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Алимпиева Анастасия Владимировна.Законодательный процесс: проблемы и пути совершенствования

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Poccraficrofi
3aKoHo.{arelruofi
AerreJIbHocrI,I flpe:Ia4enra Poccuficxofi @e4epaquu, flpaw,rreJrbcrBo Poccuficrofi
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cy6rerru Poccnficrofi
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[poqecca,
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rrpHHrIErraMlr Se4epanrHoro 3aKoHoAareJrbHoro
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r{cro}rHnKax rrpaBa, perynupyroqux 3aKoHoAaremsrrfi [poqecc,
14
3aKnroqaror
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pa3AeJIeHHe
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a raK xe
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ropuAuqecrcofi
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3aKoHorBop.recruu.
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qeM, Ae.f,TeJlbHocrb, cBq3aHHyro
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IIpu
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9
vrIJHt\vIaTuBa co3.qaHH, 3aKoHa, AoJrxHa
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yr
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(De4epaquefi. pt cy6rerraura Poccuficrofi Oe4epaqrau.
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Aef,TeJrbHocrrr
n PoccIEftcrofi
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3arrper Ha 3aHrrue no66ucrcrofi AerreJrbHocrbro, AerryraraMu focy4apcreeHHofi
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rocyAapcrBeHHblM cnyxarql,IM, Ae[yraraM 3aKoHoAareJrbHbrx (upe4cranurelurrx)
opraHoB rocyAapcreenHofi BJracrr,r cy6reruon Poccr.ru.
Crpyrrypa pa6orbl cocrolrr
ruecrb naparpaSoB, 3aKJrroqeHuc
r4
rr3 BBeAeHlafl Tpex uraB BKirtcltraroqux
crrucKa Jrr4Teparyprr.
e ce6s
10
1
TEOPETI,IKO.TIPABOBbIE OCHOBbI
3AKOHOAATEJTbHOTO
rrporln ccA poccurzcrofr on4EpArlrau
1.1
Ilousue lr [puHrlrrrrbr
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B narueu rocyAapcrBe r{cnoJrb3yercq HecKonbKo
BapHaHToB IIpHH{THT 3aKOHOB
-
nazsrrcuefi Soprrarr BbrpaxeHr.r, BJIaCTIII HapOAa YI
opraHoM. Ecru roBoplrrb o $e4epanbHoM ypoBHe , B KaqecrBe
pe$epen4yrvr, KaK oAHa H3
3aKoHoAareJIbHhIM
AaHHoro opraHa Bbrcryrraror @e4epanuroe co6paHrae, flpesuAeHT, KaK uraBa
rocy.qapc^rBa
v r.A. B
HayKe KoHcrlrryrllroHHoro o [paBa, cyrqecrByer raKoe rroHrrr{e,
KaK 3aKoHoAarenrnrrfi flpoqecc,
B
KoropoM
B
poJrr4 3aKoHoAaren, Bbrcryrraer
3aKoHoAaremuufi opraH.
B
coorBercrBlru (cramx 94) Koncruryqnn Poccuficxofi @e4epaqnrz Cose:r
(De4epaqura
v
focy4apcrBeHH€ul
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B
Poccun
Ayrnra
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c
xapaKTepr,r3yercq,
KaK
.qannoft crarrefi 3aKoHorBoprlecrBo
f,Br.flerc, ocHosHofi Qynxquefi rapnaMeHra Poccuficxofi (De4epaqrau. Huxarlae ApyrI,Ie
opraHbr BJracrH ne o6raAaror AaHHbrM rrpaBorr,r. IIpanoM [pLIHrIMarb Qe4epanumre
3aKoHbr kr Se4epanrHue KoHcrr4Tyr{rroHHbre 3aKoHbr, Koropble
B coorBercrBkrv
Koucruryquefi Poccun r{Meror Bbrcr[yro rcpuAraqecKyro cany no orHoIrIeHIaK)
HopMarrrBHbrM aKTaM, a raK
xe rrpf,Moe AefictBl4e
K ApyrHM
Ha ncefi Teppuropuu Poccnficxofi
(DeAepaqnu. KoHcrrdryrlrroHHoe [oJroxeHne yKa3brBaer,
qro
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flBrfleTcfl, rrocTorHHbrM AeucTByroulr{M opfaHoM, IIo3ToMy aKTI4BH€UI ponb [apnaMeHTa
ilpoqecce fioJlrlTrrrrecxofi u
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npeAorrpeAeneHa
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rcpr,rAuqecrofi Hayre cyulecrByror pa3rr4rrHbre rroAxoAbr
3aKoHoAareJrbHoro rpoqecca. 3arcoHoAaremHuft
Koncruryquefi, 3aKoHaMrr
uru
orrpeAeneHraro
rpoqecc, xoporuo perynupyeuufi
r.r ApyraMrr HopMarvBHbrMu rIpaBoBbIMLI aKTaMH npoqecca
BHeApeHr,rfl, yrBepxAenvts., uy6ruxaqlz-la
3aKoHa
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il
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Qe4epulJlbHoro KoHcrI,ITyIII4oHHoro 3aKoHa.
t1
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cMbIcJIe 3aKoHoAarenbHbrfi flpouecc paccMarpr.rBaercr, KaK aKT
@e4epanrHoro Co6panua Poccuficxofi (De4epaqla:a upunxmrfi 3aKoH Se4epanrssir u
Se4epanrnufi KoHcrl,ITyquonuufi. B 6onee y3KoM cMbrcJre,
KoHcrr4Tyrlr4oHHoro [paBa Moxer 6uru 3aKoHoAarelrnrrfi npoqecc
c
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o6cyx4euilg,, rrpr4Httrrrf,, rroArrvcaHnfl, o6napo4oBantrs, BcryrrneHprfl, B rcp[AurrecKyro
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raxofi xe [poqecc
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v
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u Aonomresufi B Koncruryquro
a\vu.
OpraHu rocyAapcrnesHofi BJracrr cy6remos Poccuficxofi (De4epaquz
ilpr4
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rtpnuflTufl,3aKoHoB u rr3MeHeszfi x nurvr [33, c.53 ].
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HopMarr,rBHbrM aKToM
Har,rBbrc[refi ropugrE.recxofi cuJrbr, Bbrpaxanudufi noruo MHoroHarrr{oH€LrrbHoro HapoAa
.
12
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cyBepeHurera.
Taxnu
u
HapoAHoro
o6pasorra, nau6oree BaxHbre rcpuAr,rqecKue ceoficrsa
Koucruryqun Poccaficxoil @e4epaqzu,
TaKr4e KaK BepxoBeHcrBo, rrpflMoe 4eficrnue,
BLIcoKa, cre[eHb HopMarI{BHoro o6o6rqenur, rApo upanoeofi cLrcreMbr Poccpru.
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HopMarI{BHo-[paBoBoro perynupoBaHufl (6asonrre o6rqecraeHHbre orHorrreH]rfl,
cKJlaAblBarcIquecf, Bo Bcex c$epax xr43HeAerreJrbHocrra o6ulecrna) [33, c.53
cnequQra.recKafl
],
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syn4arraeHTulrrbHbrx [paBoBhrx HopM, paccquraHHbrx Ha AonfocpoqHyrc [epcEeKTuBy
He
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pr
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xnaccuQzKarlrar4
B poccuficxour
3aKoHoAareJrbcrBe, c
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Poccnficxofi
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u uoupaBoK
K rJraBe. rrpraHf,Tue Hosofi Koucruryrlur,r AoJrxHo paBHrrrcs 1, 2
Poccnficxofi tDe4epaqrara.
Tor xe
u 9 Koncrraryrlrau
orpaHlrqesHrrfi Ar{arra3oH cy6rerron rpaBa
3aKoHoAaremHofi t4HLl\varvBbr, Korop€ur BKJlroqaer B ce6x cosHs KoHcrlaryuuonHofi
KoMr{ccr,rv,
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Koucruryqnn Poccuficrofi (De4epaquv, vtrv pa":pa6orarb rrpoeKr rroJrHocrbro noeofi
KoHcruryqu.fl Poccuficxofi @e4epaquu. Conera (De4epaquu u focyAapcrBeHHofi 4yurt
Poccuu [pr,rHrrb yqacrrae B rrporleAype nepecMorpa uIaBbI 1,2 w 9 ocHosHoro 3aKoHa,
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<<@e4epanrsrrfi 3aKoHoAarenrnrrfi
[poqecc) He Moxer 6urr
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Koucruryquu Poccuficrofi @eAepaquu.
rroHHMaHnH coAepxaHur. IIpe4onpeAeJrI4JIa
KoHcruryquu Poccnficxofi @e4epaqnra
B
u
Aonorurenufi
136
Koncruryrlr{oHHoM cyAe Poccuficrofi
@e4epaqun paccMorpeH cnegyrorqufi Bonpoc: KaKraM AonxeH
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cr.
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Poccuficxofi
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o6rerros c[lrcKa
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Koncruryqnu Poccuficrofi @e4epaqzra crarbf,
Poccraficxofi @e4epaqzz np{Mo yKa3blBaer,
3aKOHbr [pr,rHlrMarcTc,
6rr
108 (uacrr 1)
qro Segepanrnue
n uaey
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KoHcrlrryrrr4oHHbre
rro BonpocaM, [peAycMoTpeHHErM Koncruryqnefi Poccuficxofi
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[paBoBoro
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Soprrru Se4epanrHoro KOHCTr4TyrdplOHHOrO 3aKOHa
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BorlpocoB, Korophle AonxHEI
tro cBoeMy
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K ToMy Kpyry
pernaMeHTr4poBaHbr Qe4epanrHbrMr,r
roro, B orJrurrr{e or rro[paBoK Se4epanrHrrfi
csoefi rcpaAurrecrofi [pupoAe rprrHr.rMaerc, Bo
KoHcruryIIuoHHbIMI4 3aroHarvru. Kpoue
KoHcrI4TyIIIaoHurtfi 3aKoH
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Koucruryqzu Poccuficxofi (De4epaquu, He Moxer u3MeHrrb
ee
noJloxeHuit, a raKxe He Moxer crarb ee cocraBnofi.racrsrc [ 21 ].
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PoccIEficxofi @egepaqnra. flo
B crarb]r. 65. Koncrraryunx
AaHHoMy Borrpocy Poccuficxofi @e4epaqnu
Koucruryquounrrfi cyA rrocraHoBuJr, rrro B Bo3MoxHo roJrbKo cy6rerrou Poccuficxofi
@e4epaqran, OAnaxo HaLrMeHoBaHHe vJwr [epelrMeHoBaHue
@e4epaqur{ Moxer rroBJruflTb Ha ocHoBbr KoHcrlrryrlrroHHoro
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u cno6oA,
cy6rexra Poccuficxofi
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3aKoHHbrx r4Hrepecon Poccuficxofi @e4epaquu, Apyrux
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lr3MeHeHlae
flpn
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craryca cBol4x [oApa3Aerenufi
[rJrH KoMrro3r4rlur4. 122
pe€LrrbHoe
1.
ocyuecrBJreHuu roJrKoBanhe HopM ocHoBHoro 3aKoHa, KoucuaryquouHufi
cy.u Poccuficxofi (De4epaquu roBopur, arro ero Bo3MoxHo B orrpeAerenHrrfi cpox, 14-
AnesHrtft s Coeere (De4epaqun.
B pesynbrare cucreMaruqecxofi
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srux
tu l4-lnesHrrfi
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o6saaremHrru paccMorpeHl4eM CoseroN,r <Degepaqura? Coruacno
q. 4 cr.
105
Poccraficrofi @e4epaquu rpaBr,rno ecJru Coner Bo BpeMrr l4-lrueit He o4o6prer
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Afuy
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coorBercrBeHHo An,
o6uapo4oBaulafl,.
Ho cneAy,
3aKoHoAaremuofi rporleAype ilpvrle,flTnfl, Se4epanrnrrx 3aKoHoB,
3aKoHbr HarpaBJrrrb
An, [poMynbra\yv AonxeH Coner (De4epaqrud 3a I{cKJIK)qeHI4eM
cJrfrar, KorAa focy.aapcrBeHHa, AyMa rrpeoAonena Bero Cosera @e4epaqnn. B
AaHHoM cnyqae cyqecrByer rrpaKTuxa Koncrr4Tyrlr{oHHoro Cyau Poccuu, rAe qerKo
o6o:naueno, upunrrrrfi Se4epamnrrfi 3aKoH HarpaBnflercf, kr3 rofi rrilrrarbr, rAe
npouen 3aBepruarcqyro craAr,rrc
B
3aKoHoAareJrbcrBe
Poccuficrofi
@e4epaqnu,
coAepxaTbc, rroJroxeHr4r,
Koropbre o6.ssHsarcT [pr,rAepxuBarbcr onpeAeJreHHbIM npaBlrJraM 3aKoHoAaTeJrEHoro
rpouecca
K
rpr4rrflTuro Se4epaaurux 3aKoHoB H
ycTaHoBneHHoro KoHcTlrTyrlrroHHofo npoqecca.
HEBO3MOXHOCTb H3MEHEHI4f,
15
Peanu:yr npaBo Bero, flpe:u4enr Poccuficxofi @e4epaquu,
rlpeoAoneHut CoBeroM QeAepallutl
flpesu4enra Pocczlr,
focyAapcrBeHHofi [yrraofi 4anHofi KoMnereHrlur4
noArrepKHyn, Bo-BTopbrx, prcKJrrolraercf, Bo3MoxHocrb
neo4o6penzr 3aKoHa coseroN,r @e4epaquu
rrpeoAoneHH-fl
TOJIOCOBAHH.'I
Cya
I4
[yreM
a focyaapcreeHHofi AyMe, a raKxe coruracuTemnofi
AonxeH 6uru o4o6pen
s
eAI,IHofi, paHee
He flonytltlT HaAnexalqero 6orsruzncrBa An, o4o6penzs B
o
rroBTopHoro
KoMraccr,ru (aaxon
npunxrofi peAaKrlllpr); n-rperbux,
pe3ynbrare noBTopHoro paccMorpeHnfl, Se4epanrHoro 3aKoHa
rlpuMer perlreHl,Ie
a B cneAcrBrrr4
Heo6xo4aMocrr.I BHeceHr4,
ecJrr,r B
xor, 6rr oAna Ir3 rrarrar
[pexnefi
B 3aKoHolpoeKT
pe4aKrlr.rn prnu
usrueHeHufi :arru
AorIoJIHeHrafi, 4amnefiuree paccMorpeHr.re 3aKoHorrpoeKTa Bo3MoxHo roJrbKo B noprAKe
o6rqefi 3aKoHoAarelruofi nporleAypsr
|
Kourpolrnue [orHoMotlu.tr B
241.
3aKoHoAareJrbHoM npoqecce llpeua4enTa [email protected]
AocraroqHo lrupoxu. Ecru HMeJrr4cb HapyrueHnfl rropr,ilKa rrpuHflrraa Se4ep€rnbHoro
3aKOHa r{ 3TI4 HapyureHl/,.fl. CTABfiT IIOA COMHeHHe pe3ynETarhr BoJrer43}.flB.JleIJlI,I uaJraT u
caMo npl,IHrrlIe 3aKoHa, Aausuft aKT He flBrrflercfl. ([pr,rHf,TbrM)> [o
cMhrcny
Koucruryquu PO. CreAonareJrbHo, flpe:ra4eHr [email protected] BnpaBe Bo3Bparr,rrb rarofi
3aKoHorrpoeKT H gro ne 6y,Eer cql,rrarbc, ero (orKJIoHeHI,IeM)).
Heo6xo4uMocrb 6wtar.ca KoHcrr4TyrlrloHHbrx norHoNaoqufi rocyAapcrBeHHbrx
opraHoB n Qegepa-nbHoM 3aKoHoAareJrbHoM [poqecce He ucqeplbrBaercfl
.
Cyutecrnylor pa3nrluHbre MHeHHrr B [paBoBeAeHuv B qacrr4 onpeAeneuut craauit
3aKoHoAareJlbHoro npoqecca.
Bbrf
Jrfl A.f,
Ecru o6o6ulurr grr4 AaHHbre, To
AaHHbre
cra1ur
T cneAyrolIlrarvr o6pasou. B ruroqirfl IIpo qec cy€rnbHbre MoMeHThr.
MoxHo BbrAenurb rrpexAe Bcero nplrHrlr{[ 3aKoHHocrH, KaK ocHoBonolararotqufi
TIpLIHIIUII Bcero
poccuftcroro 3aKoHoAareJrbcrBa. Ilpe4cranrflercfl, rrro 3aKoH TBoprlbr
AonxHhI rpl{Aepxr4Barbcfl crporoMy pernaMeHTy npn paccMorpeHuv r,r o4o6peHura
3aKoHonpoeKTa.
rpllHuMalorcq
ro
B cBolo oqepeAb
Se4epanrnHe KoHcrr4Tyr{r4oHHbre 3aKoHbr
BonpocaM rrpeAycMorpeHnrrna KoHcruryt\uit Poccun. OH cqraraercq
rlplltrf,TblM, ecJru oH o4o6peu 6ommlrHcrBoM He MeHee rpex qerBeprefi ronocoB or
o6ulero qvara Coee'ra (De4epaqw n He MeHee AByx rperefi or o6qero AerD/TaroB
f ocy4apcreeHHofi lylau.
