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JP2003294822

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DESCRIPTION JP2003294822
[0001]
The present invention relates to a three-dimensional intensity probe for measuring acoustic
intensity in a three-dimensional space, a three-dimensional sound source direction detecting
device using the same probe, a three-dimensional sound source direction facing control device, a
three-dimensional intent sensor It relates to a city measurement method and apparatus.
[0002]
2. Description of the Related Art Sound intensity is the intensity of sound and represents the ratio
of the amount of energy per unit area. The sound intensity is a vector quantity having a
magnitude and a direction, and by measuring this, the sound source direction can be detected.
[0003]
Conventionally, a probe (three-dimensional intensity probe) used to detect a sound source
direction in a three-dimensional space is abbreviated as a microphone (hereinafter referred to as
a microphone). 4), one at the center and the remaining three at symmetrical positions around a
centrally located microphone (centered microphone) (see Non-Patent Document 1). There is also
a microphone for intensity measurement (three-dimensional intensity probe) in which
microphones facing at right angles in three directions (front and rear, upper and lower, and left
and right directions) are provided (see Patent Document 1). Furthermore, there has also been an
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apparatus for measuring the sound image localization direction using a dummy head microphone
placed in a measurement chamber (see Patent Document 2).
[0004]
[Non-patent document 1] FJ Fahy. Translated by Hideki Tachibana, May 20, 1998 "Sound
Intensity" published by Ohm Co., Ltd. (in page 127, Fig. 6.5). [Patent Document 1] Japanese
Patent Application Laid-Open No. 6-167984 [Patent Document 2] Japanese Patent Application
Laid-Open No. 7-336800
[0005]
However, in the three-dimensional intensity probe described in Non-Patent Document 1, all three
microphones (sound incident surfaces) disposed around the center microphone have the same
direction (the same front as the center microphone). The problem is that the sound waves from
each direction in the three-dimensional space can not be easily separated, and therefore the
resolution of the sound source direction detection is low and the detection accuracy is low. In
particular, it was remarkable on the high frequency side.
[0006]
In addition, the three microphones arranged around the central microphone must select one with
the same characteristics (sensitivity, phase, etc.), or can not easily change the frequency range of
the sound wave to be detected. There was also a problem. Furthermore, when a threedimensional sound source direction detecting device or a sound source direction facing control
device is configured using this kind of three-dimensional intensity probe, the detection accuracy
of the three-dimensional sound source direction and the control target face in the threedimensional sound source direction There is also a problem in that the accuracy of The probe
described in Patent Document 1 is the same as the above-mentioned prior art in that the three
microphones for one microphone are on a common plane and directed in the same direction, and
the same problems as this are I had it. Further, the sound image localization direction measuring
device described in Patent Document 2 can not obtain (output) a signal including a threedimensional element in the detection unit (microphone) of the sound from the speaker.
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[0007]
The present invention has been made to solve the above-mentioned problems of the prior art,
and it is an object of the present invention to provide a three-dimensional intensity probe with
high detection accuracy. Another object of the present invention is to provide a threedimensional intensity probe with high detection accuracy even in the high frequency side of
sound waves (sounds) from each direction of three-dimensional space. Also, the present invention
makes it possible to easily adjust the electrical characteristics of the three microphones arranged
around the central microphone, and therefore it is not necessary to select the microphones with
uniform characteristics from the beginning, and in addition, the sound waves to be detected It is
an object of the present invention to provide a three-dimensional intensity probe which can
easily change the frequency range of.
[0008]
Another object of the present invention is to provide a three-dimensional sound source direction
detecting device with high detection accuracy of three-dimensional sound source direction, and a
three-dimensional sound source direction facing control device with high accuracy for facing a
control object in the three-dimensional sound source direction.
[0009]
The present invention also provides a three-dimensional intensity probe with a high degree of
freedom in design, a simple three-dimensional intensity probe, and a three-dimensional intensity
measurement method and apparatus that can easily measure three-dimensional acoustic
intensity at a desired position in a measurement chamber. Intended to provide.
[0010]
In order to achieve the above object, the three-dimensional intensity probe according to claim 1
comprises a nondirectional central microphone and first to third peripheral microphones,
respectively. The first to third peripheral microphones are congruent right-angled isosceles
triangles in which each of the triangles drawn by connecting the center of each sound wave
incident surface of a pair of adjacent peripheral microphones and the center microphone is a
right angle At a position, each of the sound wave incident surfaces is disposed toward the center
of the sound wave incident surface of the central microphone.
