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JP2016082566

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DESCRIPTION JP2016082566
Abstract: The present invention provides an inexpensive electro-acoustic transducer which can
connect various vibrators to a converter such as a voice coil motor with a simple structure
including a vibrator having a pair of convex surfaces such as a Riffel type speaker. A vibrating
body 1, a conical movable support 11 in which an outer peripheral edge 1a of the vibrating body
1 is fixed to a large diameter end 11a, and a small diameter end 11b of the movable support 11
are fixed. The conversion unit 2 such as a voice coil motor or the like that converts the vibration
of the vibrating body 1 and the electric signal corresponding to the vibration through the
movable support 11 is provided. [Selected figure] Figure 1
Electro-acoustic transducer
[0001]
The present invention relates to an electroacoustic transducer suitable for a speaker for
reproducing sound or a microphone for collecting sound.
[0002]
A common dynamic speaker is a speaker that emits sound by piston motion that reciprocally
drives a diaphragm with a voice coil motor, and functions almost as a point sound source at low
frequencies and has wide directivity characteristics, but the diaphragm aperture and
reproduction The directivity becomes sharp in the band above the frequency where the half
wavelengths of the sound become almost equal.
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For this reason, a small speaker using a diaphragm with a small diameter is used for
reproduction of the high frequency range. Further, the same can be said for the dynamic
microphone having the operation principle reverse to the operation principle of the dynamic
speaker. That is, in order to collect a high frequency range with a wide directivity, a small
microphone using a small aperture diaphragm is used.
[0003]
On the other hand, in Riffel-type loudspeakers, a pair of rectangular curved plates constitute a
diaphragm having a pair of convex surfaces, the directivity in the middle to high range is wide,
and in the lateral direction along the direction of curvature of the diaphragm. Since the sound
spreads and hardly spreads in the longitudinal direction, it is considered that an ideal sound
space can be provided by making the sound continuous as a line array speaker in the
longitudinal direction.
[0004]
As such Riffel type loudspeakers, there are conventionally disclosed, for example, in Patent
Document 1 or Patent Document 2.
In Patent Document 1, a conductor pattern as a voice coil is printed on a central portion of a
polymer resin film, and the central portion is folded and adhered to form a flat plate-shaped
portion having a conductive pattern; A diaphragm is integrally formed with the first and second
vibrating portions in a curved shape, and a flat plate-like portion of the diaphragm is disposed in
a magnetic gap in the magnetic circuit, and the tips of both the vibrating portions Discloses a
speaker of a structure fixed to a support member. In Patent Document 2, the diaphragm central
portion is folded back in a state in which a concave portion is formed, and in the concave portion,
a flat voice coil wound in an annular shape of an oval is disposed, and the voice coil is vertically
separated. A loudspeaker having a structure disposed in two magnetic gaps is disclosed. Also in
this speaker, the outer peripheral portion of the diaphragm is fixed on an annular frame.
[0005]
JP, 2002-78079, A JP, 2007-174233, A
[0006]
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2
However, in the speakers described in Patent Documents 1 and 2, an elongated voice coil along
the length direction is attached to the central folded portion of the diaphragm, and the
diaphragm is integrated by the driving force of the voice coil. The voice coil has a special shape
and tends to be expensive.
[0007]
The present invention has been made in view of such circumstances, and various vibrators
including a vibrator having a pair of convex surfaces such as a Riffel speaker are connected to a
conversion unit such as a voice coil motor with a simple structure. It is an object of the present
invention to provide an inexpensive electro-acoustic transducer.
[0008]
The electroacoustic transducer according to the present invention comprises a vibrator, a
movable support fixed to an outer peripheral edge of the vibrator and capable of vibrating
together with the vibrator, and connected to the movable support via the movable support. And a
conversion unit configured to convert the vibration of the vibrator and an electric signal
corresponding to the vibration.
[0009]
That is, while the conventional speaker connects the central portion of the vibrator to the
converter, the present invention fixes the outer peripheral edge of the vibrator to the movable
support and converts the movable support to the converter Connected to
In other words, the movable support functions as an intermediate member that mediates the
coupling between the vibrator and the converter.
The vibrator can be applied to various shapes such as a cone, a flat, and a pair of convex surfaces
such as a Riffel speaker, and in particular, a central portion such as a Riffel speaker Even if the
vibrator has a special shape, the outer peripheral edge portion and the conversion portion can be
connected with a simple structure via the movable support, and can be provided at low cost.
[0010]
In the electro-acoustic transducer according to the present invention, in the vibrator, a convex
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portion of a pair of vertically split cylindrical portions is formed in parallel, and a wing portion is
formed with valleys between one side portions of the adjacent convex surfaces. And a cone
portion provided so as to surround the outer peripheral edge of the wing-like portion and
extending in a cone shape, and the outer peripheral edge of the cone may be fixed to the movable
support.
