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JP2016102741

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DESCRIPTION JP2016102741
Abstract: To provide a sound source direction estimation apparatus and the like provided with a
flat plate type sound collecting means capable of accurately estimating the direction of a sound
source. A sound source direction estimation device comprises a flat plate 131 and a flat plate
installed to collect only sound pressure signals of sound propagated from the front which is one
side of a plane including the flat plate, in a straight line. Microphones M1 to M4 constituting two
pairs of microphone pairs (M1, M3) and (M2, M4), a windproof screen 136 disposed in front of
the microphones M1 to M4, and a microphone pair (M1, M3) Arrival time difference of sound
pressure signals input to the microphones M1 and M3 forming the microphone, arrival time
difference of sound pressure signals input to the microphones M2 and M4 forming the
microphone pair (M2, M4), and position coordinates of the microphones M1 to M4 The sound
source direction estimation means estimates the direction of the sound source from the velocity
and the sound velocity. [Selected figure] Figure 2
Sound source direction estimation device and image generation device for sound source
estimation
[0001]
The present invention estimates a sound source using an apparatus for estimating the direction
of a sound source from information of sound collected by a plurality of microphones, and
information of sound collected by the microphone and information of an image photographed by
a photographing means. It relates to an apparatus for creating an image.
[0002]
Conventionally, as shown in FIG. 8, four microphones M1 to M4 are disposed at predetermined
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intervals on two straight lines orthogonal to each other, and a fifth microphone M5 is a square
formed by the microphones M1 to M4 as a bottom surface. The sound pressure means of the
sound propagating from the sound source is detected by the sound collecting means arranged at
the position of the apex of the quadrangular pyramid, and the arrival corresponding to the phase
difference between the two microphones (M i, M j) as a pair is reached. While estimating the
horizontal angle θ and elevation angle φ which are the direction of the sound source from the
time difference D ij, an image of the sound source direction is photographed by an image pickup
means such as a CCD camera not shown, and the sound source estimated as this photographed
image data A display device for a sound source estimation image that creates and displays a
sound source estimation image in which the sound source direction (θ, φ) estimated in the
image and the sound pressure level are displayed graphically by combining the direction data
The Are (e.g., see Patent Document 1).
[0003]
JP, 2011-238985, A
[0004]
The above-described display device for sound source estimation image uses sound / image
collecting means in which the microphone and the camera are integrated, but in order to
integrate the microphone and the camera, the outside of the microphone in which the camera is
three-dimensionally arranged The problem is that the sound and image collecting means become
large because they must be placed in the
Therefore, if the sound collecting means is a flat plate type in which a microphone is disposed on
a flat plate, and only the sound pressure signal of the sound transmitted from the front of the flat
plate is collected, the sound and video collecting means can be miniaturized. Conceivable.
[0005]
By the way, as a plane plate which supports a microphone, it is preferable to use a material which
is high in rigidity and totally reflects sound.
However, in the flat type sound collecting means, since the position of the diaphragm which is
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the detection unit of the microphone and the surface of the flat plate are at almost the same
position, they are easily affected by reflected sound, wind, etc. There is a problem that the
estimation accuracy of
[0006]
The present invention has been made in view of the conventional problems, and it is an object of
the present invention to provide a sound source direction estimation device and a sound source
estimation image creation device provided with flat type sound collecting means capable of
accurately estimating the direction of a sound source. To aim.
[0007]
According to the present invention, there is provided a sound source direction comprising sound
collection means for collecting a sound pressure signal of sound propagated from a sound
source, and sound source direction estimation means for estimating the direction of the sound
source from the sound pressure signal collected by the sound collection means. The estimation
apparatus, wherein the sound collecting means collects only the sound pressure signal of the
sound transmitted from the front, which is one side of the plane including the plane plate and the
plane plate installed on the plane plate. And at least three microphones constituting two pairs of
microphones which are not in line with each other, and a windproof screen disposed in front of
the microphones of the flat plate, wherein the sound source direction estimating means It is
characterized in that the direction of the sound source is estimated from the arrival time
difference of the sound pressure signal to be input, the position coordinate of the microphone,
and the speed of sound.
