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JP2017153030

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DESCRIPTION JP2017153030
Abstract: To provide a sound source position estimation device capable of improving the
installability of a plurality of microphones. A sound source position estimation apparatus 100
includes a sound sensor 10 having a plurality of elements 1 for detecting sound, a time
difference estimation unit 32 for estimating a time difference between sounds obtained by the
plurality of elements 1, and a time difference estimation unit 32. And a display device 40 for
outputting the calculation result of the calculation unit 33. The calculation unit 33 calculates the
position estimation location of the sound source by calculation from the time difference obtained
in the above. The plurality of elements 1 are configured on a flexible substrate. [Selected figure]
Figure 1
Sound source position estimation device, sound source position estimation method and sound
sensor
[0001]
The present invention relates to a sound source position estimation device, a sound source
position estimation method, and a sound sensor.
[0002]
Patent Document 1 and Patent Document 2 show an example of a technique for estimating a
sound source direction or a sound source position using a plurality of microphones.
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In the technology described in Patent Document 1, the direction of the sound source is detected
by detecting the time difference until the sound emitted by the sound source reaches each
microphone using a plurality of microphones attached to the housing of the portable terminal. It
is calculated. Further, in the technology described in Patent Document 2, the time axis of the
frequency signal obtained by analyzing the frequency of the output signal of each microphone
using a plurality of microphones attached to the bumper of a car is adjusted to obtain waveforms
Based on the result of finding the degree of coincidence, the direction of the sound source or the
position of the sound source is calculated.
[0003]
JP, 2013-183286, A Patent No. 4177452
[0004]
By the way, when estimating the position of a sound source indoors etc., it may become a
problem how to install several microphones.
In order to estimate the position of the sound source with high accuracy, it is desirable to place a
plurality of microphones at a certain distance apart in order to make the time difference of the
sound arrival time from the sound source as large as possible. However, when the microphone is
permanently installed in this way, the usability, the advisability or the appearance of the room
may be impaired. In the techniques described in Patent Document 1 and Patent Document 2,
such points are not taken into consideration.
[0005]
The present invention has been made in consideration of the above-described circumstances, and
an object thereof is to provide a sound source position estimation device, a sound source position
estimation method, and a sound sensor capable of improving the installability of a plurality of
microphones.
[0006]
In order to solve the above problems, one aspect of the present invention includes a plurality of
sound detection means for detecting sound, a time difference estimation means for estimating a
time difference of sounds obtained by the plurality of sound detection means, and the time
difference estimation means Computing means for computing the position estimation location of
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the sound source by computing from the time difference obtained in the above, and output
means for outputting the computation result of the computing means, wherein the plurality of
sound detection means are configured on a flexible substrate A sound source position estimation
device.
[0007]
Moreover, one aspect of the present invention is the above-described sound source position
estimation device, wherein the flexible substrate is integrated with a building material.
[0008]
Moreover, one aspect of the present invention is the sound source position estimation device,
further comprising storage means for storing an analog-to-digital (AD) converted output of the
plurality of sound detection means.
[0009]
Moreover, one aspect of the present invention is the sound source position estimation device,
wherein when the AD conversion interval time is t, an interval between the plurality of sound
detection units is equal to or less than sound velocity × t / 2.
Moreover, one aspect of the present invention is the sound source position estimation device,
wherein when the AD conversion interval time is t, an interval between the plurality of sound
detection units is equal to or more than sound velocity × t / 2.
[0010]
Further, one aspect of the present invention is the sound source position estimation device,
wherein the calculation means is compared with the maximum separation distance w of the
plurality of sound detection means, and the distance from each sound detection means is 0.05 w
Calculate the estimated position at ˜10w.
[0011]
In one aspect of the present invention, the sound is detected by a plurality of sound detection
units configured on a flexible substrate, and the time difference estimation unit estimates a time
difference of the sounds obtained by the plurality of sound detection units, According to another
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aspect of the present invention, there is provided a sound source position estimation method
which calculates a position estimation location of a sound source by calculation from the time
difference obtained by the time difference estimation means by means, and outputs the
calculation result of the calculation means by output means.