[0011]
In this electro-acoustic transducer, since the convex surface of the vertically split cylindrical
portion is a vibrating surface, when the present invention is applied to a speaker, it has wide
directivity in the middle to high range as in the Riffel type speaker, The vibrating body vibrated
by the converter has a high sound pressure in the low-pitch range as well as the dynamic
speaker, since the entire body performs a piston motion.
Therefore, it is possible to realize a full-range speaker unit that can be reproduced with wide
directivity in the entire audible range from the low range to the middle high range by one
speaker unit.
Also when the present invention is applied to a microphone, the convex surface of the vertically
split cylindrical portion is a vibrating surface, and the entire vibrating body vibrates uniformly,
whereby the directivity becomes good while maintaining the sensitivity, and the bass region
Sound can be collected with a wide directivity over a wide frequency band from the lower to the
high range.
[0012]
In the electro-acoustic transducer according to the present invention, the movable support is
formed in a conical shape, the outer peripheral edge of the vibrator is fixed to the large diameter
end of the movable support, and the small diameter side of the movable support The conversion
unit may be connected to an end.
[0013]
Since the vibrating body is supported by the conical movable support, regardless of the shape of
the vibrating body, the small-diameter end of the movable support can be made into a simple
shape such as a circle, for example, and connected to the small-diameter end It is easy to use a
general conversion unit such as a circular voice coil motor as the conversion unit, and it is
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possible to manufacture at a lower cost.
[0014]
In the electro-acoustic transducer of the present invention, in addition to the vibrator, the second
vibrator may be connected to the converter, and the movable support and the vibrator may be
disposed inside.
[0015]
The second vibrating body has a double vibrating body structure in which the vibrating body is
disposed inside the second vibrating body, and the second vibrating body receives the low
frequency range and the middle high frequency range receives the vibrating body at the central
portion. A speaker unit and a microphone unit can be configured.
[0016]
In the electro-acoustic transducer of the present invention, the movable support may be provided
with a penetrating portion.
By forming the penetrating portion in the movable support, the weight is reduced, the resistance
at the time of vibration is reduced, and the vibration can be accurately and reliably transmitted
between the vibrator and the converter.
[0017]
In the electro-acoustic transducer according to the present invention, since the outer peripheral
edge portion of the vibrator is connected to the converter through the movable support, even a
vibrator having a special shape can be connected to the converter with a simple structure. Can
provide an inexpensive electroacoustic transducer.
[0018]
It is an exploded perspective view showing a speaker of a 1st embodiment of the present
invention.
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It is a perspective view which shows the assembly state of the speaker of FIG.
It is a front view of the speaker of FIG.
It is arrow sectional drawing in alignment with the AA of FIG.
It is a perspective view which shows the modification of a movable support body.
It is a perspective view which shows the other modification of a movable support body. It is the
perspective view which integrated the vibrating body of the modification into the vibrating body
in the speaker of FIG. It is a front view of the speaker of FIG. It is arrow sectional drawing in
alignment with the BB line of FIG. It is the perspective view which integrated the vibrating body
of the other modification in the vibrating body in the speaker of FIG. It is a front view of the
speaker of FIG. It is arrow sectional drawing which follows the C-C line of FIG. It is the
perspective view which integrated the vibrating body of the further another modification into the
vibrating body in the speaker of FIG. It is a front view of the speaker of FIG. It is arrow sectional
drawing in alignment with the DD line of FIG. It is a disassembled perspective view which shows
the speaker of 2nd Embodiment of this invention. It is a perspective view which shows the
assembly state of the speaker of FIG. It is a front view of the speaker of FIG. It is arrow sectional
drawing in alignment with the EE line of FIG. It is a disassembled perspective view which shows
the speaker of 3rd Embodiment of this invention. It is sectional drawing of the speaker of FIG.
[0019]
Hereinafter, an embodiment in which the electroacoustic apparatus of the present invention is
applied to a speaker will be described with reference to the drawings. First Embodiment FIGS. 1
to 4 show a speaker (electro-acoustic apparatus) 100 according to a first embodiment of the
present invention. 1. Overall Configuration The speaker 100 according to this embodiment
includes a vibrator 1 and a movable support 11 that is fixed to the end side of the outer
peripheral edge of the vibrator 1 and vibrates together with the vibrator 1 while supporting the
vibrator 1. An actuator (conversion unit) 2 for reciprocatingly driving the vibrator 1 via the
movable support 11, a frame 3 for supporting the vibrator 1, the movable support 11 and the
actuator 2, the vibrator 1, and the movable And an edge portion 4 for supporting the support 11
on the frame 3 in a reciprocating manner. In FIG. 2, the vertical direction is set so that the side on
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which the edge portion 4 is provided is on the top and the side on which the actuator 2 is
provided is on the bottom, and is perpendicular to the vertical direction. The extending direction
of the valley portion 6 is the x direction, and the direction orthogonal to the x direction is the y
direction. The vertical direction may be referred to as the z direction with respect to the x
direction and the y direction. In addition, the surface facing upward is the front surface, and the
surface facing downward is the back surface. The surface may be called the front.