[0011]
The invention according to claim 2 is characterized in that, in the invention according to claim 1,
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the distance between the central microphone and the first to third peripheral microphones is
adjustable.
[0012]
In the invention according to claim 3, in the invention according to claim 1 or 2, a correction
sound wave output speaker for emitting a correction sound wave for equalizing the electric
characteristics of the first to third peripheral microphones is added It is characterized by
[0013]
The three-dimensional sound source direction detecting device according to claim 4 comprises a
nondirectional central microphone and first to third peripheral microphones, wherein the first to
third peripheral microphones comprise a pair of adjacent peripheral microphones and a center.
The sound wave incident surface of the central microphone is placed at a position where each
triangle drawn by connecting the centers of the respective sound wave incident surfaces of the
microphones becomes a congruent right isosceles triangle whose angle at the central
microphone portion is a right angle. In a device for detecting a three-dimensional sound source
direction by an output signal from each microphone of a three-dimensional intensity probe
arranged toward the center direction, characteristic correction for equalizing electrical
characteristics of each microphone constituting the three-dimensional intensity probe
Characterized in that it comprises a circuit.
[0014]
The three-dimensional sound source direction facing control device according to claim 5
comprises a nondirectional central microphone and first to third peripheral microphones,
wherein the first to third peripheral microphones are a pair of adjacent peripheral microphones.
The sound incident surface of the central microphone is incident on the sound incident surface at
a position where each triangle drawn by connecting the centers of the sound incident surfaces of
the central microphone becomes a congruent right-angled isosceles triangle at the central
microphone portion. A three-dimensional sound source direction detecting means for detecting a
three-dimensional sound source direction from output signals from the microphones of the threedimensional intensity probe, and a three-dimensional sound source direction detector And a
driving device for directing a desired control target in the direction of the sound source detected
by the detection means.
[0015]
The three-dimensional intensity probe according to claim 6 comprises a nondirectional central
microphone and first to third peripheral microphones, wherein the first to third peripheral
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microphones comprise a pair of adjacent peripheral microphones and a central microphone. The
respective sound wave incident surface center points are positioned such that each triangle
drawn by connecting the respective sound wave incident surface center points of is a congruent
right isosceles triangle having a right angle at the central microphone portion.
[0016]
In the invention according to claim 7, in the invention according to claim 6, the first to third
peripheral microphones are positioned and fixed via the connection frame with the central
microphone, and the ear is hooked from an appropriate location of the connection frame. Is
formed to be extended.
[0017]
The three-dimensional intensity measurement method according to claim 8 comprises a
nondirectional central microphone and first to third peripheral microphones, wherein the first to
third peripheral microphones comprise a pair of adjacent peripheral microphones and a center.
Each sound wave incident surface center point is positioned so that each triangle drawn by
connecting each sound wave incident surface center point of the microphone is a congruent
right-angled isosceles triangle whose angle in the central microphone portion is a right angle.
The three-dimensional intensity probe is of an approximate size or smaller than the auricle of the
dummy head and is detachably formed on the auricle, and the three-dimensional intensity probe
mounted on the left and right auricles of the dummy head And measuring the three-dimensional
sound intensity at a desired position in a measurement chamber in which the dummy head is
placed. That.
[0018]
The three-dimensional intensity measurement device according to claim 9 comprises a
nondirectional central microphone and first to third peripheral microphones, wherein the first to
third peripheral microphones comprise a pair of adjacent peripheral microphones and a center.
Each sound wave incident surface center point is positioned so that each triangle drawn by
connecting each sound wave incident surface center point of the microphone is a congruent
right-angled isosceles triangle whose angle in the central microphone portion is a right angle. A
three-dimensional intensity probe is of approximate size or smaller than the auricle of the
dummy head and is formed removably on the auricle and is located on the left and right of the
dummy head at the desired position in the measuring chamber It is made to attach to each other.
[0019]
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BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION Embodiments of the present invention will be
described below with reference to the drawings.
In the drawings, the same reference numerals denote the same or corresponding parts.
