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JP2009244268

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This translation is machine-generated. It cannot be guaranteed that it is intelligible, accurate,
complete, reliable or fit for specific purposes. Critical decisions, such as commercially relevant or
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DESCRIPTION JP2009244268
A position location system for use in connection with computing applications is provided. A
position detection system for use in connection with computing applications, comprising: a first
emitter for emitting a substantially continuous ultrasonic waveform decodable to determine said
position. A position element for acquiring the position, and detecting the waveform in a manner
that enables the determination of the position, and detecting for outputting the waveform for
operation in a manner that retains the position determination capability System with an array of
[Selected figure] Figure 1A
Method and system for obtaining positioning data
[0001]
The present invention relates to methods and systems for obtaining two-dimensional or threedimensional coordinate data in space, and more particularly, but not exclusively, to position
elements and supporting hardware and software for obtaining such coordinate information. . In
general, one device can usually determine the position of another device relative to itself.
[0002]
Small space positioning, ie the field of positioning in spaces of a few meters or less, comprises a
large number of fields, mainly including computer interaction, robotics and pointing devices for
machine control, but toys, inventory control and other Also includes the field. Specific
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applications may require a 2D solution, others may require a 3D solution. Again, certain
applications, such as pointing devices, may require only one-way communication, for example,
robotics may require two-way communication.
[0003]
1) Pointing Device Digital Pen: A digital pen is a pointing device used for electronic detection of
handwriting or hand drawing, or for general pointing. Digital pens generally use technologies
such as sound, IR, and light. Other versions use accelerometers to detect acceleration and
transfer data to the base station. Another version is a camera that analyzes small pointing codes
on special paper to determine their position. Other pens use electromagnetism (including passive
and active), and other techniques for their operation. Some of the digital pens are autonomous
devices. That is, the pen operates independently to provide its own fully processed coordinates as
an output. It is typical of devices based on optical and digital cameras. Other particularly acoustic
and electromagnetic devices require a receiving or sensing device.
[0004]
Digital pens are widely used in PCs, laptops, PDAs, cell phones, e-books, and the like.
[0005]
Interactive Whiteboard: An interactive whiteboard is a whiteboard that brings written data from
the board to the associated computer.
One of the common techniques in this area is acoustic positioning. That is, a marker is placed in
the sleeve transmitting the beacon signal, and it is picked up and analyzed by a dedicated device
also placed near the whiteboard. In some cases, IR or electromagnetic signals are transmitted
along with acoustic beacons for better accuracy and simplicity. Another common technology is
electromagnetism. That is, the marker sleeve described above sends an electromagnetic field,
which is picked up by a dedicated loop on the back of the whiteboard.
[0006]
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Resistance techniques are also used. In such a case, the surface of the whiteboard is coated with
a resistive material. Pressure is applied to the coating and the pressure causes local changes in
the board's resistive properties. From the change, the controller can obtain the x, y coordinates
from the applied pressure.
[0007]
Capacitive techniques similar to resistors can also be used. Again, pressure is used, in turn, to
change the capacitive characteristics of the board. The controller can then obtain x, y
coordinates.
[0008]
Touch Screen: Touch screens generally include sensors embedded in or near the computer screen
to receive input from the screen. Some techniques involve coating a screen with a special
material that can sense physical contact, which is either resistive, capacitive, and a SAW material.
Another technique involves embedding a sensor around the screen. Sensors can be IR, acoustic,
SAW, and others.
[0009]
3D Mouse: The 3D mouse uses electromagnetic or ultrasonic positioning technology to indicate
the position in 3D space to the monitoring device. Cordless mice in use today use Bluetooth® and
similar wireless and IR transmitters for wireless connectivity. Wireless or IR only addresses
wireless connectivity, ie, the problem of signaling. Positioning generally involves a mobile tracker
within the mouse itself, which can be based on optics. Simple movement tracking provides a 2D
solution. The 3D solution can be generated, for example, using any of the following. 1) Sound:
The mouse emits ultrasound and IR pulses, which are received by the desktop receiver.
Triangulation can be performed by measuring the time of flight. 2) IR sensor: The mouse emits
an IR pulse, the angle of which is measured by the desktop receiver. Several angle sensors allow
three-dimensional triangulation, thus obtaining a special position.
[0010]
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PC Tablets and Stylus: PC tablets use a digital pen or stylus. The stylus enables interactions,
including direct writing on graphic tablets, pc tablets, pc screens, pda screens, cell phone screens,
and any other computer writable surface, screen, or tablet. The available solutions work with
passive or active electromagnetic or acoustic technology.
[0011]
Disadvantages The available technical solutions have the following disadvantages. It should be
noted that these drawbacks also apply to the applications described below.
[0012]
All of the above mentioned solutions require considerable computational power and
amplification and digitization circuitry. They do not make use of the main computer's available
resources, instead they use their own hardware to perform their own calculations and provide
the computer with processed position data. Dedicated hardware is expensive and complex, and is
a waste of resources especially given the computing power of the main computer is available.
[0013]
The above-described techniques all require a sensor on the positioning plane except for the
sound. The electromagnetic solution requires an antenna loop at the back of the board, the
camera pen requires a dedicated digital paper, and the touch screen requires a special coating.
The need for sensors adds to the cost of the final product, and also imposes unnatural constraints
on use, as the user can not use any plane as a work surface like a miscellaneous desk surface.
[0014]
The complex circuitry and sensors of these solutions require dedicated space. It is not possible to
integrate the solution into small hand-held devices, such as PDAs, cell phones etc, which are not
specifically designed for them. This problem is also pronounced with laptops and other mobile
products, which are compact and allow for a well-designed installation that is fixed but not freely
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provided for any device.
[0015]
The installation of hardware components in a PC is cumbersome and not always reliable. When
adding new features, it is much easier to use already installed components, such as existing
sound systems.
[0016]
There is no cross platform solution currently available. Touch screen positioning solutions are
different from digital pen solutions for the mobile phone market etc.
[0017]
Integrating available solutions into existing products is often ineffective because of the size and
complexity of the project.
[0018]
In fact, all available solutions require redesign of the final product.
There are no current solutions that can be treated as add-ins and require only software changes.
[0019]
Support for multiple user applications is difficult and is currently only available when Bluetooth
is the communication medium. Nevertheless, Bluetooth® is limited to eight simultaneous users.
[0020]
Many of the available solutions require significant power supplies.
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[0021]
Some techniques are limited to two dimensional positions.
However, even if it can handle three dimensions, it does not currently provide accurate three
dimensional information. For example, a stylus based on electromagnetic detection can detect
when hovering on the screen, but can not accurately indicate its height. The detector simply finds
out that it exists.
[0022]
There are other drawbacks specific to some technologies. For example, IR positioning does not
work well in direct sunlight. Existing acoustic solutions have serious limitations in acoustically
noisy environments, especially in all important industrial environments where ultrasound noise is
most common.
[0023]
Solutions that use wireless protocols such as Bluetooth may be immune to protocol collisions and
interference with other wireless devices such as WLAN devices.
[0024]
Touch screen solutions are, of course, essentially two dimensional.
[0025]
2) Robotics and Machine Control Robotics and machine control are areas where the use of
position sensors is inherent in the control of moving elements.
[0026]
Industrial Robots A mechanical arm can perform sophisticated assembly operations in three
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dimensional space.
A PCB assembly machine implements the placement of electronic components on a twodimensional printed circuit board.
CNC machines perform cutting and drilling operations that require high position resolution.
Automatic assembly lines use an automatic drilling machine that drills into the body of an
automobile using high spatial accuracy.
[0027]
Fax and Printers Fax and printer machines have high precision position sensors for scanning,
printing, paper orientation etc.
[0028]
Free Mobile Robots In recent years, some new robotics products have come to the prototype
stage and beyond.
Robotics products include free mobile robots for various applications. Applications include lawn
mowers with cameras and remote controls, many others, pool cleaners, spies, and bomb handling
robots. Such robots generally move around in their environment, using their own sensing with
pre-programming.
[0029]
There is an autonomous vacuum cleaner as a possible new application. One or more vacuum
cleaners can be automatically moved around the premises, sucking in debris and transferring the
debris to a fixed location or roaming device. The cleaned device can autonomously locate the
receiving device that delivers the waste and can dock with it to deliver the waste.
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[0030]
The sensors used in robotics applications described above use the following techniques. 1)
Optical encoder: These sensors include an enclosed rotating wheel with a small hole around the
wheel. LEDs and photosensors are attached to either side of the wheel. As the wheel rotates (by
movement of the robot), the photosensor receives a series of light pulses. The light pulses encode
the exact angle of the wheel, thus revealing the position of the moving arm. These sensors are
also available as linear sensors, which means that the sensors are not rotational systems, but
rather embedded in a straight line. 2) Potentiometer: These sensors are mounted in parallel with
the moving object. The sensor changes its resistance as a function of its position. 3) LVDT: These
are magnetic sensors that include two parts: an iron core and a magnetic cylinder. As the core
moves inside the cylinder, the magnetic properties of the cylinder change as a function of
position. 4) As one skilled in the art will appreciate, there are other techniques that are less used.