[0020]
2. Configuration of Each Part (1) Configuration of Vibrator As shown in FIG. 2 and FIG. 3 etc.,
the convexes 5 of the pair of vertically split cylindrical portions are formed in parallel, and one of
the adjacent convexes 5 is used. A surface-shaped wing-like portion 7 in which a valley portion 6
is formed between the side portions of the first and second portions, and a cone portion 8
extending conically to surround the outer peripheral portion of the wing-like portion 7. The
convex surface 5 of the vertically divided cylindrical portion described above is a surface cut by
cutting a part of the cylindrical surface vertically. Moreover, the side part of the above-mentioned
convex surface 5 is a part of the convex surface 5 on the curved side of the cylindrical surface.
[0021]
These convex surfaces 5 do not necessarily have to be a single circular arc surface, and those
having a plurality of continuous curvatures, the cross sections along the circumferential direction
(lateral direction) of the convex surfaces 5 have a constant or continuous curvature such as
parabolic shape or spline curve Can be used, or those having a rectangular cylindrical surface, or
those having a plurality of stepped portions in a step-like shape, etc., can be curved in one
direction (the lateral direction which is the circumferential direction of convex surface 5). In the
direction orthogonal to the one direction (longitudinal direction of the convex surface 5), it is
linear. The valleys 6 are formed in parallel with the longitudinal direction of the convex surface
5. Also, in order to obtain uniform acoustic characteristics (frequency characteristics, directional
characteristics), as shown in FIG. 4, each convex surface 5 is directed from the bottom of its
valley portion 6 along the valley portion 6 in the z-axis direction It is preferable to form in plane
symmetry centering on the plane M which extends. However, in the present invention, it does not
necessarily have to be plane-symmetrical.
[0022]
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On the other hand, the cone portion 8 extends from the outside of the wing-like portion 7 and
closes the end portion of the valley portion 6 between the convex surfaces 5 and is formed in a
conical surface shape as a whole. That is, as shown in a cross section in FIG. 4, when the bonding
portion 13 is disposed on the lower side, most of the vibrating body 1 in the height direction
from the bonding portion 13 is a wing-like portion 7. The cone portion 8 is shaped so as to form
part of a conical surface at both ends. The lower end of the vibrating body 1 is constituted by the
lower surface of the straight joint 13, and the upper end of the vibrating body 1 is formed in a
front view circular shape by the upper edge of the cone portion 8.
[0023]
The material of the vibrating body 1 is not limited, and materials such as synthetic resin, paper,
metal and the like generally used as a diaphragm of a speaker can be used. For example,
synthetic resin such as polypropylene and polyester Can be relatively easily formed by vacuum
forming a film comprising the The vibrator 1 of this embodiment is integrally formed of one film
made of a synthetic resin, and the bonding portion 13 is formed so as to turn the film into a Ushaped cross section.
[0024]
(2) Configuration of movable support The movable support 11 is formed in a conical shape
(conical cylindrical in the example shown in FIG. 1), and the large diameter end 11a is directed
upward and the small diameter end 11b is directed downward. Then, the outer peripheral edge
portion 1 a of the cone portion 8 of the vibrating body 1 is fixed to the inner peripheral surface
of the large diameter side end portion 11 a of the movable support 11 by adhesion or the like.
On the other hand, the joint 13 of the wing 7 is not fixed to the movable support 11 and the
voice coil 20 described later. The movable support 11 is made of synthetic resin or the like and
driven by an actuator 2 described later. The movable support 11 has a rigidity enough to
transmit the vibration driven by the actuator 2 to the vibrator 1. Further, the inner peripheral
portion of the edge portion 4 is attached to the outer peripheral surface of the large diameter
side end portion 11 a of the movable support 11 by adhesion or the like. Further, the outer
peripheral portion of the edge portion 4 is attached to the frame 3 by adhesion or the like. As a
result, the movable support 11 and the vibrator 1 are supported by the frame 3 so as to be
capable of reciprocating up and down via the edge portion 4. Therefore, the vibration of the
actuator 2 is first transmitted to the small diameter end 11 a of the movable support 11, and
further the large diameter end of the movable support 11, the outer peripheral edge 1 a of the
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cone 8 of the vibrator 1, the vibrator 1 It transmits in order of convex surface 5 of. The large
diameter end 11a and the small diameter end 11b of the movable support 11 mean the ends on
the large diameter side and the small diameter side with respect to the intermediate portion of
the conical movable support 11, and the ends are not necessarily ends. It is not limited to the
edge.