.(aree
rpr,rHrlr,rl
IIepBOI,ICTOT{Hr{Ka BJTaCTH.
AeMOKpaTH3Ma, [peArronaraeT yr{acTne
@oplarr y-tacrvfl lpaxAaH
B
HapoAa,
AaHHoM
[poqecce
Se4epanrHoM ypoBue rpe6yrcT Ha Harrr B3rJrf,A HeKoropofi 4opa6orru. KoneqHo,
per{b He HAer
o
KaK
Ha
ecJrra
rocyAapcrseHHofi rafiHe hrru t4Hbrx ocuonauufi rAe rpe6yercx
3aKpbITOCTb IIpI4HTTI'Ifl TOIO I,IJII4 I4HOTO 3aKOHOAaTeJIbHOTO aKTa.
Bon4y csoefi Heuarofi coquamnofi 3HaquMocrlr, [paBorBopqecrBo AonxHo
ocyqecrBJtrrbcs. HacrorIrIHMu npoSeccraoHalaMr{. 3aronogarenursrfi npoqecc
-
B
flepBylo oqepeAr TBopqecKat pa6ora, cBr3aHHa, c Haxox,qeHueM cnoco6a BbrpaxeHnrr
o6qecrneHHbrx orHorrreHrafi vepe: HopMbr rrpaBa.
Brt4elxercx f{eHbIMI4 tarofi rrpr{Hrlrrn, KaK HayqHocrb. Anarns
3aKoHoAareJlbcrBa cBuAereJlbcrByer o6
sro n 6orsruefi creuenn. Pagsurre o6rqec:rsa u
o6qectseHHblx orHollreHrafi rpe6yror HayqHoro rroAxoAa K AaHHoMy Borrpocy, Aa6rr
yqecrb coBpeMeHHoe cocToflHl,,e
I,I
Bo3MoxHo HeKoTophre oco3HaHHbre u onuparcIlluecq
Ha BbIBoAax 6y4yu1l4e Bo3MoxHbre
KoJrJrr43ura, cBr3aHHhre
c
npuHqrueM, Toro
r4Jrr,r
r4HOrO 3aKOHa.
Pr4 yrenblx BblAenfler u Apyrue rpuHrlr4flbr 3aKoHoAareJrbHoro rpoqecca. TaK,
B.C. Hepcecf,Hll BhIAeJIrer raroft [pr,rHrlur, KaK npaeoeoil npozpecc. fianHrrfi npuHrlr{r
rpe6yer, .mo6rr 3aKoHoAaremnrril [poqecc rocyAapcrBa 6ura
B MaKcr4MaJrbHo
Bo3MoxHofi creneHr.r HarrpaBJreHa Ha AanbHefiuree pa3Br.rrr{e pr coBepmeHcrBoBaHr.re
4eficrnyroqero [o3HTr{BHoro [paBa B pycne o6ulerlnBr.rnr,r3aur{oHHbrx AocruxeHuit y
o6nacru [paB u ceo6oA rreJroBeKa r4 lpaxAaHvt*a, yrBepxAennfl
u
ycvilenus,
HalraJr
rocroAcrBa rpaBa, rpaBoBoro 3aKoHa H npaBoBofi rocyAapcrBeHHocrur f36, c.421 ).
A.C. lluromun BbrAenf,er raKxe [puHrlrarr
npeAonpeAeJreH
Koucruryqnefi Poccuu kt
.{annrrfi [plrHrlr4rr
Hocr{r 6esycnonnrrft xapaKTep,
zy^4aHu3t4a.
npeAnonaraer HarlpaBneHHocrb HopMarr,rBHoro aKTa Ha o6ecueqenze peanbHoro
Aeficrnuq rlpaB u ceo6oA lpaxAaH, Ha yAoBnerBopeHne Hx Marepua.nbHhrx r{ AyxoBHbrx
norpe6Hocrefi. Bo.nruroe 3HarreHue uMeer ro, vro6nr H3AaBaeMafl ropvtpivrrecKtur HopMa
B pannofi creIIeHI{ orBer{ala llHTepecaM KaxAoro qeJroBeKa, Koroporo 4annrrfi
HHcrHTyr rlpl43Haer cy6texrorra rpaBa Lr He rrpeAycMarpkrBaila xaxofi-nu6o
Ar4cKprrMltHarlpru B orHorrresuu
roit uttu uruoit qac'ru HaceJreH[rt | 40, c.2ll ].
77
l-Ipra groM pyKoBoAcrByqcb [p]rHrlnnaMr.r ryMaHu3Ma,
AeMoKparvI3Ma,, ruIacHocrl4, HayqHocru
v r.A. 3aroHo4a:relrHrrfi
3aKoHHocrr.r,
npoqecc Moxer
ollpeAenf,rcf, KaK AetrenbHocrb olpeAeneHHhrx Koncruryqzefi Poccuficxofi
(De4epaquu, @e4ep€IJIbHhIMI,I 3aKoHaMra, a raK
(De4epaquu,
ux
KoHcrl{ryl\krflMr
v
xe
3aKoHarr,ru cy6reKToB
ycraBaMn, CnssaHHa{
c
Poccnficrofi
pealusaqueft [paBa
3aKoHoAarelrgofi vHlaqlzrarvBbl, BKJIroqa, paccMorpeHr{e, o6cyx4enr{e, B ToM rrr4cJre ,
npHHf,TEe, rroAnI,IcaHI,Ie rI o6napogoBaHrle, I{3MeHeHHe I,I orMeHy 3aKoHos
Poccuficrofi
(De4epaqnn.
1.2 Craaw{ 3aKoHoAareJrbHoro [poqecca
A.
f.
fysnon, A. A. Keneson u T. 3. Pox4ecrneHcKiur onpe.qenrror craAHK)
KaK
3aKOHOAaTeJrbHOrO npOUeCCa, perJraMeHTr,rpoBannrrfi
OTHOCI,ITeJIbHbILI
4eficrnylollluMu [paBuJIaMH TaK]rM o6pasola, r{To roJrbKo ero oKoHtraHr,re Aaer
Bo3MoxHocrb rlepefitu
r
crIeAyIoUeMy erarly [ 30, c.77 ].
rIoHflTUe ((CTaAlIf, 3aKOHO.UareJrbHOfO IIpOqeCCa>
V
A.U.
A6parraona r{crronb3yer
OlpeAeJlrer
ee KaK HeKyro
coBoKytlHocrb [poqeccytllbHbrx Aeilcrsufi, croco6crnyrorqux
orpeAeneHHoro rpaBoBoro pe3ynbrra
l
Aocrr,rxeHr,rrc
45, c. 19 l.
Parpa6oma 3aKoHorlpoeKTa B KaqecrBe caMocrorremHofi craqnu lpoqecca
co3AaHI,I.f, 3aKoHa BbIAeJI-f,[acb errle B AopeBonrorlraoHHbrfi neprao4
Haupurr,rep, n MaHnQecre 6
arrycra 1905 r.
poccrEftcrofi ucropun.
lc rroJrHoMorrnf,M focy4apcrseHHofi .Ilyrrau
orHocHJII4cb rlpeABapureJlbHas pa:pa6oma
v
o6cyx4eHrae
3aKoHoAareJrbHbrx
rlpeArorloxeuufi. B ctarre 5 Yvpex4eHufl focy4apcrsenuofi lyrvru or 20 $enpanr
1906 r. ycraHaBJrI,IB€LIIocb, tITo An, [peABapuTeJrbuofi parpa6orru floAnexaulux ee
paccMorpeHlllo Aen oHa Moxer o6paeonrrBarb
144, c.325-326)
r,r3
csoefi cpeAbr orAeJrbr
r,r KoMrrcclrH
.
B cosercrufi nepnoA 6onrml4HcrBo yqeHbrx paccMarpytBanwr 3aKoHoAarenrnufi
npoqecc
l)
B y3KoM cMbIcJIe KaK
[ocJreAoBarenbrryrc coBoKylHocrb cneAyroqux cra4nil:
3axoHoAareJrbHafl krHvrr\warvBa,
2)
o6cyx4eHue 3aKoHo[poeKTa, 3)
flplaHrrue 3aKoHoIIpoeKTa B KaqecrBe 3aKoHa, 4) ouy6luxoBaHue (o6napo4oraune)
18
3aKoHa.
L. A. Kosaqer
cqHTaJI, trro (3aKoHoAaTelrHrrfi npoqecc cBoAHTcfl
coBoKynHocrll geitctouit kr orHotuenufi, Koropbre pe€Llrd3yrorcs
B
K
AeqrenbHocrpr
BbIculero [peAcraBI4TeJIbHoro opraHa, o6la4arotqero HcKrrorrr4TeJrbHbrM [paBoM
ocyqecTBJlrTb 3aKoHoAarenbHyto BJracTb) u
3aKOHOAaTenbHyIO
IlpeAnafuur He BKlrorraTb
B
[porleAypy [OAroToBKy rrpoeKToB HopMaTrrBHbrx aKroB, a TaKxe
oQnqnanbHoe ony6nnroBaHr,re
rr
BBeAeHlre
c.156]. OcHosHofi apryueHT cBoAI{rc.rI
aKToB npaBoBble HopMbI
B 4eficrnne HopMarrrBHbrx aKToB
K ToMy,
[
31,
rrro HH B KaKHx rpoeKTax HopMarr{BHbrx
He coAepxarcr. A. A. Kosa.res He
BKJrroqzIJr
B
3aKoHoAarelHGrft npoqecc Aaxe craALIrc peaJrvrcar\ukt npaBa 3aKoHoAarelruofi
uHr4rJI/larvnrr.
.{elo
B ToM, tITo oH paccMarp%Ba[r craAHro 3aKoHoAareJrbHoro npoqecca
KaK coBoKyrlHocrb Aeficrsnfi Lr otuourenr.rfi, o6re4uHeHH6rx e4unofi
qeJrbro,
pealusyenaofi 4eficrnueu Bblctuero [peAcraBr4TeJrbHoro opraHa, o6naAaroqero
HcKJIIoIII,ITeJIrHrIM
rlpaBo ocyqecrBJrf,Tb 3aKoHoAarenbHyrc BJracrb. OAuaro
3aKOHOtIpOeKT, paccMaTplreaeN,Erfi [apJraMeHToM,
TaKxe eIIe He coAepxnr n ce6e HopM
[paBa. Hanuqo y3Koe [oHr,rMaHr,re 3aKoHorBopr{ecrBa.
B ro xe BpeM, HeKoropble aBTopbr rroHr,rManrl 3aKoHoAarelrnrrfi [poqecc B
6olee tuupoxoM KoHTeKcre. Haupuuep, VI. H. Kysneqon cqur€Llt HelpaBunbHbrM
paccMorpeHl,Ie 3aKoHoAareJlbHoro [poqecca (KaK coBoKynHocrr4 4eficrnufi,
[poreKalolrlux I{cKnIolIHTeJIbHo
B paMKax Bbrcruero
npeAcraBlrreJrbHoro opraHa)). H. E.
AH4pIaaHon [peAJIaftIJI uepnofi craAuefi 3aKoHoAareJrbHoro rrpoqecca cqr4Tarb He
TOJIbKO BHeCeHI{e npOeKTa Ha paCCMOTpeHr4e 3aKOHOAareJrbHOfO OpraHa,
Ho pr BcK)
rlpeAlxecTByroqyro AeqTenbHocTb rro ero [oAfoToBKe, ocyqecTBlqeMyro B ycnoBErx
urupoxofi rJlacHocrl{
c
yqacrHeM MHorux n}rq 14 KoJrJreKTHBoB,
o6qecrseHHocru, a I,IHorAa LI Bcero HapoAa.
6olrnoro {pyra
flo ero MHeHHro, sra pa6ora cocraBJr{er
coAepxaHl{e nepnofi crailur 3aKoHoAareJlbHoro rrpoqecca, Koropyn oH HasbrBaer
cra4ueit (rporBneHr,rrr 3aKoHoAarenbH oir uuuguarr.rBbr) [ 47, c .62 l.
B reopHu rlpaBa raKxe orMeq€urocb, LITo 3aKoHoAareJrbHa,
vnnr\varuBa
BKrloqaer n ce6s KaK noAroroBKy I{ [peABapr4TeJrbHoe o6cyx4eru4e 3aKoHorrpoeKTa,
TaK H BHeCeHr4e ero Ha paccMoTpeHr,re 3aKoHoAaTeJrbHofo opfaHa.
19
A. C. flurolruH yrBepxAaJr cneAyroqee: (ecJru roJrararl, r{To rrpaBorBopuecrcnfi
npoqecc orpaHzrleH .ue{TenbHocrbro 3aKoHoAareJIg, To 3a ero paMKaMkI ocraHercfl
BecbMa BaxHbIx
pg[
I{ rcpI{AruecKI,I 3HarruMbrx 4eficrnufi no rroAroroBKe npoeKra> [ 40,
c.61.
B
upaeorBopvecKoM [poqecce oH BbrAeJrrJr ABe craAr,ru: 1) npeanapuTenbHoe
QoprraupoBaHue rocyAapctseHHofi BoJrr{, Bbrpaxaroqeecf, BHerrrHe
B cocraBJreHrru
npoeKTa HopMarLIBHoro aKTa r.r 2) oSw\uanbHoe Bo3BeAeHHe BoJrra HapoAa B 3aKoH,
3aKpenJreHr{e ee B HopMax [paBa.
B conpeuennofi HayKe Her
eAHHoro MHeHur orHocr{TeJrbHo KoJruqecrBa
t4
K roMy xe ropa3Io 6otrtllee BHuMaHHe
npoqecca. Tax, C. C. Arexceee BbrAenrJr
coAepxaHHf, craIiuit co3AaHuq 3aKoHa.
yAeJIeHo craAr4flM 3aKoHoAareJlbHoro
cneAyroque:
1)
3aKoHoAareJrbHafl r4Hu\uaryrBa;
2)
rrpuHtrl{e rIoAroroBJIeHHoro 3aKoHolpoeKTa B 3aKoHoAareJrbHoM opraHe
K
paccMorpeHlrro n o6cyx4eHr4e 3axoHorrpoeKTa;
3) \pyrr,flrue3aKoHorpoeKra;
4) [email protected]
B ro xe BpeM, HeKoropbre yrreHbre [peAnararor
3aKoHorBopqecKoro [poqecca. HaupuMep, tO.
A.
craqlala
EMeHHo
TuxorraupoB BhrAenf,er cneAyrorrlne
cTaAIdId:
1)
2)
3)
parpa6orKa KoHr{en\vvtvrloAroroBKa 3aKoHorrpoeKTa;
4)
cnerlr{irnbHoe rr o6nlecrneHHoe o6cyx4enve rpoeKra;
5)
paccMorpeHr{e
6)
ony6ruroBaHr4e 3aKoHa u BcryrrneHne ero B craJry f 42, c.I83 ].
rporHo3r.rpoBaHner{nJraHupoBaHr,re;
BHeceHHe rpeAnoxemvir o pa:pa6orKe 3aKoHorpoeKra;
M. IInatoHoB
pa3Aenrrcq[xc,
v ilpvr:aflrve;
B 3aKoHorBopqecKoM [poqecce npeAJraraer BbrAenflTb rpLr 3Tarra,
Ha cooTBeTcTByrcrque cTaAIdu:
20
1)
rpeABapr,rreJrbHbrfi
norpe6uocrv B
BbI'BJIEHI,IC
rpaBoBoM
perynapo BaHvry\ u3yqeHue Saxropos, $opnarapyroqux 3aKoHorBoprrecKoe
perueHue;
2)
roAroroBKa 3aKoHonpoeKra
3aKOHOrrpOeKTa,
-
rroAforoBKa
npr,rHf,rr,re peureHru
o
rroAroroBKe
efo reKcra, o6cyx4euue
reKcra,
couracoB aHue 3aKoHorrpoeKTa, 4opa6orxa;
3)
[pr,rHrr]re 3aKoHa - BHeceHHe 3aKoHolpoeKTa Ha
rrapJraMeHTa,
paccMorpeHue
o6cyx4enue 3aKoHonpoeKTa, foJrocoBaHr{e, [oArtilcaH[e
3aKoHa, AoBeAeHr,re ero Ao aApecara
|
41, c.29-321.
Pacupe4eJreHue pEBrI,ItrHbIx craaui,t 3aKoHorBoptrecrBa 3a
yqeHhlMu pa3iIHtIHbIx KpI,ITepIaes.
iloxoxe, rrro
cqer r4crroJrb3oBalsa
ocHoBHEre Kpurepkrr4 (upe4naraerc, B
KaqecrBe €IrlbrepHarrrBbl vt He KyMynf,Tr4nnrre) ABur€rror 3aKoHorrpoeKT
cy6rexra HopMorBop.recrofi AesrenbHocrrr
K Apyrr4M
or
oAHoro
Soxyczpyacb Ha rpoqecc.
