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JP2017123637

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DESCRIPTION JP2017123637
Abstract: To miniaturize a unidirectional microphone provided with a ribbon diaphragm. A
ribbon-type microphone unit (2) includes a ribbon-type microphone unit (2) and a nondirectional
capacitor-type microphone unit (3). A microphone comprising a plate (22b, 23b), wherein the
condenser microphone unit (3) is disposed between a pair of ribbon diaphragms (22b, 23b).
[Selected figure] Figure 4
マイクロホン
[0001]
The present invention relates to a microphone.
[0002]
One type of microphone, a ribbon microphone, comprises a pair of magnets that form a magnetic
field and a pair of ribbon diaphragms that vibrate in response to sound waves.
A pair of ribbon diaphragms are disposed in the magnetic field. The pair of ribbon diaphragms
vibrates in the magnetic field upon receiving the sound wave to generate an electric signal
according to the sound wave.
[0003]
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The directivity of a ribbon microphone is generally bi-directional. On the other hand, it is
desirable that the directivity of the microphone for the purpose of sound collection and louding
be uni-directional.
[0004]
Unidirectionality of the ribbon microphone is realized by adding a bidirectional component and
an omnidirectional component. Unidirectionality of the ribbon microphone is realized by using an
acoustic tube built in the ribbon microphone. Ribbon diaphragms have lower mass and lower
mechanical impedance than diaphragms of other types of microphones (eg, dynamic
microphones). In order to vibrate the ribbon diaphragm at low frequency, the length of the
acoustic tube is long. That is, a unidirectional ribbon microphone requires a long acoustic tube.
Therefore, miniaturization of a unidirectional ribbon microphone is difficult.
[0005]
As a technology for miniaturizing a unidirectional microphone, a unidirectional microphone
having a unidirectional transducer instead of an acoustic tube has been proposed (see, for
example, Patent Document 1). .
[0006]
JP-A-2015-5861
[0007]
In the unidirectional microphone shown in Patent Document 1, a unidirectional transducer is
attached to achieve unidirectionality.
Therefore, the miniaturization of the microphone provided with the ribbon diaphragm is not
sufficient.
[0008]
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The present invention has been made to solve the problems of the prior art as described above,
and it is an object of the present invention to miniaturize a unidirectional microphone provided
with a ribbon diaphragm.
[0009]
The present invention is a microphone, comprising a bi-directional ribbon microphone unit and
an omni-directional condenser microphone unit, and the ribbon microphone unit includes a pair
of ribbon diaphragms. The condenser microphone unit is disposed between the pair of ribbon
diaphragms.
[0010]
According to the present invention, it is possible to miniaturize a unidirectional microphone
provided with a ribbon diaphragm.
[0011]
It is a front view showing an embodiment of a microphone concerning the present invention.
It is front view sectional drawing of the microphone of FIG.
It is a front view of the microphone unit with which the microphone of FIG. 1 is provided.
It is the sectional view on the AA line of the microphone unit of FIG.
It is a front view of the magnetic circuit assembly with which the microphone unit of FIG. 3 is
provided. It is XX sectional drawing of the magnetic circuit assembly of FIG. It is the BB sectional
drawing of the microphone unit of FIG.
[0012]
Microphone Hereinafter, an embodiment of a microphone according to the present invention will
be described with reference to the drawings.
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[0013]
Configuration of Microphone FIG. 1 is a front view showing an embodiment of a microphone
according to the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a front sectional view of the microphone of FIG. The microphone M picks up the sound
wave from the sound source and outputs an electric signal according to the sound wave. The
microphone M includes a microphone case 1, a ribbon microphone unit 2, and a condenser
microphone unit 3.
[0014]
In the following description, the front of the microphone M is the direction of the microphone M
directed to the sound source side at the time of sound collection (the direction on the front side
of the sheet of FIG. 1). The rear of the microphone M is in the opposite direction (direction on the
back side of the sheet of FIG. 1). Above the microphone M, the direction in which the one end of
the microphone M (the end on the paper surface upper side in FIG. 1 in the microphone M in the
longitudinal direction of the paper surface in FIG. It is. The lower side of the microphone M is the
direction opposite to the upper side of the microphone M (the lower side in the drawing of FIG.
1).
[0015]
The microphone case 1 accommodates the ribbon microphone unit 2 and the condenser
microphone unit 3. The microphone case 1 is made of metal and has a bottomed cylindrical
shape.
