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JPH01258599

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DESCRIPTION JPH01258599
[0001]
[Industrial Application Field of the Invention] The present invention relates to an electrodynamic
electroacoustic exchanger such as a speaker, a microphone, an earphone, a telephone, a buzzer
and the like, and its feature is that it can be formed extremely thin, small and light In addition to
the point, the coil is fixed and the permanent magnet moves, and the weight of the movable body
can be reduced. As a result, the response speed is improved to convert the vibration into sound
or current. In addition, it is possible to easily generate low-pitched sound and avoid the lead wire,
so that a long life can be expected, and the structure can be simplified and the mass production
can be inexpensive. It is an efficient electrodynamic electroacoustic exchanger. [Technical
background and its problems] Electrodynamic electroacoustic exchanger 1 For example, a
speaker. When a voice coil is movably disposed in a magnetic field and a voice current flows, the
voice coil vibrates as the current changes. In this case, a speaker that reproduces a sound wave
by moving a vibrating body by a coil is called a dynamic speaker, and a speaker that emits a
sound wave by directly connecting a coil to a cone-like paper is called a dynamic cone speaker,
Move a small vibrator with a voice coil. A microphone, such as a dynamic microphone, is called a
dynamic horn speaker, which emits a sound wave efficiently by attaching a horn on the front
surface of the horn. In the same structure as a dynamic speaker, when the vibration body is
moved in response to the sound wave, a voice coil attached to it vibrates in a magnetic field to
generate an electric current. Since all of these electrodynamic electroacoustic exchangers have
the same structure, the loudspeaker will be described below. Many conventional dynamic cone
speakers 1 are configured as shown in FIG. That is, a permanent magnet consisting of a
cylindrical ferrite magnet on a yoke plate 3 provided with five center balls (central magnetic
poles) 2. Similarly, a cylindrical upper yoke plate 5 is disposed, and these are fixed by an
adhesive or the like to constitute the field portion 6 to constitute the fixed side. Although the
field section 6 shown here is called an external magnet type, it may be used as a yoke and may
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be called an internal magnet type in which a columnar permanent magnet and a center ball are
incorporated at the center of the inside of the yoke. good. A cone-shaped frame 7 is connected to
the field portion 6, and the peripheral portion of a vibrating body 9 formed of a cone-shaped
paper together with a gasket (arrowhead) 8 is made of an adhesive at the peripheral portion of
the frame 7. And so on.
At a central portion of the vibrating body 9, a coil bobbin 11 formed of paper, thin plastic or the
like on which a cylindrical voice coil 10 is wound at the lower portion is coupled. The middle
portion of the coil bobbin 11 holds the voice coil 10 at the center between the magnetic poles
and is supported by a damper 12 for damping the vibration appropriately, and the voice coil 10
is supported in the magnetic gap 13 of the field section 6. It is supposed to be positioned
correctly. Further, a dust cap 14 such as a dustproof cloth is attached to the upper surface of the
central portion of the vibrating body 9 so that dust in the air does not enter the annular magnetic
gap 13. According to such a conventional speaker 1, since the magnetic circuit (field part 6) itself
must be formed long in the axial direction, there is a drawback that the thickness is very large
and one weight is large and large. Moreover, according to the speaker 1 having such a
configuration, the field section 6 is complicated, and a very large permanent magnet 4 is
required, so that one weight is heavy, and the large permanent magnet 4 is exposed. It has not
been sufficient for adoption in various acoustic devices that generate magnetic flux and dislike
the occurrence of the external leakage magnetic flux. Moreover, in the case of the conventional
speaker 1, since the voice coil 10 drags a lead wire and vibrates, the lead wire may be cut
depending on use for a long time. There has been a drawback that the lead wire may be detached
from the solder, possibly resulting in breakage, and the life may be shortened. The lead wire 15
of the voice coil 10 is drawn out through the magnetic gap 13 from its both terminals, led to the
vibrating body 9 (or may be the frame 7), and soldered at that position. (1) By using the voice
coil 10 with a limited thickness in order to pass both terminals of the lead wire 15 of the voice
coil 10 into the magnetic air gap 13. The magnetic flux density in the magnetic air gap 13 can
not be increased by the thickness of the lead wire 15, and the efficiency is low. The same applies
to a speaker having another structure using a piezoelectric element and the like in that dynamic
bass can not be extracted. ■ In order to pass both terminals of the lead wire 15 of the voice coil
10 into the magnetic gap 13 and since both terminals of the lead wire 15 must be soldered to the
vibrating body 9 etc., mass productivity is not good and expensive. It was supposed to be a thing.