[0012]
Further, one embodiment of the present invention is a sound sensor including three or more
elements in which the same plane is a reception surface of a sound signal, and an element
including a conversion unit that converts a vibration received through the reception surface into
an electric signal.
[0013]
One aspect of the present invention is the above-mentioned sound sensor, wherein the plurality
of elements are formed by coating on a flexible base material.
[0014]
According to the present invention, the installability of the sound detection means can be easily
improved.
[0015]
It is a block diagram showing an example of composition of a sound source position estimating
device concerning one embodiment of the present invention.
It is a schematic diagram for demonstrating the structural example of the sound sensor 10
shown in FIG.
It is a schematic diagram for demonstrating the other structural example of the sound sensor 10
shown in FIG.
It is a perspective view which shows typically the example of a structure of the sound sensor 10
shown in FIG.
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It is sectional drawing which shows typically the example of a structure of the sound sensor 10
shown in FIG.
It is sectional drawing which shows typically the other structural example of the sound sensor 10
shown in FIG.
It is a schematic diagram for demonstrating the operation example of the sound source position
estimation apparatus 100 shown in FIG.
It is a schematic diagram for demonstrating the operation example of the sound source position
estimation apparatus 100 shown in FIG.
[0016]
Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention will be described with reference to the
drawings.
FIG. 1 is a block diagram showing an example of the configuration of a sound source position
estimation apparatus 100 according to an embodiment of the present invention. A sound source
position estimation device 100 shown in FIG. 1 includes a sound sensor 10, an A / D (analog /
digital) conversion device 20, an arithmetic device 30, and a display device 40 (output means).
The sound sensor 10 has a plurality of elements 1 (sound detection means) for detecting sound,
converts the sound detected by each element 1 (hereinafter also referred to as a sound signal)
into an electric signal and outputs the electric signal. The A / D conversion device 20 converts
each analog sound signal output from each element 1 as an electric signal into each digital sound
signal and outputs it. Arithmetic unit 30 includes storage unit 31 (storage unit), time difference
estimation unit 32 (time difference estimation unit), and operation unit 33 (calculation unit). The
storage unit 31 stores each sound signal obtained by converting the analog sound signal output
from each element 1 into digital by the A / D conversion device 20. The time difference
estimation unit 32 estimates the time difference of the sounds obtained by the plurality of
elements 1. The calculation unit 33 calculates the position estimation location of the sound
source by calculating from the time difference obtained by the time difference estimation unit 32.
The display device 40 displays the calculation result of the calculation unit 33 as an image or
characters of a predetermined format.
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[0017]
Here, a configuration example of the sound sensor 10 shown in FIG. 1 will be described with
reference to FIG. In the drawings, the same components are denoted by the same reference
numerals and the description thereof will be appropriately omitted. The sound sensor 10 shown
in FIG. 2 has the same plane as the reception surface 11 of the sound signal, and arranges the
element 1 having a conversion unit (not shown) for converting the vibration received through the
reception surface 11 into an electric signal. Or more). In the example shown in FIG. 2, the sound
sensor 10 is provided with a total of 36 elements 1 in a two-dimensional array of six in length
and six in length. In the sound sensor 10, each element 1 is configured on a flexible substrate.
The receiving surface 11 is the outer surface of the base of the flexible substrate constituting
each element 1 or the outer surface of the protective film (or protective layer) of the flexible
substrate. For example, the base material of the flexible substrate is a film made of flexible
polyamide or the like, and the protective film (or protective film) or the protective layer is also
made of polyamide or the like.
[0018]
In the example shown in FIG. 2, the flexible substrate constituting each element 1 is integrated
with the inner wall 201 of the room 200. However, the flexible substrate constituting each
element 1 is not limited to the inner wall 201, and may be integrated with other building
materials such as a ceiling, an outer wall, a door, a window, and the like.
[0019]
In the example shown in FIG. 2, the plurality of elements 1 are two-dimensionally arranged in a
grid, but for example, as shown in FIG. 3, the respective elements 1 may be arranged in one row
in a row. Alternatively, each of the elements 1 may be arranged in one row in one dimension.