[0031]
The techniques described above in connection with robotics here are all relatively large. They all
have to be attached in some way to the mobile part of the robot, and there is no wireless solution
that makes it possible to attach the sensor to the tip of the mobile arm / robot etc. As always,
accuracy is costly and high precision equipment is expensive. Sensors with high accuracy over
distances of several meters can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars, which is not economically
viable for many of the possible applications of robots.
[0032]
3) Toy It is relatively rare for one unit to have a toy that can know the position of the second unit
because of its high cost.
[0033]
In a very basic example, one toy notices that another toy is nearby, stimulates a response, for
example speaks.
In more sophisticated cases, one toy roughly knows the location of another toy.
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[0034]
In the future, it is expected to provide a more advanced example in which one unit can safely
pass an object to the next unit, or conversely, can receive an object next unit. Furthermore, in the
future, it is expected that toys will run around while 22 soccer robots hand over each other. The
robot calculates where to kick according to the position of the other robot of the same team or
the opposing team. Providing computing and control capabilities to each of the twenty robots to
play a football competition produces a very expensive and complex solution.
[0035]
In general, toy technology must be provided at low cost, and current technology is relatively
expensive. Each particular technology has its drawbacks. Infrared sensor-IR can be used to
indicate the presence of a second object in the vicinity. At a high level, general directions can be
shown. Accelerometers-The disadvantages of accelerometers are described above in the pointing
device section. Acoustics-Acoustic devices are relatively expensive. Only a single unit can be used
in the same environment, the use of energy is relatively high, and it is difficult to miniaturize the
device.
[0036]
Therefore, the need for a positioning system that does not have the above limitations is widely
recognized, and having it is extremely advantageous.
[0037]
In one aspect of the invention, a position detection system for use in connection with a
computing application, comprising: a first emission for emitting a substantially continuous
ultrasonic waveform decodable to determine position. A position element for acquiring position,
and a detector for detecting the waveform in a manner which allows the determination of the
position and for outputting the waveform for operation in a manner which holds the position
determination capability Provide a system with an array and
[0038]
The detector arrangement is preferably operable to emit a decodable waveform to determine
position so that the waveform can be decoded at a low sampling rate.
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[0039]
Preferably the waveform is periodic.
[0040]
Preferably, the output comprises providing a low sampling rate decodable waveform to at least
one analog input of the computing device for operation.
[0041]
Preferably, the output comprises providing a waveform to at least two analog inputs of the
computing device.
[0042]
The preferred embodiment comprises a plurality of positional elements, and the detector
arrangement is configured to provide each waveform as a separate channel for output.
[0043]
Preferred embodiments comprise multiple detector arrangements to achieve higher detection
accuracy.
[0044]
The separate channels are preferably time or frequency multiplexed.
[0045]
Preferably, each positional element further comprises a modulator for modulating the continuous
wave.
[0046]
Preferably the modulator is a frequency modulator.
[0047]
Each location element preferably comprises a frequency hopping sequence to allow simultaneous
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use of multiple location elements.
[0048]
Preferably, each frequency hopping sequence is a different pseudorandom sequence.
[0049]
Preferably the modulator is an amplitude modulator.
[0050]
The modulator is preferably operable to modulate data added to the position data into a
waveform.
[0051]
Preferably each location element comprises a unique identifier.
[0052]
Preferably, the continuous wave is modulated.
[0053]
The continuous wave is preferably modulated using a spread spectrum.
[0054]
The continuous wave is preferably modulated using time division modulation.
[0055]
Preferably the location element comprises a biometric sensor.
[0056]
The detector arrangement preferably comprises a plurality of receivers in order to achieve multidimensional detection of position.
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[0057]
The output includes providing a low sampling rate decodable waveform to the analog input of
the computing device for operation and further multiplexing the signal of the waveform from
each of the plurality of receivers to the analog input Preferably it can be done.
[0058]
The preferred embodiment demultiplexes the signal received at the analog input utilizing the
demultiplexing capabilities of the computing device.
[0059]
The position element further comprises a second emitter for radiating a signal which is added to
the continuous waveform and has a different velocity, whereby the position element from the
time delay between the continuous waveform and the additional signal It is preferred to obtain
data indicative of the distance between and the detectors of the detector arrangement.
[0060]
Preferably the additional signal is a speed of light signal.
[0061]
The light speed signal is preferably an infrared signal.
[0062]
The output preferably comprises providing a waveform to the analog input of the computing
device.
[0063]
Preferably the analog input is an input to an analog to digital converter.
[0064]
Preferably the analog to digital converter is part of a sound card.
[0065]
The analog input is preferably at least one of a microphone input, a line in input, and a modem
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input.
[0066]
The detector arrangement is preferably configured to be powered from the computing device via
an analog input.
[0067]
Preferably, the method of maintaining the position determining ability comprises maintaining the
ability over low frequency sampling.
[0068]
The low frequency sampling preferably comprises a rate compatible with Nyquist sampling of the
sound signal.
[0069]
Preferably the rate is less than 50 KHz.
[0070]
Preferably, the rate is substantially 44 KHz.
[0071]
In an alternative embodiment, the rate is substantially 6 KHz.
This low rate is appropriate for the low sampling rates available at the A / D input of devices
such as mobile phones.
[0072]
Preferably, the system further comprises a decoding device for performing operations to decode
the waveform and indicate the position.
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[0073]
The decoding device preferably comprises a maximum likelihood detector for performing
decoding by finding the maximum likelihood distance.
[0074]
Preferably, the maximum likelihood detector comprises a channel model for modeling the path of
the waveform from the location element to the waveform decoding device, thereby providing a
reference signal for identifying the maximum likelihood distance against it.
[0075]
Preferably, the maximum likelihood detector is followed by a correlator for identifying the
maximum likelihood distance.
[0076]
The preferred embodiment comprises a synchronization device for synchronizing the detector
arrangement and the position element.
[0077]
Preferably, the synchronization device is operable to perform synchronization using at least one
of IR and RF signaling.
[0078]
The synchronization device is preferably operable to monitor the out-of-sync and thereby reduce
the frequency at which repetitive synchronization is performed.
[0079]
The synchronization is preferably performed with the local oscillator in the position element.
[0080]
Preferably, the synchronization device is further operable to apply a synchronization signal to the
waveform, thereby synchronizing with the host device.
[0081]
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The location element is preferably wired to the detector array.
[0082]
The location element preferably comprises a digital decoder for decoding digital data into a
continuous waveform.
[0083]
The waveform decoding device is preferably provided as a client program for installation in the
computing device.
[0084]
The waveform decoding device is preferably provided as a client program for installation in the
operating system of the computing device.
[0085]
The waveform decoder is preferably integrated with the detector array.
[0086]
Preferably, the location element further comprises a pressure sensor to provide data of the
pressure acting on the location element.
[0087]
Preferably, the positional element further comprises an attitude detector to provide data of the
attitude that the positional element is maintaining.
[0088]
Preferably, the position element further comprises: a pressure sensor providing data of pressure
acting on the position element; and an attitude detector providing data of attitude held by the
position element.
[0089]
Preferably, the attitude detector comprises two separate waveform transmitters for position
detection, spaced apart by a predetermined distance on the position element.
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[0090]
The preferred embodiment can be used to extract the triplets of movement, pressure and attitude
vectors from the user of the position element.
[0091]
The preferred embodiment comprises electronic signature functionality provided in the location
element.
[0092]
The preferred embodiment comprises biometric signature functionality provided in the location
element.
[0093]
Preferably, the location element further comprises a receiver for receiving control data.
[0094]
The preferred embodiment comprises the functionality of relaying location data to other
elements.
[0095]
In one embodiment, the detector arrangement is associated with a mobile telephone device,
thereby providing telephone device write input capability.
[0096]
One embodiment comprises an application for using the write input as a dial input for a
telephone device.
[0097]
One embodiment comprises a position calculation application and a handwriting-to-text
conversion application to provide a handwriting-to-digital interface.
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[0098]
The above embodiments additionally comprise a text-to-speech application and / or a language
translation application, whereby reading or translation can be achieved from handwriting input.
[0099]
Another embodiment comprises the electronic signature functionality provided in the location
element and the verification functionality for verifying the triplets of the extracted user
signature, the system by the user signature verification functionality It is operable to enable
electronic signature functionality with verification.
The embodiment is useful for signature verification, and can be provided with POS devices and
the like that require signature verification.
[0100]
One embodiment of the location element is a personal locator for attachment to an individual or
an item locator for identification of the position of the item in space.
[0101]
It is preferable to further provide an application for calculating the position and issuing a control
signal in response to the position.
[0102]
The control signals include a signal instructing the focus of the stereo sound system, a signal
instructing the camera, a signal instructing an incoming call, a signal instructing the robot, a
signal instructing the mechanical equipment, and a signal instructing a predetermined sequence.
Preferably, it is at least one of a signal instructing assembly sequence and a signal instructing
repair sequence.
[0103]
The preferred embodiment comprises a plurality of units each comprising one of the position
elements and one of the detector arrangements, each unit being operable to locate all adjacent
units, whereby the units Achieve a chain configuration of
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[0104]
Preferably, each unit in the chained configuration embodiment comprises a unique identifier.