In the case where the vibrating body 9 is formed of a thin film plastic of the present, when the
terminal of the lead wire 15 is soldered to this, the heat at that time makes the hole clear and the
defect rate increases. The body 9 could not be formed, and mass production could not be
performed at low cost.
■ Also, since both ends of the lead wire 15 of the voice coil 10 are passed through the magnetic
gap 13, there is a possibility that the lead wire 15 comes in sliding contact with the fixed side
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when the voice coil 10 vibrates. The failure rate was also very high. Further, in the case of the
conventional speaker 1, since the voice coil 10 vibrates, (1) The specific gravity of the wire
constituting the voice coil 10 (specific gravity of copper is There is a drawback that the load is
large because the weight is about 7.86), the response speed is slow, and the voice signal can not
be extracted more accurately over a wide range. In particular it was not enough to take out
dynamic bass. {Circle over (2)} In order to eliminate any of the above-mentioned drawbacks due
to the fact that the wire for forming the voice coil 10 is very heavy, ie, the weight of the voice coil
10 is not heavy, In order to prevent the magnetic flux density in the air gap 13 from being
reduced, the wires must be closely wound in close-packed lines (or referred to as aligned
winding) so that the wires do not overlap. Since the winding of the tightly wound voice coil 10 is
very expensive and requires a high degree of accuracy, the defect rate is high, and it has the
disadvantage of becoming very expensive. {Circle over (1)} One of the causes of the defects of the
above {circle over (1)} and {circle over (2)} is that the resistance value of the voice coil 10 is
determined to be 1 .OMEGA. However, manufacturing the voice coil 10 in accordance with the
resistance value is very troublesome and has a drawback that the mass productivity is not
excellent. Further, as described above, since the voice coil 10 must be formed by tightly winding
in one row, a large number of turns of the lead wire can not be formed, and a large driving force
for vibrating the voice coil 10 is generated. In the case of bass, it was not possible to accurately
output an audio signal. Also, especially when trying to put out the bass precisely, it becomes very
accurate. It was not possible to form a speaker or the like capable of producing a low-pitched
sound with high accuracy. The driving force T for vibrating the voice coil 10 is. T = t-1t: number
of turns of wire I: given by current, driving force T overpowers number of turns of wire and
current I. 2 In the prior art, the number of turns of wire winding t is set to a large value for the
above reason In addition to being unable to obtain a large driving force, the value of the current I
also becomes large, and there is a drawback that the speaker 1 becomes inefficient.
Also, in the case of the conventional speaker 1, a dust cap 14 such as a dustproof cloth is
attached to the upper surface of the central portion of the vibrating body 9 so that dust in the air
does not enter the annular magnetic gap 13 due to its structure. It has had the drawback of
leading to an increase in labor and time, and an increase in the cost. Also, according to the
speaker 1, the field section (magnetic circuit) 6 must use a large and heavy permanent magnet 4
as shown in FIG. In addition to the disadvantages, it also has the disadvantage of being very
expensive due to the need to use large permanent magnets. In addition, since the permanent
magnet 4 must be exposed and mounted because the large permanent magnet 4 is used as
described above, a considerable amount of the magnetic flux of the permanent magnet 4 leaks,
that is, such a large leakage flux However, there is a fear that the peripheral devices such as
various audio devices tending to be highly densely mounted may be adversely affected. In
addition, since a large permanent magnet 4 must be exposed and mounted as described above, a
considerable amount of the magnetic flux of the permanent magnet 4 leaks, so the speaker 1
becomes inefficient and a large and heavy permanent magnet is used. 1) A large amount of
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expensive permanent magnet materials capable of generating a strong magnetic force has to be
used, which promotes the drawback of the speaker 1 being large, heavy, and expensive. Further,
in the case of the conventional speaker 1, the voice coil 10 is of a moving type, so that it is
necessary to integrate the vibrating body 9 made of one sheet or fiber and the coil bobbin 11; It
is troublesome to connect different foreign substances, and it has the disadvantage of not being
excellent in mass productivity. [Problems of the Invention] The problem of the present invention
is to completely change the concept of the conventional electrodynamic electroacoustic
exchanger, and first of all, the magnetic circuit (field part) has a flat coil with a very simple and
inexpensive structure. It is an object of the present invention to make it possible to form an
extremely thin magnetic circuit by forming an axial gap type structure using a magnet. Similarly,
the concept of the conventional electrodynamic electroacoustic exchanger is completely changed,
the coil is not moved and the permanent magnet is moved so that the coil cuts the lead wire by
vibrating the lead wire. It is an object of the present invention to obtain a long-lived, highly
reliable electrodynamic electroacoustic exchanger by eliminating damage due to solder
detachment. In addition, by setting the coil on the fixed side, the lead wire can be prevented from
passing through the magnetic gap between the coil and the permanent magnet, and the
troublesome step of soldering both terminals of the lead wire to the vibrator etc. is omitted. The
object is to make it excellent in mass productivity and inexpensive to manufacture.