Thus, a plurality of microphones including at least three microphones which are not in line with
each other are installed on the plane plate to collect only the sound pressure signal of the sound
transmitted from the front of the plane plate, and By arranging the windproof screen, the
reflected sound and wind noise incident on the microphone can be reduced, so that the device
can be miniaturized and the estimation accuracy of the sound source direction can be improved.
Further, by arranging a soundproof board on the back side of the flat board and inserting a
sound absorbing material between the flat board and the soundproof board, the influence of the
vibration of the flat board can be reduced as well. The estimation accuracy of the sound source
direction is further improved. Further, since the sound absorbing member disposed at the
peripheral edge on the front side of the flat plate is provided to further reduce the reflected
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sound incident to the microphone, the estimation accuracy of the sound source direction is
further improved.
[0008]
Further, according to the present invention, the microphones constituting the two pairs of
microphones are respectively disposed at each vertex of a square centered on the intersection of
two straight lines intersecting each other, and the sound source direction estimation means The
arrival time difference of sound pressure signals input to the microphones constituting the first
microphone pair on one diagonal, and the sound input to the microphones constituting the
second microphone pair on the other diagonal of the square It is characterized in that the
direction of the sound source is estimated using an arrival time difference of pressure signals. As
described above, when the number of microphones is four, the sound pressure signal of the same
microphone does not have to be used redundantly for calculation of the arrival time difference,
so that the estimation accuracy of the sound source direction can be further improved.
[0009]
Further, according to the present invention, there is provided a sound source comprising sound
collecting means for collecting a sound pressure signal of sound propagated from a sound
source, and sound source direction estimating means for estimating the direction of the sound
source from the sound pressure signal collected by the sound collecting means. A sound source
estimation image creation device comprising: a direction estimation device; an imaging unit
configured to capture an image of the estimated direction of the sound source; and a sound
source estimation image creation unit configured to generate a sound source estimation image
for estimating the sound source. The sound source direction estimating apparatus according to
any one of claims 1 to 3 is used as the sound source direction estimating apparatus, and the
photographing unit has a photographing direction perpendicular to the flat plate and It is
attached to the side surface of the flat plate so as to face the front of the flat plate, and shoots an
image of the direction of the sound source, and the sound source estimation image creating
means determines the direction of the sound source estimated by the sound source direction
estimation means. Data and the photographing means By synthesizing the image data in the
direction of the video signal of the photographed source, figure indicating the estimated sound
source direction is characterized in that to create the sound source estimation image is rendered
image. By adopting such a configuration, it is possible to create an image for sound source
estimation that is less affected by the reflected sound and the wind, so that the estimation
accuracy of the sound source can be improved.
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[0010]
The summary of the invention does not enumerate all necessary features of the present
invention, and a subcombination of these feature groups can also be an invention.
[0011]
It is a figure which shows the structure of the image creation apparatus for sound source
estimation which concerns on this Embodiment.
It is a figure which shows the structure of the sound / imaging ¦ video extraction unit which
concerns on this Embodiment. It is a figure which shows the example of arrangement ¦
positioning of a microphone. It is a figure which shows the specific example of a sound source
direction image. It is a figure which shows the result of having investigated the influence of the
wind with respect to estimation of a sound source direction. It is a figure which shows an
example of the plane board which performed the sound absorption process. It is a figure which
shows the example of another arrangement ¦ positioning of a microphone. It is a figure which
shows the example of arrangement ¦ positioning of the microphone which comprises the
conventional sound extraction means.
[0012]
FIG. 1 is a diagram showing the configuration of a sound source estimation image creation device
1. The sound source estimation image creation device 1 includes a sound / image collecting unit
10, a sound data input / output unit 21, and a video input / output unit 22. A storage unit 23, a
sound source direction estimation unit 24, a sound source estimation image creation unit 25, and
a display unit 26 are provided. Each unit of the storage unit 23 to the sound source estimation
image creation unit 25 is configured of, for example, software of a personal computer and a
memory, and the display unit 26 is configured of, for example, a display device such as a liquid
crystal display. The sound / image collecting unit 10 is equipped with a sound collecting means
11 provided with four microphones M1 to M4, a CCD camera (hereinafter referred to as a
camera) 12 as a photographing means, microphones M1 to M4 and a camera 12 The apparatus
mounting member 13, a support member 14 supporting the device mounting member 13, a base
15 supporting the support member 14, and a temperature sensor 16 are provided. In this
example, the base 15 of the sound / image collecting unit 10 is supported by a support leg
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(tripod) 17 to perform measurement. The microphones M1 to M4, the device mounting member
13, the temperature sensor 16, the sound data input / output unit 21, the storage unit 23, and
the sound source direction estimation unit 24 constitute a sound source direction estimation
apparatus of the present invention.