[0025]
(3) Configuration of components other than the vibrating body and the movable support For
example, a voice coil motor is used, and the voice coil 20 attached to the small diameter end 11b
of the movable support 11 and the frame 3 are fixed. It is comprised by the magnet mechanism
21 which was carried out. The voice coil 20 is a coil 20b wound around a cylindrical bobbin 20a
as shown in FIG. 1, and as shown in FIG. 4, the upper end of the voice coil 20 and the lower end
of the movable support 11 are The small diameter end 11b is fixed to the small diameter end
11b via an adhesive or the like. The outer peripheral portion of the voice coil 20 is supported by
the frame 3 via the damper 22, and the voice coil 20 can reciprocate along the axial direction of
the voice coil 20 with respect to the frame 3. The vibration of the voice coil 20 is appropriately
damped by the damper 22. The damper 22 can apply the thing of the material used for a general
dynamic speaker. The magnet mechanism 21 includes an annular magnet 23, a ring-shaped
outer yoke 24 fixed to one pole of the magnet 23, and an inner yoke 25 fixed to the other pole.
The tip of the central pole portion 25 a is disposed in the outer yoke 24. Thus, the magnetic gap
26 is formed annularly between the outer yoke 24 and the inner yoke 25. A portion of the voice
coil 20 on which the coil 20b is wound is inserted in the magnetic gap 26.
[0026]
The frame 3 is formed of, for example, a metal material, and in the illustrated example, a flange
30 formed in a rectangular frame shape, a plurality of arms 31 extending downward from the
flange 30, and a lower end of the arms 31. And an annular frame portion 32 formed. The inner
peripheral surface of the flange portion 30 is formed in a circumferential surface, and the edge
portion 4 is attached to the inner side, and the movable support 11 and the vibrator 1 are
supported on the inner peripheral portion of the edge portion 4 ing. The edge portion 4 is
formed in a circular ring shape corresponding to the cone portion 8 of the vibrating body 1. The
edge portion 4 can also be made of a material used for a general dynamic speaker. Further, the
outer yoke 24 of the magnet mechanism 21 is attached to the annular frame portion 32 of the
frame 3 so that the magnet mechanism 21 and the frame 3 are integrally fixed.
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[0027]
In a state in which the vibrator 1 is attached to the frame 3, as shown in FIG. 4, the crosssectional shape of the convex surface 5 is a cross-section along the circumferential direction of
the biconvex surfaces 5 opposed via the valley portion 6 (horizontal direction In the cross
section), when the line connecting the tips of the outermost sides (the positions at which the
distance from the valley 6 is the largest) along the direction of curvature of the convex surfaces 5
is taken as the boundary H, It curves in the direction gradually separated from the boundary line
H according to. As described above, the convex surface 5 is not limited to a single circular arc
surface, but a plurality of continuous curvatures, a section whose curvature is constant or
continuous change such as a parabolic shape or a spline curve, and a rectangular cylindrical
surface It is possible to adopt one having a shape having a plurality of stepped portions in a steplike manner, or the like, but it is preferable to use a convex surface having a shape not exceeding
the boundary H connecting the tips. In addition, the code ¦ symbol 33 has shown the terminal for
connecting the voice coil 20 outside in FIG.1 and FIG.2.
[0028]
3. Operation When the drive current corresponding to the audio signal flows through the voice
coil 20 of the actuator 2, the speaker 100 configured in this way changes the magnetic flux
generated by the drive current and the magnetic field in the magnetic gap 26 A driving force
corresponding to the driving current acts on the voice coil 20, and vibrates the voice coil 20 in a
direction orthogonal to the magnetic field (axial direction of the voice coil 20, z direction which is
vertical direction indicated by arrow in FIG. 4). The vibration of the voice coil 20 is transmitted to
the movable support 11 connected to the voice coil 20, whereby the movable vibrator 11
vibrates in the vertical direction, and the large diameter end 11a of the movable support 11 The
vibrator 1 fixed on the bottom vibrates along the depth direction of the valley 6 and a sound
wave is emitted from the surface. The emitted sound waves are emitted from the convex surface
5 of each of the pair of longitudinally split cylindrical portions in the wave front of the convex
curved surface, and the wave fronts from the biconvex surface 5 are combined in space to form a
wave front like a roughly cylindrical wave. To propagate. Therefore, the loudspeaker 100
according to the present invention has wide directivity in the circumferential direction of the
convex surface 5.
