major axis of each end face is oriented at a 45 ° angle to the horizontal. Each end wall 24
has a central bore 26 and receives a microphone transducer 28. Electrical leads 30 from the
transducer are routed through the post 14 into the base 16. The microphone also comprises two
ends 32. Each end has an inner end surface 34 parallel to the outer surface of the adjacent end
wall 24 and an outer end surface 36 parallel to the inner end surface 34. The end is cylindrical
like the central portion 20, but not hollow but solid like the central portion. The central and ends
20 and 22 of the microphone are covered with a suitable textile material 38, which is
acoustically transparent at least where it covers the gap between the central and the end. 5 to 9
show a loudspeaker and its elements intended to be used for the reproduction of a recorded
sound source using the microphone 10. FIG. The speaker 42 has a central unit 44, a left end unit
46 and a right end unit 48. All three units are aligned on a common transverse axis x-x. As shown
particularly in FIGS. 5 and 6, central unit 44 includes a central portion 50, a left end 52 and a
right end 54. The speaker is mirror-symmetrical with respect to the central vertical plane, and
the left end of the central portion 50 has the same shape as the right end, but the reverse. The
central portion 50 of the loudspeaker has a cylindrical housing 56, which has oval end faces 58
and 59 centered upward and forward. These faces, including the end faces, intersect at an angle
formed by two faces of a regular tetrahedron. The right end 54 has an inner end face 60, which
is parallel to and facing the end face 58. The outer end face 62 at the right end is parallel to the
inner end face and is closed by an end wall 64. Center and end ends 58 and 60 are open. The
speaker converter 66 is disposed inside the housing of the central part 50 and radiates towards
the end 58. This is called a center-right inner converter. A central right outer transducer 68 is
disposed within the right end 54 and radiates towards the end face 60 of that portion.
Transducer 68 is referred to as a center right outer transducer. The symmetrically arranged
center left inner and center right outer transducers are located at the left end of the center unit
44. A vertical baffle 70 breaks the interior of the central portion 50 between the central right
internal transducer and the central left internal transducer. Thus, the transducer radiates towards
the elliptical gap between the central part and the end and radiates backwards into the individual
enclosures defined in the respective parts of the housing.
The rear enclosure of the transducer is in communication with the interior of the housing 74
through a vertical tubular port 72, the housing being internally divided by a wall 76 into a series
of periodic chambers 78. Each periodic chamber is in communication with the back of the
respective transducer through a respective port. The periodic chamber is filled with a lightweight
fractal-like object, such as popcorn. The end units 46 and 48 of the loudspeaker are similarly
constructed but mirror-symmetrical. Although the right end unit 48 is described below, it is
understood that the left end unit is of the same construction. The right end unit 48 includes three
aligned cylindrical portions: a central portion 82, a left end 84 and a right end 48. The central
part has two oval end faces 88 and 90, which are parallel to one another and to the end faces 58,
60 and 62 of the central unit. The left end 84 has inner and outer end faces 92 and 94, which
are parallel to the end faces 88 and 90. Similarly, the right end 86 has inner and outer end faces
96 and 98 parallel to the end faces 88 and 90. The central portion 48 is hollow but the ends 84
and 86 are solid blocks having axes 100 and 102, respectively. Inside the central portion 82 of
the right end 86 is an end-right inner transducer 104 and an end-right outer transducer 106.
These are speaker transducers facing inward and outward towards the end faces 88 and 90
respectively. Vertical baffles 108 divide the interior of central portion 82 into two enclosures on
the back of each transducer. Two ports 112 communicate between the enclosure and the interior
of the housing 114 which is divided into two periodic chambers 118 by a wall 116. Each of the
periodic chambers is connected to a respective one of the enclosures through respective ports.