[0016]
The microphone case 1 includes two first window holes 11 h, two second window holes (not
shown), and a mesh 12. The first window hole 11 h and the second window hole are rectangular.
The first window holes 11 h are arranged in the circumferential direction of the front surface
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(front surface) of the microphone case 1 in the longitudinal direction (vertical direction in the
drawing of FIG. 1) of the microphone case 1. The second window holes are arranged along the
longitudinal direction of the microphone case 1 on the peripheral wall of the rear surface (rear
surface) of the microphone case 1. The second window hole is disposed to face the first window
hole 11h. The first window hole 11 h and the second window hole face the ribbon microphone
unit 2 when the ribbon microphone unit 2 is housed in the microphone case 1. The first window
hole 11 h and the second window hole are covered with the mesh 12 from the inside of the
microphone case 1. The mesh 12 prevents foreign matter from entering the microphone case 1.
[0017]
FIG. 3 is a front view of the ribbon microphone unit 2. FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view of the
ribbon microphone unit 2 taken along line A-A.
[0018]
The ribbon microphone unit 2 picks up the sound wave from the sound source and outputs an
electrical signal according to the sound wave. The directivity of the ribbon microphone unit 2 is
bi-directional. The ribbon microphone unit 2 includes a magnetic circuit assembly 21, a first
diaphragm assembly 22, a second diaphragm assembly 23, a first protective plate 24, a second
protective plate 25, and a mounting screw 26. .
[0019]
FIG. 5 is a front view of the magnetic circuit assembly 21. As shown in FIG. FIG. 6 is a crosssectional view of the magnetic circuit assembly 21 taken along the line XX. 5 and 6 also show the
condenser microphone unit 3 in the magnetic circuit assembly 21. FIG.
[0020]
The magnetic circuit assembly 21 generates a magnetic flux in the magnetic circuit assembly 21
and fixes the condenser microphone unit 3. The magnetic circuit assembly 21 includes a yoke
21a, a first magnet 21b, and a second magnet 21c.
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[0021]
The yoke 21a is made of a magnetic material such as iron. The yoke 21a is substantially
rectangular. The yoke 21a has a substantially rectangular window hole 21ah1. The window hole
21ah1 is disposed at the center of the yoke 21a in the width direction (left and right direction in
FIG. 5). The window hole 21ah1 penetrates the yoke 21a in the thickness direction of the yoke
21a (back and forth direction in FIG. 5). The window hole 21ah1 forms a magnetic gap described
later, and accommodates ribbon diaphragms 22b and 23b described later.
[0022]
The yoke 21a is provided with four screw holes 21ah2. The screw hole 21ah2 is a hole into
which the mounting screw 26 is screwed (see FIG. 3). The two screw holes 21ah2 are referred to
as a center line in the width direction of the yoke 21a (hereinafter referred to as "center line") in
the upper part of the yoke 21a. Are arranged symmetrically with respect to The remaining two
screw holes 21ah2 are arranged symmetrically with respect to the center line at the lower part of
the yoke 21a.
[0023]
The yoke 21a is provided at its lower end portion with an insertion hole 21ah3 penetrating in the
vertical direction (vertical direction in the drawing of FIG. 6). The insertion holes 21ah3 will be
described later.
[0024]
The first magnet 21 b is, for example, a permanent magnet. The first magnet 21 b is in the shape
of a slender prism. The configuration of the second magnet 21c is the same as the configuration
of the first magnet 21b. The first magnet 21b is fixed to the inner circumferential surface of the
window hole 21ah1 along the longitudinal direction of the window hole 21ah1 (vertical direction
in the drawing of FIG. 5). The second magnet 21c is fixed to the inner circumferential surface of
the window hole 21ah1 so as to face the first magnet 21b along the longitudinal direction of the
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window hole 21ah1. An air gap is provided between the first magnet 21 b and the second
magnet 21 c.
[0025]
The magnetic pole of the surface facing the second magnet 21c of the first magnet 21b is
different from the magnetic pole of the surface facing the first magnet 21b of the second magnet
21c. Therefore, the magnetic flux generated from the first magnet 21b and the second magnet
21c crosses the air gap. That is, the magnetic circuit assembly 21 has a magnetic gap.
[0026]
As shown in FIGS. 3 and 4, the first diaphragm assembly 22 includes a substrate 22a, a ribbon
diaphragm 22b, and a fixing portion 22c.
[0027]
The substrate 22a is made of a light metal such as aluminum.