The embodiment is useful to keep track of teams, and two-way communication within the unit
enables the intercom system with tracking.
[0105]
In one embodiment, the location element is part of a virtual reality game accessory, such as a
glove or gun or similar.
[0106]
In a second aspect of the present invention, a position detection method for use in connection
with a computing device having an analog input, the steps of: acquiring a position using a
position element; and decoding to determine the position. Emitting a possible substantially
continuous ultrasound waveform, detecting the waveform in a manner that allows the
determination of the position, and outputting the waveform in a manner that retains the ability to
determine the position, whereby to the computing device Providing the indication of the position.
[0107]
The outputting step preferably includes outputting the waveform as an analog signal.
[0108]
The method can include the step of decoding the waveform at the computing device to extract
location data.
[0109]
According to a third aspect of the present invention, there is provided a positional element for
acquiring a position, the positional element comprising an ultrasonic continuous waveform
emitter for emitting an ultrasonic continuous waveform decodable to determine the position. A
position of a computing device, comprising: a detector array for detecting a waveform in a
manner which allows the determination of a position; and a signal decoder for receiving the
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waveform from the array and decoding the position obtained from the waveform Provide a
detection system.
[0110]
The detector arrangement and the signal decoder are preferably connected via an analog link.
[0111]
The location element is preferably operable to emit a decodable waveform to determine position
so that the waveform can be decoded at a low sampling rate.
[0112]
Preferably the waveform is a substantially continuous waveform.
[0113]
Preferably, the detector arrangement comprises a plurality of signal detectors arranged at
different positions, each separately detecting a waveform, thereby achieving the determination of
position as difference information between the detected signals.
[0114]
The signal decoder preferably comprises at least one reference signal formed using a model of
the system, and a maximum likelihood detector for determining the maximum likelihood position
based on the reference signal.
[0115]
The decoder preferably further comprises a correlator for identifying the most likely position
using a correlation function.
[0116]
Preferably, the location elements are operable to emit a combination of signals having different
velocities so as to allow the receiver to calculate their distance from the time delay between
them.
[0117]
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Preferably the combination comprises a speed of light signal and a speed of sound signal.
[0118]
The light speed signal is preferably an infrared signal.
[0119]
The sound velocity signal is preferably an ultrasonic signal.
[0120]
Preferably, the manner of maintaining the position determination ability comprises maintaining
the ability over low frequency sampling.
[0121]
The low frequency sampling preferably comprises a rate compatible with Nyquist sampling of the
sound signal.
[0122]
Preferably the rate is less than 50 KHz.
[0123]
Preferably, the rate is substantially 44 KHz.
[0124]
In an alternative embodiment, the rate is substantially 6 KHz.
[0125]
Preferably, the location element further comprises a pressure sensor to provide data of the
pressure acting on the location element.
[0126]
Preferably, the positional element further comprises an attitude detector to provide data of the
attitude that the positional element is maintaining.
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[0127]
In a preferred embodiment, the position element further comprises: a pressure sensor providing
data of pressure acting on the position element; and an attitude detector providing data of
attitude held by the position element.
[0128]
The above embodiments can be used to extract the triplets of movement, pressure, and attitude
vectors from the user of the position element.
[0129]
The above embodiments can include electronic signature functionality provided on the location
element.
[0130]
The preferred embodiment comprises: electronic signature functionality provided in the location
element and verification functionality for verifying the triplets of the extracted user signature,
the system verifying the user signature with verification functionality Is operable to allow for
electronic signature functionality.
[0131]
According to a fourth aspect of the present invention, there is provided a position acquisition
system comprising: a first radiator and a second radiator separated by a predetermined distance,
each for emitting a decodable waveform to determine the position. And a detector arrangement
for detecting the waveform in a manner which enables the determination of the position and the
determination of the attitude of the position element, the operation further in a manner which
retains the position determination capability And a detector arrangement operable to output the
waveform for use in conjunction with a computing application.
[0132]
Preferably, the location element further comprises a pressure sensor to provide data of the
pressure acting on the location element.
[0133]
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The waveform is preferably one of an IR waveform, an RF waveform, an acoustic waveform, and a
continuous acoustic waveform.
[0134]
The output step is preferably performed in a manner suitable to supply the analog input of the
computing device.
[0135]
In one embodiment, the detector arrangement is an arrangement of orthogonal loops.
Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as
commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this invention belongs.
The materials, methods, and examples provided herein are illustrative only and not intended to
be limiting.
[0136]
Implementation of the method and system of the present invention involves performing or
completing selected tasks or steps manually, automatically, or a combination thereof.
Furthermore, depending on the actual instrumentation and equipment of the preferred
embodiment of the method and system of the present invention, some selected steps may be by
hardware or by software on any of the operating systems of any firmware. Or it can be realized
by a combination of them.
For example, as hardware, selected steps of the present invention may be implemented as a chip
or circuit that includes a dedicated CPU.
As software, selected steps of the invention could be implemented as a plurality of software
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instructions being executed by a computer using any suitable operating system.
In any case, selected steps of the method and system of the present invention may be described
as being performed by a data processor, such as a computing platform for executing a plurality
of instructions.
The invention will now be described by way of example only with reference to the accompanying
drawings.
Referring now specifically to the details of the drawings, the details shown are by way of
illustration and for purposes of illustration and discussion of the preferred embodiments of the
present invention, and are intended to illustrate most of the principles and conceptual aspects of
the invention. It is emphasized that it is presented to provide what is believed to be a useful and
easily understood explanation.
In this connection, without attempting to show the structural details of the invention in greater
detail than is necessary for a basic understanding of the invention, the description in connection
with the drawings illustrates several aspects of the invention. It will be apparent to those skilled
in the art whether it can be realized in practice.
[0137]
1 is a simplified schematic diagram illustrating a position detection system according to a first
preferred embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 7 is a simplified schematic diagram illustrating an alternative location system configured to
decode the signal at a base station and to process the processed data to the relevant computing
device.
FIG. 7 is a simplified schematic diagram illustrating an alternative location system where
decoding of signals is performed at a base station and the base station is configured to be a
stand-alone device.
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2 is a simplified block diagram of a preferred embodiment of the pointing device of the system of
FIG.
Figure 2 is a simplified block diagram of a preferred embodiment of the base station of Figure 1;
FIG. 3B is a variation of the base station of FIG. 3A used as a stand-alone device, i.e. not relying
on the computing device to perform detailed calculations.
FIG. 2 is a simplified block diagram of a mathematical model of the system of FIG. 1 used to form
a reference signal for maximum likelihood detection.
Fig. 6 is a graph showing the correlation function used by the correlator to verify the detected
position.
FIG. 2 is a simplified block diagram of a preferred embodiment of a signal decoder for the system
of FIG. 1;
Figure 2 is a simplified block diagram of a second preferred embodiment of the pointing device
of the system of Figure 1;
FIG. 6 is a simplified block diagram of a third preferred embodiment of the pointing device of the
system of FIG. 1 with a direction sensor.
FIG. 6 is a simplified block diagram illustrating a further preferred embodiment of the position
element of FIG. 1 adapted for attitude detection.
FIG. 7 is a simplified diagram illustrating the application of an embodiment of the present
invention to multiple users of a conference room environment.
FIG. 7 is a simplified diagram illustrating the application of an embodiment of the present
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invention to a screen interactive board game.
FIG. 7 is a simplified diagram illustrating the application of an embodiment of the present
invention to a free standing robot game.
FIG. 5 is a simplified diagram illustrating the application of an embodiment of the present
invention to an inventory tracking system.
FIG. 1 is a simplified diagram illustrating the application of an embodiment of the present
invention to a robotic manufacturing system.
[0138]
Embodiments of the invention are configured to be able to use continuous wave ultrasound
signals and / or their inputs to be multiplexed into convenient analog inputs of the computing
device that you want to interact with. Disclosed is a system for determining the position of a
positional element using a detector with a receiver.
The computing device uses its own resources to demultiplex the signal and determine the
position of the pointing device.
In one embodiment, the signal is a synchronous combination of ultrasound and infrared signals.
[0139]
In further embodiments, the detector can be a stand-alone device capable of processing the
continuous wave output independently.
[0140]
Another aspect of the presently disclosed embodiment relates to the ability to decode the signal
using low processing power to perform position detection.
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[0141]
The principles and operation of the pointing device and system according to the present
invention may be better understood with reference to the drawings and the accompanying
description.
[0142]
Before describing in detail at least one embodiment of the present invention, it is to be
understood that the present invention is not limited in its application to the details of
construction and arrangement of components set forth in the following description or illustrated
in the drawings. It is.
The invention is capable of other embodiments or of being practiced or carried out in various
ways.
Also, it is to be understood that the phraseology and terminology used herein is for the purpose
of description and should not be regarded as limiting.
[0143]
Referring now to the drawings, FIG. 1A shows a position detection system that operates in
accordance with a first preferred embodiment of the present invention.
The system is designed for use in conjunction with a computing device 10 having any type of
standard analog input 12.