In the subject of the present invention, the coil is not moved so that the lead wire does not come
in sliding contact with the fixed side, and as a permanent magnet, a magnet material having a
specific gravity smaller than that of a lead (for example, specific gravity) By using 4 to 6
components and moving them, the weight of the vibrator can be lightened, the response speed
can be increased, and the voice signal can be captured more accurately over a wide range. It is an
object of the present invention to make it possible to take out, in particular, to make it possible to
construct inexpensively one that can take out dynamic bass. In other words, because it was a
system to move the permanent magnet. Even if such a permanent magnet does not become a
large load and can generate a strong magnetic force, and even using a magnet material that can
generate such a strong magnetic force, the permanent magnet is small and the weight is light. It
is an object of the present invention to make it possible to configure the permanent magnet at
low cost. Also, by making the coil not moveable, it is not necessary to adopt a closely wound
winding (also referred to as alignment winding) method of closely winding in a row so that highly
troublesome wires do not overlap. It is an object of the present invention to make it possible to
adopt a single-winding winding so as to be able to adopt a glass winding, and to reduce the
defect rate so that the coils can be mass-produced inexpensively and easily. In addition, the coil is
formed into a flat air core type coil shape in which a large number of turns of a lead wire which
can be very inexpensively and easily wound can be wound, and has sufficient space to
accommodate a coil having a large number of turns of the lead wire. A large coil for vibrating the
permanent magnet by using a flat coil having a large number of turns of conducting wire so as
not to be able to form a magnetic circuit structure that can be configured and that the coil does
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not need to form a close winding winding in one row. An object of the present invention is to
make it possible to generate a driving force so that an accurate audio signal can be extracted
even in the case of bass. In this case, the driving force T for vibrating the permanent magnet is T
= t−It: the number of turns of the wire I: given by the current, and the driving force T is
proportional to the number of turns of the wire and the current I Therefore, by forming the
number of winding turns t of the wire to be a large value, it is possible to obtain a large driving
force T and also to reduce the value of the current I, which is efficient. It is an object of the
present invention to provide an electrodynamic electroacoustic exchanger such as a speaker.