The substrate 22a is rectangular. The substrate 22a includes a window hole 22ah1, four first
screw insertion holes (not shown), and four second screw insertion holes 22ah2 (partially not
shown). The window hole 22ah1 is disposed at the central portion of the substrate 22a. The
window hole 22ah1 is a long rectangle in the longitudinal direction of the substrate 22a (vertical
direction in the drawing of FIG. 3). The first screw insertion holes are disposed at each of the four
corners of the substrate 22a. The first screw insertion hole is a hole through which the mounting
screw 26 is inserted.
[0028]
The two second screw insertion holes 22ah2 are arranged side by side between the two first
screw insertion holes arranged side by side in the width direction of the substrate 22a (the left
and right direction in FIG. 3). That is, the substrate 22a is provided with two second screw
insertion holes 22ah2 at its upper part, and two second screw insertion holes 22ah2 at its lower
part. The second screw insertion hole 22ah2 is a hole through which a mounting screw 22c3
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described later is inserted.
[0029]
The ribbon diaphragm 22b vibrates in response to the sound wave from the sound source, and
outputs an electrical signal according to the vibration. The ribbon diaphragm 22b is made of
metal such as aluminum foil. The ribbon diaphragm 22b has a bellows-like shape in which the
portion excluding both ends in the vertical direction (the vertical direction in the drawing of FIG.
3) of the ribbon diaphragm 22b is bent along the vertical direction. The length of the ribbon
diaphragm 22b in the width direction (left and right direction in FIG. 3) is shorter than the length
in the width direction (right and left direction of FIG. 3) of the window hole 22ah1.
[0030]
The fixing portion 22c fixes the ribbon diaphragm 22b to the substrate 22a. The fixing portion
22c includes a spacer 22c1, a fitting 22c2, and a mounting screw 22c3. The spacer 22c1 and the
fitting 22c2 are attached to the upper portion of the substrate 22a and the lower portion of the
substrate 22a by the attachment screw 22c3 inserted into the second screw insertion hole
22ah2. The spacer 22c1 and the fitting 22c2 attached to the substrate 22a sandwich the upper
end of the ribbon diaphragm 22b and the lower end of the ribbon diaphragm 22b. That is, the
ribbon diaphragm 22b is fixed to the substrate 22a by the fixing portion 22c.
[0031]
The second diaphragm assembly 23 includes a substrate 23a, a ribbon diaphragm 23b, and a
fixing portion 23c. The configuration of the second diaphragm assembly 23 is the same as the
configuration of the first diaphragm assembly 22. That is, the ribbon diaphragm 23b is fixed to
the substrate 23a by the fixing portion 23c.
[0032]
The first diaphragm assembly 22 is attached to the front surface (the surface on the right side of
the drawing of FIG. 4) of the magnetic circuit assembly 21 by a mounting screw 26. The
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mounting screw 26 is inserted into the first screw insertion hole of the first diaphragm assembly
22 and screwed into the screw hole 21ah2 (see FIG. 5) of the magnetic circuit assembly 21. The
first diaphragm assembly 22 covers the window hole 21 ah 1 of the magnetic circuit assembly
21 from the front of the magnetic circuit assembly 21. The ribbon diaphragm 22b is
accommodated in the window hole 21ah1 as shown in FIG. As a result, the bellows-like portion of
the ribbon diaphragm 22 b is disposed in the magnetic gap of the magnetic circuit assembly 21.
[0033]
The second diaphragm assembly 23 is attached to the rear surface (the surface on the left side of
the drawing of FIG. 4) of the magnetic circuit assembly 21 in the same manner as the first
diaphragm assembly 22. The ribbon diaphragm 23 b is accommodated in the window hole 21 a h
1 of the magnetic circuit assembly 21. As a result, the bellows-like portion of the ribbon
diaphragm 23 b housed in the window hole 21 ah 1 is disposed in the magnetic gap of the
magnetic circuit assembly 21.
[0034]
The first diaphragm assembly 22 and the second diaphragm assembly 23 are attached to the
magnetic circuit assembly 21. The first diaphragm assembly 22 and the second diaphragm
assembly 23 sandwich the magnetic circuit assembly 21 from both the front surface and the rear
surface of the magnetic circuit assembly 21.