[0013]
2 (a) to 2 (c) are diagrams showing the configuration of the sound / image collecting unit 10,
wherein (a) is a front view, (b) is a side view, and (c) is a cross-sectional view. The device
mounting member 13 has a side plate 131 and a bottom plate 132 as a soundproof plate, and
has a cylindrical storage body 133 having an opening 13S at one side, a flat plate 134, a camera
attachment member 135, and a windproof screen 136. , And the sound absorbing material 137.
The flat plate 134 is a cross-shaped member in plan view, and is attached to the bottom plate
132 of the storage body 133. Microphone attachment holes 13 h are formed in the four
extensions forming the cross of the flat plate 134. As shown in FIG. 3, the four microphone
attachment holes 13 h are formed in a square shape in which the distance between the mutually
facing holes is L. That is, when the microphones M1 to M4 are respectively attached to the
microphone attachment holes 13h, the centers of the four microphones M1 to M4 are disposed
at the respective apexes of a square having a diagonal length L. Hereinafter, the opening side
which is the left side of FIG. 2C is referred to as the front, and the bottom plate 132 side of the
storage body 133 which is the right is referred to as the rear. Further, the surface on the opening
13S side of the flat plate 134 is referred to as a front surface 134a, and the bottom plate 132
side is referred to as a rear surface 134b. In this example, the thickness of the flat plate 134 is
made shorter than the length of the side plate 131 so that the position of the front surface 134 a
of the flat plate 134 is closer to the bottom plate 132 than the position of the tip of the side plate
131. The position of the tip end (the vibrating film side which is the detection unit) of ˜ M 4 is
projected forward of the front surface 134 a so that the position is the same as the front end of
the side plate 131 of the storage body 133. The microphones M1 to M4 may be either
nondirectional or unidirectional. Also, the microphones M1 to M4 may be generally used small
microphones or thin microphones such as surface microphones. The camera 12 is mounted on a
camera attachment member 135 provided on the outer peripheral surface of the side plate 131
of the storage body 133 so that the shooting direction is forward.
[0014]
The windproof screen 136 is attached to the front end of the side plate 131 of the housing body
133 so as to cover the microphones M1 to M4 from the front to reduce wind noise incident on
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the microphones M1 to M4. Although it is preferable that there is a slight gap between the
windproof screen 136 and the tips of the microphones M1 to M4, there is a problem in particular
even if the windproof screen 136 and the tips of the microphones M1 to M4 are in contact.
Absent. As the windproof screen 136, for example, a mesh body such as a urethane foam may be
mentioned. In addition, as a method of attaching the windproof screen 136 to the side plate 131
of the storage body 133, the peripheral edge portion of the windproof screen 136 is adhered to
the outer peripheral portion of the side plate 131 of the storage body 133 or fixed by an annular
band or the like. Alternatively, a windproof screen 136 having a peripheral edge attached to an
annular band in advance may be attached to the outer periphery of the side plate 131. The sound
absorbing material 137 is inserted inside the equipment mounting member 13, that is, between
the windproof screen 136 and the flat plate 134, and between the windproof screen 136, the
side plate 131, the flat plate 134 and the bottom plate 132, Vibrations of the housing 134 and
the housing 133 are reduced. Examples of the sound absorbing material 137 include porous
bodies such as glass wool and urethane sponge. As shown in FIG. 2 (b), the support member 14 is
provided with a vertical piece 14 a attached to the rear of the bottom plate 132 of the device
mounting member 13 and a horizontal piece 14 b for attaching the vertical piece 14 a to the
base 15. The device mounting member 13 is supported on the base 15 by a visible L-shaped
member. The base 15 is a plate-like member, and holds the device mounting member 13
supported by the support member 14 and the temperature sensor 16. The temperature sensor
16 is mounted on the base 15, measures the ambient temperature, and sends the measured
temperature data to the sound source direction estimation means 24. In this example, the base
15 of the sound / image collecting unit 10 is supported by the support legs (tripods) 17 to
perform measurement.