3aroHo4areJlbHaf, I,IHI,IIII4arr,rBbr B Poccraficxofi @e4epaqzu ocyqecrBJrrercf,
rocpe,qcTBoM BBeAeHI,L 3aKoHorlpoeKTa
AoKyMeHToB
B focy4apcrseHHofi Ayre
V
[prrKpenneH]re co[poBoxAaroqux
krltu B 3aKoHoAareJrbHoM (npe4cranurelurou)
opfaHe rocyAapcreeHHofi BJIacrI4 cy6rexra Poccptficxofi <De4epa\uur. Cquraercr, rrro
gror grarl, HatllrHaer 3aKoHoga:rerrHrtfi [poqecc e PoccHH, Ho 3aKoHoAarelrHrtfi
npoqecc HaquHaercfl rop€I3Ao paHblxe. OcnoerrBaflcb Ha BbrrrreyKa3aHHbrx KpilTepr4rx,
MOXHO OTMeTUTb CneAyrOUIr4e
:
- Kpyr cy6reruon paspa6orKr4 3aKoHorpoeKra rxupe, r{eM Kpyr cy6rerroB
rrpaBa
3aKoHoAarelrnofi trP^ktlluaTlr,Bbl, TaK I(aK pa3pa6orarr 3aKoHorrpoeKT MoryT He ToJrbKo
cy6rexru,
reper{HcneHHble
B qacru
I crarru 104 u
crarbe 134 Koncrnryqun
Poccnftcxofi @egepappt
-
IleneBafl HalpaBJleHHocrb 4efictnnfi Ha cra4ufrx paspa6orKu 3aKoHorrpoeKTa
peaJIrI3aIIVH rrpaBa 3aKoHoAaremuofi unvrrluarvBbr {BJr.f,ercs pa3Jru.rHofi:
B
H
nepBoM
cryqae neo6xoAuuo ertpa6orarb rpoeKT 3aKoHa H ero conpoBoAr4TeJrbHbre AoKyMeHTEr,
a Bo BTOpOM BJIaCTI,I.
BHeCTLI 3aKOHO[pOeKT
Ha
paCCMOTpeHHe OpfaHa 3aKoHoAaTelrHofi
2t
O6rqenpuH{To B TeopI4E rlpaBa, iloA p€Bpa6orxofi 3aKoHo[poeKTa npeAcraBJrrrr,
pealrr43arlnrc o6ulerocy4apcraeuHofi roJrr,rrnKt4
B rlenoM.
KoHe.rHo
xe c freroM
[IpI{HIII4TIoB 3aKoHoAarenbHofi 4exreJrbHocrH. fyrraaHucrnqecKux ocHoB,
HaceJIeHHfl,
rlacTr,re
yrrpaBneHrrr4
HaceneHr{c
AenaMpr
yqer
MHeHr4c
focy.{apeBa,
KaK
He[ocpeAcrBeHHo, TaK I,I qepe3 [peAcraBr,ITeJrbHbre Qoprrasr AeMoKparvp1 corrytarrbHaq
HanpaBneHHocrb rocyAapcreeHHofi noJrHTr{Kr4. Brrpaxaroulefi
Taruu o6pa.:ona, 3aKoHoAaremnufi npoqecc
cr
B HopMarr{BHoM aKTe.
flBrfle^rcfl Sopuofi pe€urr.r3arllru
3aKoHoAareJIbHbIx rloJlHoMovttfi upegcraBureJrbHbrx opraHoB rocyAapcreeHuofi BJracrrr
[ 58, c. 24-261.
OcHosonolaratoulefi craAnefi 3aKoHoAareJrbHoro [poqecca {BJr{erc,
rrpeAcraBJreHrae 3aKoHoAarelrnofi r{Hr,rrlr4arr{Bbr.
3axoHoAateJrbH€tfl vukrr\uutvBa
Moxer
paccMarpvrBarbcfl., KaK coBoKylHocrb
Aeficrr,ufi, rlo BHeApeHlrK) y[onHoMoqeHHbrMr4 opraHaMlr, rrprHoBHr,rKaMr{, AerryraraMr u
o6rqecrseHHblMl{ opraHu3al{urrMrr (npana 3aKoHoAarelrsofi uHuqnarnnrr)
3aKoHoAareJIbHoM opraHe,
[poeKT 3aKoHa, npeAnoxeHr4,
o ero
B
ny6luraqnu,
coAeftcrel,If, I,I3MeHeHVrc EJII4 orMeHe [paBoBhrx HopM. BosMoxHocrb rrprrHrrrL Mepbr Ha
TO r,IJrI,r r,rHoe
B
pe[reH[re.
3aBHcI{MocrI4
or
cral.krvr lltpunflTnfl, 3aKoHa npo{Bnrrorcfl TaKHe Soprr,ru
no66uponaHnfl. KaK KoHcynbrarl{Bnufi no66r,r3M B 3aceAaHuf,x 3aKoHo,qarenbHbrx
opraHoB, KoMr4TeroB
rIpaBHTenbcrBeHHbIx
Koncylrrarr4BHafl,
rpyrt[a [poABr,rraer ror
t4 xolauccnft, pa6o.rux
r4rrur
unofi
krJru
rpymr.
3aKoHorrpoeKT. 3xcnepr
tIoAroraBJIHBaer 3axrloqeHurr, BhrBoAbr H Apyfr,re uHQoprraarluoHHrre aHaiu,rrr,rqecKlre
Marepu€ulbl I4 pac[pocrpaHf,ror Hx cpeAr,r [peAcraBurelefi opraHoB BJracrH.
IIpOECXOAI4T C AOnXHOCTHbIMI4 II,IIIaMI4
paMKax o6cyx4ennx
B
B
rapnaMeHTe.
COOTBeTCTBIIIH
B
[eficrnue
C IIOJIOX€H.Idfl}'{PI [pOeKTa
MoMeHT noAroroBKlr
KOMTIeTeHTHOTO HaIII4OHiInbHOfO OpfaHa rrpoeKTa HOpMaTr4BHoro
vt
B
o6cyx4eHrEr
[paBoBofo
aKTa.
Ha cra4nu 3aKoHo.{aremsofi HHHrrnarHBbr traule Bcero [poracxoAr{T
no66uponanlae HHTepecoB. B noJlllTuqecxofi, coqualrHofi, gKoHoMlrrrecrofi,
SuHanconofi, npanonofi H Ap. cSepax AerreJrbHocru o6ulecrna. Tarc xe MoxHo
BbIAenI,ITb cJleAyloque
rrlflbr no66uponaHufl; nprMbre
Lr KocBeHHbre,
3alnaH[rpoBaHHhre
22
14
lnropanr{cruqecKr4e (Aanneuue
CfIOHTAHHbIC,
3alrHTepecoBaHHbrx
Jrlru, rpyln
focyAapcrBeHHbrx opraHoB B oTHorrreHr4H nonyr{eHru HeKoropbrx noco6r4fi,
u r.A.),
TaK xe I4 npeArpr4flrvfl tITo 6br
ilonfrr{nu
rbror,
npaB
s
o6NreH Ha
r{acTHble
I{HTepechI,
QunaHcrapoBaHue
norJlbHocTb, JlbroTbr r{ fapaH tuu).
Ilocxomxy ocHoBHaf,
rlenb
no66upoaaHyrfl,
[pr4 KoHconrlAar\urr lpyrtn
lpaxAaHcKoro o6Iqecrna H opraHHza\nit w ilo6dupoBaHr,rf, e 6omruuHcrBe cn) raeB
[oHuMaercr, KaK KoHKperHbre r4Hcrl4Tyrbl rroJruTuqecrofi cl4creMbr, MexaHra3M
Aeficrrlufl, rlacrHblx pr o6ulecrneHHbrx opranzsaqufi, rroJrlrrprqecKrax naprlwit,
upoSeccuoHilllbHble, Kop[oparr4BHbre, [poucxoAr4T 3To
npo$coro3oB, KoMranvwt, r,r r.A.
(rax nasrrBaeMbre (rpyrrrrbr
AaBneHr,rr>) na flpoqecc
npvuTr4fl, peurennfi B [apnaMeHTe, MoxHo yrBepxAarb, rrro HayKa npr43Haer I,rHcr]rryT
no66rapon aHufl. ToJrbKo Ha 3aKoHoAareJr bHoM ypo BHe.
Peueuue, [puHrroe
rro3r,rrr{BHbrM.
Ilpano
3aKoHoAareJrbHhrM opraHoM,
He o6xsarelrHo 6yaer
3aKoHoAaremuofi Lrlg^nr\Lrarr4Bbr, qBrsercq cy6rerrnBHbrM
rrpaBoM, a gro o3Har{aer,
qro
AaHHoe [paBo He
Moxer 6rnr [epeAaHo n o6ssaHHocrb
3aKoHoAaremHofi BJracrrd (nanare) rrpuHf,Tb 3aKoHo[poexT
Bbrpa3urb cBoe orHorueHr,re
peanr43arluu u
HeMy. Taxuur o6pasola, [paBo 3aKoHoAarelruofi
f,BJrreTc, KoHcTr4ryuHoHHbrM [paBoM,
HHHIII{ATHBbI
cy6rerror
K
lnfl
c
orpaHHqeHHbrM KpyroM
npaBa Ha peulnr43ar{raro AaHHbrx KoHcrrrryrluoHHhrx Bo3MoxHocrefi.
IOpu4nuecxu 3HarruMbre Bo3MoxHocrrr KoMnereHTHbrx yqacrHuKoB unLr\uvrpoBarb
[poqecc
3aKoHorBoprrecrBa.
[aHnoe
[paBo
peanr,r3yeTcf,
cy6rerrauu
3aKoHoAaremuofi r4Hr,rrluarr,rBbr, 6ecupeuxrcrBeHHo,
cgo6oAHo, caMocrof,TeJrrHo.
Moxer 6urr
o6ulurvr r4 ctrequ€umnrru (r.e.
Ilpano 3aKoHo.qaremHofi
Ltuttr1laaruBhr
rrpeAMerbr negeuzx).
Peanusarlw, cyi'seKToM cBoero [paBa 3aKoHoAarerurofi lann\varytBbr sBJrf,erc,
ropuA[qecKprM
$arrou, c KoropbrM
cB.fl3aHo Bo3HlrKHoBeHr4e [paBoorHourenufi rro
noBoAy paccMoTpel]us. vt ttpvr}lfrTldfl [paBoTBoprIecKHM opraHoM 3aKoHoAaTeJrbHoro
aKra.
flo
xapaKrepy nocre4crnufi
uparoo6puByroqr{M,
Aeficrsuq, KaK
u
4auuufi rcpuAuqecxufi Saxr
a rro BoneBoMy coAepxaHr,rrc - K geficreuxu.
OTHOCrITC' K
YragaHHrre
HHbre Aeficrnus, cocraBJrrroqrre coAepxaHr,re 3aKoHoAareJrbHoro
23
npoqecca, I4MeIor rry6nuuHo-BJlacrHblfi xapamep H ocyqecrBJrfforc, KoMrrereHTHhrMH
cy6rerrauu.
Bropofi cragwei't 3aKoHoAareJIbHoFo irpoqecca {BJrrercf, craqprfl o6cyx4enu.r
3aKoHo[poeKTa.
lauruat
co6ofi coBoKynHocrr p.eitcrsuia rro
cra4r4fi. [peAcraBJrrer
IrpeABapureJlbHoMy paccMorpeHl,Ito
t4 o6cyx4enuro
3aKoHonpoeKTa KoMLrreraMrr
(nocrorHHhlMla rouuccuxuu) 3aKoHo.qareJrbHoro opraHa, paccMorpeHr4ro
o6cyx4eHIaro 3aKoHo[poeKTa
B [epBoM trreHr,ru, gopa6o'rxe 3aKoHolpoeKTa
rlepBoro rITeHuq, rro paccMorpeHldlo
rn
Lt
[ocJre
o6cyx4eHuro 3aKoHorrpoeKTa Bo BTopoM qreHur,r,
4opa6otre 3aKoHolpoeKTa [ocJre BToporo trreHufl, paccMorpeHr4ro ero B TperbeM
r{TeHLIu. KaxAufi grarr paccMorpeHlrt u o6cyxAenr4f, 3aKoHorrpoeKTa 3aBepuraercf,
rIprIH.flTIreM Toro IIJIH HHoro peureHraf,, Koropoe AoKyMeHT€LrrbHo oQoprranxercs..
Taruna o6parona, tperuefi craauefi 3aKoHoAareJrbHoro npoqecca flBnrflercr
rlpl4lrf,Tl4e 3aKoHa. YrasaHnaq cra4r4fl
crailr4hr 3aKoHo[poeKTy
.sBrrerc, ruanuofi, TaK KaK prMeHHo na srofi
Aaercr osuquanbHafl orIeHKa co cTopoHbr 3aKoHoAarenbHoro
opraHa focyAapcrseHHofi BJIaCTH, [poucxo.qr{T HenocpeAcTBeHHoe 3aKoHoAaTenbHoe
3arperneHr{e rocyAapcrBeHHofi nolu.
3arono4atelrnufi [poqecc 3aBepuaerc{
BBeAeHHeM 3aKoHa
B 4eficrnue. 3ra
rroAnr4caHr4eM, o6napo4oBaHueM
Ll
cra4vrfl orJrr4qaercq cy6rerrHuu cocraBoM
(ocuonHar ponb Ha Aannofi craqnu rrpuHaAnexr,rr rJraBe rocyAapcrBa, KoropbrM
coBepualorc, ocHoBHbre rcpuAlrqecKr,r 3Haqr{Mbre geficrnur),
BpeMeHHbrMn paMKavla Lt r.rHbrMr4 oco6eHnocr{Mpr
coAepxaHueM,
125l.
C'rpourerbcrBo 3aKoHoAaremsofi AerrenbHocrr{ Ha ocHoBe upeit, xonqenqufi,
MoAepHI,I3aWV vr eSQerrunHocrH,
B nepBylo oqepeAb, ueo6xoAuuo pa:pa6orarr
Aonrocpot{Hylo crparer}Iro An, 3aKoHorBoprrecrBa c BbrqBreHr4eu sau6onee HacyrqHbrx
BorlpocoB, rpe6yroqux coorBercrByloqr4e HopMorBopqecKr,rx pe[reHuitu olpeAeneHr{,
qerefi rpaBoBoro perynupoBaHr4f,
.
Tarnvr o6pasoru, ueo6xogr.rMyro ocHoBy, Koropa, AoJrx(Ha Jrex(arb B
e$$erruruofi garoHorBopqecxofi
B
ocHoBe
AoJIxHbr crarb EpoABExeHLre npanonofi HAeoJrorr4u.
ocHoBe 3aKoHoAaremnofi AeqrerbHocrr,r rocyAapcrBa,
a raK xe AonxHo 6uru
eAIanofi KoHIIemII4fi upaeonoro p€BBr,rraf,, Bce geircT.E,ut rocyAapcrBeHHbrx opraHoB
r,r
24
AOIXHOCTHbIX nUII AOJIXHbI 6bITb npoAyMaHbr, nOTOMy qTO OHr4 AOJTXHbT nOAqHHrrTbCfl
3TOfi KOHrIelqUr4 B paMKaX OAHOTO [pOqeCCa [paBOBOrO pa3BrirTuf,.
Ha
ocHoBe upeit, xosqenqufi
IoJTHTLIKa [pI,IMeHeHI4'
TOM
efo
vt AonxHa o[peAenrrbc,
rocyAapcrBeHHzur
3aKOHOAaTeDnOfi AerTenbHOCTLr r4 rrpoqecc CO3AaHyrfl.,
rrLlcre HOpMaTI4BHO-[paBOBbrX
B
aKTOB.
Bo npeur [puBr3Kr{ r( KoHKperuofi cvrya\vr4, Bo MHorux cnyqarx ecrecrBennrrfi
3aKoH ueo6xoAurrao r,r3MeH[Tb KoHrlenrytlrrbHo coAepxareJrbHo, cocraBJreHHbre Ha
nranosofi ocHoBe, xopouo cKoopAuHHpoBaHHbIx KoJrJreKTr,rBHbrx rIeHTpoB. B opranax
rocyAapcrseHHofi BJracru Poccuficrofi @e4eparpz.t4 u cy6rexros Poccuu.
B eAunofi HarluoHarrrHofi [porpaMMe
HopMorBopqecrBa, Koropair Aonxua BKrroqarb ypoBeHb Se4epanrHoro
Cyulecrnyer raKxe norpe6Hocru
3aKoHoAareJrbcrBa, ypoBeHb 3aKoHoAareJrbcrBa
cy6rerroe Poccur
r,r
MyHr,rqunanrHrrfi
3aKoHoAarenrnrrfi ypoBeHb. Oco6oe 3HarreHne raMeer co3AaHlae eAuHofi cucreMbl
ocHoBHhrx [p[rHIIr,IloB, Kareropuit
u r,oHrrrvfi, xoroprre
[puMeH.rl]orcq K co3AaHuro
Qe4epanrHux yr per-raoH€rnbHhrx 3aKoHoB Anfl eAr{HcrBa rlenla
pt
[puopl4TeroB.
focy4apcrBeHHoe 3aKoHoAareJrbcrBo rapaHTrrpyer ee npaBoBoe [pocrpaHcrBa. B ro
BpeMs cyqecrByer neo6xoAr,rMocrb KoHTponq
u
xe
1atascrrpoBKll grl4x rlpoqeccoB Ant
r,rcKrrorreHur <<npo6eJroB) QeAepanrHoro rroAxoAa K eroMy [poqeccy.