The periodic chamber is filled with a fractal-like object 120, for example popcorn. Two vertical
supports 122 support the ends 84 and 86 respectively on the top of the housing 114. Each of
the ports 72 and 112 is configured as a duct 124 and is provided with internal sound absorbing
means to minimize resonance. The duct has two holes 126 in the wall at diametrically opposed
positions. Both ends of the steel rod 128 acting as a vibrator are in these holes. The rod 128 is
smaller in diameter than the hole, and the free space around the rod is filled with a viscous
sealing material 130, in this example a pipe screw sealant.
The duct is filled with a self-absorbing textile sealing material 132. When stimulated by acoustic
vibrations, the rod vibrates as a free object. This vibration is absorbed by the viscous sealant and
the steel wool material. As shown schematically in FIG. 8, the various transducers of this system
are coupled to a stereophonic audio amplifier 134. The center left outer transducer, the center
right inner transducer, the end left inner transducer and the end right outer transducer are all
coupled to the right channel output of the amplifier, while the other transducers are coupled to
the left channel output. In FIG. 8, this connection to the amplifier is arranged for the
reproduction of normal stereo recordings. In this example, the left and right channel outputs of
the amplifier are phase reversed. In FIG. 9, the speakers are connected to reproduce the recorded
sound using the microphone of the present invention. In this example, the phases are all the
same. It has been found that the amplitude ratio of the signals supplied to the various
transducers must be properly selected in order to achieve the most effective regeneration. The
center left outer transducer, the center right outer transducer, the end left inner transducer and
the end right inner transducer thus have an amplitude of 9: 1 with respect to the signals supplied
to the center left inner transducer and the center right inner transducer. The signal is provided in
ratio. The other two amplifiers, end-to-left and end-to-outside converters, are powered at a 5: 1
amplitude ratio to the center-to-left and center-to-right converters. Theoretical Considerations
The human auditory system receives information that can be classified as follows: acoustic
spectrum information, acoustic direction information, acoustic range information. A great deal of
effort has been devoted to system development to faithfully record and reproduce acoustic
spectrum information. The present invention relates to direction and range information. In sound
recording and reproduction, various systems have been proposed for accurate recording and
reproduction of original sound fields. The proposed solution is proposed in the usual stereo (twochannel) system; Quadra (four-channel) system: Dummy-head stereo system: and Pierce, "Science
of Music and Acoustics", pages 160-162 by John Robinson Including various other multi-speaker
systems including four-speaker systems. The piercing text explains the general belief that it is not
possible for many viewers to electrically divide the recorded sound equally equally, except by
means of headphones. Piercing also discusses the problem of acoustic direction in acoustic
recording and playback systems.
According to a conventional stereo system, there are only two sound directions, one from each
channel. Quadra acoustics are said to be improved by providing two additional acoustic
directions. Piercing proposes a four-speaker arrangement that provides particularly accurate
sound field reproduction at one point in the center of the four speakers. The complete promotion
of this prior art is to transmit sound from the viewer in as many directions as possible. The
problem of acoustic direction recording and reproduction can be approached from other
perspectives. The human auditory system has two channels. これはステレオである。 The
acoustic information received by this system is sufficient to provide the human brain with
acoustic direction and range information that we wish to record and reproduce. Therefore, it
should be possible to implement this in a stereo (two channel) system. This was accomplished
using a dummy head for recording and using an earphone for playback. In this system, the head
is designed as similar as possible to accurately represent the human head. The microphone is
positioned within the ear of the dummy head to record all acoustic directions heard by the
human head ear at the same location. The earphones reproduce the acoustic information
recorded by the viewer's ear. The accuracy of the recording and reproduction of acoustic
direction information using this technique is known. However, the dummy head is rather
expensive and complicated, which is disadvantageous in that it reproduces the sound through the
earphone to hear all of the recorded acoustic information. If two microphones are placed on
opposite sides of the object, the interference of the object to the sound propagation towards the
microphones will vary with the direction the sound reaches and the distance to the sound source.