[0020]
Here, configuration examples of the sound sensor 10 and the element 1 will be described with
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reference to FIGS. 4 to 6. FIG. 4 is a perspective view schematically showing a configuration
example of the sound sensor 10 shown in FIG. The sound sensor 10 shown in FIG. 4 includes a
base 14 of a flexible substrate, a beam 13 formed on the base 14 by coating, for example, and a
protective film 12 of the flexible substrate. The inside surrounded by the base 14, the beam 13
and the protective film 12 is configured as shown in FIG. 5, for example.
[0021]
FIG. 5 is a cross-sectional view schematically showing a configuration example of the sound
sensor 10 shown in FIG. The substrate 14 is attached to the inner wall 201 so as to be attachable
to and removable from an adhesive layer (not shown). The beam 13 is provided not only at the
end of the sound sensor 10 but also at the boundary between the elements 1 as shown in FIG. 4
and forms the space 16 by separating the base 14 and the protective film 12 from each other. In
addition, the space 16 corresponding to each element 1 is separated. In this case, the outer
surface of the protective film 12 constitutes the receiving surface 11 of the sound signal. The
protective film 12 also has a plurality of through holes 121. Each element 1 includes a
conversion unit 15 that converts the vibration received through the receiving surface 11 into an
electrical signal. The conversion unit 15 is a component having a material or mechanism whose
volume or shape is changed by sound, and converting the change in volume or shape of the
material or mechanism into an electrical change and outputting it. The conversion unit 15 is, for
example, a piezoelectric element, and is formed by coating (such as printing) on a flexible base
material. However, the conversion unit 15 is not limited to the piezoelectric element, and may be
a condenser microphone, a microphone using electromagnetic induction, or the like. The
conversion units 15 of the elements 1 are arrayed at predetermined intervals. The conversion
unit 15 receives a wave through the through hole 121 of the protective film 12 constituting the
receiving surface 11 or a wave through the protective film 12 itself through the space 16 and
vibrates, and converts the vibration into an electric signal. . The number of through holes 121
may be one or may be omitted.
[0022]
FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view schematically showing another configuration example of the
sound sensor 10 shown in FIG. In the configuration example shown in FIG. 6, the protective film
12 is attached to the inner wall 201 so as to be freely attached and detached via an adhesive
layer (not shown). Further, the outer surface of the base 14 constitutes the receiving surface 11
of the sound signal. The converter 15 vibrates in response to the wave passing through the base
material 14 constituting the receiving surface 11 and converts the vibration into an electric
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signal. The through holes 121 a of the protective film 12 may be different in size and number
from the through holes 121 shown in FIG. 5, or may be omitted.
[0023]
Next, an operation example of the sound source position estimation apparatus 100 shown in FIG.
1 will be described with reference to FIGS. 7 and 8. 7 shows arrival times of sound signals from
the sound source (shown as sensors S1 to S4 in FIG. 7) when the sound source (not shown) is far
enough and the sound signal becomes a parallel wave. The time differences Δt21 to Δt43 are
shown. FIG. 8 shows time differences Δt32 and Δt43 when the sound source SS is nearby and
each of the plurality of conversion units 15 (shown as sensors S1 to S4 in FIG. 8) detects a part of
the spherical wave. Here, the time difference Δt21 is the time difference between the sensor S1
and the sensor S2, the time difference Δt32 is the time difference between the sensor S2 and the
sensor S3, and the time difference Δt43 is the time difference between the sensor S3 and the
sensor S4.
[0024]
When sound source position estimation is performed, the sound source position estimation
device 100 first obtains sound signals from the plurality of elements 1 and performs AD (analogdigital) conversion by the A / D conversion device 20. Store in 31 In the arithmetic unit 30, the
time difference estimation unit 32 sums up products while shifting the sampled digital data
between the sampled sensors S1 and S2, for example, by sampling equivalent to the estimated
delay time, and obtains cross correlation. The delay time Δt21 between the sensors S1 and S2 is
estimated from the delay time equivalent sampling with the highest cross correlation. At this
time, after converting into frequency components by FFT (Fast Fourier Transform), DFT (Discrete
Fourier Transform) or the like, the delay time may be estimated with a phase delay
corresponding to the delay time. When the cross correlation peak is determined, if there are a
plurality of peaks, it may be estimated that there are a plurality of sound sources. On the other
hand, if the echoes from the wall are finally obtained, the single sound source may be obtained
after solving the simultaneous equations for each sensor.