Furthermore. By simplifying the magnetic circuit configuration. It is easy to make the leakage
flux of the permanent magnet extremely small, and by doing so, external devices are not
adversely affected by the leakage flux of the permanent magnet, and the magnetic circuit can be
made small. It is an object of the present invention to make it possible to configure an
electrodynamic electroacoustic exchanger such as a small-sized speaker which is light in weight
at a low cost and easily. [Problem to be achieved by the invention of the present invention] The
subject of the present invention is to fix a flat vibration force generating coil such as an air core
type coil formed by winding a large number of turns of a lead on the fixed side of a magnetic
circuit A permanent magnet formed of a magnet material having a specific gravity smaller than
that of a conducting wire forming the above-mentioned coil for generating a vibrational force,
wherein the coil for generating a vibrational force has an upper surface and a lower surface
magnetized in opposite poles via an air gap in the axial direction. In the air gap of the magnetic
circuit so as to reciprocate in the axial direction thereof, and providing a vibrating body which is
interlocked or abutted by the reciprocating vibration in the axial direction of the permanent
magnet directly or at intervals in the permanent magnet. Ru. The object of the present invention
is achieved by thus making the transducer lighter than conventional speakers. Other issues will
be clarified in the following explanation. FIG. 1 is an exploded perspective view of the main part
of the dynamic cone speaker 16 according to the present invention, FIG. 2 is a longitudinal
sectional view thereof, and FIG. It is an expansion perspective view of a stator yoke part which
has a peripheral wall. A first embodiment of the present invention will be described below with
reference to FIGS. 1 to 3. A dynamic cone speaker 16 according to a first embodiment of the
present invention is a frame 18 formed of a magnetic body in which a disc-shaped stator yoke 17
is integrally formed at the center by a two magnetic body 1 such as an iron plate by pressing
means. The stator 19 is formed. The upper surface portion of the frame 18 is curved downward
in the drawing (see FIG. 2) as it faces the central portion. Further, the frame 18 has four through
holes 20 formed on the upper surface in order to emit the generated sound to the outside. That
is, the frame 18 has its outer peripheral portion 18a and the stator yoke 17 connected via the
stay 18b. Further, the stator yoke 17 is formed to extend on the permanent magnet 25 side so as
to be positioned on the outer periphery of a permanent magnet 25 described later so as to
surround the permanent magnet 25 so as to be located on the outer periphery The peripheral
wall 17a of the shape is formed, and the magnetic path generated from the radial direction of the
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permanent magnet 25 is also closed by the peripheral wall 17a, thereby preventing the
generation of the leakage flux of the permanent magnet 25 in the radial direction.
It serves as a dust cap that prevents dust from entering the air into the axial magnetic gap 26
noted &. Further, the frame 18 is formed with the four corners extended downward to integrally
form the fixing leg 21, and the end is bent at a right angle in the radial outer direction to form a
through hole 22 for passing a fixing screw. The fixing flange 23 is formed. An upper peripheral
edge of a cone-shaped vibrating body 24 formed of paper, fiber, thin film plastic or the like
together with a gasket (not shown) is bonded to the upper peripheral edge of the frame 18 by an
adhesive or the like. The lower end central portion of the vibrating body 24 has a thickness of 1
mm or less (this may vary depending on the specification or size of the speaker 16, but may be
formed to be about 0.5 mm for small speakers 16 etc.) The formed single-pole permanent
magnet 25 is coupled and disposed so as to be capable of reciprocating vibration in the axial
direction in the magnetic gap 2G in the axial direction. The purpose of the present invention can
be sufficiently satisfied by using a flat plate-shaped permanent magnet 25 formed of an axially
anisotropic neodymium / iron / boron resin magnet or a rare earth resin magnet. It makes things
easy to configure. An anisotropic magnet is a magnet that is spin-orientated 9 and can generally
be manufactured by applying a strong magnetic field before the magnet material hardens. Here,
as a magnet material for forming the optimum permanent magnet 25, the permanent magnet 25
to be formed is an air-core type described later (the air-core type described here means the coil
27 after the coil 27 is formed by conducting wires. 1) a magnetic flux that is lighter than the
specific gravity of the conductor wire that makes up the flat oscillating force generating coil 27
(note that this coil 27 does not have to be necessarily an air-core type) In the present invention,
as the permanent magnet 25, a strong magnetic force can be obtained as a magnet material, and
a specific gravity can be easily obtained so that an extremely thin one can be easily obtained. Use
of neodymium ・ iron ・ boron resin magne ・ nod (may be rare earth resin magnet) with axial
anisotropy of about 6 2 suitable for injection molding, molding etc. It is formed in a flat plate
shape by such means. The permanent magnet 25 is magnetized in a single pole so as to have
different poles in the upper and lower surfaces because it is axially anisotropic. In this
embodiment, the upper surface is si. The lower surface is a single pole magnetized and formed
into an N pole.