Vnytuenue KaqecrBa 3aKoHorBopqecrna (saxoHoAarenrcrna)
[poqecca,
co3.qaHrae
n coorBercrByloqero
Heo6xoAuuux ycrouufi Arta uomroqensofi 3aKoHoAarersnofi
pa6orrr, peryJrr{poBaHue no66r,rponanvr5, HopMarI{BHoe o6ecueqeuue rpe6onaunfi
3aKOH OAaTeJrbCTBa
Tarnu
COq[alr,I3 A\t4V.
o6pa":orr,r, crailvut 3aKoHoAareJrbHoro [poqecca pacnoJlaralorcf,
v
o6cyx4enne
OpfaHe; [pHHrTr,re 3aKOHa;
TIOATIPICaHLIe,
cneAyroqlrM o6pasorra: BHeceHlre 3aKoHorpoeKra; paccMorpeHple
3aKOHOrrpOeKTa
B
3aKOHOAareJrbHOM
o6HapogoBaHue H BBeAeHHe 3aKoHa n 4eficrnue.
Brrno4 rro nepBofi r.nane:
3arouoAaremnrrfi rrpoqecc co3AaHH, upaeonofi HopMbI, laartv:r.afl c 3apox.qeuufi
v4ev
o Hefi B
cBfl3v
c
rocBreHr,reM uorpe6Hocru
B npaaonofi
pernaMeHTarlnl4
coorBercrByroulrax o6ulecraeHHbrx orHorueHrafi u xoHqas ee rlpkrHflTneM
I4 BBeAeHI{eM B
25
AeficrBlae, MoxHo ycJIoBHo paBAenurb
Ha ABa
pa3nr,rtrHbrx
grala. Ilepeufi
rrpeArrrecrByer Harlany oSnuuamnofi pa6orrr HaA 3aKoHorrpoeKToM rro HHr4rlrrarr,rBe
caMoro 3aKoHoAareJlbHoro opraHa nu6o cy6rerra 3ar(oHoAarenrnofi r.rHr4rlltaruBbr.
Bropofi
BKJIIoqaer rIepI{oA o$nqua-rrrnofi
pa6oru HaA rpoeKroM cy6rexra
3aKoHoAarelrHofi rrlavt\uaruBb1 caMoro 3aKoHoAareJrbHoro opraHa nra6o, conracHo
yTBepxAeHHoMy
yr{pexAeH vfl,
LIll.la
HM nnaHy cooTBeTcTByroqero
o6qecrneHHofo o6re4uneuur.
rocyAapcTBeHHoro, HayqHofo
26
KOHCTIITyrIIOHHO - fTPABOBbTE OCHOBbT OEAEPAJTbHOTO U
pErr,roHAJIbHof o 3AKOHOAATEJIbHOI O IIPOrIE C CA
2
2.1 Oco6eHHocrrr Qe4epa.nrHoro 3aKoHoAareJrbHoro rpoqecca n Poccuu
JLo6oe coBpeMeHHoe rocyAapcrBo, rrpr4Ha.{nexarqee
K poMaHo-repnaancrofi
upanoaofi c?IcreMe, LIMeer OcuoeHofi saron, ocHoBonoJrararorrlufi
ra
perynnpyrorqufi, u
[peAonpeAeJl{IotuLlfi npanoe perynupoBauure o6rqec:rneHHbrx orHorueHrafi. Pocckrfl
AaHHoM
cnf{ae He flBJrrercq ucKrror{eHrreM. Koucruryr\ufl Poccuficxofi
B
(Delepa\prur
3aKJIaAbIBaer $yn4arraeHTilllbHble [pr{Hrlrrrrbr 3aKoHoAarelrnofi AerrenbHocrlr,
3aKoHorBopuecrcofi Aef,TeJrbHocru.
Oupe4enrx
rlpu
3To
KoMIeTeHIII{r'r
ucKlroqureJlbHoro BeAeHLIs Poccuficrofr @e4epaquu, coBMecrHoro BeAeHu,
Poccuficrofi (De.qeparpnu I,I ee cy6rexros.
B CoorBercrBr4u co
cr.76 Koncrnryqnu
Poccuu no rpeAMeraM BeAeHu.s Poccuficxofi @e4epa\uu rpr.rHzMarorcx
Qe4ep€rJrbHbre
KoHcrlITyIIuoHHhIe 3aKoHbI Ia Se4epanbHble 3aKoHbr, LrMerculrre flprMoe 4eficraze na
ncefi reppllTopnu.
flo
rpeAMeraM coBMecrHoro BeAeHilfl trpuuuMaxlrc.r SegepalrHue
3aKOH6I.
flpruoe Aefictsue HopM KoucrHryllllr{ Mecro u ponb OcnoeHoro 3aKoHa Ha
TeppI4TopI{kI Poccuu, a raK xe Mecro u poJrb B cr{creMe npaBa B rlenoM. rlro
pernaMeHrupyerc, crarrefi I 5 Koncu4Tyril4pr.
fyrraanusl,r [pnopurer rlpaB vr cno6oA rreJroBeKa
u
lpaxAaHuHa flBrrflercfl
rlpHopureroM B peaJlrl3allr4H HopMorBoprrecKor4 .{erreJrbHocT[ rrapnaMeHTapl,reB, qTo
KoppecroHAl4pyerct crarseir 18 KoHcrury\HLt PoccrEu. Oua upono3rJrarraer, cMbrcJr r{
coAepxaHl,Ie 3aKoHoB, AesreJrbHocrb 3aKoHoAarelruofi r4 r4cfloJrHurelurofi BJracru,
opraHoB
r4
AonxHbrx ntrq MecTHofo caMoylpaBJreHHq.
YcnosHo AeKJlaparIanurrfi xapaKTep HopM Koucruryuuu Pocczficrofi
@e4epaquH, Koropa;I He B cocrofl:anr peryJrupoBarb Bce o6rqecrneHHbre orHorrreHufl,
orHeceHo HopMaML{
KoHCTLITyIIHoHHbIM
cauofi Koncrnryquu K
perynupoBaHr{ro Se4epanrHbrM
v fie4epanrHrura 3aKoHoAareJrbcrBoM. B cBr3u c
3THM
27
6oruuruncrBo HopM coAepxalrluxc{ s KoHcrHTyrrHLr no4po6no pernaMeHTr,rpoBaHbr
B
Se4epa-rrrHoM 3aKoHoAarenbcrBe.
Bro xe
cy6rerron,
BpeMrr yqacTl4e
B
3aKoHo,qaTeJrbHol,r AesTenbHocTr{ pa3rHrrHbrx
cyulecrBoBaHr4e MHofor{}rcJreHHbrx oco6eHHocrefi paccMorpe,Hufl
lptrHflTufl pa3Hblx BHAoB 3aKoHoB cBuAerenbcrByror
o
pr
neo6xo4uMocru eAusoft
3aKoHoAarelrnofi ocHoBbI. OAuaxo B Hacrof,rr{ee BpeMfl TaKafl ocHoBa orcyrcrByer,
xor, 3aKoHoAareltu kr rlpaBorrpuMeHlrreJrr.r sce 6ortr[re
H 6olrure y6ex4arorcfl B ee
Heo6xoAuMocrr4.
il4fl
o6osHa.{eHu.f, rrpoqecca co3AaHrrq 3aKoHoB HapflEy
(3aroHoAarelrnufi [poqecc>) I4cnonb3yerc{
c
repMr{HoM
TepMr4H (3aKoHorBopqecrnfi npoqecc>>.
B
nl4TepaType 3aqacT)ruo KaTeropl4r{ 3aKoHoTBopqecKoro I,I 3aKoHoAaTeJrbHoro flpoqecca
orox.qecrBJlflK)Tcr, nocKoJlbKy, oHv\ no cyrrr, flpeAcraBJr.rror co6ofi ocyulecrBJrreMyK,
B OrlpeAenenHoft
nocneAoBaTeJrbHocTr,r AerTeJrbHocTb KoMlereHTHbrx opraHoB IIo
paspa6orKe H rrpraHflTnro 3aKoHoB.
c ux
3aroHo4arelrnufi [poqecc
rpyAHocrrMr{
3aroHoAarelrnufi [poqecc otpaHprr{uBaercr
Mero.qaMl4 rlpaBoBoro perynupoBaHus.
paccMaTpllBarb, KaK
B
flporleAypHbrMlr
rsr6ope
o6rerra.
u
lpaBLInaMn
eto
floronry 3aKoHoAaremnufi [poqecc, cneAyer
6oree mupoKoe [oHqrue , [pHHflTHe 3aKoHa cBoefo pola
[pI/BHaTb norpe6nocru 14 3aKoHoAareJIbHbIe vrlLeyt HapoAa. Ha.{anrHas
orpaHl,IqeHa Bo BpeMeHrr H olpaHr4qeH Kpyr nroAeft. B
,busa
ro xe BpeMr, 3aKoHoAareJrbHbre
lpolleAypbl otleHb oSlaqua-rrbHbl H oHH HaquHarorcc c [pr,rHrrr,rs 3aKoHo4arenHrofi
I4HI,IIII4arIIBbI KoMnereHTHbIM opraHoM.
Bor
no.reMy 3aKoHoAarenbHrrfi upoqecc
B
ceoeft IIeHTpzIJIbHofi qacrrr 3aKoHoAarenbHoro npoqecca, Koroprrfi rurape, [oroMy rrro
oH He orlpeAeneH, KaK c ror{Kr,r 3peHr{fl coAepxaHns
KaTeropHl,l IpI{BOA.f,T
rI IOpOXAaTOT
3aKoHoAareJlbHoro npoqecca.
rryTaHr4rly
v
v
BpeMeHr4 rrpl4Hf,Tuf,.
He flcHocTb [ocTpoeHr,r,
flosronay cocraBJreHue crap.npr AonxHa
3ru
gTarroB
6rmr
B
IIpHOpIiITeTe.
3arouo4areJrbHbre opraHbr
rleHrpanbHbre ($e.qepamnrre) u
rocyAapcrsenHofi BJracrrr rroApa3Aer{rorc.f,
HA
peruoHairbHhre (cy6rexroe Qegepaquu).
l4x
naxuefiurefi Synxqueit ssnrrercfl pa3pa6orrca
14
[pr.rHflTue 3aKoHoB, nocKoJrbKy, Bo-
28
IIepBbIX, AeflTeJIbHOCTb, CBC3aHHa' C 3aKOHOTBOpqeCTBOM, COCTaBJITeT TTOAaBI'IOUSTIO
no o6beMy qacrb QyHrqIEra
[apnaMeHTa; Bo-BTopbrx, HopMarr,rBHo-[paBoBhre axTbr,
Koropble I,I3AaKlrcs ApyrHMH opraHaMl4 rocyAapcrseHHofi BJracrH (npesra4eHTcKr4e
yK€L3hI, [paBl,ITenbcrBeHHbre flocraHoBlrenufl 14 BeAoMcrBeHHbre
orJrr,rque
ar:rrr), Hocrr,
B
or 3aKoHoB, rroA3aKonnufi xapaKrep [ 54, c.7 ].
KoHcuaryuar Poccuftcxofi @e4epaqnz HaAerrrer @e4epalruoe Co6pauuenapnaMeHT rIpeAcraBrITeJIbcKHMI4
u
3aKoHoAareJrbHhrMr{ @ynxqnerran, qro
KoppecroHAupyercr ctarrefi 94 KoHcruryrtlzz. Orcro4a cneAyer, qro HHKaKofi 4pyroil
opraH rocyAapcTBeHHon
BJIaCTI4 He HaAeJr{eTcf,
[paBoM co3AaHldfl, npprEsTr4f,, nepe4al{u
Ha yrBepxAeHl{e flpesu4eHry Poccnu pr
KoHcrrrryrluoHHbrx
r,r
o6napo4oBaHr{ro Se4epanrHux
B csorc
Qe4epanbHbrx 3aKoHoB Ha reppuTopr4r{ Poccur,r.
rIpHHflTI,Ie $e4epanrHrrx KoHcrl,rryrluoHHbrx 3aKoHoB 14 Qe4epanrnrrx
[peporarllBa @e4epanrHoro co6paruut. flpuHxrue rapnaMeHToM
TaKoe
xe
4eficraue
u Mecro B cr{creMe
HopMarEBHbrx aKToB
KoHcruryuur, T.e. o6raAaror rrpf,MrrM 4eficrnueira
reppHropzro. B cBr3r4 c
flo cyrvt caoefi,
3Tr,rM
3aKoHbr
v
oqepeAb
3AKOHOB
I4MCIOT
Poccull, KaK u
paclpocrpaHflrorc, Ha
Bcro
ponb rrapnaMeHra rpyAHo [epeoqeHr,rTb H HeAoorleHrrrb.
ecJIH cneAoBarb rrerKoMy rrpeAnr4caHLrro repMuHa ((Bnacrb
[pHHaAJIeXI4T HapOAy)
- [apnaMeHT
BbrcTyrraeT Karzlrrr43aTopoM uHTepecoB HapoAa
B
rlenoM vJrv r,ar\vrit n ruaquoHilrrbHocrefi n qacrHocrr,r. Teru caMbrM peaflr,r3yf, Hapo4nrrfi,
HarluoHarrbHbr, rocyAapcr:nennrrfi cyBepeHurer.
3axonorsoprrecK€uf,
u
Synrqua - 3To KrroqeBa, w naw6or,ee o6reuHa, rro cBoeMy
Qynxqnr [apnaMeHTa. Pesylrrarou ee peanr43arl[u
,BJIflCTCfl
QopuupoBaHr4e upanonofi cr{creMbr rocyAapcrBa, o6ecneqnsarcqeft
nocpeAcrBoM 3aKoHoAareJrbcrBa rrpaBoBoe perynr4poBaHrre o6rqecrseHHbrx
3HaqeHulo
coAepxaHrdro
oruoutennfi, Bo3Hl,rKaroruux
o6rexrusHo
rpe6yrorqux
B
rrpoqecce pa3BHTr,r, o6qecraa
u
rocyAapcrBa
focyAapcrBeHHoro perynupoBaH[fl
3aKoHoAareJrbHbrx ycraHoBJlesui,t.
B
14
Qoprrae
Teryrqax sa4arla 3aKoHorBopvecxofi AeflTeJrbHocru
B [oAfoToBKe v frpvHflTldkt 3aKOHOB, HenOCpeACTBeHHO
[peAycMorpeHHrrx KoHcruryqaefi, pr rex 3aKoHoB, Koropbre o6ecne.ruBaror
uorpe6uocru pa3Br^wrfl o6ulecrsa u rocyAapcrBa Bo Bcex cSepax vx
rlapnaMeHTa cocToHT
29
xu3HeAerreJlbHocru.
IIpu sroM cneAyer
noArrepKHyrb,
qro
3aKoHoAareJrbcrBo
flBlrflercfl. HerIocpeAcrBeHHbIM raHcrpyMeHToM SopnaupoBaHufl crparerur{ H TaKT}rKrr
TaKoro pa3BrTr4fl.
6urr
B
Ha[paBneHa
upanoBoM rocyAapcrBe 3aKoHorBoprrecKiLs AeflTenbHocrb AonxHa
Ha o6ecne.reHlae a6comotroro [puopr.rrera
opraHH3aIrI,IH Bcex c$ep xrr3HeAerreJrbHocru o6qecrBa
14
u
DraBeHcrBa
rocyAapcrBa, [paB
rlenoBeKa rlyreM co3AaHplfl 3aKoHoB, o6ecue.IuBarcIqux
vx
3aIrII,ITy,
ra
B
ceo6oA
To ecrb
Ha
rpaKTurrecKyro pe€urra3ar{urc rpr,rHrluna [paBo3aKoHHocru [ 5 6, c,l3 -20].