[0029]
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In this case, the vibrating body 1 has a wing-like portion 7 configured to occupy most of the area
of the vibrating body 1 so as to be a main radiation surface of the sound wave, and a partial area
of the vibrating body 1 , And a cone portion 8 disposed at the upper end portion of the wing
portion 7. Therefore, it has wide directivity over a wide band. Moreover, in the vibrating body 1,
the outer peripheral portion of the cone portion 8 is supported by the edge portion 4 so as to be
capable of reciprocating oscillation on the frame 3 and the joining portion 13 of the wing-like
portion 7 is not otherwise restricted. The whole from 13 to the outer peripheral portion is
uniformly vibrated by the actuator 2, and vibration due to so-called piston motion occurs. For
this reason, as in the case of the dynamic speaker, the sound pressure is high even in the low
frequency range. In this case, when the both ends of the valley portion 6 are in the open state, a
part of the sound wave emitted by the vibrator escapes to the back side of the vibrator through
the opened space. Since both ends of the valley portion 6 are closed, the sound wave can be
prevented from coming off to the back surface side, and sound can be efficiently emitted from
the entire front surface of the vibration body 1. Therefore, a single speaker unit can realize a fullrange speaker unit that can be reproduced with wide directivity in the entire audible range from
the low tone range to the high tone range.
[0030]
Moreover, in this embodiment, since the outer peripheral part of the vibrating body 1 is formed
of the cone part 8 of conical surface shape, the edge part 4 can be made into the simple shape of
circular ring shape. Furthermore, the voice coil 20 of the actuator 2 is also formed in a
cylindrical shape, and the upper end thereof and the small-diameter end 11b of the conical
movable support 11 are fixed. What is used can be applied. Therefore, parts common to a
dynamic speaker having a usual cone-shaped diaphragm can be applied as the edge portion 4,
the frame 3, the actuator 2 etc. It can be manufactured.
[0031]
In addition, although the wing-like part 7 and the cone part 8 showed the example integrally
molded from the film of 1 sheet, you may shape ¦ mold and bond these separately by forming a
wing-like part and a cone part. In addition, a reinforcing member such as a band plate-like
reinforcing plate or a reinforcing wire may be fixed along the joint portion 13 to linearly
reinforce the joint portion 13 or the like. In any of the embodiments, the convex surface 5 is
preferably a convex surface that does not exceed the boundary H connecting the tips on the
opposite side to the joint 13.
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[0032]
<Modified Example of Movable Support> In the above first embodiment, the movable support 11
is formed in a conical cylindrical shape in the example shown in FIG. 1, but may be shaped as
shown in FIG. 5 or FIG. Although the movable support 41 shown in FIG. 5 is formed in a cone
shape as a whole, the large diameter end 41a and the small diameter end 41b are formed by two
ring-shaped members having different diameters, A plurality of connecting portions 41c are
formed to connect between the both end portions 41a and 41b. Similar to the embodiment
shown in FIGS. 1 to 4, the outer peripheral edge of the vibrating body 1 is supported inside the
large diameter end 41a, and the bobbin 20a of the voice coil 20 is joined to the small diameter
end 41b. The movable support 41 is reduced in weight by forming a plurality of penetration
portions 41d between the end portions 41a and 41b and the connection portion 41c, and the
inertia mass at the time of vibration is reduced by the penetration portions 41d. Vibration can be
accurately and efficiently transmitted between the vibrator 1 and the converter 2.
[0033]
On the other hand, the movable support 45 shown in FIG. 6 is formed in a cone shape as a whole,
leaving a large diameter end 45a and a small diameter end 45b, and punching sheet in most part
between both ends 45a, 45b. As shown, a large number of penetrations 45c are formed. The
outer peripheral edge of the vibrator 1 is supported inside the large diameter end 45a, and the
bobbin 20a of the voice coil 20 is joined to the small diameter end 45b. Similarly to the movable
support 41 shown in FIG. 5, the movable support 45 is also reduced in weight by the large
number of penetrating portions 45 c, and vibration can be accurately and reliably transmitted
between the vibrator 1 and the conversion unit 2. it can. Other than these modified examples, the
whole movable support is formed of a mesh-like material, as long as the vibrator 1 and the edge
portion 4 are fixed and the rigidity is sufficient to maintain the shape even when vibrated. You
may
[0034]
<Modification of Vibrating Body> Further, in the first embodiment, the vibrating body has a
combination of a wing-like portion having convex surfaces of a pair of vertically split cylindrical
portions and a cone portion, but the present invention It is also possible to apply a vibrating body
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of shape. 7 to 15 show modifications in which the shapes of the vibrators are different. The
vibrating body 51 of the speaker 200 shown in FIGS. 7 to 9 is formed in a circular plane, and the
outer peripheral edge portion 51 a is adhered to the large diameter side end portion 11 a of the
movable support 11. Is provided along the xy plane orthogonal to the z axis so as to close the
inside of the movable support 11. Sound is emitted from the plane as a plane wave in phase. In
the case of the conventional structure in which the central portion is connected to the conversion
portion and the outer peripheral edge is supported by the edge portion when this planar
vibrating body 51 is applied, divided vibrations tend to occur as the diameter of the vibrating
body increases. By supporting the large outer peripheral edge portion 51a by the movable
support 11 and connecting it to the conversion portion 2, the whole can be uniformly vibrated
without division vibration.