[0144]
The system comprises a position element 14 occupying the position to be detected.
The location element may be a pointing device, such as a stylus or mouse or similar, moved by
04-05-2019
26
the user to interact with the computing device 10, or the need to determine a piece or position
for part of a robot or game It can be any other kind of device.
The movement of the positional element 14 is tracked, and the computer can utilize the
movement or position of the element as input to any current application that can utilize the
input.
Generally, a mouse or similar device is prone to movement tracking while a stylus is prone to
position tracking.
Robots and game pieces can be either position or motion tracking depending on the application.
In either case, the location element simultaneously acquires location and emits a signal that can
be decoded to determine location.
If the location element moves along a trajectory as shown by the dotted curve 16, a suitable
application can draw the corresponding curve 18 on the computer screen.
Similarly, you can write directly on the screen using position elements.
[0145]
The system further includes a detector arrangement or base station 20 that detects the signals
emitted by the positioning element 14 in a manner that allows position determination.
That is, the signal is designed to include sufficient information to allow signal processing to
define the position of the position element.
[0146]
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27
The signal is preferably detected by two or three separate detectors 22 spaced apart.
The number of detectors 22 is preferably selected in accordance with the required number of
coordinates, that is, the number of dimensions in which the movement of the pointer is to be
tracked.
The base station preferably does not itself use the signals to calculate the coordinates of the
pointing device, but rather multiplexes the signals into a single channel.
The channel is then sent to the analog input 12 of the computing device.
The computing device simply demultiplexes the signal received at its analog input, performs
triangulation or the like, and assigns coordinates to the pointing device.
In a preferred embodiment, each detector picks up the same signal from the pointing device.
However, because the detectors are at different positions, a phase difference or a time delay or
the like is induced, so the position can be calculated from the difference between the detected
signals.
[0147]
There are many ways to provide a signal that enables position detection or to induce the
differences described above.
A preferred option is for the pointing device 14 to emit a combination of signals having different
speeds.
The receiver can then calculate the distance to the receiver using the difference in arrival times
of the two signals.
04-05-2019
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It becomes possible to calculate a two-dimensional position from a comparison of such distances
between two receivers, and a three-dimensional position from a comparison between three
receivers.
[0148]
The pointing device 14 preferably uses a combination of a speed of light signal, such as an
infrared signal, and a speed of sound signal, such as an ultrasound signal.
The distance to each receiver can then be calculated from the difference in arrival times of the
two signals.
Because the arrival of the infrared signal is virtually instantaneous, the base station 20 can be
simplified by having a single infrared sensor 24 and dedicated to sensing two or three separate
sensors 22 for ultrasound. It can be done.
[0149]
In one preferred embodiment, analog input 12 is any input that has access to an A / D converter.
A typical example is a microphone input to a sound card.
Another example is line in input to a sound card, and modem input can also be used.
In general, sound cards have appropriate processing capabilities for both demultiplexing and
processing of ultrasound signals, as discussed in more detail below.
When using a sound card, the microphone input is convenient as it can supply power to the base
station.
04-05-2019
29
[0150]
This embodiment includes any machine capable of digitizing analog audio signals by utilizing
analog input and on-board processing capabilities, such as PCs and larger computers, laptops and
smaller PDAs. Allows computers, cell phones, and other computing devices to have additional
positioning capabilities.
In the case of PCs and laptops, processing power is convenient, which can be digital sound
capabilities that are virtually universally available on these machines.
[0151]
It is advantageous to use the computing resources of the computing device itself to supplement
simple hardware while using small, low cost hardware for pointing devices and sensors, thereby
providing advanced Even multiple position pointing of can be done at very little cost.
[0152]
As mentioned above, in one preferred embodiment, where the various different sensors used for
position detection are microphones, light detectors, antennas and the like, and computing
devices, the standard microphone input is between them. Act as an interface for
In such an embodiment, any device with free input sampled by A / D circuitry can use the
embodiment to provide positioning capabilities without hardware changes in the device.
In typical devices, A / D sampling is performed after filtering and amplification.
[0153]
It should be appreciated that it is preferable that appropriate computing software be deployed on
the computing device to retrieve positioning data from the raw input signal.
[0154]
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30
Although the embodiment only mentioned using a microphone input, it should be understood
that any analog input is suitable.
Many PCs and laptops have more than one analog input, such as a microphone input, a line in
input, and a modem input.
Each of these analog inputs can be used as a connection to the positioning system described
herein.
However, microphone input has certain advantages over other types of analog input.
Among other things, the power of the base station can be obtained from the microphone jack, so
no separate connection for the power supply is required.
[0155]
A particular drawback to modem input is that many modems do not have the ability to transfer
raw data from the modem jack to the memory of the PC.
Instead, the data transferred from the modem is automatically processed as modem information.
[0156]
A common drawback to modem and line inputs is that the signal levels at the modem and line
inputs must be an order of magnitude higher than the signal at the microphone input.
This adds to the positioning system the need for additional complexity and circuitry.
04-05-2019
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[0157]
Referring now to FIG. 1B, it is a simplified block diagram illustrating a second preferred
embodiment of the present invention.
Parts that are the same as in the previous figure have the same reference numerals and will not
be described again except to the extent necessary to understand the figure.
The embodiment of FIG. 1B differs from that of FIG. 1A in that the decoding of the signal received
from the pointing device is performed at the base station 20.
Thus, the base station can output digital coordinate position information on the movement of the
pointing device 14.
Thus, the base station need not be connected to the analog input 12, but instead can be
connected to any suitable digital input or can be used alone.
[0158]
The positioning system of FIGS. 1A and 1B consists of the following three parts.
1.
Position element 14.
As mentioned above, the location element can be in the form of a mouse, a stylus, or a light pen,
or with a robot or part of a robot or game piece, or any other element that needs to track its
position. can do.
For example, although chess or similar electronic games use tops, they are all location elements
04-05-2019
32
according to embodiments of the present invention.
2.
An array of sensors 22 and pre-processing hardware preferably configured together in a base
station 20 connected to an analog input 12 such as a microphone jack.
In the embodiment of FIG. 1B, adding a CPU to enable complete processing of data within the
base station 20 so that actual absolute or relative coordinate information is input to the
computing device. In that case, standard digital input can be used instead.
Alternatively, the embodiment of FIG. 1B can be prepared for single use, in which case it supports
its own application and does not connect to a computer.
3.
Client software that includes an algorithm that decodes signal information data and outputs
position coordinates.
The client software may be provided to the system as a system driver, or may be incorporated
into the operating system, or may be provided as part of an application intended to use data from
the system.
[0159]
A non-exclusive list of possible applications of the system includes the following items.
Convert a standard screen to a "touch screen".
The screen itself can be a conventional screen, but the stylus has a touch sensor to indicate
04-05-2019
33
whether it is in contact with the screen and position sensing works independently of the screen.
The result is a device that looks and feels like a touch screen, but does not require the materials
and complexity that accompanies the touch screen.
It goes without saying that the same principle can be applied to the writing pad or any other kind
of surface.
The pressure sensor can be a piezoelectric crystal.
• Interactive whiteboard with sensing device attached to a standard whiteboard.
Again, the result is a board that looks and feels like a standard whiteboard but does not need to
contain any electronics or special materials.
Digital writing pads: Digital writing pads can use standard A4 or any other size paper, and a base
station located nearby detects movement and generates an electronic version of the movement of
the pen be able to.
・ゲーム。
As mentioned above, the positioning element or pointing device can be configured in the form of
a piece for a game.
Digital plates and interactive books Digital signature applications, for example, incorporating the
ability to capture unique digital signatures and use them to verify document authenticity and
other issues.
The application will be described in detail later.
04-05-2019
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Robotics application (see above) Digital pen for mobile phones / pda / pc etc Toy and game type
applications Inventory tracking application
[0160]
Preferably, the user is provided with a sensing array device or base station 20 and a pointing
device 14.
Preferably, the pointing device 14 emits an acoustic signal and an IR or electromagnetic signal,
as described in more detail below.
The emitted signal allows the array or computing device or combination thereof to calculate the
position of the pointer and to provide the calculated position to the local operating system or the
requested application.
[0161]
Principle of Operation The system is intended to interface to the analog input of a computer or
similar device.
A particularly useful analog input is a microphone input, and to interface to a standard
microphone input, consider the following issues.
1.
PCs, PDAs and cell phones generally have only one microphone input.
However, the sensing array may have two, and sometimes more, sensors and may be required to
serve a standard microphone input.
04-05-2019
35
As mentioned above, the problem of inputting signals from multiple sources into a single
microphone input can be solved relatively simply by multiplexing.
There are two preferred types of multiplexing: time division and frequency division multiplexing.