FIG. 1 is a perspective view showing an embodiment of a three-dimensional intensity probe
according to the present invention, FIG. 2 is a view schematically showing the three-dimensional
intensity probe from the upper side of FIG. 2 is an explanatory view of the positional relationship
of each microphone in FIG. 2, and FIG. 4 is a side view of the three-dimensional intensity probe
shown in FIG.
[0020]
That is, as shown in FIG. 1 and FIG. 2, the three-dimensional intensity probe of the present
invention includes the center microphone 11 and the first to third peripheral microphones 12 to
14.
In this case, the microphones 11 to 14 each use a nondirectional microphone, here, an ECM
(electret condenser microphone).
[0021]
The first, second and third peripheral microphones 12, 13 and 14 are microphones separately
directed in the x-, y- and z-axis directions of the three-dimensional space, and the central
microphone 11 fixed at an arbitrary position is When viewed from the sound wave incident
surface (diaphragm surface) 11a side, that is, from the front surface side of the probe, it is
arranged with the positional relationship shown in FIG.
[0022]
That is, in FIG. 2, the first to third peripheral microphones 12 to 14 have an appropriate diameter
(radius r) with the center 15 at the position of the central microphone 11 (more specifically, the
center of the sound wave incident surface of the central microphone 11). The sound wave
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incident surfaces 12a to 14a (more specifically, the sound wave incident surface centers 21 to
23) at the substantially equal rotation angle (120 °) positions on the circumference of 16 are
the centers of the sound wave incident surface 11a of the central microphone 11. It is directed in
the direction.
Reference numerals 17 to 19 denote central axes (lines) of the sound wave incident planes of the
peripheral microphones 12 to 14 that represent this situation.
When viewed from the side, the peripheral microphones 12 to 14 have respective centers (three
points) 15, 21 of the sound wave incident planes of the pair of adjacent peripheral microphones
12, 13, 13, 14 or 14, 12 and the central microphone 11. , 22, 15, 22, 23 or 15, 23, 21 are
arranged so that each triangle drawn as a congruent right-angled isosceles triangle in which the
angle (internal angle) in the central microphone 11 is a right angle (See Figure 3).
That is, when connecting the sound wave incident surface centers 15, 21, 22, and 23 of the
respective microphones 11 to 14, an arrangement configuration in which right congruent
isosceles triangle planes form right triangle pyramids forming three planes excluding the bottom.
It has become.
Here, in the present specification, the term "right angle" includes "approximately right angle".
[0023]
In such a three-dimensional intensity probe, mutually different signals are output from the
peripheral microphones 12-14 based on the difference in the three-dimensional arrangement of
the peripheral microphones 12-14 with respect to the central microphone 11.
Under the present circumstances, as above-mentioned, when each microphones 11-14 connect
those sound-wave incident surface center 15, 21, 22, 23, the surface of a congruent right-angled
isosceles triangle forms three surfaces except a bottom, respectively. Since the arrangement
configuration is such that the right-angled triangular pyramid is drawn, sound waves from each
direction of three-dimensional space can be easily separated, and high detection accuracy can be
obtained.
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Further, all of the peripheral microphones 12 to 14 are disposed so that the sound wave incident
surfaces 12a to 14a are directed toward the center of the sound wave incident surface 11a of the
central microphone 11, that is, they are arranged symmetrically. The acoustic wave from any
direction has the same conditions of sound diffraction, so higher detection accuracy is obtained.
[0024]
Furthermore, in the illustrated three-dimensional intensity probe, each interval L between the
central microphone 11 and the first to third peripheral microphones 12 to 14 is configured to be
easily adjustable while maintaining the above-mentioned right-angled triangular pyramid shape. .
An example of the configuration will be described with reference to FIGS. 1 and 4.
In FIG. 4, the microphone 12 and the portion related to the microphone 12 are hidden behind the
microphone 13 and the portion related to the microphone 13.
[0025]
That is, the microphones 11 to 14 are movable back and forth in the directions of the sound
wave incident surface central axes 24 and 17 to 19 respectively, and can be fixed at an arbitrary
position along the central axis direction.