A difference therefore occurs in the sound fields of the two microphones, which is a function of
the acoustic direction and range. This phenomenon also occurs in human hearing. The difference
between the sounds detected by the two ears is used in the brain to know the direction that the
sound reaches. As published documents on this subject, there are also McFadden, Dennis and
Paskenen and Edward Zee's "Stereobeat at High Frequency" Science, Vol. 190, No. 4121, October
24, 1975, p. 394. If an appropriately shaped object is placed between two appropriately placed
microphones, the microphones receive and record a sound field containing direction and range
information that the human brain uses to determine the source position. It is speculated that it
The question then becomes which system geometry will produce the desired result. Both
anatomical and mental sound elements have to be considered. In the human auditory system, the
tympanic membrane is elliptical and lies in a plane which appears to be concentrated at the angle
between the two faces of a regular tetrahedron. The intersection line of the two planes is oriented
at about 45 ° to the horizontal in the normal head-up posture. Similar geometry is proposed to
be suitable for stereo recording of sound fields. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the
appropriate geometrical shape and its explanation. A mathematical coordinate system suitable
for explaining natural phenomena is not a conventional Cartesian 3-axis system, but it is not
possible to use Buckminster Fuller's "synergistic: quest in directed geometry", McMillan
Corporation Incorporated, 1975. It was proposed to be a four-axis system as described on page
876 of the year. In a naturally occurring coordinate system other than a Cartesian coordinate
system, a coordinate system equivalent to Fuller's 4-axis coordinate system is used for the human
auditory organ to decode acoustic information. Based on this hypothesis, the tetrahedral-shaped
object placed centrally between the two microphones not only performs the expected stereo
recording but also records the correct direction and range information that can be interpreted by
the human brain . Trials according to this concept have been encoded with direction information,
have been correctly encoded, and The object had the shape of a tetrahedron, 2. 2. The volume
centers of the microphone and tetrahedron are arranged on one horizontal axis, It was
established that if one side of the tetrahedron was horizontal and above the other two sides of
the tetrahedron, it could be decoded by the human brain using an outdoor earphone. A
microphone designed in this way is referred to as an optimal shadow microphone and is
described in the applicant's Canadian Patent No. 10 60 350. In a subsequent development, all
acoustic microphones were manufactured which possess tetrahedral geometry with respect to
transducer input, but omit the tetrahedron body. Again, favorable results have been achieved.
The most recent development is a syntropic microphone based on the vector balance (octahedral
cube) model of human hearing. This microphone provides a geometric pattern reception of
acoustic energy that holds direction and range information about one nucleus. To relate this
model to the human auditory system, the human vestibular organ provides the auditory device
with horizontal and vertical aligned positioning at the anatomic (right-angled) position to make
the correct determination of acoustic direction and range. It is noted that it performs a function.
It is observed that there is a clear surface match between the faces of the upper semicircular
canal, the second semicircular canal and the outer semicircular canal and the three faces of the
spherical octahedron when placed at a right angle. As observed above, there is also a clear
surface agreement between the human tympanic membrane and the orthogonally disposed
regular tetrahedron. In determining the direction of the sound source, the human auditory
system uses one point, the hypothalamus, as a reference. Geometrically, this corresponds to the
nuclear location of the vector equilibrium (octahedral cube) as shown in FIG. This vector balance
is related to a regular tetrahedron (FIG. 12) which corresponds to the orientation of the tympanic
membrane arranged at right angles, and a regular octahedron (FIG. 13) which corresponds to the
three planes of the semicircular canal. A superimposed view is shown in FIG. These geometrical
relationships are based on some empiricals created by Gilbert Weiner using optimal tetrahedral
based shadow microphones as underwater microphones and subsequently developed all acoustic
microphones in the air Used as a basis for the analysis of various data. Empirical data is
illustrated in FIGS. 15-21 and is described in the following example. Example 1 A graph of the
output spectrum of FIG. 15 was made using an optimal shadow microphone as the microphone
throughout Switzerland, and using a sound source approximately 13.5 m (45 feet) from the
microphone. The two plots of frequency versus amplitude represent the response of the two
channels (left and right) of the microphone. It is observed that there is a sharp peak at 12010 Hz
and an adjacent minimum at 11910 Hz. EXAMPLE 2 A test similar to Example 1 was performed
using a second sound source approximately 15 feet (15 feet) from the microphone. This gave a
plot of the output spectrum of FIG. In this example, there is a sharp output peak at the center
frequency of 12030 Hz and a minimum at 11710 Hz. EXAMPLE 3 The data shown in FIG. 17 was
collected using an all acoustic microphone in the air. In this example, the two marker positions
were selected to sharp minimum points 1.0775 kHz and 1.0862 kHz. The sound source was
estimated to be about 40 m from the microphone. Example 4 The recorded information in FIGS.