2. A typical and well-known sound card type, namely the Sound Blaster® PC input bandwidth,
does not exceed 22 KHz for most advanced models. In practice, in order to provide a system
compatible with the early model, it is preferable to design assuming 10 KHz. In PDAs and cell
phones, the input bandwidth is generally less than 3 KHz. The transmission of frequencies in the
0-10 KHz band is not practical because of the discomfort it brings to the user and because of the
poor SNR, let alone the 0-3 KHz band. In fact, most of the daily acoustic noise is present at low
frequencies contained in these bands. On the other hand, ultrasound frequencies only begin to
exceed 22 KHz, so frequency down conversion is preferred in order to use ultrasound in sound
card electronics. 3. A power supply is required for additional electronics. As mentioned above,
the microphone input can be used as a power supply. During use, the charging channel can be
multiplexed with the signaling channel to charge the base station 20. Additionally or
alternatively, kinetic energy generated by the movement of the user can be stored and kinetic
energy converted to electrical energy, thus eliminating the need for the battery or extending the
life of the battery. 4. Sampling Frequency: Most of the Sound Blaster (R) samples at rates up to
44.1 KHz, i.e. Nyquist rate, other sound cards have similar properties. PDAs and cell phones
sample at a rate of 6 KHz. Sampling rates introduce limitations to the design of the system. It
implies that the synchronization signal emitted from the pointing device is necessary to maintain
sufficient accuracy in the position data even at low sampling frequencies. Sharp microsecond
"delta" pulses commonly used by other positioning systems are not compatible with available
sampling rates. It is preferred to use a substantially continuous signal.
[0162]
The preferred embodiment includes wireless communication between the pointing device 14 and
the base station 20 connected to the microphone input of the computer. A simpler embodiment
uses wired communication and provides a cable connection between the base station and the
pointing device. The embodiment is particularly useful for "mouse" type implementations where
relative position or movement is desired, such implementation being particularly simple and cost
effective. However, wired solutions are not suitable for many applications and therefore also
wireless solutions are needed.
[0163]
04-05-2019
36
As mentioned above, several methods are known for determining the position of the pointing
device. Each of the known methods can be incorporated into embodiments of the present
invention. In particular, it is preferable to convert the sensor output into a signal that can be fed
into a standard microphone input with dedicated circuitry. A number of preferred embodiments
are described in further detail below.
[0164]
Acoustic Positioning The preferred embodiment utilizes acoustic positioning. The concept of
acoustic positioning is to measure the time difference between two signals of different speeds
reaching the sensor array. The time difference gives an indication of the distance to the source. If
two different sensors are used, triangulation can be used to determine the position of the source.
When using three properly positioned sensors, three-dimensional positions can be obtained. The
two signals are, in a preferred embodiment, an acoustic signal and an IR or other electromagnetic
signal.
[0165]
The velocity of the sound wave at the sea level is a known value. IR or other electromagnetic
signals travel at the speed of light and are treated as instantaneous when aiming at the accuracy
level of such pointing devices. Coordinated emission of IR and sound signals takes place. The
delay between the arrival of the two versions of the IR signal and the sound signal at the two
sensors is then measured. The two delays can be converted to a distance, which can be
triangulated with a known distance between the microphones to obtain two-dimensional
coordinates. A third microphone can receive a third version of the sound signal, from which a
third delay can be used to add a third coordinate. With proper placement of the microphones,
accurate three-dimensional coordinates can be obtained.
[0166]
In a further preferred embodiment, the IR sensor and the IR signal can be replaced by an
additional microphone. The result is larger calculations and less accuracy, but a simpler device is
obtained.
04-05-2019
37
[0167]
The above embodiments are relatively simple but are applicable to the hardware provided in
some existing pointing devices.
[0168]
Pointing Device Referring now to FIG. 2, it is a simplified diagram illustrating position elements
suitable for use in the acoustic positioning embodiments described above.
The positioning element 14 is in the form of a pointing device and comprises a small speaker 26
which acts as a transducer for producing sound from electrical signals. The speakers are
preferably optimized for ultrasound waveforms. In addition, an LED 28 can be provided to
transmit a second substantially instantaneous signal. Instead of LEDs, antennas can also be used
to transmit other RF signals of the appropriate frequency.
[0169]
The control logic 30 is preferably implemented by a microprocessor, and adjustments between
the speaker 26 and the LED 28 can be made to achieve a combination of signals from which
meaningful delays can be determined. Control logic can provide other control functions that may
be necessary.
[0170]
A battery 32 provides power for the pointing device 14. In an alternative embodiment, the
battery can be replaced by an inductive coil powered by induction from the base station. Such an
alternative eliminates the need for battery replacement of the pointing device, but limits range
and adds complexity to the base station.
[0171]
04-05-2019
38
A switch 34 may optionally be provided. The switch can be provided for any of a number of
functions, or it can simply provide the signal whose purpose is determined by the operating
system or the application to which the signal is ultimately provided. For example, a switch can be
used to change the color of a line drawn on a computer screen, or in place of a mouse click, or
for launch in a game, or to indicate contact with a screen surface. In the latter case, the switch
can be designed to close by physical contact with the screen.
[0172]
Base Station Hardware and Software Referring now to FIG. 3A, it is a simplified diagram showing
the internal components of a base station suitable for use with the pointing device of FIG. The
base station preferably comprises an array of at least two microphones 36 and 38 to pick up the
signal from the speaker 26. It will be appreciated that the microphone acts as a transducer that
returns sound to an electrical signal. In addition, the IR photodiode 40 detects the IR signal from
the LED 28. In a variant, as mentioned above, the IR photodiode can be replaced by an antenna.
[0173]
Preferably, each of the sensors 36, 38 and 40 is provided with a preamplifier and filtering
circuitry 42. Time or frequency multiplexing functionality 44 allows signals to be multiplexed
into a single channel. The frequency downconversion and mixer functionality 45 allows down
converting the received signal to a frequency compatible with the analog input used.
[0174]
A microprocessor 46 or other control logic is used to control and coordinate the base station.
The synchronization data enables the microprocessor to synchronize the signaling components.
[0175]
A cable and jack 48 is provided to connect to the microphone socket of the computing device or
any other input having an A / D converter. Data to the analog input is preferably buffered and
filtered by buffer and filter circuitry 49. Buffering may differ depending on whether it uses a
04-05-2019
39
microphone socket or some other input.
[0176]
The power supply circuitry 50 allows the microphone jacket to be used simultaneously as a
power source for the base station and for data output.
[0177]
When using the host CPU to decode positioning data transferred from an analog input, there are
inherent synchronization issues.
The clock of the location element, which is a pointing device or a wireless terminal, is not
synchronized with the base station, and then the base station is not synchronized with the A / D
converter of the host device. Synchronization of the wireless terminal and the base station can be
achieved by IR or RF signals as described herein. Furthermore, synchronization with the host's
time base downstream of the line is often not possible. Even at relatively high sampling rates,
such as 50 KHz, the deviation between the IR synchronization signal and the A / D sample can be
on the order of 20 microseconds. It corresponds to a few centimeters at the place to be
measured. Such inaccuracies are not suitable for many applications. Furthermore, even if good
synchronization is achieved in certain cases, the clocks of the two systems, host and base station,
tend to drift over time due to the limited accuracy of existing crystal technology .
[0178]
To overcome the host synchronization problem described above, the base station preferably uses
a particular timer or frequency slot to transmit a synchronization pattern that is the Nyquistrate
of the host A / D converter to the host. The host can use the pattern to determine the phase
difference between its own clock and the positioning time base clock.
[0179]
The synchronization pattern can be sent at regular intervals sufficient to compensate for clock
drift, and there is no need to send such a signal every loop cycle.
04-05-2019
40
[0180]
In a further preferred embodiment, the base station circuitry commands the location element,
regardless of whether it is acoustic, light, infrared, RF, or any other form of signal to which the
pointing device can respond. send.
In such embodiments, positional element 14 comprises an RF or light receiver. Receipt of the
command allows the pointing device to emit a signal such as the acoustic signal described above.
The time of emission of commands from the base station is known and can be used to start
timing the delay of reception of the acoustic signal. The respective delays of the acoustic signal at
different microphones can again be used to reach position coordinates.
[0181]
A base station for the embodiment of FIG. 1B is shown in FIG. 3B. Parts that are the same as in
FIG. 3A have the same reference numerals and will not be described again except to the extent
necessary to understand the figure. In FIG. 3B, A / D converter 55 receives the output of down
converter 45 and provides it to CPU 56. CPU 56 is connected to memory 57 and digital data port
58. The CPU may perform waveform decoding to determine the position of the location element
14 and additionally may execute applications that use the information thus determined. The
function is preferably provided in the base station chipset. The solution leads to a more complex
and thus expensive base station than that of FIG. 3A. However, the circuitry can be dedicated to
the signal-to-coordinate decoding algorithm described below, and is therefore still relatively
simple compared to currently available solutions.
[0182]
Decoding Algorithm Preferably, a decoding algorithm is provided to transform the digitized
version of the pointing device signal into position coordinates for passing to a local operating
system or directly to an application or the like. The algorithm is preferably provided as part of
client software for a computing device, either as a driver of a base station or as a driver
embedded in a local operating system, or exceptionally as part of a specific application. . In the
embodiment of FIG. 1B, the algorithm can be incorporated into the base station electronics.