[0015]
The sound data input / output means 21 includes an amplifier 21a and an A / D converter 21b.
The amplifier 21a includes a low pass filter, removes high frequency noise components from the
sound pressure signal of the sound sampled by the microphones M1 to M4, amplifies the sound
pressure signal, and outputs the amplified signal to the A / D converter 21b. The A / D converter
21b A / D converts the sound pressure signal, and sends the A / D converted sound pressure
signal to the storage unit 23 as sound pressure waveform data. The video input / output unit 22
inputs a video signal continuously photographed by the camera 12 and performs A / D
conversion, and sends the A / D converted video signal as image data to the storage unit 23. The
storage unit 23 stores sound pressure waveform data and image data. The sound source
direction estimation unit 24 uses the sound pressure signal stored in the storage unit 23 to set
the sound source direction when viewed from the flat plate 134, that is, the front surface 134a of
the flat plate 134 as a horizontal plane, and the microphone M1 and the microphone M3. The
horizontal angle θ p and the elevation angle φ p are calculated for each frequency with the
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point of intersection of the line connecting the two and the line connecting the microphone M2
and the microphone M4 as the origin, and the sound pressure of the sound transmitted from the
sound source Measure the level. The method of calculating the horizontal angle θ p and the
elevation angle φ p will be described later.
[0016]
The sound source estimation image creation means 25 is data of the sound source direction
when the horizontal angle θ p and the elevation angle φ p which are data of the sound source
direction estimated by the sound source direction estimation means 24 are viewed from the
camera (horizontal Sound source, in which the image data stored in the storage means 23 and
the data of the horizontal angle θ and the elevation angle φ are synthesized and a plurality of
figures indicating the direction of the sound source are drawn in the image An estimation image
is created and output to the display means 26. The sound source estimation image is displayed
on the display screen 26 M of the display means 26. FIG. 4 is a view showing an example of an
image (sound source direction image) before being combined with image data, and in the sound
source direction image, a plurality of figures (here, circles) indicating the direction of the sound
source are drawn in the image. Be done. The horizontal axis of the upper diagram in FIG. 4 is the
horizontal angle θ, and the vertical axis is the elevation angle φ. The magnitude of the circle C j
represents the sound pressure level, and the pattern represents the frequency. The lower side of
FIG. 4 shows the distribution of sound pressure levels, where the horizontal axis is the horizontal
angle θ and the vertical axis is the sound pressure level (dB).
[0017]
Next, calculation of the sound source direction will be described. Only the sound pressure signal
of the sound propagated from the front of the plane plate 134 is input to the microphones M1 to
M4, and the sound pressure waveform data of the microphones M1 to M4 is frequency analyzed
by FFT, and The phase difference between M1 to M4 is determined, and the direction of the
sound source is calculated for each frequency from the determined phase difference and the
speed of sound c calculated using the temperature measured by the temperature sensor 16. The
horizontal angle θ p and the elevation angle φ p can be expressed by the following equation
[Equation 1]. Here, the arrival time difference D ij is a time difference between the sound
pressure signal reaching the microphone M i and the sound pressure signal reaching the
microphone M j, and is a signal input to the two microphones M i and M j as a pair. The cross
spectrum P ij (f) of is calculated, and further, it is calculated by the following equation [Equation
2] using phase angle information Ψ (rad) of the target frequency f. The sound source direction
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and the sound pressure level are measured for each frequency. The magnitude of the sound
pressure signal may be the magnitude of the signal input to any one of the microphones M1 to
M4, or the average value of the magnitudes of the signals input to the microphones M1 to M4
may be used. May be
[0018]
As described above, in the present embodiment, the microphones M1 to M4 for collecting the
sound pressure signal of the sound transmitted from the sound source are installed on the plane
plate 134, and the windproof screen 136 is provided in front of the plane plate 134. The wind
noise can be significantly reduced because the influence of the noise is reduced. Therefore, the
direction of the sound source can be accurately estimated even by using the sound pressure
signal collected by using the flat plate type sound collecting means 11 in which the microphone
is installed on the flat plate.