[0025]
Further, when the sensors S1 to S4 and the like are arranged in one dimension in the lateral
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direction, position estimation in the plane direction (XY direction) is possible. In order to estimate
the XY position, the positions of the sound source are assumed to be X and Y, and simultaneous
equations should be solved from the distance between the sensors. Also, the closest x and y may
be estimated from the genetic method. When x and y of a plurality of sound sources are found, a
sound pattern may be found again by frequency conversion for each sound source, and
individuals may be different or the same.
[0026]
Here, an example is demonstrated about the method of calculating ¦ requiring the time shift ¦
offset ¦ difference of the sound input into sensor S1 and sensor S2.
[0027]
(1) In the sound source position estimation apparatus 100, first, the sound of the sensor S1 is
digitally sampled at 100 kHz (for example, 100,000 points per second) through an analog LPF
(low pass filter) of 20 kHz.
[0028]
(2) Next, through the 20 kHz analog LPF, the sound of the sensor S2 is digitally sampled at 100
kHz (for example, 100,000 points per second).
[0029]
(3) Next, the sampling of the sensor S1 is S1-1 to S1-100000, and the sampling of the sensor S2
is S2-1 to S2-100000, using the following formula, for the sensor S1 and the sensor S2, 10 × N
microseconds Find the cross correlation when it deviates.
[0030]
[0031]
(4) When N is changed from -100,000 to 100,000 in the above equation, a peak is generated in
the cross correlation, so the value of N at that time is used as the sound shift time.
This peak occurs as many as the number of sound sources.
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[0032]
Next, how to estimate the position in the operation unit 33 will be described.
[0033]
The position coordinates of each of the sensors S1, S2,... Are (a1, 0) for the sensor S1, and (a2,
0),.
Further, let (x, y) be the coordinates of the sound source to be obtained.
Also, let Vs be the speed of sound.
The computing unit 33 can obtain x and y by taking the following simultaneous equations.
[0034]
[0035]
As mentioned above, according to this embodiment, the installation nature of a plurality of
elements 1 (sound detection means) can be improved easily.
[0036]
The sound source position estimation apparatus 100 according to the present embodiment can
perform the sound source position estimation with high accuracy in the following cases.
That is, when the AD conversion interval time is t, it is estimated that the sensor interval (interval
of the conversion unit 15 = interval of the element 1) is equal to or less than the speed of sound
× t / 2. Sometimes desirable.
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It is desirable when estimating the delay time on the time axis that the sensor interval (interval of
the conversion unit 15 = interval of the element 1) is equal to or higher than the speed of sound
× t / 2.
In addition, it is preferable that the estimated position distance be in the range of 0.05 w to 10 w
as compared with the maximum separation distance w of the sensor (conversion unit 15 =
element 1).
[0037]
In the present embodiment, the position of the sound source is specified using the film type
sound sensor array as described above.
Further, the position of the sound source is estimated based on the time lag of the electrical
signals from the plurality of conversion units 15. Therefore, the designability is high. It is also
possible to estimate a non-parallel wave source near the sensor.
[0038]
The embodiment of the present invention is not limited to the above. For example, the sound
sensor 10 is not limited to a building material, and may be installed in a moving object or in
water. Also, the receiving surface 11 may be divided into a plurality. Also, the receiving surface
11 may be directed in a plurality of different directions. Further, the A / D conversion device 20,
the arithmetic device 30 and the display device 40 may be integrally configured. Also, instead of
or in addition to the display device 40, a storage device, a printing device, a communication
device or the like can be used as an output means.
[0039]
100 sound source position estimation device 1 element 10 sound sensor 11 reception surface 15
conversion unit (sensors S1, S2, S3, S4) S1, S2, S3, S4 sensor (conversion unit 15) 20 A / D
converter 30 arithmetic unit 31 memory Unit 32 Time difference estimation unit 33 Calculation
unit 40 Display device 201 Inner wall (building material)
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