04-05-2019
41
[0183]
The algorithm preferably takes into account the relatively low sampling frequency capabilities
that are likely to be available by performing a frequency downconversion. The conversion
reduces the data frequency from the relatively high frequency required for transmission from the
location element to a relatively low frequency that the installed sound hardware is likely to be
able to sample and digitize. In addition, the algorithm preferably includes the ability to process
noise, and is preferably adapted to specific problems in the processing of low frequency signals
in general.
[0184]
As mentioned above, known techniques in the field of position location concentrate on using very
short and powerful acoustic signals as positioning signals. In order to achieve excellent
resolution, known solutions indicate high sampling frequencies, such short localization signals
can be detected and generally not higher than 400 KHz in order not to be completely missing.
Indicate. In contrast, embodiments of the present invention preferably do not use sampling rates
higher than 44.1 KHz, as such frequencies are not compatible with the installed base of the
sound processing device. Furthermore, it is recommended to keep the beacon signal at a sound
frequency above 20 KHz, ie in the ultrasound range, so that the user can not hear it. These two
requirements call for solutions that modulate data on an ultrasonic carrier signal or waveform.
The data may be frequency modulated (FM), or phase modulated (PM) on a carrier wave
containing the ultrasound signal, or any other known method may be used. The algorithm
preferably operates to decode the modulated signal and recover the signal carrying the original
position signal information from the result of its sampling. In this embodiment, it is preferred to
use a band limited signal to achieve the desired resolution level.
[0185]
In acoustic position detection, it is preferable to use continuous wave (CW) modulation such as
spread spectrum and frequency hopping to overcome reverberation and multipath effects.
[0186]
Generally, two or more detectors are used, and the signals from the detectors are multiplexed for
a single input.
04-05-2019
42
In certain cases, the need for multiplexing can be avoided. For example, in the case of a stereo
input sound blaster® or similar stereo sound card, it is necessary to send two signals to the
microphone input and send two other signals to the line in input and multiplex them into
one A total of four signals can be formed. Thus, the base station does not need a time division
multiplexer for the purpose of input access. Rather, up to four sensors can output directly to the
sound card, and the sound blaster® internal circuitry can then process the received signal using
an appropriate software driver . However, even stereo input sound blasters have up to two A / D
converters, so it is still time-shared to allow the sound card to perform sampling on more than
two channels simultaneously Note that multiplexing is required.
[0187]
The transmit signals can be synchronized by the base station to allow the stereo input sound card
to sample four separate channels with two A / D converters. Such synchronization can be
achieved in a number of ways. One way is to send synchronization data along with the signal
itself from or to the base station. Another method requires periodic transmission. That is, the
signal is transmitted in an adjusted manner so as to use phase adjustment between the known
channels on either side of the signal period or both. With or without an internal time division
mechanism, the method described above thus achieves data synchronization.
[0188]
It should be pointed out that the use of a separate stereo input has certain disadvantages as
compared to the other embodiments described herein above. Thus, for example, there may be a
phase difference between the sampling performed in each of the two A / D converters, so a
calibration step has to be performed before using the system. Otherwise, the phase difference
itself may confuse the determination of the distance, leading to a loss of accuracy.
[0189]
Another drawback is that relatively complex software driving functionality is required to
maintain the switching timing between the microphone input and the "line in" input as accurately
as possible. A jitter of only 1 microsecond between switch timings can result in a measurement
04-05-2019
43
error of 0.3 mm at room temperature.
[0190]
In addition, many installed sound card bases can only input mono. Very few sound cards are
equipped for stereo microphone input.
[0191]
Additional costs may be added as the base station must be provided with additional connectors
and wiring that are not available to most users in order to use the additional inputs.
[0192]
The preferred embodiment of the present invention uses a maximum likelihood detector to
decode the signals received from the sensors to determine the distance to the individual sensors.
At the maximum likelihood detector, the signal received from the sensor via the base station is
compared to the reference signal. The comparison indicates a maximum likelihood signal, and
the distance is determined as the distance from the maximum likelihood signal to the position at
which the signal is most likely transmitted.
[0193]
The maximum likelihood detector preferably uses a complete mathematical model of the channel
to form a look-up table of the reference signal against which the received signal can be compared
to find the best matching distance Do. Alternatively, the expected waveform can be sampled at
the Nyquist rate, and timing deviations between the sampling points can be overcome by the
extrapolation function to account for the distance. Referring now to FIG. 4, it is a simplified block
diagram showing typical components of a mathematical model for incorporation into a maximum
likelihood detector of the type discussed above. The model 60 comprises an initial signal
sequence S (t) which is fed to the transfer function H1 (s) of the transducer 26 in the mobile
device 14. The mobile device is followed by an air gap 62, which is modeled simply as a delay.
The air gap is changed to various distances. The result is then received on the receive path of
04-05-2019
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base station 20 including transfer function H2 (s), equalization H3 (s) and low pass filtering H4
(s) for microphone 36 as well as other functions of mixing and routing Sent. Complete modeling
of the channel is useful for maximum likelihood detector design as it allows the formation of an
accurate expected signal whose phase of the received signal is ideally different from that. The
detector can then identify the most likely high signal relatively easily, which in turn corresponds
to the most likely distance.
[0194]
The IR signal is also used in a maximum likelihood based manner to set the start of the delay and
also to synchronize the clock between the mobile device and the base station. A synchronization
path 64 is shown in the model. In particular, path 64 provides a synchronization signal to the
local oscillator.
[0195]
Those skilled in the art will appreciate that acoustic signals have different angular transfer
functions. An equalizer can be added to the base station to compensate for this fact.
[0196]
Preferably, the IR (or other electromagnetic) signal also points out, via the second path 66, a start
time corresponding to a zero distance in the distance look-up table 68. The maximum likelihood
signal obtained by the maximum likelihood detector is then used to identify the most likely nonzero distance from the look-up table. Those skilled in the art will appreciate that, instead of lookup tables, instant generated arrays can also be used. In addition, other detectors can be used, and
there are also some known decoders of FM signals such as PLL, I / Q demodulation, multiphasing etc.
[0197]
The maximum likelihood distance can then be tested by correlation, with a brief reference to FIG.
5, which is a bipartite graph showing typical correlations that can be used. The upper part of the
04-05-2019
45
graph shows the function and the lower part of the graph is a magnified or zoomed view of the
upper central part of the graph.
[0198]
Referring now to FIG. 6, it is a simplified block diagram illustrating a decoding device 70 for
performing the above described decoding. The decoding device 70 comprises a channel model
60 described above in connection with FIG. 4 and a maximum likelihood detector 72 using a
look-up table 68. The maximum likelihood detector 72 is followed by a correlator 74 which
performs correlation using the correlation function 76 to perform correlation using the distance
most likely detected by the maximum likelihood detector 72 Make sure the distance is correct.
[0199]
Referring now to FIG. 7, it is a simplified diagram illustrating a pointing device according to a
further preferred embodiment of the present invention. Parts that are the same as in the previous
figures bear the same reference numbers and will not be described again except to the extent
necessary to understand the figure. The pointing device of FIG. 7 differs from that of FIG. 2 in
that it additionally comprises an encoding device 80 connected between the LED 28 and the
speaker 26. Encoding device 80 performs additional encoding of the signal prior to output to
speaker 26. Additional coding of the signal can also be used to increase the robustness of the
signal and to minimize interference with nearby users. The latter has several advantages. It
allows multiple users to use the same base station, or allows a single user to use several pointing
devices in a game such as chess. Each game piece is a different pointing device, and decoding of
the signal makes it possible to distinguish between different pointing devices, and the system can
incorporate multiple piece games. When interference with nearby users is minimized, it may
further be possible for multiple users to co-exist in the same room.
[0200]
One preferred method of minimizing interference between different pointing devices is by using
a pseudorandom frequency hopping algorithm. Each mobile unit preferably has a built-in pseudorandom frequency hopping sequence in the coding unit 80 or, if preferred, in the controller 30.
By preference the base station or the decoding device has a corresponding de-hopping device
that can be synchronized to the same hopping sequence. The preferred embodiment achieves
04-05-2019
46
synchronization by using IR or other electromagnetic signals to forward the hopping sequence to
the base station. Another preferred embodiment provides a sequence using factory calibration.
[0201]
One of the applications that can be implemented in a frequency hopping based positioning
system is the integration of the system base station 20 with a WLAN base station. The result is an
advanced WLAN and positioning base station that can support multiple users and can manage
each of the user data separately. Users can, for example, write on paper or their own electronic
pad using a pointing device belonging to or compatible with the WLAN. Although not visible, the
WLAN separately tracks each user's movements and generates a networked electronic version of
each of their handwritten documents. When writing on paper, the pointing device 14 is a
combination of the pointing device of FIG. 2 and a standard pen.
[0202]
Customers and application needs vary widely, and individual applications may require certain
variables to be maximized relative to one another. For example, in certain applications, accuracy
may not be more important than current consumption, and thus the current accuracy may be
prioritized to reduce the possible accuracy level or number of detectors used. A flexible
programmable scheme is preferred for both base stations and mobile devices to enable such
system specific optimization without manufacturing a series of similar devices.
[0203]
Flexible programming can be performed by blowing a fuse or by using non-volatile memory
(such as ROM or EEPROM). Typical data for settings according to this method include: sampling
rate per second transmission power 2D or 3D application and the like.