The permanent magnet 25 is held at a predetermined position of the magnetic gap 26 on the
permanent magnet 25. It may be supported by a damper to apply appropriate damping to the
vibration, and the permanent magnet 25 may be properly positioned in the magnetic gap 26 of
the field part, but such a thing is not necessary. In this embodiment, the upper surface of the
permanent magnet 25 and the inner surface of the stator yoke 17 facing each other via the
magnetic gap 26 in the axial direction show an example in which no damper is used. An air core
type flat vibration force generating coil 27 which is wound and formed flat is fixed using an
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adhesive, and the lead wire 28 drawn out to the upper end portion of the vibration force
generating coil 27 through the stay 18 b It is leading to the outside. In addition, the code ¦
symbol 29 shows the winding frame formed with the plastic. [Second Embodiment of the
Invention] FIG. 4 is an exploded perspective view of the main part of a dynamic cone speaker 161 according to the present invention, and FIG. 5 is a longitudinal sectional view of the same. The
second embodiment of the present invention will be described below with reference to FIGS. 4
and 5. The same reference numerals as in the first embodiment denote the same parts as in the
first embodiment, and a description thereof will be omitted. The dynamic cone speaker 16-1
according to the second embodiment of the present invention is added from the lower side by an
accident during transportation as the dynamic cone speaker 16 shown in the first embodiment.
There is a risk that the vibrator 24 may be damaged by some kind of external pressure, which is
done to prevent it. Furthermore. In the speaker 16 of the first embodiment, the moving yoke is
not attached to the lower surface of the permanent magnet 25. This is because, when the moving
yoke is fixed to the lower surface of the permanent magnet 25, the load of the movable body
becomes heavy by the weight of the moving yoke and the response becomes poor, and a
predetermined specification is satisfied. To avoid being unable to However, as it is, the magnetic
flux of the permanent magnet 25 leaks to the lower side to form an inefficient one, and the
magnetic flux may adversely affect the external device. Furthermore. By external pressure
applied from certain externals during transport from the downward direction. There is a risk of
damaging the vibrator 24. For this reason, a protective cover plate 31 made of a magnetic
material and having through holes 30 substantially coinciding with the through holes 22 formed
at the four corners is fixed to the lower part of the speaker 16. In this case, the protective cover
plate 31 may be fixed in advance to the lower part of the flange 23, or may be fixed using a
screw (not shown) when fixing the speaker 16 to the fixed side. The protective cover plate 31
may be temporarily fixed using a screw (not shown) at the lower part.
By providing the protective cover plate 31, damage to the vibrating body 24 due to the action of
the lower outer surface can be prevented, and the magnetic path in the lower direction of the
permanent magnet 25 can be closed to generate a large vibrating force. Thus, it is possible to
obtain a speaker 16-1 with higher efficiency and performance, and to prevent dust from entering
the air into the magnetic gap 26 under the diaphragm 24. [Operation of the Invention] In the
present invention, the principle of the operation is the same. Therefore, to explain with reference
to the first embodiment, in the speaker 16, an alternating current having a magnitude based on
an acoustic signal in the vibration force generating coil 27. Because flowing generates oscillating
force along the axial direction of the magnetic air gap 26 according to Fleming's left-hand rule.
The permanent magnet 25 reciprocates in the magnetic gap 26 along its axial direction. For this
reason, the vibrating body 24 fixed to the permanent magnet 25 vibrates, and an acoustic signal
sound of an appropriate wavelength and size can be generated. [Effects of the Invention] Since
the present invention is configured as described above, that is, the vibration force generating coil
is fixed and the permanent magnet is moved, the lead wire is dragged as in the conventional
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speaker etc. There is no breakage due to sliding contact of the lead wire due to vibration of the
voice coil or breakage due to solder detachment, and an electrodynamic electroacoustic
exchanger with high reliability and long life can be obtained. In addition, unlike the conventional
movable voice coil type, since the troublesome process of soldering the both terminals of the lead
wire to the vibrator or the like can be omitted, there is an effect of being excellent in mass
productivity and inexpensive to manufacture. Further, because of such a configuration, it is not
necessary to solder the terminal of the lead wire to the vibrator, so that using a desired thin film
plastic has the effect of being able to mass-produce the vibrator inexpensively and easily. In the
present invention, the permanent magnet has a specific gravity smaller than that of the
conductive wire constituting the vibration force generating coil, and an axial anisotropy 1
capable of increasing the magnetic force, for example, neodymium Because it is made of ironboron resin magnet material. Since the permanent magnet can generate a strong magnetic force
and the amount of use of the magnet material can be small, the weight of the vibrator is reduced,
the response speed is increased, and the voice signal can be extracted more accurately over a
wide range. It is difficult in the past because it can be done. In particular, there is an effect that it
is possible to construct inexpensive ones with high efficiency that can take out dynamic bass.