K
cox€ureHllro, TaKa{ flocrorHHafl HanpaBneHHocrb
AeflTeJIbHocrLI
rarlar
npocMarpvtBaercfl,,
(De4epanrHoro Co6paHux
B qerou xe
B
3aKoHorBopuecrofi
B Hacrorrqee BpeM.f, He
He roJrbKo coAepxareJrbHalr cropoHa, Ho ra KarrecrBo
3aKoHoB B acrleKTe rlpaBolpraMeHrrremsofi npaKTr,rKruBJrrerc, o4nofi H3 ocHoBHbrx
upo6nervr coBeprueHcrBoBaHu, 3aKoHorBopvecxofi AerrenbHocrr,r poccuficroro
rrapnaMeHra | 37, c.57-58 ].
flouruo
[€LIIar (De4epanrHoro Coipamut yqacrHuKaMr4 3aKoHorBopvecxofi
AerrenbHocrl,I f,BJIf,Iorcr H Apyrue cy6rexru,
yrBepxAeHl4to
A. I. flyrmuuofi,
qro o6ycnoueHo, fro
clpaBeAnr{BoMy
cyqecrBoBaHr4eM (([epeceKaroquxcr>) csep
o6rqecrneHHblx orHolueHuit n, B KoHerrHoM ctrere, cnoco6crByer AocruxeHr4lo eAr{Hbrx
KoHcrI,IryIII4oHHo 3Har{LIMbIx
qenefi
[ 55, c.l5 ]. B Hx lrucJre cneAyer oco6o
ocraHoBl4Tbcf, Ha raKl4x opraHax rocyAapcrreunofi BJracrlr
rar
flpesr{AeHT Poccnu n
flpanrErerbcrBo Pocculr. l4x ytacrze B 3aKoHorBopqecrBe AonxHo
napr,rrerHbrx
Lt
paBHorrpaBHbrx Haquurax
c
<De4epa.irrHbrM
OCHOBbIBATbCS HA
Co6paHueIr,t, Ha
AeMoxparplqecroM rIpI4HIIule piBAeneHns. Brracreit, rua [onHorleHnofi upaaosofi 6a3e
groro Bura rocyAapcrneHHofi Aef,TeJrbHocrr,I B BHAe cr{creMbr B3ar{MocBr3aHHhrx
Qe4epanrHblx 3aKoHoB o B3al,IMoAeitc'tr,uu Bbrcrrrux opraHoB rocyAapc'rseHHofi BJracrr,r
B 3aroHoAarenbHoM rpoqecce,
cr,rcTeMbr
c freroM ycraHoBJreHuofi
Koncrnryqnefi Poccnn
cAepxeK H rrpoTEBoBecoB.
Y.IactHe flpesra4eHra Poccuficxofi @e4epaquu B
AetrTenbHocrl4, 3aBLIcHT
or ero KoHcrr{TyqrroHHblx
noruroMo.Iufi.
3aKoHoAarenrHofi
B
paMKax cBoux
KoHcrI{TyIIt4oHHhIx tIoJIHoMoqIafi creAyer flpear,rAeHT Poccnn B ero AerrenbHosrlr, AJrf,
BHeceHI4, AHpeKruBHbIx peruenuft.
flpesu4enr Poccuficxofi @e4epaqprlr Bo3MoxHocrb,
30
Bo3AeficrBoBarb
Ha
3aKoHoAarenbHhlfi
[poqecc qepe3 @e4epanruoe
KOTOpbIe BKrrOrreHbI B eATIHyIO CHCTeMy B rIenOM r,r
vlrrilraBla4y€IllbHo,
B [pOqeCCe
KaXAa' U3 AByX rrElrraT AOnXHhr
npaBOBOrO perynupoBar,lafl COTILl€rrrbHbrX OrnOUrenufi
rIpI4HHMarb Bo BHI,IMaHI,Ie BblpaxeHHhre, B qacrHocrll B Soprrae exeroAHbrx
Ilpeau4enra Poccupr, AI4peKTLInu. lupeKTI,IBbI, nonfreHHue
AoJrxHbI
6uru o6qsaremHo
6ro4xer, KoHrlerqur{
B
r4
BbrnoJrHeHhr
@e4ep€LrrbHbrM
rocranufi
co6panneu
(n rorra rrr4cne poccr,rficrufi rocyAapcrrennufi
AoKTpuHbr Harlr4ouamuofi 6esonacHocrrr
ra
r.l.).
paMKax 3aKoHorBopuecxofi Ae.rrreJrbHocrr4 flpesu4eHr Poccuu HaAenrerc{
CneAyrOqLIM I,I IIOJI HOMOIIIISMI,I
-
co6panue,
:
To ecrb rrpaBoM BHocrrrb
rrpaBoM 3aKoHorBopuecxofi Ltuvfi\varvrr,br,
focy4apcrBeHH)rro
3aKoHonpoeKTbr, roAnexarr{He o6ssarerbHoMy
Ayr"ry
paccMorpeHr.rro na'rarofi
B
(cra'rrx 104 Koscrnryunn). B coo'rBercrBul4 c yxa:annofi
noprr,rofi poccnficxufi flpesu4eH:r Bo3DraBJI.fler [epetreHb cy6rercron [paBa
3aKoHorBopuecxofi HH[r{[raruBbr
-
;
z o6napo.qoBarb SegepanrHbre 3aKoHbr, [pnHqrbre
@e4epamnuu Co6pannervr (.racm 2 crarbr,r 107 Koncruryquu Poccraficrofi
[paBoM rroA[r,rcbrBarb
(De4epaqnu).
Crarrs 107 poccraficxofi Konc'rury\uv
ycraHaBJrnBaer rroptAoK, rrprr
KoropoM Se4epanrnrrfi saroH Moxer Bcryrrlrrb B cuny roJrbKo rrpu cornacvu
c
HuM
flpeara4enra Poccuu;
-
npaBoM orKJroHr4Tb nprarurufi @e4epanrnrrna Co6paHIieM Segepanrnrrfi
3aKoH
B Qoprrae orJrarareJrbHoro Bero. IloAo6noe Bero, oAHaKo, Moxer 6urr
rlpeoAoneHo rlapnaMeHroM (.racrr 3 crarrra 107 KoncrI4ryIIHIa);
-
o6s3aHHocrbro rroArrucaHu,
u
o6napo4oBannfl
$e4epanruux
KoHcrraTyrlrroHHbrx 3aKoHoB, rrpr{HflTbrx @e4epamuuu Co6paHnertr
(crarrx
108
Koncruryquu);
-
npaBoM
Ha
BHeceHHe
npe4roxennfi
o
no[paBKax
v
repecMorpe
ronoxeHufi Koncrvrywrr Poccun (crarsx 134 Koncurryqnn);
-
[paBoM f{acrBoBarb B paccMorpeHuu
rryTeM [pEcyTcTBHc Ha 3aceAaHr4f,x traJrat,
3aKOHOrrpOeKTaM.
n o6cyx4eHtrv
a TaKxe
rpoeKToB 3aKoHoB
BHeceH[rs
[olpaBoK
K
31
B
cBr3r4
c r{eM cneAyer orMerr,rrb BeAyrrlyro ponb flpesu4enra Poccuu B
3aKOHOAareJrbHOM IIpOqeCCe.
Y.racrue flpasn'renrcrBa Pocculr B 3aKoHorBopvecrofi
Ae{TeJrbHocrr{
pernaMeHTl4pyerct Koucruryrluefi Poccuu, SeaepanrHbrM KoHcrr.rryrluoHHbrM 3aKoHoM
or 17 pxa6pt 1997 r. J\b [email protected] <O flpau4rerrbcrBe Poccnficxofi (De4epaquv>> yr
3aKJIIoqaeTCs B BO3MOXHOCTI'I OCyqeCTB ileHIdfl
Cn eAyIO
qIiIX
- rlpaBa 3aKoHorBopuecxofi r4nprrJna^rvnu (vacru
AJI.[ Toro,
tI OJIHOMOTIUfi :
I crarru
104 Koncruryqnn);
flpaBa AaBarb 3aKJIIoqeHvrt, H€ulrlrrue Korophlx flBlrflercfl o6saaterbHblM
qro6rt
BHecrI,I e focy.{apcrBeHHylo Ayrnry 3aKoHolpoeKTbr, corrpsxeHHbre c
BBeAeHI'IeM WJIVI OrUeHOfi HaJrOfOB, OCBO6OX4eHI'IeM
OT VtX yrIJIaTbI,
BbITIyCKOM
rocyAapcrBeHHblx 3afiIraon, r.r3MeHeHr.reM Sznanconrrx o6sgarenrcre rocyAapcrBa,
Apyrve 3aKoHo[poeKTbI, KoTopbrMu [peAycMoTpeHbr pacxoAbr, [oKpbrBaeMbre 3a c]rer
cpeAcrB Se4epanrHoro 6roAxera (uacrr 3
-
ro
paspa6orxe
Qe4epanrHoro 6roAxera
il
v
crarru
104 Koncuaryqun);
rpeAcraBJreHnro
orqera
B
focy4apcrBeHHyro Ayr"ry
o ero r,rcrroJrHeHr4r,r (.racrr 1 crarru ll4
Koucruryqeil{);
-
rro
BHeceHI4to npe4noxenufi, [ocBf,rrleHHbrx [o[paBKaM Lr [epecMorpy
[oJroxeHrafi KoHcrvryr\t4u Poccupr
.
(cramr
I
3
4 KoHcrnryquu);
IIO BHECEHI,Irc N |OCY4APCTBCHHYIO AYUY B COOTBETCTBI4I4 C PEruAUEHTOM
[€LIIaTbI rIO[paBOK
K
3aKOHOrIpOeKTaM, KOTOpbre HaXOAf,TCf,
(crarra 36 $eaepallbHoro KoHcrr4ryrlrroHHoro
Ha ee
paCCMOTpeIdt4U
3aKoHa <O flpau,rreJrbcrBe
Pocczficrofi
Oe4epaqnr.r>);
-
no
HarrpaBneHulo nallaraM @e4epanrHoro Co6paHnx oSlrqnanbHbrx
or3bIBoB, tIocBflIrIeHHhIx paccMarpuBaeMbrM rrirJraraMr,r SegepanrHbrM 3aKoHaM u
3aKOHO[pOeKTaM LI IOAJIeXaTTIHX O6XgareIrHOMy OfJrarrreHr4ro
Ha rlneHapHblx 3aceAaHl,If,x rr€urar
<<O
(crarrr
urtl pac[pocTpaHeHulo
36 Seaep€LrrbHoro KoHcrr4ryrlrroHHoro 3aKoHa
llpaeureJrBcrBe Poccuficxofi @e4epaquu>>). KoncuEryqux Poccuu
v $e4epalrnufi
KoHcrllTyIluossrtfi 3aKoH (O flpanurerbcrBe Poccnficxoft @eqepaqnra>>, Hapierrfl
flpaentenbcrBo Poccztz yKa3aHHbrMz 3aKoHorBopqecKHMLl
[oJrHoMoqyrflvryr,
32
olpeAentrcT
rrpr,rH
ero KaK aKT[BHoro cy6beKTa 3aKoHorBopqecKofi
Ae.srerbHocrrr,
r.rMaroqero HelocpeAcTBeHHoe yqacrr,re B ee ocyqecTBJreHr4u.
Taxnru o6pasou, Se4epanrnHfi saroHoAareJrbnufi npoqecc oro coBoKylHocrb
craI.uir, cocrorBllrl{x rr3 yperynupoBaHHbrx HopMaMlr KoHcrr{TyrltroHHoro [paBa
rpoIIeAypHbIx (npoqeccyansHrrx) Aeficr:sufi ynonHoMoqeHHbrx cy6texroa. 3rra
Aei4crsufl. cocraBnsror [peAMer $e4epa;rrHoro 3aKoHoAareJrbHoro rrpoqecca v
3aKrroqarorc{ Bo BHeceHI,Iu 3aKoHonpoeKToB n focy.uapcrBeHr{yrc flyrray, B rrpuHflTuu
o4o6penra[ ux naIIaraMH, [oArrLrca:auvr
Poccuficrofi @e4epaquu
o
rn
o6napoAoBaHr{H
rorpaBKax
r
uanofi rocyAapcrBa
t4
3aKoHoB
Koscu4ry\vvr Poccprficrofi @e4epaquu,
Qe4epanrHblx KoHcrIiITyIIIaoHHbIx 3aKoHoB r{ Qe4epanrHbrx 3aKonon. llepequcJreHHbre
BI{ArI 3aKoHoB, ,BJlflrorc{ pe3yJlbrarorra (o6rexrorra) @e4epanrHoro 3aKoHoAareJrbHoro
rpoqecca.
2.2
3arconorBoprrecmafl AerreJrbHocrb
rt
saKoHoAare.nrHrrfi rrpoqecc
cy6rercroe Poccrfi crofi @egepaqun
KoHcruryqur Poccuficrcofi @e4epaquu npeAocraBJrrer cy6terrau
Poccnficrofi @egepaqun AocraroqHo rxupoKr4e [orHoMor{u, B
3aKoHoAareJrbHoro perynupoBaHus
Ha cnefi Teppuropuu BonpocoB cBfl3aHHhrx
o6ecneqeHueM $ynxqnoHupoBaHnr ecefi cucreMbr BJracrr.r.
(De.4epaquu o6raAaror
r{acrr,r
c
Cy6rerrrr Poccnficrofi
acefi uoruorofi rocyAapcrneusofi
BJracrH. Cy6rermrra
Poccuficxofi (De.qepa\r4tr orBeAeHo KoHcrHTyrIrroHHoe [paBo co3AaHr.rfl 14 trpvnflTvrfl
co6crnesHoro 3aKoHoAareJlbcrBa Koncrraryqufi (Ycranon) cy6rexron . Koucrury\r4r
(Ycranu) cy6terron He Moryr nporr4Bopeqnrb Se4epanrHoMy 3aKoHoAareJrbcrBy.
Cy6terru Poccnficrofi (Degepaqrara ocyqecrBJr.f,ror co6crseHHoe rrpaBoBoe
perynupoBaEEe) BKJIIoIIa-f, rlpLrlIflTkre 3aKoHoB rr r4Hbrx HopMaTr4BHbrx aKToB.
flpoeosr-uarrreHHarr Aer.IeHTp€urvaar\ufl BJracru, HarurrAHo pe€LJrr,I3yerc,
cy6rexraruu Poccuficrofi @e4epaquu. Cy6remu Poccnficxofi @e4epaqyrkr co3qaBafl
co6crnennyto cldcreMy 3aKoHo.qareJrbcrBa aBToMarr,rqecKr4 craHoBrrcf, cy6rexraun
3aKoHoAa:remHofi Aef,TenbHocrr,{.
33
Cy6rertu
BecbMa aKTHBHo Irtcnonb3yK)T cBoe
[paBo co3.qaBarb co6crseHHoe
3aKoHoAareJrbcrBo [ 35, c.153 ].
B nayxe KoHcrrITyI{[IoHHoro [paBa ycrofivuno
3aKpe[r4Jrocb raKoe froH{THe, KaK
perlloHanbHoe 3aKoHorBopqecrBo, pernonamnrrfi 3aKoHoAarelrnrrfi [poqecc.
flpe4cmnn.f,erc, [orI4qHbIM TaKoe o[peAeneHr,re peruoH€urbHoro 3aKoHoAareJrbHoro
[poqecca. PerIEonalrHufi 3aKoHoAaremuurfi
rpoqecc
[peAcraBJr-fler co6ofi
coBoKyrrHoctr 4eficrewit, cragutrt ynonHoMorreHHbrx opraHoB rocyAapcreeHHofi BJracru
cy6rerra Poccnficrofi (De.qepa\hu, uo pa3pa6orre,
u
3aKoHorlpoeKTa, [pI4HqrI,Irc, rloAfracaHr4ro
cy6rexra Poccnfi cxofi
3aKoHonpoeKTa, paccMorpeHr4ro
o6napo4oBaHr4rc) HopMarlrBHoro aKTa
(De4ep a\Hyr.
B csoefi 3axoHorBopuecxoft
rIpI4MeHf,Ior pa3nl{trHble
Ae{renbHocrra cy6rexrsr Poccuficrofi (De4epa\uLr
Sopuu ylqlacrktfl, lpaxAaH, o6ruecrseHHocrrir,
coo6ulecma. flpu6eraf, K TaKITM
Qoprr,rarra,
rpaxAaH, peQepeH.qyM, orpoc rpaxAaH
r,r
Hayr{Horo
xax ny6nur{Hbre cnyrraHprr, xonQepeHrlr{u
r.A.
Han6oree eQQexruauofi ua Harrr B3rJu4 Qopuofi ssauNaoAeficrsns u rprMoro
y,tacrvrfl. rpaxAaH, ,BJIrerc, peSepen4yrra
xlr3HeAef,reJrbHocua
tro sau6olee
BaxHbrM BorrpocaM
cy6rerra Poccuficxofi tDe4epaqnu.
Cy6rexrrr Poccuficrofi (Deqepa\Hu n cnoefi HopMorBopvecrofi Ae{renbHocrll
aKrI4BHo I{cronrcylor rlpaKrrary KoHcrr4ryrlr4oHHoro Cyxu Poccuficrofi (De4eparluu,
KoncrnryquoHHblx (ycranurrx) Cy4on Poccraficrofi (De4epa\uu. ArrueHo lrcnonb3yror
nrraeroqnficr Qe4epalrHufi oIIhIT B HopMorBopqecrBe
r,r
3aKoHoAareJrbHoM rrpoqecce.
IrlHcruryr peruoH€IrlbHoro 3aKoHorBopr{ecrBa rBJr{erctr BecbMa uono4uu. B
ocHoBHoM perl4oHrIJIbHoe 3aKoHorBoprrecrBo cBoAr{nocb
SeAepa-rrrHoro 3aKoHoAareJrbcrBa.
Ho c
K gy6nuponaHrlro
pacrur4peHueM
HopM
rrpaB cy6texron ro
HopMaruBHoMy peryn[poBaH[ro o6rqecrneHHbrx orHorxeHufi, ecrecrBeHHbrM o6pa:orra
rrplrBeno K p€BBr{THro AaHHoro r4HcTr4TyTa.