18 and 19 was collected using all acoustic microphones and the source farthest from the
microphone in the previous example, with a distance of 2.09 km (1. Estimated to be 3 miles).
The plotted data includes the amplitude versus frequency curve of FIG. 18 and the phase versus
frequency plot of FIG. The phase plotted in FIG. 19 is the phase difference between the left and
right channels of the microphone. In this example, the marker point is taken to be 312.11 Hz,
which corresponds to the small peak of the phase at the center of the phase versus frequency
plot. This matches near the sharp peak in the middle of the amplitude vs. frequency plot.
Example 5 Again, plots similar to those of FIGS. 18 and 19 but using a sound source at a distance
of approximately 2.09 km (1.3 miles) from the microphone are shown again in FIGS. 20 and 21.
There is. The marker points of these data are taken at 310 Hz at the sharp center frequency of
the amplitude curve and at the two minima on opposite sides of this peak. From the plot of
relative frequency relative to one another, the phase differences for the three marker points are
1−1-91, 22 = -55 ° and お よ び 3 = 43 °. These values represent the 90 ° to the right sound
approaching horizontal. Thus, the amplitude was greater on the right than on the left. These
values are used in the procedure described below. Position and Range Determination The data
described above and similar data are drawn onto a spherical octahedron at right angles for
determination of source position and range. This procedure is described and is shown in FIG.
Structure of Sphere On the spherical object, three great circles are formed, and each great circle
is made to intersect each other at 90 ° with two points. This represents the contour of a
spherical octahedron with eight equilateral triangles. 2. The edge of each triangular face is
bisected, and the midpoint of each edge is connected to the midpoint of two adjacent edges. This
gives the contour or topology of the spherical vector balance. 3. This sphere is oriented so that
one great circle is a transverse arc set at 45 ° to the horizontal, the other great circle is known
as the front at the position known as the inner apex and as the outer apex. It is set to cross at the
rear at the specified position. The diagonal line connecting the vertices located in the center
plane is set at 45 ° from the horizontal, and runs upward in the front-rear direction. The horizon
passes through the transverse arcs on each side and through the midplane of the sphere. This
defines the right and left entry points at the intersection of the transverse arc and the horizon. A
larger circle is located in the horizontal plane, which passes through the right and left entry
points. The other great circle is located in the central vertical plane, and the intersection of the
magazine between the horizontal great circle and the vertical great circle is made an azimuth of 0
° and an azimuth of 0 °.
Position Determination The position of the sound source is determined using the marked sphere
and phase data made as described above and illustrated in Example 5. The plotting procedure is
described below. すなわち1. The Φ 1 data is plotted upward and forward on the lateral arc at
the right entry point. If 1 1 is positive greater than 45 °, continue turning to the right at the first
intersection point. If 1 1 is negative, continue turning to the left. 2. The Φ 2 data is plotted
downward and backward on the lateral arc at the right entry point. If 22 is more than 45 °
positive, turn to the right at the first intersection position. If negative, continue turning to the left.