Here, each of the microphones 11 to 14 has a telescopic structure 25 (see FIG. 1 with respect to
FIG. 1) as illustrated in FIG. same as below. ) Is movable back and forth in the direction of the
central axis 24 and 17 to 19 of the sound wave incident surface, and can be fixed at an arbitrary
position by fixing means (not shown) such as screws. In this case, the columns 26 of the central
microphone 11 are directly attached to the mount 30, but the columns 27 to 29 of the peripheral
microphones 12 to 14 are sub columns 31 to 33 (see FIG. 1 for 31). same as below. ) Is attached
to the mounting base 30.
[0026]
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The columns 27 to 29 are supported by the sub columns 31 to 33 via the microphone holders
34 respectively, and the positions of the columns 27 to 29 can be slightly adjusted in the
longitudinal direction of the sub columns 31 to 33 by the microphone holders 34. Further, the
rear end side of the support column 26 of the central microphone 11 penetrates the mounting
table 30 and protrudes to the opposite side to the central microphone 11, and the protruding
portion can also be used as a handle when the probe is directed in a desired direction. Is
configured.
[0027]
The intervals L between the central microphone 11 and the first to third peripheral microphones
12 to 14 are basically uniformly adjusted, and the values (dimensions) thereof are for sound
waves emitted from the sound source (target to be detected) whose direction is to be detected. It
is set according to the main frequency or frequency band. The adjustment of each interval L, in
other words, the selection of the frequency or frequency band to be detected, is easily made
possible by the telescopic operation of the columns 26 to 29 by the telescopic structure 25. The
adjustable range of the interval L is set to, for example, about 6 mm to 50 mm, but the interval L
is adjusted to a smaller value as the frequency to be detected is higher. As an example, when the
frequency to be detected is 4 kHz and a 1/2 inch microphone is used as the microphones 11 to
14, the distance L is adjusted to about 8 mm. According to such a configuration, since the
intervals L can be adjusted, high detection accuracy can be obtained in a wide frequency range.
In particular, if each interval L can be adjusted to be small, high detection accuracy can be
obtained even on the high frequency side.
[0028]
FIG. 5 exemplifies a three-dimensional intensity probe provided with a correction sound wave
output speaker 51 for emitting correction sound waves for aligning the electric characteristics,
mainly the sensitivity and phase of the peripheral microphones 12 to 14. In FIG. 5 as well as in
FIG. 4, the portions relating to the microphone 12 and the microphone 12 are directly behind the
portions relating to the microphone 13 and the portion relating to the microphone 13 and
hidden. The configuration is the same as that shown in FIG. The correction sound wave output
speaker 51 is coaxially mounted on the central axis of the sound wave incident surface of the
central microphone 11, here in the middle part of the support 26 of the central microphone 11
with the support 26.
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[0029]
As described above, according to the three-dimensional intensity probe provided with the sound
wave output speaker 51 for correction, the output signal of each of the microphones 11 to 14 is
input to the characteristic correction circuit described later while outputting the predetermined
sound wave from the speaker 51 It is possible to realize a correction that aligns the sensitivity
and phase of the microphones 11 to 14 and the peripheral microphones 12 to 14 only. When
performing such characteristic correction, as described above, each microphone 11 to 14 has a
right-angled isosceles triangle which is congruent when the centers 15, 21, 22, and 23 of the
sound wave incident planes are connected. An arrangement is maintained in which the faces
describe right-angled triangular pyramids forming three sides except the bottom.
[0030]
FIG. 6 is a block diagram showing an example of a three-dimensional sound source direction
detection device using the three-dimensional intensity probe and the characteristic correction
circuit shown in FIG. In the figure, reference numeral 61 denotes a three-dimensional intensity
probe provided with a sound wave output speaker 51 for correction shown in FIG. 62 is a
characteristic correction circuit, which is a sensitivity / phase correction circuit here, and has the
function of electrically aligning the sensitivity / phase of the peripheral microphones 12-14 (see
FIG. 1) of the probe 61 as described above.
[0031]
The analyzer 63 is a circuit that analyzes and detects a three-dimensional sound source direction,
that is, a direction of a sound source in a three-dimensional space, from output signals of the
microphones 11 to 14 (see FIG. 1) constituting the probe 61. Specifically, the sound pressure
received by each of the microphones 11 to 14 is obtained from the output signal of each of the
microphones 11 to 14, and the phase shift is determined for the sound wave reaching the
peripheral microphones 12 to 14 from the sound source by phase measurement. An FFT (Fast
Fourier Transform) analyzer or the like that measures the vector quantity (size and direction in
three-dimensional space) of the sound wave received by the probe 61 is used.