[0035]
In addition, in the vibrating body 1 shown to FIGS. 1-4, it had the wing-like part 7 and the cone
part 8 of the outer side, but in the case of the planar vibrating body 51 shown to this FIGS. There
is no cone portion, except that the whole is formed by a single flat plate and the outer peripheral
edge portion 51a bonded to the movable support 11 is formed in a cone shape in accordance
with the movable support 11. However, it is possible to use a structure having a flat portion and
a cone portion as a vibrating body, and the outer peripheral edge of the flat portion extending in
the direction orthogonal to the z-axis direction has a conical shape so as to expand in diameter
upward The cone portion may be integrally formed, and the outer peripheral edge portion of the
cone portion may be connected to the large diameter side end portion 11 a of the movable
support 11.
[0036]
Moreover, although the vibrating body 55 of the speaker 300 shown in FIGS. 10-12 has the
wing-like part 56 and the cone part 57, it is attached in the reverse direction to the vibrating
body 1 shown in FIGS. 1-4. ing. That is, in the winged portion 56, concave surfaces 58 having a
pair of vertically split cylindrical inner peripheral surface shapes are formed in parallel, and one
side portions of these concave surfaces 58 are joined, and the joining portion 59 is sharpened
upward It is formed to be protruded. The concave surface 58 is curved in one direction and
linear in the direction orthogonal to the one direction, and the joint portion 59 is formed in
parallel with the longitudinal direction of the concave surface 58 and is shown in FIGS. In the
example, they are arranged along the x-axis direction. In this wing-like portion 56, both concave
surfaces 58 are formed plane-symmetrically with respect to the plane M extending in the z-axis
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direction from the joint portion 59 along the joint portion 59, but the wing-like shape shown in
FIGS. Like parts, they do not necessarily have to be plane-symmetrical. The cone portion 57
closes both ends of the wing-like portion 56. In the movable support 11, the outer peripheral
edge 55a of the vibrating body 55 is connected to the large diameter side end 11a, but the
movable supporting body 11 is suspended inside the movable support 11 like the vibrating body
1 shown in FIG. Rather, the wings 56 are mounted to project above the movable support 11.
[0037]
In the vibrating body 55, when the vibrating body 55 vibrates, wavefronts of concave curved
surfaces are emitted from the pair of concave surfaces 58. For this reason, since the focal point is
formed at a specific place by the wave front of the concave surface that is emitted, the directivity
is narrow and the sound can be concentrated in a specific area.
[0038]
The vibrator 61 of the speaker 400 shown in FIGS. 13 to 15 is formed in a dome shape having a
convex curved surface in the x-axis direction and the y-axis direction, and the outer peripheral
edge 61a thereof is the large diameter end 11a of the movable support 11. It is connected and
arranged with the dome-shaped convex surface 62 directed upward. In the vibrating body 61, a
sound wave of a convex curved surface is emitted from the convex surface 62, spreads in a threedimensional space, and has wide directivity. In the case of this dome-shaped vibrating body 61,
when the outer peripheral edge is directly joined to the voice coil, the size of the dome is limited
(it is difficult to make more than the diameter of the voice coil). Bonding with the voice coil 20
via the movable support 11 enables to increase the diameter of the dome regardless of the
diameter of the voice coil 20. Therefore, it is possible to configure a dome-shaped speaker that is
effective even in the low frequency range. In addition to these vibrators, an arc-plate-shaped
vibrator that is curved only in either the x-axis direction or the y-axis direction is configured to
emit sound from its convex surface, or an arc-plate-shaped vibrator It is also possible to emit
sound from the concave surface of
[0039]
Second Embodiment In the above embodiments, the outer peripheral edge portion of the
vibrating body is connected to the large diameter side end portion of the movable support, and
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the vibrating body is provided only inside the movable support. In the second embodiment
shown in FIG. 19, the vibrator provided inside the movable support (as the inner vibrator) and
the vibrator arranged outside the movable support and having a larger diameter than the inner
vibrator It has two vibrators (with a second vibrator). In FIGS. 16 to 19, the same elements as in
the first embodiment are given the same reference numerals to simplify the description. In the
loudspeaker (electro-acoustic transducer) 500 of the second embodiment, the movable support
11 and the inner vibrating body 1 have the same structure as those of the first embodiment, and
the large diameter end 11 a of the movable support 11. The outer peripheral edge portion 1 a of
the inner vibrating body 1 is fixed to the On the other hand, the second vibrating body 71 is
formed in a cone shape like the normal cone type vibrating body, and is disposed with the large
diameter side end 71a facing upward. The small diameter end 71 b is connected to the voice coil
20 integrally with the small diameter end 11 b of the movable support 11, and the large
diameter end 71 a is vertically moved to the flange 30 of the frame 3 through the edge 4. It is
movably supported. On the other hand, the outer peripheral edge portion 1a of the inner
vibrating body 1 and the large-diameter end 11a of the movable support 11 are not supported by
the edge as in the first embodiment and are not restrained by other components. The second
vibrating body 71 is disposed so as to protrude upward inside the second vibrating body 71.