[0204]
A pressure sensor can additionally be provided to the positioning element 14 and its output can
be used to enable graphics or security by means of a suitable application. For example, lines can
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be drawn differently depending on the pressure applied. Pressure sensors suitable for
incorporation in a pointing device can include digitizers (10 bits or less), strain gauges, and
driving circuits.
[0205]
Yet another feature includes the ability to measure the angle of the mobile device (eg, useful for
digital stylus applications). Angle sensors suitable for incorporation in pointing device 14 can
include tilt gauges, digitizers, and driving circuits. In a further embodiment, two position
indicators, such as ultrasonic loudspeakers, can be placed at both ends of the position element,
each transmitting in a manner that allows the signals to be distinguished. The angles of the
position elements can then be derived by calculating the position of each and performing simple
geometry between them.
[0206]
Stand-alone Base Station As discussed above in the embodiment of FIG. 1B, base station 20
includes the ability to decode signals without the support of host computing device 10.
[0207]
The decoding algorithm described herein above does not require particularly strong processing
power, so it is feasible to include a limited resource CPU in the base station without increasing
the overall cost.
In a preferred embodiment, the signal is decoded using ˜ 1 MIPS of computational power. Such
low computing power can in fact be incorporated into a single customized base station chip or as
a low cost add-on. The use of such a CPU allows for more conventional paired host connections,
such as UART, USB, serial and others, since the signal transferred is the result of positioning
processing and not a raw signal. Such output is also suitable for direct use in WLAN and
Bluetooth®.
[0208]
Such stand-alone base stations preferably include digitizing elements (A / D converters), CPU,
memory, and interface circuitry.
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[0209]
Optical Positioning Referring now to FIG. 8, it is a simplified block diagram illustrating a variation
of the above-described embodiment using a light direction sensor.
Parts that are the same as in the previous figures bear the same reference numbers and will not
be described again except to the extent necessary to understand the figure. Sensor 90 includes
two LEDs 92 and 94 offset by a predetermined angle. A differential amplifier 96 is connected
between the two LEDs 92 and 94 via each of its two differential inputs to measure the difference
between the levels of current of each LED. The LEDs 28 of the pointing device 14 produce a
narrow light beam whose direction can be measured from the sensor. The sensor 90 is preferably
configured with optics in the form of lenses 98 and 100 to cover the sensing area and to ensure
that light emanating from a predetermined field of view comes directly to the sensing area.
[0210]
The base station has the light direction detection sensor 90 instead of the microphone and
except that the synchronization and similar functions are all taken over by the light direction
detection sensor's photodiode so that a separate IR photodiode is not needed, It is essentially the
same as that of FIG.
[0211]
The corresponding decoding algorithm processes different kinds of information parts of the
signal, but the underlying information is processed in substantially the same way.
The detection of direction and distance is similar to the principle behind stereovision, and the
angles at the two sensors are revealed and triangulated to obtain position. Apart from that, the
same problem as in the decoding algorithm of the previous embodiment, namely the problem
that low sampling rate and low frequency are required, applies if the system utilizes analog input
and computing device hardware.
[0212]
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Ultrasonic Attitude Detection Referring now to FIG. 9, it is a simplified diagram illustrating the
FIG. 2 positional elements adapted for attitude detection. Parts that are the same as in FIG. 2
have the same reference numerals and will not be described again except to the extent necessary
to understand the figure. A second speaker 26 'is provided at a predetermined distance from the
first speaker 26. Preferably, two speakers are provided at both ends of the element. Each speaker
generates a separate waveform which is detected separately, and by drawing a straight line
between the two positions, the pose of the element is determined. Preferably, the two speakers
can identify themselves to the detector and operate simultaneously. The respective signals can be
time or frequency multiplexed together and, in one preferred embodiment, the two speakers use
frequency hopping, each with a different pseudorandom sequence.
[0213]
Electromagnetic Positioning Another method that can use microphone input is electromagnetic
positioning. A board with orthogonally arranged magnetic loops (conductors) acts as a writing
pad. The pointing device emits an electromagnetic signal, which is picked up by the pad's
magnetic loop. By analyzing the signal, the position of the pointing device can be calculated. The
loops can be printed on the PCB and can be small enough to achieve the desired level of
accuracy.
[0214]
The pointing device is the same as that of FIG. 2 except that the LED 28 is replaced by an
electromagnetic transmitter that includes a radiating antenna and associated modulation
circuitry. The base station includes a built-in loop as a sensor with RF demodulation circuitry but
is otherwise the same as the base station of FIG.
[0215]
The decoding algorithm again has to process the different kinds of information parts of the
signal, but otherwise handles the same problem as described above.
[0216]
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50
The positioning system of embodiments of the present invention has a wide range of
applications, of which a few are listed below.
It is preferable to set up in various ways for the chosen application, by manufacturing a single
electronic device and possibly using jumpers or dip switches. The switches allow the system to be
configured to obtain the most appropriate trade-off for a given application. For some
applications, low power consumption is important. In other applications, positioning accuracy is
critical. In still other applications, accuracy is not as important as rapid updates and samples per
second. In other cases the range is important, and in other cases the ability to accept multiple
users may be critical.
[0217]
In the following, a number of applications of the above mentioned technology will be considered.
[0218]
Global Tracking System Referring now to FIG. 10, it is a simplified diagram showing a conference
room equipped with a global tracking system.
The global tracking system includes a wireless LAN system 110 with an embedded base station
according to an embodiment of the present invention. A series of users 112 in the conference
room have location elements 114 according to the preferred embodiment. Each location element
has its own unique identifier, as described above. Various position elements transmit waveforms,
which are detected by the global tracking system. The waveform may additionally be tracked by
a tracking system local to the user, such as a standalone base station 116, a mobile phone 118
with an embedded base station, and the like. In addition, the conference table itself can have its
own master base station 120 combined with conference room telephone equipment.
[0219]
The toy sector Positioning toys can be divided into three subcategories, which are described
below. -Front of screen game-Front of computer game-Computer free environment
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51
[0220]
Front of Screen Games-These are games in which the user interacts directly with the computer
screen. For example, there are the following. (a)トイフィンガ: a. A toy pointing device
for toddlers and / or children to point to a computer screen to interact with a website and / or
program. Touching the screen with the pointing device will launch an animation website within
the toddler's member zone. The pointing device also acts as a means to interact with objects
appearing on the screen. b. A pointing finger or technically digital pen pointing device,
possibly in the form of a pointing finger or animated character, has its unique identifier
according to any of the above embodiments. (b)トイバード: a. A game is provided where
the user flies the bird to a nest located at the top right of the screen to receive points or praise.
b. The implementation is the same as for the pointing finger above. (c)ワイヤレスジョイス
ティック a. A possible application of the technology is wireless joysticks for computer games.
Joysticks have applications throughout the computer game industry.
[0221]
Front-of-Computer Games-A front-of-computer game is a game in which interaction takes place in
the vicinity of a computer or, in turn, an element attached to a PDA, cell phone or computer. The
following is an example. バトルフィールドゲーム a. Now, referring to FIG. 11, the top 122
moves on the board 124. A board can generally be a battlefield where two opponents engage in
battle. A piece represents a soldier and a weapon, and they advance toward each other and fight
each other. Certain aspects of the game occur only on the screen. For example, if one of the
players advances his soldier to a specific location containing a land mine, an explosion will result
on the screen. b. Each soldier and weapon (vehicle, etc.) has a wireless terminal in which its
own unique identifier is embedded. A base station embedded inside a computer or computer
mounted element receives the unique location coordinates of each soldier, vehicle etc. and
coordinates it using a war planning application on the computer.
[0222]
Computer-Free Environment-A computer-free environment game is a game that does not require
a PC, since it carries a sufficiently powerful CPU itself. (A) Battlefield game-as described above
except being stand-alone without a computer. (B) Positioning available toy car a. A car follows
another car or otherwise interacts. b. One car has a base station equipment and the other has
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52
a wireless terminal equipment. Thus, the second car follows or otherwise interacts with the first
car. (C) Independent Robots Referring now to FIG. 12, it shows a game in which a series of
independent robots 130 track one another's position and the position of the ball 132 and deliver
the ball among them. Each robot has a position element for the robot as a whole and an
additional position element for each limb whose position is required for the intended type of
operation. In one embodiment, each robot includes its own stand-alone base station, which makes
its determination based on incoming position data from itself and surrounding robots. However,
in a second simplified embodiment, each robot only has position elements and control circuitry.
The tracking is performed by the external base station, which then instructs the robot on how to
move. Therefore, only one intelligent device needs to be provided, and the robot can be relatively
simple. In this embodiment, one robot delivers a ball to a second robot. The second robot
receives the ball and delivers it to the third robot. In an alternative embodiment, the joystick can
control the movement of one robot, and the other robot automatically tries to catch him based on
its positioning. In this application, two-way communication can be used as described elsewhere in
this document. (D) Positioning available building blocks a. Each building block is provided with
its own unique identifier. Various constructions can be interactively built while being guided by a
computer during the construction process. b. Each building block is provided with a wireless
terminal and a unique identifier. (E) Command and control gloves Command and control gloves
for virtual reality or similar games. Each edge of the glove is provided with a positioning
capability according to the above embodiment. According to embodiments of the present
invention, such a positioning capability can be easily provided by attaching a sensor to the end of
each finger of a conventional glove.