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[0032]
The output device 64 is a device for notifying the detection result of the three-dimensional sound
source direction detected by the analyzer 63 to the outside, and a device for displaying the sound
source direction on a screen or a device for notifying by sound etc. may be mentioned as an
example. Specifically, the orthogonal cross section (z = 0) of the sound wave incident plane
central axis 24 (see FIG. 1) of the central microphone 11 of the probe 61 is centered (x, y, z = 0,
0, 0), A circle is displayed on the screen, with the positive direction of the y axis upward, the
same negative direction downward, the negative direction x leftward, the same positive direction
right, and the analyzer in the area of the circle There is a display device that displays the sound
source direction obtained in S.63 at a blinking point or the like. In the case of this device, for
example, if the probe 61 (center microphone sound wave incident surface 11a) is directed
directly in front of the sound source, a blinking point is displayed at the center position (origin
position) of the display circle and the sound source is in the probe front direction. I understand. If
there is a sound source in the direction of 45 ° elevation just above the direction in which the
probe 61 is directed, the + y coordinate, which is preset as the elevation angle 45 °, is directly
above (the positive direction of the y axis) from the center position of the display circle A
blinking point is displayed at the position, and it can be seen that the sound source is at a 45 °
elevation angle direction, which is directly above the direction in which the probe 61 is currently
directed. Also, the sound wave incident surface 11a (see FIG. 1) of the central microphone 11 of
the probe 61 is regarded as the center of the bisected section of the sphere, and a hemispherical
wire model expressing depth in the vertical direction to the screen is displayed on the screen
Alternatively, the display unit may display a sound source direction obtained by the analyzer 63
with an arrow (a point when the sound source is in the front direction of the probe) or the like in
the wire model region. Furthermore, there are voice generating devices and the like in which the
content of the sound source direction displayed on these display devices as points or arrows is
notified by synthetic voice.
[0033]
According to the three-dimensional sound source direction detecting apparatus using such a
sensitivity / phase correction circuit, it may be as if those characteristics (sensitivity / phase) are
present even when peripheral microphones 12 to 14 whose sensitivity / phase are not aligned
are used. It can be treated as if it were all right. That is, the output signal of the sensitivity /
phase correction circuit 62 can be used as the output signal of the peripheral microphones 1214 having the same sensitivity / phase, and among the manufactured many microphones, it is
used as the peripheral microphones 12-14. You can save the trouble of selecting a microphone
with the same characteristics.
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[0034]
When using microphones 11 to 14 with uniform sensitivity and phase characteristics,
particularly peripheral microphones 12 to 14, the sensitivity and phase correction circuit 62 in
the figure can be omitted, and the sound wave output for correction to the three-dimensional
intensity probe A probe without the speaker 51 (see FIG. 1) can be used.
[0035]
FIG. 7 is a block diagram showing an example of a three-dimensional sound source direction
facing control device in which the three-dimensional intensity probe shown in FIG. 1 is used.
This three-dimensional sound source direction facing control device comprises a threedimensional intensity probe 71, an analyzer 63, and a drive device 72 of a control object 73
shown in FIG.
[0036]
The analyzer 63 is a circuit similar to that shown in FIG. 6, and analyzes and detects a threedimensional sound source direction. The driving device 72 is a device that directs (faces) the
control target 73 to the analysis result of the three-dimensional sound source direction by the
analyzer 63, that is, the detected three-dimensional sound source direction. If the analysis and
detection results of the analyzer 63 are configured to be updated continuously or every small
time, this face-to-face control device always directs (follows) the controlled object 73 in the
direction of the three-dimensional sound source, It can function as a dimensional sound source
direction tracking device.
[0037]
The control object 73 of such a three-dimensional sound source direction facing control device or
three-dimensional sound source direction tracking device may be a television camera, a sound
collection microphone or a light projector, etc. It is useful for the detection of those whereabouts
by the recording of the scream and the cries and the lighting for crime prevention.
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[0038]
In the above-described three-dimensional sound source direction detecting device, although the
FFT analyzer is used as a circuit for detecting the three-dimensional sound source direction from
the output signal of each of the microphones constituting the probe, it is not limited thereto.