[0035]
The first protective plate 24 protects the ribbon diaphragm 22b from magnetic powder and the
like. The first protective plate 24 is made of metal. The first protective plate 24 includes a main
body 24a and six legs 24b. The main body 24a has a rectangular plate shape in a front view. The
legs 24 b are disposed at three locations on each side along the longitudinal direction (vertical
direction) of the main body 24 a. The legs 24b project in a direction perpendicular to the main
body 24a. The tip of the leg 24b is bent at a right angle toward the outside of the leg 24b (the
left and right direction in FIG. 3). The main body 24a includes a plurality of sound holes 24h. The
sound hole 24 h guides the sound wave from the sound source to the ribbon diaphragm 22 b.
The sound holes 24 h are arranged substantially equally in the main body 24 a.
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[0036]
The second protective plate 25 protects the ribbon diaphragm 23b from magnetic powder and
the like. The second protective plate 25 includes a main body 25a and legs 25b. The main body
25a is provided with a sound hole 25h. The configuration of the second protective plate 25 is the
same as the configuration of the first protective plate 24.
[0037]
The first protective plate 24 is attached to the front of the first diaphragm assembly 22. The legs
24 b of the first protective plate 24 are attached to the substrate 22 a of the first diaphragm
assembly 22. The main body 24 a of the first protective plate 24 faces the ribbon diaphragm 22
b to protect the ribbon diaphragm 22 b.
[0038]
The second protective plate 25 is attached to the rear surface of the second diaphragm assembly
23. The legs 25 b of the second protective plate 25 are attached to the substrate 23 a of the
second diaphragm assembly 23. The main body 25a of the second protective plate 25 faces the
ribbon diaphragm 23b to protect the ribbon diaphragm 23b.
[0039]
The condenser microphone unit 3 picks up a sound wave from a sound source. The directivity of
the condenser microphone unit 3 is nondirectional. The external shape of the condenser
microphone unit 3 is cylindrical. The condenser microphone unit 3 has a sound hole (not shown)
on the upper end surface of the condenser microphone unit 3. The sound holes introduce sound
waves from the sound source into the condenser microphone unit 3. The condenser microphone
unit 3 is connected to a connector (not shown) via a cable C. The cable C is inserted into the
insertion hole 21ah3 of the magnetic circuit assembly 21.
[0040]
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7 is a cross-sectional view of the ribbon microphone unit 2 of FIG. 3 taken along line B-B.
[0041]
The condenser microphone unit 3 is disposed in the inside of the ribbon microphone unit 2, that
is, between the pair of ribbon diaphragms 22b and the ribbon diaphragm 23b.
The condenser microphone unit 3 is disposed between the pair of first magnets 21 b and the
second magnets 21 c. That is, the condenser microphone unit 3 is surrounded by the pair of
ribbon diaphragms 22b and 23b and the pair of magnets 21b and 21c in the magnetic gap of the
magnetic circuit assembly 21. In other words, the condenser microphone unit 3 is disposed
inside the yoke 21a.
[0042]
The condenser microphone unit 3 is disposed at equal intervals from each of the pair of ribbon
diaphragms 22 b and the ribbon diaphragm 23 b. The upper end surface of the condenser
microphone unit 3 is, as shown in FIG. 4, from the center in the longitudinal direction of the pair
of ribbon diaphragms 22b and the ribbon diaphragm 23b (the alternate long and short dash line
in FIG. 4). It is placed below.
[0043]
Acoustic Terminal The acoustic terminal of the ribbon microphone unit 2 and the acoustic
terminal of the condenser microphone unit 3 will be described with reference to FIG.
[0044]
The acoustic terminal of the ribbon microphone unit 2 is the position of air that effectively gives
a sound pressure to the ribbon microphone unit 2.
In other words, the acoustic terminal of the ribbon microphone unit 2 is a central position of air
moving simultaneously with the ribbon diaphragm 22 b (ribbon diaphragm 23 b) included in the
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ribbon microphone unit 2. That is, the acoustic terminal of the ribbon microphone unit 2 is an
acoustic center with respect to the ribbon microphone unit 2.
[0045]
There are two acoustic terminals of the ribbon microphone unit 2 because the directivity of the
ribbon microphone unit 2 is bi-directional. Of the two acoustic terminals of the ribbon
microphone unit 2, one of the acoustic terminals is the center of the ribbon diaphragm 22b in the
longitudinal direction and the sound hole 24h of the first protective plate 24 in front of the first
protective plate 24. In close proximity to The other acoustic terminal is located at the center in
the longitudinal direction of the ribbon diaphragm 23 b and at a position behind the first
protective plate 24 and in the vicinity of the sound hole 25 h of the second protective plate 25.