Thus, each finger is provided with a separate positioning capability and read out as required by
the gaming application. Alternatively or additionally, the finger ring can be a wireless terminal, or
the strap can be applied to any part of the user's body or items or accessories used in the game.
[0223]
Inventory Management Field Referring now to FIG. 13, it is a simplified diagram illustrating an
inventory system according to an embodiment of the present invention. The location element is
embedded in the inventory item 140 that you want to inventory and a base station 142 is
provided on the premises to track movement. Such a system is advantageous for tracking
inventory that travels frequently and needs updated information.
[0224]
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Manufacturing Field Referring now to FIG. 14, it shows a number of robots 150 located on a
production line 152. Each robot has a production task, and limbs and mobility to perform the
task. Base station 154 maintains global control of the robot.
[0225]
Each robot may have position elements for the robot as a whole and / or for each limb whose
position is required for the intended type of operation. In one embodiment, when the robots need
to interact with each other, each robot includes its own stand-alone base station, which makes its
determination based on incoming position data from itself and surrounding robots. However, in a
second simplified embodiment, each robot only has position elements and control circuitry. The
tracking is performed by the external base station 154 which then instructs the robot on how to
move. Thus, only a minimal number of intelligent devices need be provided, and relatively simple
robots can achieve collective motion.
[0226]
By placing additional wireless terminals at predetermined locations of the detection space, higher
accuracy can be achieved. By measuring these devices, the absolute measurements of the mobile
terminal can be calibrated to achieve higher accuracy.
[0227]
Security Field A pointing device comprising a base station according to an embodiment of the
present invention can be incorporated into an electronic identification scheme. Individual handwritten signatures are often used for identification, but skilled forgers can imitate the signature
of others. However, the forger imitates the appearance of the signature and there is no way for
the user to apply pressure to the pen or to hold the pen at a predetermined angle, for example, at
a predetermined portion of the signature. A pointing device that can be used as a pen for a user
to write on paper and can provide not only movement information but also pressure and attitude
information provides an improved security personal signature. Although systems have been used
to obtain signature information that incorporates pressure as well as appearance, the use of
embodiments of the present invention makes such systems cheaper and more flexible. In
addition, pen attitude information allows for a higher verification function. The angle of the pen
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can be measured by adding an additional angle sensor to the pen. The angle sensor may include
an accelerometer or, as mentioned above, an additional positioning signal transmitter on the
opposite side of the stylus may be used. In the latter case, the base station can determine the XYZ
positions of the two transducers, from which the angle of the stylus can be calculated. The angle
is then used as an additional factor, resulting in an electronic version of the signature that is a
triplet (XY position, pressure, angle) of three vector values.
[0228]
The following embodiments describe an improved identification device that incorporates
positioning into other security methods.
[0229]
Use of a pointing device in the form of a stylus as an authentication means.
A group of styli is provided as part of the system. One of these styluses is provided to each of the
identified groups of users, and each stylus is provided with its own electronic identifier.
[0230]
The identification of the stylus identifies the user who is currently interacting with the system,
which allows for an authenticable use of the system in security-critical areas. It is also possible to
require the user to present his usual signature, which can be verified electronically on the basis
of movement and applied pressure or the like.
[0231]
For higher security, for example based on Public Key Infrastructure (PKI), it is also possible to
provide the stylus with the ability to enable digital signatures. The user may sign with a regular
handwritten signature. Once the handwritten signature is verified, the system uses a stylus to
provide a digital signature on the document using a PKI algorithm. Such functions require twoway communication between the pointing device and the base station, which can be
accomplished using available IR or RF channels. Thus, the electronic signature provides
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assurance that both the personalized stylus has been used and that the authorized user has been
verified.
[0232]
Alternatively or additionally, a keypad may be added to allow the user to enter a personal
identification number (PIN).
[0233]
As a further alternative or in addition to the above, the system may further incorporate a
biometric sensor at the stylus or base station to enhance the security level.
Biometric sensors can be for fingerprint recognition, retinal signature recognition, voice
recognition, or the like.
[0234]
Additional Stylus Applications Stylus or digital pens can additionally be used for the following
applications: ・リモートコントロール。 The position of the stylus can be tracked and used to
control the entire system. Thus, positioning of the device appears to activate it. Twisting the
stylus while pointing can affect the operation of the device. The watch-type telephone can be
provided with a small stylus to write on the surface of the telephone or an adjacent small pad
attached to it. Alternatively, writing on regular paper can be performed to track the movement of
the stylus with a clock placed close by. -Instead of having to type in from the keyboard, a stylus
can be used to provide SMS messages and / or sketches can be sent as files. Likewise, the stylus
can be used to enter a telephone number, which is then dialed. The same idea can be applied to
conventional telephones. A stylus can be used to enable writing, such as for data entry to other
devices such as cash registers, gaming devices, cable TVs, refrigerators etc. The security field
stylus described above can be used as part of a check or credit card signature verification on a
POS device. Loudspeaker pens̶It is possible to provide an application that writes with a pen and
the application reads the written notes, provided that computing power is available after writing.
Applications for recognizing handwriting are well known, and applications for electronically
outputting written speech are well known. Combining these two with the stylus of the
embodiment of the present invention provides a method of reading handwritten notes. The
application can be located at a base station or attached computer. When using an embodiment
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that can be sent back to the pen, the pen itself can read the written notes. -Digital pen and
translator combination-write with a pen and translate the output into another language. The
combination of any of the above The stand-alone device acting as a base station has its own
screen, network to printer and other devices via Bluetooth, wireless LAN, regular LAN, or the like
It is preferable to connect.
The array covers the full range from handwriting input to the final printed form or any other
form of output.
[0235]
Other Applications-3D Stereo-By placing a wireless transmitter on the human, he chooses how to
direct different volumes / sounds from different speakers to the stereo, where he is in the room
As such, it can give a complete and true surround experience. Stereo indications are known per
se, but can be greatly simplified by using the tracking according to the invention. Video trackingbased on the same principle as stereo tracking, tracking can be used in conjunction with a PC
video cam to automatically track the person being photographed. The embodiments are, of
course, extensible to any video system and can be particularly useful for video conferencing and
the like. Vehicle outside + in-vehicle positioning system-for example having elements in the
vehicle and controlling the vehicle by tracking their position and letting them know about it.
Tracking device--a stand-alone base station device with a screen that guides the user to the
location of nearby objects. The system can indicate the identifiers and locations of these objects
on the screen. The system can help locate keys and other personal items in the room. Two-way
network system. The system comprises a series of devices having both a transmitter and a
receiver. Each device mutually locates and registers the recognized other devices, and forms a
virtual network among them. The network can be formed between them, or additionally a smart
hub can be used. The result is a wireless network, the range of which is much larger than any of
the individual objects. Each object has exact coordinates of adjacent objects, so directional
transmission can be used to improve range or spectral efficiency, use the network to distribute
data to any point, or any It is possible to obtain the whereabouts of non-related network objects
from a specific object, etc. The network can be connected to other similar networks or can have
access points to wider networks. Individual elements can be provided with their own identifiers,
which is useful for achieving real-time tracking of a team of people and at the same time
providing them an intercom system.
Out-of-range alerts can be issued in a reduced version of the inventory system. The location
element may be provided on a non-fixed item that is temporarily provided to the customer, such
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as an earphone headset provided to the passenger of the aircraft. If the customer brings the item
out, an out-of-range alert is set, which allows the deviant item to be found. The user can have a
door, a light, and a personal locator that actuates the appliance. Similarly, tracking the personal
locator can instruct the communication device to transfer a telephone, fax, etc. to the user. Both
tracking and management of communication transfers are preferably managed through a LAN or
WLAN. The personal locator can itself inform the user about the incoming call and other
communications, and give the option to receive communications. In the WLAN version, the base
station is preferably part of the WLAN infrastructure.
[0236]
It is anticipated that many related pointing devices, position detection systems, biometric sensors,
and the like will be developed during the validity of this patent, and the scope of the
corresponding terms used in this document is a priori Will include all of the new technologies.
[0237]
It will be appreciated that certain features of the present invention, which are, for clarity,
described in the context of separate aspects, may be provided in combination in one aspect.
Conversely, various features of the invention which are, for brevity, described in the context of a
single embodiment, may also be provided separately or in any suitable combination.
[0238]
While the invention has been described with respect to particular embodiments thereof, it is
evident that many alternatives, modifications and variations will be apparent to those skilled in
the art. Accordingly, the spirit of the appended claims and all such alternatives, modifications and
variations that fall within the broad scope thereof are intended to be embraced therein. All
publications, patents, and patent applications mentioned herein, with or without specific and
distinct designations, are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. In addition, citation
and description of references in the present application shall not be construed as an admission
that the references can be used as prior art to the present invention.
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