[0039]
FIG. 8 is a view schematically showing an embodiment of a three-dimensional intensity probe
different in configuration from FIGS. 1 to 4 from the front side of the central microphone.
The probes shown in this figure each have a nondirectional central microphone 11 and first to
third peripheral microphones 12 to 14 similarly to the probes shown in FIGS. The directions of
the sound wave incident surfaces 11a to 14a are not limited at all, and the positions of the
centers (points) of the sound wave incident surfaces 11a to 14a are configured as in FIGS.
That is, the peripheral microphones 12 to 14 have their respective sound wave incident surface
center points 15, 21, 22, 15, 22, 23 of the pair of adjacent peripheral microphones 12, 13, 13,
14 or 14, 12 and the central microphone 11 or Each sound wave incident surface center point
15, 21 to 23 is made such that each triangle drawn by connecting 15, 23, 21 becomes a
congruent right-angled isosceles triangle in which the angle (inner angle) in the central
microphone 11 is a right angle. Is positioned (see FIG. 3). In other words, the sound wave
incident surface center points 21, 22, 23 of the peripheral microphones 12, 13, 14 in FIG. 8 are
the z, y, x axes of the three-dimensional space (the sound wave incident surface central axis 17 in
FIG. 18 and 19, but in the present invention, it is on the axis passing through the sound wave
incident surface center points 21, 22, 23. The z, y and x axes are orthogonal to each other with
the center point 15 of the sound wave incident surface of the central microphone 11 as the
origin, and the sound center of the sound wave entrance surface 21, 22, The microphones 11 to
14 are positioned so that the intervals between the two are equal.
[0040]
The three-dimensional intensity probe shown in FIG. 1 is used for three-dimensional sound
source direction detection and the like because the sound wave incident surfaces 12a to 14a of
the peripheral microphones 12 to 14 are directed toward the center of the sound wave incident
surface 11a of the central microphone 11. If you do, it has the advantage of making it easy to
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understand the direction of detection by the same probe. However, when non-directional
microphones are used for the microphones 11 to 14, the directions of the sound wave incident
surfaces 11a to 14a are essential for measurement of the three-dimensional intensity, detection
of the three-dimensional sound source direction by measurement results, analysis, etc. It is not a
condition. As described above, if the sound wave incident surface center points 15 and 21 to 23
are positioned, the same operation and effect as the three-dimensional intensity probe shown in
FIG. 1 can be obtained, and the probe shown in FIG. Is the realization of that. The probe shown in
FIG. 8 shows an example in which the sound wave incident surface 12a of the first peripheral
microphone 12 is directed in the same direction as the sound wave incident surface 11a of the
central microphone 11, and the others are shown in FIG. It is similar to the three-dimensional
intensity probe shown. According to the present invention, as compared with the probes shown
in FIGS. 1 to 4, the degree of freedom in design is increased by the fact that the directions of the
sound wave incident surfaces 11a to 14a of the microphones 11 to 14 can not be considered.
[0041]
9 is a perspective view showing an embodiment of the three-dimensional ear-hook intensity
probe to which the invention illustrated in FIG. 8 is applied, and FIG. 10 is a view showing the
same probe from the direction of arrow a in FIG. FIG. 11 is a view (a schematic front view of the
probe) shown from the direction of the arrow b in FIG. The probes illustrated in FIGS. 9 to 11 are
for the right ear. The left ear has a shape in which the probe shown in FIGS. 9 to 11 is seen
through from the back side of each illustrated surface.
[0042]
As shown in FIGS. 9 to 11, the first to third peripheral microphones 12 to 14 are in front of the
central microphone 11 (in the direction opposite to the arrow b in the figure), side (in the
direction opposite to the arrow b in the drawing) And, the lower part is positioned and fixed via
the connecting frames 91 to 93 with the central microphone 11. As the connecting frames 91 to
93, thin wires made of steel or the like are used in order to reduce the diffraction of the sound
wave at this portion. Further, an ear hook 94 having a shape similar to that of the glasses and ear
earphones (not shown) is formed to extend from an appropriate portion of the connecting frames
91 to 93, for example, the tip side portion of the connecting frame 93. It is detachable to the
human body (not shown) or the pinnae of the dummy head described later. In the figure,
reference numeral 95 denotes a microphone output code derived by bundling output signal lines
from the microphones 11 to 14. Since the invention exemplified in FIG. 8 is applied to this threedimensional intensity probe of the ear hook type, the sound wave incident surface center points
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21, 22, 23 of the peripheral microphones 12, 13, 14 are in the three-dimensional space z. , Y, x
axis. The z, y and x axes are orthogonal to each other with the center point 15 of the sound wave
incident surface of the central microphone 11 as the origin, and the sound center of the sound
wave entrance surface 21, 22, It goes without saying that the microphones 11 to 14 are
positioned so that the distance between each other is equal to D.