Therefore, in the speaker 500, when the conversion unit 2 operates, the second vibrating
member 71 drives the central portion (small diameter side end 71b) like the normal cone
vibrating member so as to reciprocate, and the inner vibration Also in the body 1, the driving
force of the conversion unit 2 is transmitted to the outer peripheral edge portion 1 a by the
movable support 11 and oscillates in a reciprocating manner. In this case, the central axes of the
second vibrating body 71 and the inner vibrating body 1 are the same (coaxial). The second
vibrating body 71 having a large diameter and the inner vibrating body 1 having a smaller
diameter than this can constitute a full-range speaker capable of reproducing a wide band from
the low tone range to the high tone range.
[0040]
Also in the speaker 500 of the second embodiment, the structure of the modification described in
the first embodiment can be applied. That is, it is also possible to apply the following structure.
(1) A structure using a movable support having a penetrating portion shown in FIG. 5 or 6 as the
movable support. (2) A structure using the flat vibrating body shown in FIGS. 7 to 9 as an inner
vibrating body, a structure having a pair of concaved vibrating bodies shown in FIGS. 10 to 12,
shown in FIGS. 13 to 15 Structure etc. using a dome-shaped vibrator.
[0041]
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Furthermore, in the configuration having two vibrators as in the speaker 500 of the second
embodiment, the interference of the vibrations by the two vibrators, that is, the reproduction or
sound collection of the high range by the inner vibrator 1 is a second vibration. In order to
prevent the body 71 from interfering with each other, a low pass filter mechanism is provided
between the actuator 2 and the second vibrating body 71 to suppress the second vibrating body
71 from reproducing or collecting sound in the high frequency range. You can also. The low pass
filter mechanism can be configured, for example, by making the elastic modulus of the small
diameter end 71 b of the second vibrating member 71 smaller than that of the inner vibrating
member 1.
[0042]
Specifically, a plurality of round openings 81 are formed in the small diameter end 71 b of the
second vibrating member 71 as in the loudspeaker (electro-acoustic transducer) 600 according
to the third embodiment shown in FIGS. 20 and 21. Thus, the elastic modulus of the second
vibrating body 71 can be reduced. In this case, when the movable support 11 is superimposed on
the second vibrating member 71, the opening 81 is formed so as to penetrate into the region
surrounded by the movable support 11, and the periphery of the small diameter end 71b is
formed. A plurality of intervals are arranged at appropriate intervals. The opening 81 is not
limited to a round hole as shown in FIG. It may be a slot, a slot, or a spiral opening. The number
of openings 81 may also be one instead of a plurality. Further, instead of the opening 81, a thinwalled portion may be formed, or a fold-shaped (bellows-shaped) fold may be used.
[0043]
Further, in the speaker 600 of the third embodiment, a damping member 83 of a thin film made
of a resin film, a rubber film or the like is attached to the surface of the second vibrating body 71
so as to close the opening 81. The braking member 83 is formed in a band shape, and as shown
in FIG. 21, is attached to the second vibrating body 71 along the circumferential direction at the
small diameter end portion 71b.