[0046]
The acoustic terminal of the condenser microphone unit 3 is the position of air that effectively
gives a sound pressure to the condenser microphone unit 3. In other words, the acoustic terminal
of the condenser microphone unit 3 is a central position of air moving simultaneously with the
diaphragm included in the condenser microphone unit 3. That is, the acoustic terminal of the
condenser microphone unit 3 is an acoustic center with respect to the condenser microphone
unit 3.
[0047]
There is one acoustic terminal of the condenser microphone unit 3 because the directivity of the
condenser microphone unit 3 is non-directional. The acoustic terminal of the condenser
microphone unit 3 is located above the condenser microphone unit 3 and in a position close to
the sound hole of the condenser microphone unit 3.
[0048]
The condenser microphone unit 3 is disposed inside the ribbon microphone unit 2 such that the
acoustic terminals of the condenser microphone unit 3 are coaxial with the two acoustic
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terminals of the ribbon microphone unit 2. As a result, the acoustic terminals of the condenser
microphone unit 3 are close to the two acoustic terminals of the ribbon microphone unit 2 and
exist in the same plane. That is, the inside of the ribbon microphone unit 3 is arranged so that the
condenser microphone unit 3 exists in the same plane in proximity to the acoustic terminals of
the condenser microphone unit 3 and the acoustic terminals of the ribbon microphone unit 2
coaxially. Will be placed.
[0049]
The acoustic terminals of the condenser microphone unit 3 disposed inside the ribbon
microphone unit 2 are coaxial with the acoustic terminals of the ribbon microphone unit 2 and
exist close to each other in the same plane. That is, the sound pressure of the sound wave
received by the ribbon microphone unit 2 is the same as the sound pressure of the sound wave
received by the condenser microphone unit 3. The condenser microphone unit 3 picks up the
same sound wave as the ribbon microphone unit 2. The electrical signal output from the
condenser microphone unit 3 is added to the electrical signal output from the ribbon microphone
unit 2. That is, the nondirectional component of the nondirectional capacitor type microphone
unit 3 is added to the bidirectional component of the bidirectional ribbon type microphone unit
2. That is, the directivity of the microphone M is unidirectional.
[0050]
The condenser microphone unit 3 may be disposed inside the ribbon microphone unit 2 so as to
receive the same sound pressure as the ribbon microphone unit 2 and to pick up the same sound
wave. That is, for example, the upper end surface of the condenser microphone unit 3 is on the
axis connecting the two acoustic terminals of the ribbon microphone unit 2, that is, the
longitudinal center of the pair of ribbon diaphragms 22b and the ribbon diaphragm 23b. It may
be located at
[0051]
According to the embodiment described above, the condenser microphone unit 3 is disposed
inside the ribbon microphone unit 2. The acoustic terminals of the omnidirectional capacitor type
microphone unit 3 are coaxially close to the acoustic terminals of the bidirectional ribbon type
microphone unit 2 and located close to each other in the same plane. That is, as for the
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directivity of the microphone M, the bidirectional component of the ribbon microphone unit 2
and the nondirectional component of the condenser microphone unit 3 are added to become
unidirectional. As described above, the directivity of the microphone M becomes unidirectivity
with a simple structure in which the bi-directional ribbon microphone unit 2 and the
nondirectional condenser microphone unit 3 are combined. In the microphone M, the condenser
microphone unit 3 is disposed inside the ribbon microphone unit 2. Therefore, miniaturization of
the microphone M is realized.
[0052]
M microphone 1 microphone case 11 h window hole 12 mesh 2 ribbon type microphone unit 21
magnetic circuit assembly 21 a yoke 21 ah 21 window hole 21 a h 2 screw hole 21 a h 3
insertion hole 21 b first magnet 21 c second magnet 22 first diaphragm assembly 22 a substrate
22 ah 1 window Hole 22ah2 Second screw insertion hole 22b Ribbon type diaphragm 22c Fixing
part 22c1 Spacer 22c2 Bracket 22c3 Mounting screw 23 Second diaphragm assembly 23a
Substrate 23b Ribbon type diaphragm 23c Fixing part 24 First protective plate 24a Body 24b
Leg 24h Sound hole 25 second protective plate 25a body 25b leg 25h sound hole 26 mounting
screw 3 condenser type microphone unit C cable
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