3. The Φ 2 data is plotted upward and forward on the lateral arc at the left entry point. If 2 2
is positive more than 45 °, continue turning to the left at the first intersection position. If 22 is
negative, continue turning to the right. 4. The Φ 1 data is plotted downward and backward on
the lateral arc at the left entry point. If 1 1 is positive greater than 45 °, turn to the right at the
first intersection position. If negative, turn to the left. 5. The Φ3 information is equally drawn
in the lateral direction divided into two from the right entrance and the left entrance. If Φ3 is
positive, proceed forward from the entry point. If this is greater than 135 °, turn downward to
advance and turn upward. If Φ3 is negative, advance backward. If Φ 3 is greater than 135 °
turn forward and backward. Each plot forms a triangle or square, and the vertices are located on
a circle with a center point marked on the sphere. There are two such points in the sphere. The
center point on the side of the large amplitude must be chosen. The elevation and azimuth at this
selected point are the values for the source. Range Determination The range is determined by
dividing the atmospheric velocity of the source by the difference between the two range
determination frequencies. The special example given above is cited. Example 1 Frequency: first
range point (RP1) = 12010 Hz second range point (RP2) = 191010 Hz PR1-PR2 = sound speed in
100 Hz water ≒ 1480 m / sec. This is contrasted with the measured distance of about 13.7 m
(45 feet). Example 2 frequency: first range point (RP1) = 12030 Hz second range point (RP2) =
11710 Hz PR1-PR2 = 320 Hz range = 4860/320 = 4.6 m (15 feet) This was measured about 15
feet Contrast with the distance).
Example 3 The speed of sound in the air is 344 m. First range point (RP1) = 1.0862 kHz second
range point (RP2) = 1.0775 kHz PR1-PR2 = 8.7 Hz range = 344 / 8.7 = 39.5 m This is contrasted
with the estimated distance of about 40 m Ru. Example 4 In this example, the sound source is
very far, and the frequency determination values of the two ranges are subcyclic. In this example,
the phase difference is used to determine the range. Range point (PR) = 312.11 Hz range point
difference phase difference 58.5237 ° frequency difference ΔF = 58.5 / 360 = 0.162 Hz range
= 344 + 0.162 = 2123 m Distance 2090 m (1. Contrast with 3 miles). Dynamic or Robotic Sound
Source Determination The microphone of the present invention can be used in a dynamic or
robotic sound source location system. For example, the microphone is mounted in a gimbal
mount, with the vertical axis of rotation passing through the volume center of the microphone
and the horizontal axis of rotation passing through the center of volume and parallel to the
longitudinal axis of the microphone. Once the sound is detected and provided to the spectrum
analyzer, the started plot is used as described above to determine the direction and range of the
sound source. When a sound source is detected, the microphone is rotated in the horizontal
plane until the amplitude response of the two channels is balanced. The amount of rotation is the
direction of the sound source. This gives a second measurement of the heading. The microphone
is rotated about the horizontal axis until the elevation angle is 0 °. The amount of rotation about
the horizontal axis is the elevation of the source. This gives a second measurement of elevation. A
microphone is directed to the source, and a spectral analysis plot is used to range the source to
provide a second measurement of range. From the above analysis and explanation, it has become
clear that modeling the acoustic system into the human auditory organ makes it possible to
detect, record and analyze information defining the range and direction of the sound source
believe. The microphone system described above is similar to the human auditory organ and
believes it provides insight into how the human auditory organ determines the range and
direction of the sound source to provide the source position. While the foregoing provides
specific examples of microphones and speakers in the system of the present invention, it should
be understood that other embodiments are possible and considered to be within the scope of the
present invention.
There are many potential system applications for the detection and identification of sound by
recognition of sound symbols, the location of those sources, and the sources themselves.
Applications involve any acoustic transmission in gaseous or liquid media. The intentions of some
applications are: acoustic navigation for blind people, and also for vehicles including take-off and
landing systems of aircraft; "virtual reality" systems, for example the concept of sound in games;
Audio-visual systems for airway control in such applications; search for subsurface liquids and
gases such as oil, water and natural gas; other geological applications of eg seismic location; fog
alarms; direction and speed Wind detection devices; monitoring of ocean currents; and sonars in
many applications. In view of the foregoing, it will be appreciated that many embodiments and
applications of the present invention are possible. The present invention should therefore be
considered as limited only by the appended claims.
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