Also, since the permanent magnets can be small and extremely lightweight, the magnetic circuit
can be configured very easily.
The magnetic path of the permanent magnet can be closed sufficiently. There is an effect that the
leakage flux due to the permanent magnet does not adversely affect the external device of the
speaker. In addition, since a permanent magnet can form a magnetic circuit so that only a small
amount of leakage flux is generated, neodymium / iron / boron resin magnet or the like that
generates a strong magnetic force with high cost per dull compared to a ferrite magnet is used.
Also, since the permanent magnet is very thin and light in weight, the amount of use of the
magnet material constituting the permanent magnet is small, so that the permanent magnet can
be formed at low cost. Further, the magnetic circuit including the permanent magnet can be
formed simply, in a small size and in a light weight, and as a result, the speaker can be formed in
a small size and in a light weight. Furthermore, since there is sufficient space and there is no
need to move the coil, it is not necessary to adopt a close-wound winding method in which the
very troublesome wires are closely wound in a row so as not to overlap. Since the winding can be
adopted, the single-winding production can be made extremely easy, the defect rate can be
reduced, and the coil can be mass-produced inexpensively and easily. Furthermore. A permanent
magnet is formed of an axially anisotropic neodymium / iron / boron magnet material which can
generate a strong magnetic force even if the thickness is thin (especially, recent technology
makes it possible) and it is wound in many turns. Since a flat air core type vibration force
generating coil can be used, it is possible to generate a large driving force for vibrating the
permanent magnet by using the coil in which a large number of turns of the lead wire are
formed. In the case of bass and bass, there is an effect that an accurate audio signal can be taken
out. That is, driving force TT for vibrating the permanent magnet TT = t. The number of turns of
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the upper flat conductor: since the number of turns of the conductor can be made a large value
in the main current, a large driving force T can be obtained. Further, since the value of the
current I can also be reduced, there is an effect that an electrodynamic electroacoustic exchanger
such as an efficient speaker can be obtained. Although the embodiment of the present invention
has mainly described the speaker, the present invention is naturally applicable to an
electrodynamic electroacoustic exchanger such as a microphone having a common structural
principle. Further, in the present invention, although an example of the speaker in which the
permanent magnet and the vibrating body are directly connected is shown, the permanent
magnet and the vibrating body are disposed at a predetermined distance and the permanent
magnet vibrates. Even in the case where the vibrator is vibrated indirectly or indirectly via
another member, since it is the same as the principle described above, it is naturally applicable to
these.
[0002]
Brief description of the drawings
[0003]
1 is an exploded perspective view of the main part of the dynamic cone speaker according to the
first embodiment of the present invention, FIG. 2 is a longitudinal sectional view thereof, and FIG.
3 is an enlarged perspective view of a stator yoke portion having a peripheral wall, FIG. 4 is an
exploded perspective view of the main part of the second embodiment of the present invention,
FIG. 5 is a longitudinal sectional view thereof, and FIG. 6 is a longitudinal sectional view of a
conventional dynamic cone speaker.
(Explanation of symbols) 1: Dynamic cone speaker. 2 ... Center ball (central magnetic pole). 3 ...
Center ball, 4 ... Permanent magnet. 5 ・ ・ ・ upper yoke plate, 6 ・ ・ ・ field part. 7・・・フ
レーム。 8: Gasket (arrow), 9: Vibrator. 10・・・ボイスコイル。 11・・・コイルボビン、
12・・・ダンパー。 13 ... magnetic gap. 14・・・ダストキャップ。 15 ··· Lead wire.
16.16−1・・・ダイナミック・コーン・スピーカ、17・・・ステータヨーク。 17a:
peripheral wall, 18: frame. 18a: outer peripheral portion, 18b: stay. 19: Stator, 20: through hole.
21 · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 21 · · · Fixing legs, 22 ... through holes. 23 ・ ・
・ Fixing flange. 24 ··· Vibrator, 25 ··· Permanent magnet. 26: Magnetic gap in the axial direction.
27 ··· Vibration force generating coil. 28 ··· Lead wire, 29 ··· Winding frame. 30 ... through hole, 31
... protective cover plate. Figure 2z 3 previous
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