[0019]
5 (a) to 5 (d) show examples of sound source direction images, and FIG. 5 (a) shows the
measurement using a sound / video image pickup unit without a windproof screen in a windless
state. As a result of estimation of the sound source direction at the time, (b) is an estimation
result of the sound source direction when measured in a windless state using the sound / image
collecting unit 10 according to the present invention. On the other hand, the figure (c) shows the
estimation result of the sound source direction when the wind of 12.5 m / s is sent to the
microphone using the sound / image collecting unit without a windproof screen, the figure (d)
shows the present invention. It is an estimation result of the sound source direction when the
wind of 12.5 m / s is sent to the microphone using the sound / image collecting unit 10. As is
clear by comparing FIGS. 5 (a) to 5 (d), in the absence of a wind, there is no difference in the
estimation result depending on the presence or absence of a windproof screen, but if there is a
wind, there is no windproof screen, It can be seen that the estimation accuracy of the sound
source direction is reduced. On the other hand, the variation of the sound source direction
estimated by using the sound / image collecting unit 10 according to the present invention
provided with a windproof screen shown in FIG. 5 (d) is similar to that of the wind shown in FIGS.
It turns out that it is almost the same as no condition. Thereby, it was confirmed that the
direction of the sound source can be accurately estimated by providing a windproof screen even
in the presence of wind.
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[0020]
As mentioned above, although this invention was demonstrated using embodiment, the technical
scope of this invention is not limited to the range as described in the said embodiment. It is
obvious to those skilled in the art that various changes or modifications can be added to the
above embodiment. It is also apparent from the scope of the claims that the embodiments added
with such alterations or improvements can be included in the technical scope of the present
invention.
[0021]
For example, in the embodiment, the flat plate 134 is a cross-shaped member in plan view, but
may be another shape such as a disk. Further, the device mounting member 13 is not limited to
the cylindrical shape, and may be in the shape of a square pole. In this case, the shape of the
bottom plate 132 as the soundproof plate is preferably the same as the shape of the bottom
surface of the device mounting member 13. Moreover, in the said embodiment, as shown to Fig.6
(a), although the windproof screen 136 was arrange ¦ positioned ahead of the plane board 134,
as shown in FIG.6 (b), sound absorption around the windproof screen 136 is carried out. By
disposing the sound absorbing ring 138 as a member, the influence of reflection can be further
reduced, so that the estimation accuracy of the direction of the sound source is further improved.
As the sound absorbing ring 138, for example, an annular non-woven fabric is often used, but
other sound absorbing materials such as urethane sponge used for the sound absorbing material
137 may be used as long as the material has sound absorbing performance. Good. Also, the
windproof screen 136 may be made of non-woven fabric. Further, in the above embodiment, the
sound source direction is estimated using the sound collecting means 11 provided with the four
microphones M1 to M4 arranged on the flat plate 134. However, on the two straight lines
crossing the sound collecting means The microphones M1 to M3 may be arranged at
predetermined intervals. The microphones M1, M2 and M3 may be arranged at each vertex of an
equilateral triangle having a length of L as shown in FIG. 7 (a), or as shown in FIG. 7 (b), It may
be arranged at each vertex of the equilateral triangle.
[0022]
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 sound source estimation image creation device, 10 sound / image
collecting unit, 11 sound collecting means, 12 photographing means (camera), 13 apparatus
mounting member, 131 side plate, 132 bottom plate, 133 storage body, 134 flat plate, 134 a flat
plate Front, Rear surface of 134b Flat plate, 135 Camera mounting member, 136 Windproof
screen, 137 Sound absorbing material, 138 Sound absorbing ring, 13h Microphone mounting
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hole, 14 Support member, 15 base, 16 Temperature sensor, 17 Support leg 21 Sound data input
/ output Means, 21a amplifier, 21b A / D converter, 22 image input / output means, 23 storage
means, 24 sound source direction estimation means, 25 sound source estimation image creation
means, 26 display means, 26M display screen, M1 to M4 microphones.
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