[0043]
In the example shown in FIGS. 9 to 11, the sound wave incident surfaces 11a to 14a of the
microphones 11 to 14 all face in the same direction, here, the front. However, since the
microphones 11 to 14 are all nondirectional, the directions of the sound wave incident surfaces
11a to 14a are not limited to only the examples shown in FIGS.
[0044]
FIGS. 12 to 14 are views showing an embodiment of a three-dimensional earring-shaped intensity
probe in which the sound wave incident surfaces 11a to 14a are directed in a direction different
from FIGS. 9 to 11, and FIG. 12 is a perspective view. FIG. 13 is a view (a schematic side view of
the probe) shown from the direction of the arrow i in FIG. 12, and FIG. 14 is a view (a schematic
front view of the probe) shown from the direction of the arrow b in FIG. The probes illustrated in
FIGS. 12 to 14 are for the right ear. It is the same as that of FIGS. 9-11 that it becomes the shape
which saw through the probe shown to FIGS. 12-14 from the back side of each illustration
surface for left ear. In FIGS. 12 to 14, the invention illustrated in FIG. 8 is applied, and an earhook
type in which the sound wave incident surfaces 12 a to 14 a of the peripheral microphones 12 to
14 are directed toward the center of the sound wave incident surface 11 a of the central
microphone 11. It illustrates a three-dimensional intensity probe.
[0045]
Here, in the ear hook-shaped three-dimensional intensity probe, in FIGS. 9 and 12, the portion
excluding the ear hook 94 and the microphone output cord 95, that is, the size of the
microphones 11 to 14 is, for example, Japanese It has a size close to or smaller than the average
value of a certain number of people in the auricle (ear) of an adult, and is formed detachably on
the auricle. That is, the above-described ear hook-shaped three-dimensional intensity probe is
given convenience. The size of the microphones 11 to 14 refers to, for example, the external
04-05-2019
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dimensions of a container (not shown) that can accommodate the microphones 11 to 14
connected by the connecting frames 91 to 93. In addition, the size of the pinna, for example,
refers to the external dimension of a rectangular parallelepiped obtained by taking each
maximum value of the longitudinal, lateral and depth dimensions of the pinna, and is an example
of a three-dimensional intensity probe formed smaller than the pinna. As an example, the probe
of the dimension of the extent illustrated to FIG. 15-FIG. 18 mentioned later is mentioned. In any
case, the size of the microphones 11 to 14 is set to the size of the size of a person's auricle (ear)
or smaller than that, as is conventional. According to such an ear-clad three-dimensional intensity
probe, it is used by being hung on the ear of a worker who performs three-dimensional sound
source direction detection and intensity measurement, that is, it is used without using the
worker's hand It can also be easily attached and detached, and is extremely convenient in use.
[0046]
FIG. 15 to FIG. 18 are views showing an embodiment of a three-dimensional intensity measuring
apparatus using the three-dimensional intensity probe of the small size as described above in the
binaural part of the dummy head. 15 is a front view, FIG. 16 is a left side view, FIG. 17 is a right
side view, and FIG. 18 is a plan view. This three-dimensional intensity measuring device
comprises three-dimensional intensity probes 97 (97L, 97R) and a dummy head 98. The threedimensional intensity probe 97 (97L, 97R) is basically an ear-hook three-dimensional intensity
probe to which the probe illustrated in FIG. 8 is applied. Here, it is a three-dimensional earringshaped intensity probe shown in FIGS. 9 to 11, wherein 97L is for the left ear and 97R is for the
right ear. In FIGS. 15 to 18, the connecting frames 91 to 93, the ear hooks 94, and the
microphone output cords 95 in FIGS. 9 to 11 are not shown. Further, the three-dimensional
intensity probe shown in FIGS. 12 to 14 may be used as the probe 97 (97L, 97R). The dummy
head 98 is an experimental tool that imitates the head of a human body as shown in the figure,
and the material is of course acoustically approximated to the head of the human body, as well as
the outer shape. Here, what is approximated to the average value of the fixed number of people
of the head of a Japanese adult is used.