Cy6texru Poccuficrofi Oe4epaqHn
e
cBoeM HopMorBopqecrBe )rqurErBarcT
eAI,IHcrBo npaBoro [pocrpaHcrBa, BepxoBeHcrBo Koncruryqun Poccraficrofi
@e4epaquu, Se4eparbHblx KoHcrrlTyrllroHHhrx 3aKoHoB, Se4epa-irrubrx 3aKoHoB, aKToB
flpesla4enra Poccuficxoft (De4epaqun, IlpaaureJrbcrBa Poccuficxofi @e4epalgt.zivr rr r.A.
34
HaA perLIoH€InbHbIM 3aKoHoAareJIbcrBoM. Vqu:ruBaror c$epy
racKJrrotrr4TeJrbHoro
BeAeHH, Poccnficrofi @e4epaquu, [email protected] coBMecrHoro BeAeHr.r, Poccuficxoft
@egepaqnu w cy6reKroB Poccuficrofi @e4epa\w
rpu oroM npr{Hr.rM€ur HopMaruBHo-
lpaBoBble aKTbI cuoco6crByroq[e JrraKBr{Aarlun npo6eJroB 3aKoHoAareJrbcrBa.
Eoree roro, npu rrpr4HflTrLt perrroHanbHbrx 3aKoHoB B AorronHeHr4e
x
o6uluna
rrpr4Hrlr4[aM 3aKoHorBoptrecrBa (aaronnocrr, AeMoKparu3M,
(ynunepcanrnurra)
DIacHocrb, HayvHocrb, upo$eccuoHarnsrr,r) ueo6xo4urvro co6ruo4arr nprrHrlr{[br,
xapaKTepHble Anfl 3arcoHorBopuecxofi AerreJrbHocrr4
cy6rerron Poccpru: npr,rHrlul
o6ecue.{eHns 3aKoHaMH cy6rerron PoccHH eArrHoro npaBoBoro flpocrpaHcrBa,
roroprti
npeAycMarpl{Baer Bbrcrpar{BaHr{e qerxofi vepapxnr HopMaruBHo-rpaBoBbrx
aKTOB, TO eCTb COOTBeTCTBUe Hr{XeCTOf,IIIVX HOpMaTLIBHO-[paBOBbIX
aKTOB
BbIIrrecrorIqI,IM; IpEHIII,Iu o6texrusHocrr{, B cututy Koroporo 3aKoH cy6rexra
@e4epaqnu AonxeH pazpa6arbrBarbc,
peluoHoB;
H
rrpuHuMarbcq
c
yqeroM orrbrra Apyrrrx
TIpI4HIIHTI TIaKeTHOTO [paBOBOfO peryJrr4poBaHurfl, KOrAa BMeCTe C TpOeKTOM
perrroHulJlbHoro 3aKoHa
B 3aKoHoAarerusrrfi (npe4cranrarertrHrrfi) opraH cy6rerra
@e4epaqnu flpeAcraBJr.f,rorc, [poeKTbr Bcex HopMaruBHo-rrpaBoBbrx
Heo6xoArEMbIx
Ant
6y4yrqurra 3aKoHoM
pearll43allIar4 Bcex rroJroxeHrafi, npegraraeMbrx
aKToB,
An, yperynupoBaHr4fl
[48, c.Zl ].
OAnaxo raKoro poAa reoperuqecKne paspa6orKr{ perr{oH€lirbHbrx aarouo4arenefi
iracro I4rHopl4pylorcr. KorAa Aenarb rrpaBr,rnbHbre Berrlu flpprxoAf,T Te cy6texrrr,
KoTOphIe 3aKpeln.[IOT
IIpI{HIIUI
npoqecca (Pecny6nnxa Eyparut,
HOpMaTIIIBHOTO IInaHLIpOBAIIkIfl, 3aKOHOTBOpTI€CKOTO
Atraficrufi xpafi, Tnepcrax o6lacrr, u r.a.).
flpanoeue ocHoBbI 3aKoHorBopqecrBa cy6rerron Poccuficrofi
@e4epaqurE
rpeAycMarpvrBaer) Bo-rrepBbrx, KoHcruryrlu, Poccnficrofi Oe4eparyu (uacrr 2, crar;n
76).
B erofi cBfl3I,I [pucoeAuHeHlre cy6rerrarra (De4epaqulr raKoro [paBa He orMeHf,er
o6csaterbcrBa KoMrrereHTHbrx Se4epaarHux opraHoB BJracru A[rfl yrrpaBJreHr{,
3aKoHorBoptlecrBoM
B cy6rerrax
@e4epaqura
c
rorrKr.r 3peHprr vrx coorBercrBvtfl.
craHAapraM, Koropble cocraBnrrcT ocHoBy KoHcrlrryquounofi cprcreMbr Poccuu. B
cBolo oqepeAb 3aKoHo.{areJlbHbre opraHbr cy6rerros Poccuficrofi @e4epaqura o6reaHrr
35
ycrpaHl{Tb [porrlBopequ, ux aKToB, Se4epa;rbHrrM 3aKoHaM, npr4HrrhrM rro Bo[pocaM
IopI{cATTKIIHH
Poccnficrofi @e4epaqura
u tro BonpocaM connaecrHofi
KoMrereHqu]r
Poccuficxofi (De4epa\wv n ee cy6reKroB (uacrs 5 cramu 76 Koncrury\wu).
HopruarnBHble noJloxeHl4.f, Koncruryuuur Poccprftcxofi @egepaqnu,
oflpeAeirflrculux [paBoByro ocHoBy 3aKoHoAaremHofi AerrenbHocrr,r peruoHoB
rIpI{HIIulbI ee opraHu3alluu, ycraHoBJreHHbrx B Qe4epa-rrrHoM 3aKoHe
1999 roAa J\b 184
- 03. flocreAnf,,
ra
o6rque
or 6 oxrx6pr
HarrpaBJreHa Ha yKperJreHue BeprLrK€rntt Blracrvr
14
yKperlneHue ponu Qe4epanrHoro qeHTpa B orHorrreHnf,x c opraHaMr,r rocyAapcrnennofi
BJIacTLI
cy6textoa Poccnficxofi @e4epaqnn.
B
atacrkt
2 crarbn 3, yK€BaHHbre B
Se4epanrHoM 3aKoHe KaK ocHoBy 3aKoHo.(aremHofi Ae.rrrenbHocrr.r pernoHoB a c$epe
coBMecrHoro BeAeHu, o6HapyxeHo,
rrro rro BonpocaM cosMecrHoft KoMnereHrlu?r
cy6rertos Poccuu npaBo Ha pe[reHlre raKux Bo[pocoB Bo3MoxHo no co6crseHHbrM
rrpaBr,rnaM.
flocre
rrpvnfrTvrfl.
coorBercrByroqero Qe4epanrHoro 3aKoHa, 3aKoHoB
r,r
cy6rexrau PoccHra cneAyer rrpuBecrLr
B
r,rHblx HopMarrlBHbrx [paBoBblx aKToB,
coorBercrBlre peruoH€rrrbHoe 3aKoHoAareJrbcrBo c Qe4epanbHbrM 3aKoHoM.
Koucruryuna (Vcrau) cy6rerra poccuficrcofi @e4epaqnn
ocHoBonoJrararcquM AoKyMeHToM perynupyroqufi
cy6rerron.
KoncruryqrEr
(Ycran)
u
cy6rexra
sBJrqercf,
pernaMeHuapyroqnft [paBa
coAepxaT
rroJroxeHl,rf,
pernaMeHrrdpyroulrae 3aKoHorBoparecKyro H 3aKoHoAarenbHyro Ae{TenbHocm cy6reKTa
Poccuficxofi Qe4epaquu. Oupe4erx-r,
n roM rrprcJre reyr
cy6rexrou rpaBa
rro
paccMorpeHr{ro u
3aKoHoAaremnofi r,rHr,rqlraruBbr, KoM[ere]rrHbre opraHbr
rrpr4Hrrrlro 3aKoHorrpoexTa. Opranrr y[onHoMoqeHHbre rroAnrrcbrBarb 3aroHbr.
Oco6ennocrr4 o6napo4o BaaLrfl perr4oHanbHbrx 3aKoHoB.
PeruouarbHoe 3aKoHoAareJrbcrBo 3arracryro coAepxnr
pernaMeHrl{pyrcqr4e [poqeAypy
3aKoHbr
no4po6Ho
u orarrbr 3axonogareJrbHoro rpoqecca
(nauprauep,
3axos CranpouoJlbcKoro Kpa, or 6 HroH.f, 2002
r.
3aKoHoB CrarponoJrbcKoro Kpffi)), 3arcon Opnoncxoit
319-O3
<<O
upanorBopqecrBe
14
3aros -fpocnancxofi o6r'acru
-f,pocrancxofi o6nacrrD)).
I,lb 24-rcs
<<O
noprAKe rrpuHflrutfl
odnaqu or 15 anpeJrr 2003 r.
Ns
HopMarrEBHbrx [paBoBbrx aKTax Opnoncrofi o6lacrra>>,
or 3 noa6px
2010
r.
J\b 40-s
(O
rpaBoBbrx aKrax
35
Analug
3TLIX 3aKoHoB cBLIAereJIEcrByer
o roM, rrro e cy6rerron
Poccrau
o6pasyercfl, ABa ocHoBHErx rroAxoAa K onpeAeJreHurc) ocHoBHbrx paMoK yKa3aHHbrx
3aKoHoB. Hexoropue
cy6rertrt, KaK
ocHoBHbrM
HenocpeAcrBeHHo ras6zparc:r 3aKoHoAaremsrtfi
3aKoHbI
o
cl4creMe npaBoBblx aKToB, HapflAy
o6rex'rou
perynr4poBa:akrfl)
rpoqecc, B Apyrux 6rutu rrpuH{Tbr
c
ApyrlrMr.r BonpocaMLr. Kounnerc
HopMarllBHhrx aKToB HarrpaBJIeHHhIx na SopnanpoBaHr4e 3aKoHoAareJrbHoro [poqecca ]r
[paBoBhlx aKToB cy6terron Pocczlr qacro 6rrru AorronHeHrr uogpo6HbrM[ 3aKoHaMu,
perynl4pyrotlll{e rpolleAypy trpurnfrTufr orpeAeneHHbrx 3aKoHoB
lpoqeAype rrpuHrrnx 6ro4xera), 3aKoHoB ((o aAMr4Hr4crputkrBHo
(
naupnvrep (o
- Teppr4TopLrulrrbHoM
ycrpoficrse u r.4.).
PerIEonarbHoe 3aKoHoAareJlbHoe peryJrr{poBaHr4e 3aKoHoAareJrbHoro [pouecca
4eficrayer [o aH€uIorI,IIl c f,e4epamnofi 3aKoHoAaremnofi
Ae.flTenbHocrbro.
Peruonamuufi 3aKoHoAareaurufi rrpoqecc orrvpaercfl Ha Se4epanrnufi u sBJrrercf,
ocHosofi Anfl rrpkrHflTua 3aKoHoB B peruoHax Poccun. 3ro perynupyercf, c
ropr,rAurrecrofi TolrKH 3peHr{fl (na ocuose Poccuficxofi Koncruryqr,rra, KoHcruTyrlrar4
(Ycraaa) coorBercrByroulero peruoHa (cy6rcrcra), Se4epanrnux
3aKoHoB rr rrHbrx HopMarEBHbrx rrpaBoBhrx
u perr,roH€rrbHbrx
amon) ua6op [ocneAoBareJrbHbrx nporle4yp,
xoropufi HarraHaerc{ c pe€LJruza\uefi [paBa 3aKoHoAaremnofi
unktrJktarvrBbr, To ecrb,
BHeceHrrfl rrorrpaBoK B 3aKoHo[poeKT B rrapnaMeHT, rrpoAoJrxaer
ero o6cyx,qeHue
H
rrogralHoe [puHrrr4e B KaqecrBe 3aKoHa [pe.ucraBuTeJrbHax (saronoAarenbHax) nlacrn
cy6rexros Poccuu
Taxra
v
BcryflJreHue B cprny.
o6pasou, 3aKoHoAarenbrryro Aef,TenbHocrL cy6rexron Poccuficxofi
o6pasyror
(De4epaqrara
geitcreut
H B r.rrore [oArrr4caHkre
B3ar,rMocB.f,3aHHbre opraHr43arluoHHhre, npoqeccyurJrbHbre
y[onHoMoqeHHbrx opraHoB rocyAapcrnennofi BJracrlr
cy6rerra
HarIpaBJIeHHbIe Ha [pl4Hsrr{e, BHeceHHe noilpaBoK H AononHeunfi 3aKoHoB,
wr6o
Ha
orMeHy HopMarrIBHbIx aKTos. Co cBorrM cnequ$uuecKlrM o6rerrou, cy6terroM
r{
coAepxaHHeM.
Kar n na $e4ep€LilbHoM
3aKOHOTBOprreCTBa,
cnyqae
HaceJreHHe
ypoBHe caMbIM BaxHbrM r{ nepBocreleHHbrM
uo oepnofi
orIeHKe
cy6rerrou
K. A. Irlurerosa, flBrrfle^ror{ HapoA (n 4annorra
cy6rerra Poccnu). kLuenno HaceJreHue cy6texra
BrrpaBe
37
AenerupoBaTb
cBoll [paBoTBopqecK[e
froJrHoMolrHrr opraHaM BJracTH
yqacrHI,IKaM rlpaBorBopqecKoro [poqecca.
ApyrrrM
Buecre c reM caMo HaceJreH[e perrroHa
TaKXe MOXeT 3aHI,IMarbC' [paBOTBOpqeCTBOM, rrpuHr{M€r' 3aKOHbr Ha
(xoncuaryrlr4oHHoM, 3aKoHoAareJrbHoM,
peSepen4yrrae
Lr
HOpMaTUBHOM
aAMr4Hr.rcrparraBHo-
reppuropr4tlrrbHoM u unorra) [ 53, c. 213 ).
Opranou
3aKoHoM cy6rerra
y[onHoMoqeHHhrM
ocyqecrBJrrrb
HopMorBopr{ecKyIo AeflTenbHocrb, .sBrrerc.f, 3aKoHoAaremnufi (npe4cmezrenrHufi )
opraH rocyAapcrnensofi BJIacrIa cy6rexra Poccuficxofi @e4epaqrEu,
KoropoMy
KoHcruryqua (Ycran) cy6reKra KoppecrroHArrpyer AaHHoe npaBo.
3arouo4aremHrtfi rrpouecc a cy6rerrax Poccuu no4po6Ho peuraMeHTapyerc,
KoHcruryrlr,If,x pecrry6rzr, ycraBax r4Hbrx cy6rexron Poccul.r,
B
B perrloHzrJrbHbrx
3aKoHax H pernaMeHTax fraJrar, 3aKoHorBopqecKux opraHoB rocyAapcrBeunofi BJracrlr
cy6rerron @e4epaqnra.
,{aunsre HopMbr [pr,r3BaHbr o6ecue.rurb oqepeAHocrb cra4uit 3aKoHoAareJrbHoro
lpoqecca. 3ranu paccMorpelanfl.
3aKoHo[poeKToB
B
3aKoHoAareJrbubrx
(npe4crau{reJrbHbrx) opraHax rocyAapcreeHnofi BJracrr4 cy6rerron poccraficxofi
Oe4epaquu.
tlerro Srarczpyrorct cy6reKTbr rrpaBa 3aKoHoAaremnofi
r,rHr4rl[rarr4Bbr.
Yupex.uaerc, [poqeAypa roJrocoBaHr4f,, rlo [pI,IHI,IMaeMrIM 3aKOHOrIpOeKTaM, a raK
]
HHbre Borrpocbr rrplr3BaHHbre perynr4poBarb
AaHHyro
cQepy
}Ke
o6rqecraeHHbrx
ornoruenrafi.
Cy6rexrrr
Poccuficxofi @e4epaqHra HaAeJrsrorc, Bo3MoxHocrbro,
caMocToqTeJrbHo orrpeAenfTb rr 3aKpe[JrrTb ]lHbre Bonpocbr cBfl3aHHbre c peanusarlnefi
3aKoHoAareJrbHoro rrpoqecca
cy6rerron.