[0044]
In the speaker 600 according to the third embodiment configured as described above, the
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opening 81 is formed on the side of the small diameter end 71 b of the second vibrating member
71, whereby the hardness (stiffness) of the small diameter end 71 b is obtained. Of the opening
81 is set small. Therefore, when the frequency of vibration of the voice coil 20 of the actuator 2
is low, the whole of the second vibrating body 71 vibrates integrally with the voice coil 20, but
when the frequency becomes high, the second vibrating body 71 is moved to the upper part. As a
result of the transmission of the vibration being suppressed in the formation region of the
opening 81 at the small diameter side end 71b, the vibration of the upper portion of the second
vibrating body 71 is suppressed. That is, the opening 81 formed in the small diameter side end
71 b of the second vibrating body 71 is a low pass for the vibration transmitted between the
upper vibration surface of the second vibrating body 71 and the voice coil 20 of the actuator 2 It
constitutes a filter mechanism that functions as a filter. For this reason, it is possible to suppress
the vibration of the second vibrating member 71 in the high tone range, and to prevent the
second vibrating member 71 from buffering the reproduction of the high tone range by the inner
vibrating member 1.
[0045]
In this case, the cutoff frequency of the mechanical low-pass filter can be adjusted by
appropriately setting the number, size, shape, arrangement and the like of the openings 81.
Further, since the braking member 83 is attached to the opening 81, the quality factor (quality
factor) of resonance as a mechanical low-pass filter is set by appropriately selecting the material,
thickness and the like of the braking member 83. be able to. As described above, the frequency
characteristics of the mechanical low pass filter can be optimally set by the configuration of the
opening 81 and the damping member 83, so that an electroacoustic transducer with desired
acoustic characteristics can be obtained.
[0046]
In addition, this invention is not limited to the said embodiment, It is possible to add a various
change in the range which does not deviate from the meaning of this invention. For example, in
each embodiment, the movable support is formed in a conical cylindrical shape, but an elliptical
cone shape, a pyramid shape, or the like is also applicable, and a round shape, a square shape, or
a square shape combined with a square shape in front view It may be a shape, and it may be
formed in a cone shape as a whole. In addition, a reinforcing rib or block may be fixed to the
back surface of the vibrating body. In the vibrator shown in FIGS. 1 to 4, it is possible to provide
a plate-like or rod-like rib on the convex surface along the circumferential direction. As described
above, since this speaker uses the convex surface as the radiation surface of the reproduced
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sound, the directivity in the direction along the circumferential direction of the convex surface is
wide, but has a characteristic that it is narrow in the direction orthogonal to this Therefore, even
if a plate-like or rod-like rib is provided along the circumferential direction on the convex
radiation surface, the acoustic influence is small.
[0047]
Furthermore, although a voice coil motor is applied as a conversion unit for reciprocatingly
driving the vibrator, a piezoelectric element or the like may be used instead of the voice coil
motor. Further, although the present invention is applied to the speaker in any of the above
embodiments, it is also possible to apply the present invention to a microphone. When the
present invention is applied to a speaker, a conversion unit such as a voice coil motor converts
an electrical signal based on an audio signal into vibration of a vibrating body. However, also
when the present invention is applied to a microphone, a voice coil as a conversion unit A motor
or the like can be used, and the conversion unit in that case converts the vibration of the
vibrating body that vibrates upon receiving the sound wave into an electrical signal. The
vibrating body of the microphone can also support vibrating bodies of various shapes such as
those shown in FIGS. 1 to 4 and those shown in FIGS. 7 to 19, and the movable support can also
be shown in FIG. 5 or FIG. The shape shown in 6 may be used. In the case of the vibrating body
shown in FIGS. 1 to 4, the convex surface is a vibrating surface, and by vibrating the whole
vibrating body uniformly, the directivity becomes good while maintaining the sensitivity, and
from the low frequency range Sound can be collected with a wide directivity over a wide
frequency band up to the high sound range, and the directivity can be controlled in any direction.
[0048]
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 ... Vibrator, 1a ... Outer peripheral part, 2 ... Actuator (conversion
part), 3 ... Frame, 4 ... Edge part, 5 ... Convex, 6 ... Valley part, 7 ... Wing-like part, 8 ... Cone part,
11 ... Movable support, 11a: large diameter end, 11b: small diameter end, 13: joint, 20: voice coil,
21: magnet mechanism, 22: damper, 23: magnet, 24: outer yoke, 25: inner Yoke, 25a: pole
portion, 26: magnetic gap, 30: flange portion, 31: arm portion, 32: annular frame portion, 33:
terminal, 41: movable support, 41a: large diameter side end, 41b: small diameter side End
portion 41c Linkage portion 41d Hole portion 45 Movable support 45a Large diameter side end
portion 45b Small diameter side end portion 45c Hole portion 51 Vibrator 51a Peripheral edge
portion 55: vibrator, 55a: outer peripheral edge, 56: wing-like portion, 57: cone portion 58:
concave surface, 61: vibrator, 61a: outer peripheral edge, 62: convex surface, 71: second
vibrator, 71a: large diameter end, 71b: small diameter end, 81: opening, 83: braking Element
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