[0047]
The ear hook-shaped three-dimensional intensity probes 97L and 97R are separately attached to
the left and right auricles (ears) 98L and 98R of the dummy head 98, and the listening room and
the anechoic chamber in which the dummy head 98 is placed The three-dimensional acoustic
intensity is measured at a desired position in a measurement room (not shown) of According to
such a three-dimensional intensity measuring apparatus, the three-dimensional intensity probe
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can be approximately the same size as or smaller than the auricle 98L, 98R of the dummy head
98, and can be detachably attached to the auricle 98L, 98R. Since the ear hook-shaped threedimensional intensity probes 97L and 97R formed in the above are used, measurement of threedimensional sound intensity at a desired position in the measurement chamber can be easily
performed.
[0048]
FIG. 19 is a block diagram showing an example of a sound image visualization device for
performing detection and localization (sound image localization) of a sound image using the
three-dimensional intensity measurement device shown in FIGS. 15 to 18 in a measurement
room. In this figure, the three-dimensional intensity probes 97L and 97R are respectively
mounted on the left and right auricles 98L and 98R of the dummy head 98 shown in FIGS. B)
being moved to or placed at a desired plurality of positions, and measuring the acoustic intensity
at each of the plurality of positions. The FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) analyzers 99L and 99R
analyze the sound intensity measurement results at multiple positions in the measurement
chamber by the probes 97L and 97R, and visualize the sound image by the sound generated from
the left and right speakers in the measurement chamber Output data to do this. This output is
provided to the computer 101 through the interfaces 100L and 100R. The computer 101
processes the input data and causes the output device 102 to output the detection position of the
sound image by the sound generated from the left and right speakers in the measurement
chamber (three-dimensional space). The output is printed or printed on a sheet of paper so that
the measurement chamber, the probes 97L and 97R (dummy head 98) in the measurement
chamber, the left and right speakers, and the positions of the sound image (positions in threedimensional space) can be identified. It is performed by displaying on a screen. Note that the
three-dimensional intensity probes for the left ear and for the right ear in the above-described
embodiment may be connected to be configured as a left-right integral three-dimensional
intensity probe.
[0049]
As described above, according to the invention described in claim 1, it is possible to provide a
three-dimensional intensity probe with high detection accuracy. According to the second aspect
of the present invention, the frequency or frequency band of the sound wave emitted from the
sound source (target to be detected) whose direction is to be detected can be arbitrarily adjusted.
Therefore, it is possible to provide a three-dimensional intensity probe as an acoustic intensity
measurement device capable of obtaining high detection accuracy in a wide frequency range
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including the high frequency side. According to the invention as set forth in claim 3, the electrical
characteristics of the three microphones arranged around the central microphone can be easily
made uniform, and therefore it is not always necessary to select a microphone with uniform
characteristics from the beginning. An effect can also be demonstrated.
[0050]
Further, according to the fourth aspect of the present invention, it is possible to provide a threedimensional sound source direction detecting device with high detection accuracy of the threedimensional sound source direction. Further, according to the fifth aspect of the present
invention, it is possible to provide a three-dimensional sound source direction facing control
device capable of causing a control object such as a television camera to face in the threedimensional sound source direction with high accuracy.
[0051]
Further, according to the sixth aspect of the present invention, it is possible to provide a threedimensional intensity probe having high detection accuracy and high design freedom. According
to the invention of claim 7, in the invention of claim 6, a simple three-dimensional intensity
probe can be obtained. In particular, in order to measure sound image localization in a room, the
measurement result obtained by putting such a simple three-dimensional intensity probe on the
ear of a measurement worker and the measurement by hearing the same probe out of the ear It
is possible to provide an extremely useful three-dimensional intensity probe that can be
compared easily and can measure the correlation between physical and psychological quantities.
Furthermore, according to the invention as set forth in claims 8 and 9, in the dummy head placed
at a desired position in the measuring chamber, measuring, particularly simply, threedimensional sound intensity in a state close to actual human hearing. 3D intensity measurement
method and apparatus can be provided.
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