B sroil cBq3H rlpucoeAr4HeHLre cy6rerrarra (De4epaqr{H raKoro rpaBa He orMeHrer
o6sgaremcrsa KoM[ereHTHbrx Se4epanrnrrx opraHoB BJracrr4 Arrfl yrrpaBneHuf,
3aKoHorBopqecrBoM
B cy6rexrax
(De4epaqura
c
rorrKu 3peHur Hx coorBercrBnfl
craH,4apraM, Koropbre cocraBJrrror ocHoBy KoHcrnryuuoHHofi chcreMbr Poccnn. B
cBoro oqepeAb 3aKoHoAareJrbHbre opraHbr
cy6rerros Poccuficrofi (Degepaqzu o6rsaHH
ycrpaHuTb nporr,rBopequ, Ex aKToB, Qe4epanbHbrM 3aKoHaM, nprrHfrbrM rro BorrpocaM
38
IopI4cAHKIII4I4
Poccuficxoft @e4epaquu
v rro BonpocaM coeNaecrHofi KoM[ereHrlr{r4
Poccuficrofi @e4epaqaur u ee cy6reKroB
3'ru [oJroxeHr{,
Boc[pr4Hrnra Bce c;r6rexrrr Poccuu, Ho lrx rlpaKTHqecKarr
peanr{3aqpu pir3HbrMr4 peruoHaMrr Poccuu HeoAr4HaKona [ 50, c.35-38 ].
flepnar cra4nfl
perr,roHirnbHoro 3aKoHorBopqecKoro
3aKOHOTBOpqeCKa' IdHId[IIdATIdBa
-
COCTOHT
3aKoHoAareJIbHbIM (upe4crawlTeJrbHbrM)
BO
npoqecca
BHeCeHr,rr{ AIts
paccMoTpeHnf,
opranou rocyAapcrseHHofi BJracrpr cy6rexra
Poccuu 3aKoHo[poeKTa nra6o 3aKoHoAareJrbHoro npeAnoxeHrrs.
I4cxo4s,
r{3 o6Irlero flpaBnlra, [paBo
3aKoHorBopuecrofi r4Hr4rluaruBbr
3aKoHoAareJIbHoM (npe4crannreJrbHoM) oprane rocyAapcraesuofi BJracrrr
B
cy6rerra
Poccuu [pI,IHaAnexI{T AellyraraM, BbrcrrreMy .qonxHocrHoMy nurly cy6texra Poccnn
(pyxoeo4uTeJllo Bblcllrero HcloJrHHTeJrbHoro opraHa rocy.{apcrneHnoft BJracrlr
cy6serra Poccnn),
[peAcraBHTeJrbHbrM opraHaMu
flanHrru rpaBoM KoHcrr4ryqnr (ycran) cy6rexra
MecrHoro caMoy[paBJreHlrr.
(De4epa,qlala
Moryr HaAenr.rrb
r4 r,rHbre
opraHbr, B ToM r{I4cJre r4crroJrH}rreJrbHbre, qJreHoB Coeera (De4epaqnra (DegepanrHoro
Co6panux, o6ulecrBeHHbre ofreguueuut,
a raKxe r-paxAaH, npoxr4Baroulux
Ha
reppraropur,r AaHHoro cy6rerra.
Tarau
perlroH€rnbHoM
o6pa:orra,
Ha cnequ$ury 3aKoHorBopuecrofi
Ae.r{TeJrbHocrrr Ha
ypoBHe BJrr,rf,ror cneAyrcuue Sarropu [paBa 3aKoHorBopuecxofi
LrrlkrItvaTuBbt.
B
qacrHocrrr,
B Canxr-Ilerep6ypre npaBo 3aKoHorBopuecxofi
rrpprHaAnexur floqerHbrM lpaxAaHaM ropoAa, Koropbre
HHr4rlr4arvBbr
rax4ufi ro4 nrr6uparorc,
rlr3
TII,ICIA JIHII BHCCIuUX BrIAATOUIVfiCq BKJIAA B
PUBBI{TI,IE CAUrcT-IICTEP6YPTA. CPE4U TTUX
MoryT
6rrrr KaK rpaxAaHe Poccun,
TaK H r4HocrpaHHbre rpaxAaHe, a
raKxe nuqa 6es
rpaxAaHcrBa. Iloqetroe 3BaHue Moxer 6rrm [prrcBoeHo KaK rrpu xr{3Hpr, TaK
f 54, c. 134 ].
Kporrre roro, Bo MHorHx
kr
rrocMeprHo
3aKoHoAareJrbHbrx opraHax
cy6rexros Poccnu flpaBo
3aKoHorBopuecrofi vrnt4t1l,4arlaBbr npuHaAnexraT AerryrarcKlrM o6re4uHeHrrrM u
KoMr4ccnrM, r{To raKxe He rrpeAycMorpeHo Ha Se4ep€LrrbHoM ypoBHe.
39
B cBoro oqepeAb HaAeneHr{e
3aKOHOTBOpTIeCKOT pIHI4IIUarr4Bbr
cy6beKToB Pocczn npaBoM
rpoKypopoB
npr43Haero' MHOfr{Mr,r poccuficruuu yqeHbrMH
[paBoBeAaMI,I BecbMa BaxHbrM,
u6o oHo noBbrrrraer e$SerrrEnHocrb
3aKoHorBopqecKoro rlpoqecca, coKparqaer cpoKu rrpr4BeAeHus 3aKoHoAareJrbHofi 6asu
cy6rerua Poccnu B coorBercrBue c
H3MeHe:auflM:a Qe4epaarHoro 3aKoHoAareJrbcrBa,
cuoco6crByer coBepIrIeHcrBoBaHLIIo 4eficrnyroqux HopMarr4BHo-npaBoBbrx
aKToB.
OAuaro rlo3l,Iqru o neo6xoAl,IMocrla HaAeneHr.rc lpoKypopoB TaKlrM [paBoM He BcerAa
HaxoArIT noHI4MaHI4e U TIOAAepXKy
y
HeKOTOpbTX
) {eHbrx
-
npaBOBeAOB
Vr
npeAcraBlarerefi opraHoB rocyAapcrneHHofi BJracrH cy6rerron Oe4epaqura.
flpanona 3aKoHoAaremnofi unvrrwarprBbr HaAeJrflercfl, Bbrc[ree AoJrxHocrHoe Jrurro
cy6rerra Poccuu, a He Bblcurufi ucnoJrHuTeJrbnufi opran cy6rerra Poccuu, roropuft
TaKuM o6pasonr IacKrloqaercs I43 3aKoHorBop.recrofi [porleAypbr KaK KoJrJreruillrurrfi
cy6rexr raxoro rlpaBa. Tar,
3axoHonpoeKTbr, BHeceHHbre grr4M cy6rerrorvr [paBa
3aKoHorBop.recrofi HHr{rlrrarr,rBbr,
IIo ero
npeAnoxeHr{rc paccMarpHBarorc,
B
lepBootlepeAHoM [oprAKe. Kpoue 3Toro, 3aKoHorrpoeKTbl, Kacarcul]Iec, BBe.{eHr4fl t4ltv
orMeHbI HiLIIoroB, oceo6ox,{eHr4fl or
o6ssaremcre cy6tercra Poccuu,
3a crler cpeAcrB 6ro4xera
Hx
ytrJrarbr, rr3MeHeHE Suuanconrrx
r,rHbre 3aKoHorrpoeKTbr,
[peAycMarpraBaroque pacxoAbr
cy6rexra Poccuu, paccMarpraBarorc, ero
3aKoHoAareJrbHbrM
opraHoM ToJIbKo tlo [peAcraBJIeHrIIo Bbrcurero AonxHocrHoro nurla
nu6o [p]r
H€rrrHtrHH
ero
3aKJrroqeHr,rf,.
Bropaa cra4vrs. peruoHnJrbHoro
3aKoHoAareJrbHoro [poqecca
rporleAypbr rrpeABapr,rreJrbHoro paccMorpeHlafl
3aKoHorlpoeKTa B KoMr4Terax
u
Lr
o6cyxgenur
B qreHr.rrx
BKJIIOqACT
BHCCEHHOTO
KoMuccr{rx 3aKoHoAareJrbHoro (npe4craBuTeJmnoro)
opraHa rocyAapctseHHofi BJlacrr,r cy6rerra Pocczu,
3aKoHo[poeKTa
cy6rerra Poccnu
3aKoHoAareJrbHoro
a raKxe paccMorpeHrrfl
(npe4cranurelruoro) opraHa Lr ero
rrpuHflTufl B KaqecTBe 3aKoHa.
fonocosaHr.reM
no
3aroHo[poeKTy
3aKoHorBopqecKoro rrpoqecca.
Axru
B
rIeJroM 3aBep[raerc, AaHHa, cTaAHs
rapnaMeHTa
(xar
Se4epanrHoro,
TAK
KT
peryIoHarlrnoro) AonxHbI orpaxarb MHeHlre 6offiuruncrBa qJreHon o6rqecrna. B cessu
c qeM, 3aKoHoAarenb [peAlrBJrfler
rpe6onaru4e KBarrr4Quqr,rponaHHoro 6omrueHcrsa
40
ronocoB
Poccafi
or o6uero qucJra Ae[yraroB
crofi
[peAcraBuTeJrbHoro opraHa
cy6rexra
@e4ep arp4v.
3axouogaremuufi lpoqecc 3aKaHqr4Baercr ony6nnxoBaHr{eM rroAnr{caHHoro
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BHoBb orKphrBarorrluMr{cx uorpe6Hocr{Mu HaceneHr4f, r4 rocyAapcrBa
B
52
rlenoM.
poccHficKoro
TpancSopMarlr4,
trpeAbrBnter 3aKoHorBopIIaM Bce
3aKoHoAareJrbcrBa
rpeAoIIpeAeJrqeT,
6oree BhrcoKue rpe6onaHux.
OpraHaur
3aKoHoAaremuofi (npe4crarHremnofi) anac:rn orBoAr,rrc, nr,rAupyrouee
ocHoBorronararoqee nonoxeHrae, qro rpe6yer
sHaHufi
or
Hr4x BbrcoKoro npo$eccuoH€Lrru3Ma rr
B rofi ilrur lruofi cSepax o6ulecreeunofi xtr3Hu.
orrrl{Ml43arrur 3aKoHorBopqecrofi AerreJrbHocrlr,
vI
Ilpe4craails.ercfl, trro
a B HeKoropofi
creneHpr
r{
[oJrH€ur
(pecrpyKTypr43arlr4q) 3aKoHoAarenbHoro [poqecca, flBJrflercfl rrpIEoprarernofi saAaqefi
rocyAapcTBa B IIenoM.
Brrpa6orre Mep
coBeprueHcrBoBaHr.rro nporleAypbr noAroroBKlr,
no
paccMorp e}rvfl 3aKoHonpoeKToB
r4
ttpvHrrr4fl eS$errranHbrx
HarrpaBneHHbrx Ha coquanl43allurc H ryMaHr,r3aur4ro
r4 KaqecrBeHHbrx 3aKoHoB,
poccuficroro 3aKoHoAarenbcrna I
48, c.20-30 l.
Ha uepnrrft
rrJraH BbrABuraerc, npo6nervra aKTHBH3arIr4r,r 3aKoHorBopvecrofi
AeflTeJrbHocrr{. CscsaHo 3To,
flpexAe Bcero, c [oBbrrxeHueM eQQerrvInHocr[I
perynr4poBa:nr4ur o6ulecrneHHhrx
B
oruorueuufi. Pearnsaquefi poccuficxoro
3aKoHoAareJrbcrBa, HarrpaBneHHoe Ha cBepxeHue rrpaBoBoro HLrruJrr43Ma B poccuficxona
o6qecrse B rlenoM yr B KoHKperHoM cy6rerre Poccuficrofi @e4epaqran
pr
B rracrHocrl4. HanpaereHHoM Ha pe€IJIlI3aIIHro
rroJrlrruKe B qenoM. IIo ynf{IxeHulo Kar{ecrBa x}I3HH,
MyHnrlunarrbHoM o6pa:onanuu
o6rqerocy4apcrneuuofi
orAenbHo B3{Toro rpaxAaHr4Ha. Vrcpeunenzro AeMoKparrrqecKl{x,
coqE€rIIbHbIx
o6uecrea. 3SQexrI,IBHoe nocropeHHue v
ryMaHr4crr{rrecKux ocHoB poccuficxoro
pearrLr3arlnq HopMorBopqecKofi AemerbHocrr{ r4 3aKoHoAareJlbHoro rlpoqecca [pI,I3BaHo
o6ecnequru
Bce HalpaBJreHr,rfl
3aKoHoAareJrbHbre ocHoBbr
xr.r3HeAerreJrbHocrr,r
o6ulecrna
v
yKpenl{Tb
poccuficrofi rocyAapcrBa, KaK Bo BHyrpeHHefi rax r/t Bo
sHerlHefi rroJrHTI,IKe rocyAapcrsa. Bo MHoroM 3To cBf,3aHo H c coBepIUeHcrBoBaHI,IeM
crrcreMbr 3aKouoAareJrbcrBa B rlenoM. Bce
gru [poqeccbl
K e$Ser:ranHofi, nnauosofi 3aKoHorBopuecrofi
B KoHerIHoM HTore [prlBeAyr
Ae.f,TeJlbHocrla poccnficxufi
rapnaMeHTaprreB.
Cucrerraa 3aKoHoAareJlbcrBa,
B
r4Aearre npuo6perer
ryMaHHbrfi, cupanegrnnrrfi, saxoHHrrfi xapaKTep.
9ro
B repByro oqepeAb
aBToMarI{rrecKI{ orptl3rlTcf,,
B
53
noJloxldreJrbHoM cMbrcJle
Ha o6ulecrneHHbre orHorrreHur. flpe4craelflercfl, rrro
3aKoHo.{areJrbHa, AerreJlbHocrr B [epByro oqepeAb AonxHa
6urs oppreHTr.rpoBaHa
Ha
AocruxeHue KoHKperHbIx Ilenefi H perxeHLrs noBceAHeBHhrx 3aAatl, npeAonpe4ens,r
6yayrurle Bo3MoxHbIe [poqeccbl, tlorpe6yroque r4x perxeHu, B caMbre cxarrre cpoKr{.
Pesymrarou AonxHa crarb opraHurrecK€If, cr4creMa HopMaruBHbrx aKToB,
aocrpe6oBaHH€ur
Ha coBpeMeHHoM srarre pa3Bkrrvfl, poccnficxoro rocyAapcrBa
vr
oTBerrarcu{as coBpeMeHHbrM peaJraf, M.
Ha
ocHoBaHuu [po.qenaHHoro auaJrv3a HopMarr,rBHoro perynupoBaHr{,
Lt
vt 3aKoHoAareJrbHoro [poqecca
B
Poccuficrofi (Degepaquu MoxHo c0oprrarapoBarb cneAyroqee rpeAcraBJreHue
o
pea.Jrr,r3arluu 3aKoHorBop.recxofi Aef,TenbHocrr,r
HarrpaBneHr4pr coBeprueHcrBoBaHr.r.fl
AaHHrrx [poqeccoB.
B [epByrc oqepeAb
lpeAcraBJr.rerc, neo6xo4nMbrM BrrAenHTb raKyro Kareropr4ro, KaK peanra3arlu,
3aKoHorBopuecrofi AeflTenbHocrr{ ocnosaHHofi Ha npanonofi paspa6orannofi
(KoHrIenrIHu>), BKJrrc)qaroqyrc B ToM rrlrcJre o6qerocyAapcrBeHHylo nporpaMMy
pa3BuTltfl 14 pealfi43arJt4t4 rrpaBoTBopr{ecTBa,
a
KaK cne.qcTBue [oBhlrrreHr,re KaqecTBa
3aKOHOAareJrbCTBa.
EnIe He MiIJroBaxHbrM Ha Haru B3rJrfl.A, flBrflercfl corluanu3a\us.3aKoHoAaremnofi
AerrenbHocrr,r.
Y.rer norpe6nocrefi v
r4HTepecoB HaceJreHr4f,
B qacrHocrl{
Lr
focyAapcTBa B IIenoM.
JIo66upoBaHHe
B
3aKoHorBopuecrofi AerrenbHocrr4, Ha ceroArlflrxHr,rfi AeHb
,BJrf,eTC' Cepbe3HbrM T4HCTpyMeHTOM rrpOABrIXeHIdfl. I'IHTepeCOB O[peAeJIeHHbIX fPYtrtr,
coo6rqecre, HcKrrcrreHueM He flBrflercq rrpe3uAeHrcxufi 14 [paBurenrcrseHHrtfi
no66ngrr,r. .{annoe [onoxeHr,[e Aen
HOpMaTr.rBHO yperynupoBaHo.
a poccuficKoM
3aKoHoAareJlbcrBe, AonxHo
flpe4craurrercfl uerecoo6pa3HblM
6rrrr
trphrHflTr4fl 3aKoHa,
perynupyroule ro no66rEcrcKyro AerrenbHocrb n P occrafi crofi @e4epaqran.
ConeprueHcrBoBaHue cr4creMhr HopMarr,rBHbrx aKToB
r
Poccuficrofi @e4epaquu,
o6HosreHue HopMarr.reHofi ocHoBbr H KoHelrno x<e ycrpaHeHre upo6eJroB H xomrasufi,
AOJTXHO {BHTbCfl npr{OpHTeTHbrM HaUpaBneHr{eM pA3BVrTVrfl. 3aKOHOAaTeJrbHOfO
rpoqecca s Poccuftcxofi @e4epaquu.
54
O6ecneqenue Ha}..rHoro conpoBoxAeHra, npaBorBop.recxofi
opfaHr43arlr4, rrpaBoBofo Bocfrr4TaHr,r{, flpaBoBoro
o6pa^:onanur
Aef,TeJrbHocTrI;
t4
noBbllueHue
upanonofi KyJrbrypbr HaceJreHr,rt 129, c. 1731.
CrpourerbcrBo 3aKoHoAaremHofi AerrenbHocrra Ha ocHoBe ugeit, rouqenqufi,
MoAepHrr3arr4Lr
v
eQ$exrunHocrrir,
B nepByrc
oqepeAb, Heo6xo4raruo paspa6oraru
AoirrocporrHyro crparerr,to Anfl 3aKoHorBopr{ecrBa c
Bbrf,BJreHplerra
nau6onee HacyrrlHhrx
BonpocoB, rpe6yroulr{x coorBercrBy}ouue HopMorBopqecKux petueHnfi u oupeAeJreHu,
qelefi npaBoBoro perynupoBaHuf,. Taxunr o6pasou, neo6xoAuMylo ocHoBy, Koropa,
AonxHa Jrexarb B ocHoBe efiQerrurHofi saxoHorBopqecrofi AonxHbI crarb npaeonofi
lrAeoJrorr{ra.
6urr
B
ocHoBe 3aKoHoAareJrbHofi 4earemHocrr4 rocyAapcrBa, a raK
xe .qonxHo
eAnuofi KoHrle[quu [paBoBoro pa3BrTvrs,, Bce 4eficrnur rocyAapcrBeHHblx
opraHoB r,r AonxHocrHbrx nLrrl AonxHu
6urr
nporyMaHbr, rloroMy rITo oHI4 AonxHbI
[oAtrr,rHflTbcq grofi KoHrlefluur,r B paMKax oAHoro [poqecca [paBoBoro pa3BHTHrI.
Ha ocHose ugeit, KoHrleluufi
ra AonxHa olpeAeJlqrbcf, rocyAapcrBeHHa, [oJIHTuKa
[pr,rMeHeHH, ero 3aKoHoAarelrnofi AerreJrbHocrl,I
u upoqecc
co3AaHI,Ir, B ToM trl{cre
HOpMaTITBHO-rrpaBoBbIx aKToB.
Bo epeux [praBr3Krr K KoHKpeurofi
cr4Tyarlkrvr, Bo
MHorvx cilyraflx ecrecrBennrtfi
3aKoH Heo6xoAul,to r{3MeHr.rrb KoHrrerrry€LllbHo coAepxareJlbHo, cocraBneHHble Ha
nraHosofi ocHoBe, xopomo cKoopAr.rHupoBaHHhlx KoJIJIeKTuBHbIx ueHTpoB. B opraHax
rocyAapctseHHofi BJIacrH Poccuficrofi @e.{epawru
Cyruecmyer
HOpMOTBOpqeCTBa,
TaKxe norpe6nocrr
ra
cy6terroe Poccru.
B eAuuofi HalluoHanrsofi
Koropuu .{oJrxHa BKJIK)lIarb ypoBeHb
3aKoHoAareJrbcrBa, ypoBeHb 3aKoHoAareJlbcrBa
[porpaMMe
Qe4epalrHoro
cy6rerros Poccuu I{ MyH}Ildl{nalrHrtfi
3aKoHoAarelrnrrfi ypoBeHb. Oco6oe 3HarreHr4e r4Meer co3AaHI4e eAuuofi cpIcreMbl
ocHoBHbrx
[p]rHrlu[oB, Kareropuit rir rroHrrl,Ift, xoropble flpl,IMeHrlorctr K co3AaHulo
$e4epanruux 14 perlroH€rnbHbrx 3aKoHoB ilila eAuHcrBa IIenH
v
[puopllTeroB.
focy4apcrBeHHoe 3aKoHoAareJrbcrBo rapaHTupyer ee rpaBoBoe rpocrpaHcrBa. B
BpeMr cyuecrByer neo6xoAr,rMocrb KoHTporq
u
to xe
datalacl4poBKll DTrIx [poqeccoB AJIf,
HcKJrroqeHux <npo6eJloB>> $e.(epanrHoro rloAxoAa K 3ToMy rlpoueccy.
55
Vlyuruenue KatrecrBa
3aKoHorBopqecrBa (saroHo4areJrrcrBa) u
coorBercrByroulero rlpoqecca, co3AaHI4e ueo6xoArlMhlx ycronufi Anf, [onHoqeunofi
3aKoHoAarenrHofi pa6orrr, peryJrr4poBaHr.re no66rapona:nvrfl, HopMarlrBuoe o6ecuer{eHue
rpe6onauufi saroHoAareJlbcrBa coIII4[In v3aryLt.
Pea-nnsarlus raKoro
pola
pa3Bkr"tr4fl,
Aeficranfi npeAo[peAenf,ror
rroBbrrreHr4e
e$SexrunHocrlr r4 BBeAeHpte Ha ecefi reppl,Iroptrr4 pocavficxofi @e4epaqnl{ eAilHbIx
rpaBuJr, perynHpyroul?rx craAr{r4 3aKoHoAarenbHoro npoqec ca.
3xcnepru:a
3aKoHoAareJrbHbrx
aKToB, frBlafl.flcb cocrasHofi
qacrbro
3aKoHoAareJrbHoro [poqecca, npr{3Bana o6ecueqr,rrb KaqecrBo, cBoeBpeMeHHocrb
qelecoo6pa3Hocrb 3aKoHonpoexTa, paccMarpuBaeMoro
@e4epaquu.
I,I
B napnaMeHTe Poccuficxofi
,{errelrnocrr aKcfleproB, He BcerAa onpaBAaHa u colpoBoxAaercf,
rrHorAa no66uponaHneM uHTepecoB Tex LIJII4 I4HbIx f{acrHI4KoB 3aKoHoAarenbHoro
11poqecca. flpe4craBJrflercr ueo6xoAraMbrM co3AaHI4e
gKcleprHoil AeqreJrbHocru.
B qacruocru
opfaHa, Irvrla uilpt KoJIJTeKTHBa.
B
ycnoeufi
An,
pezrnl,I3alluu
o6ec[eqeHl4e He3aBHc]IMocrpI sKcrleprHoro
AanHofi qacrl4 o6ecne.{ert4fl. Lt rapaHTI{poBaHI4JI
AoJrxHbr Bbrcryrrarb rocyAapcrBeHHbre opraHbl BJIacrI,I. CosAasac unu pernaMeHTl4pyfl
co3AaHlre gKcrreprHbrx coBeroB (coo6ulecre) cocroflulux vr3 BbIcoKo
[email protected] 3KcneproB. Ilpunnexax npu 3ToM Haf{Hoe coo6ulecrso.
flpr,rnnerafl MoJroAexb, co cBor,rMr4 HoBaropcKrIMH vr4eflv^ur I4 npeAnoxeHurMrl. Ha
ocHoBe HayqHofo aHa[lu3a sKcrrepTbr AonxHbI BbIHocI{Tb KarIecTBeHHbIe SKCIIepTHbIe
3aKJrroqeHut.flpu 3roM rocyAapcrno 6eper Ha ce6s orBercrBeHHocrb no o6ecueqeHuro
u
rapaHTrrpoBaH[ro npaB gKcneproB.
orBercrBeHHocrb
3a
B
cBoto oqepeAb 3aKperrnrt HopMarI,IBHo u
BbrHeceHHoro 3KcneprHoe 3aKrloqeHue. IOpu4uuecKyro
orBercrBeHHocrb 3a pe3ynbrarbl ceoefi AerrenlHocrl{.
flpunleuenue Haf{Horo coo6rqecrna K excneprHofi AerreJlbHocrrl,
AouonHHTeJrbHbIe rapaHTl4u eQQerrunHocrrl
3axoHo[poeKTa Ha paccMorpeHlre
B
u
qenecoo6pa3Hocru
BHOCI{MOfO
[apnaMeHT Poccuu. Ilpe4ctaetfrercfle tITo
3aKOHO[pOeKT AOnXeH COAepXaTb COCTaB aBTOpOB, r{aCTByrOUII4x
qro 6yaer
BBoAur
flBtflTbcs AoroJrHr,rremnofi rapauruefi. Peqr
B HX pa3pa6Orre,
yxe 6y4er
vATLt o
rrepcoHarrHofi orBercrBeHHocru cy6rerroB 3aKoHoAareJlbHoit ulr,wluarllBbl. Bce eru
56
Mepbr
[o3BoJII,In]1
6u
yKpenr,rrb
vt
c6alancupoBarb 3aKoHoAarelurrrfi
3aKOHOTBOpqeCKUH npOqeCC B IIenOM.
Taruu
o6pa:orvr, Heo6xo4urrao HopMarraBHo orperynupoBarb 3KcneprHyro
B PoccrErE. Hanpuiuep, rrpuHflTueM 3aKoHa (O 3aKoHoAaremnoft
orcreprr43e B Poccuficxofi @e4epaquu>>. ,{auuuu HopMarr{BHbIM aKToM
Aef,TenbHocrb
[peAycMorperb perynupoBaHr{e gKcrreprHoft AeqrerbHocrpl, He ronbxo na Se4epaJlbHo,
per[oHnlbHoM, Ho H Ha MecrHoM ypoBHe. floroxeHl4fl AaHHoro 3aKoHa Moryr rax xe
[peAycMarpnBarb xnaluSuraur4oHHbre rpe6oraHl4.f, K 3Kcrleprarra. Bogtr,toxHo co3AaHvrc
KoMHccHLr
Ar.r
Bbr{BJreHlrfl He4o6pocoBecrHblx gKcrleproB, 3aKoHHo no66upyroqrae
rpy[fl, ronananufi, npeAnpl{f,ruit c pa3nuqHblnaz Sopnaanru
co6crgeHHocru. Koneqno xe, gro He I,IcKJrroqaer KoHcrI,ITyIIuoHHoe flpaBo Ha
HHTepecbr oupe4eneHHbrx
cyAeoHylo 3alrlury cBol4x rlpaB.
ConeprueHcrBoBaHue poccuftcxoro 3aKoHoAareJlbHoro rlpoqecca He pa3phlBHoe
cBr3aHo
c
coBeprxeHcTBoBaHHeM AerreJrbHocrr4 [apnaMeHTaprleB. flpe4craaJlrlerc,
ueo6xoAuMbrM napnaMeHTapr,{rM Se4epanrHoro, peruoHtlrbHoro I,I MecrHoro yponuefr
o6ecne.r[saru
unSoprvraqueit, npeAocraBJleHll, Bo3MoxHocrl4
,{ocronepHofi
Ilpl{BneqeHufl, vl Bo3MoxHocTI,I Aenarb 3arrpocbl B pa3nhqHble opraHbl rocyAapcrseHHofi
BJracrr{ Poccnficrofi @e4epaquu, cy6texron Poccnficrofi @e4epaquu, opraHoB
MecrHoro caMoynpaBleHrac r{ T.A.
u35nrurb Ha3peBr[yrc npo6nervry.
3ro Aacr Bo3MoxHocrb
3aKoH TBopuaM BcecropoHHe
B csqsu c 3TI,IM, Bo3HI,IKaer [r BpeMeHHaf, npo6lenaa.
3a.racryro napJraMeHTapurM 6auamno He xBaraer BpeMeHvt, Nrfl, pa:pa6orKe roro
uJII4
LIHOIO 3aKOHOAaTeJIbHO|O aKTa.
Tarcuu o6pa:ou, ransoprraarlHo, ueo6xoAraMyro Ans paspa6orKH
3aKOHOTTpOeKTOB AOJTXHa npeAOCTaBLflTbCf,
HOpMaTUBHO [paBOBOrO aKTa, 3aKOHa
C KaXAbIM
pI paccMorpeHLl-fl
3JIeMeHTOM KOHqeIIqI{H
B IIeJIOM, efo pa3AeJIOB, OTAeJIbHbIX Crarefi
U
[paBoBbrx noloxeHrafi. CooraercrByrouylo unSopnaaqnrc), BKJIK)qafl. cra^ryc 3aKoHa
HaKaIIJIHBaeTC' B JIOKaIIEHbIX aKTaX COOTBeTCTByIOIIIHX [apJIaMeHTOB.
C qenrro noBbrrrreHux efi$exraBHocrrI 3axoHoAarelrnofi AerrenbHocru Ha3pena
neo6xoAttMocrb pacuupl4Tb rlepeqeHb noATBepxAarcIqux AoKyMeHToB or
r{Hr.rqpraTopoB
no[paBoK 3aKoHorrpoeKToB, a TaKxe MaTepu€LIIbI,
KoTopble
57
flpeAocTaBJrf,roTcfl
An, AenyTaToB I4 Apyrux
ytracTHr,rKoB 3aKoHoAaTeJrbHoro
[poqecca
lepeA paccMorpeHr,reM 3aKoHo[poeKTa Ha [JleHapHbrx 3ace4aHvlflx. Kaxercs
JIOTI4qHbIM
pl rIpeAnOXeHr4e O
BrroJrHe
CO3AaHpIU MLrHI{M€uIbHO|O CpOKa, AOCTaTOTIHOTO AJItr
LrcyrcHufl. npanorofi rro3Lrrlnu Ha 3aKoHotrpoeKTbl, rrpeAnoxerufl I4 norIpaBKH K HeMy.
Kpoue roro B rlenflx o6ecue.renur eQSeKrr,rBHocru 3aKoHoAareJrbHofi pa6orrr,
neo6xoAulro AnLA peanr.r3arluu sceo6reN,Inroulefi corIH€IJrLI3a\uv poccuficroro
3aKoHoAareJlbcrBa rocyAapcrBa, TJIaBHEIM o6pa:orr,r [pI4MeHeHHrI 3aKoHoAarenrnofi
rroJrlrruKu AoJIxHo
6uru coqualrHrtfi cflpoc,
perynupoBarb Qyn4anaeHTarIbHbIe
r
HHTepecbr lpaxAaH u co4eficrBoBarb Hx ocyqecrBJleHrlro.
Tomro B groM
3aKOHOAaTeJIbHOTO
cJl1^{ae
Mbr I\IoxeM roBop[ITb
o
sS$ercnaHocrrI
[poqecca.
Eute oAuH H3 rrpr4oplrreroB 3aKoHoAarelrsofi AerrenbHocrl{, cnoco6crnyr
ynfrrueHraro KarrecrBa H a$SerrnrHocru HopMarI,IBHo
-
6rrtr,
3a pe3ynbrarbl, B cnf{ae
uccJleAoBanue ropnAr4qecxofi orBercrBeHHocru
pa:pa6omra
v
HopMarIaBHo
rlpaBoBoro.
uoloxenufi HeorBparl{Mo rIpHBeAer K
oco3HaHulo
ilpLrHflTus, Hr{3Koro KarrecrBa
CanxquoHlrpoBaHLre AaHHbrx
[paBoBblx aKToB AonxHo
HeorBparuMocrr4 HaKa3an:afl 3aKoHoAarerefi Ao[ycrI,IBIIrI4x ouru6xu
Bo BpeMr
paccMoTpeHl,If, 14 ltpkrlJflTufl, HopMaTHBHOTO aKTa 14 eCTeCTBeHHEIM HeXeJIaHlIeM
rroABeprHyrbcf, [peAycMorpeHHbrM caHKuplf,M, rIpI4BeAer
r 6olrruefi eQQeKrI,IBHocrH
3aKoHorBopqecrBa 6yaer cnoco6crBoBarb yBaxeHl,Irc 3aKoHa I,I 3aKoHoAarenefi.
MexanusM orBercrBeHHocrr4 3aKoHoAareJIbHbIx (upe4craBl4TeJlbHrrx) opraHoB
rocyAapcrneHuofi BJracrrr cy6rerror (De4epaqnr,r 3a pe3ynbrarbl co6crseHHofi
AerTeJrbHocTH AonxeH BbrcTynHTb oAHr,rM
n3 KJIK)rIeBbIX
MeXaHI'I3MOB, CIOCO6HUX
o6ecuequrb eAuHcrBo rpaBoBoro npocTpaHcrBa Poccuficrofi (De4epa\vu.
Taxuu o6pa:ou, sQQerrurHocrb
3aKoHa 3aBr{cI,IT He roJIbKo
or ero co.{epxaHllfl,
Ho r4 or crroco6a lr:roxeHurfl BKrroqeHHbIx B Hero [paBoBblx HopM.
B
pesynrrare
orcrynreHlrq rtpu co3AaHur.r 3aKoHa or tpe6onaHnfi 3aKoHorBopvectcofi
rpaMMaruKr4
14
TeXHI4KI,I,
rrro
Soprr,ralrtrofi lorurr,r Bo3HHKaror HeqcHocru, npo6elrr, KoIJII,I3HI,I,
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58
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[paBoBblx aKroB @egepanrHblx opraHoB HcrroJrHrirreJrbHofi: yras llpesu4eHra [email protected] or
23 uaq 1996 r.
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16. flocranoureHr{e locylapcreeHHofi ,.{yirarr Oe4epanbHoro Co6pauut.
Poccnftcrcofi @e4epaquu or 22 rHBapn 1998 r. Ns 2134-II (O Pernauenre
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IIo AeJry o roJrKoBaHVu noJroxeHuir qacru 4 crarsu
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1) Koncturyuvru Pocczficrofi @eqepaquu: flocranoBJreHrle KoncrnryrlrloHHoro
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21. flo Aeny o
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71. focy4apcrBeHHax lSrua <DC [email protected]: u,mrv.duEa.ru
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