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Афонина С. И., Данилушкина Е. В., Квиленко Е. В. Анализ аутентичных материалов и составление лингвострановедческого тематического пособия Architecture of Great Britain:from Pre-roman period up to XX century

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Орёл - 2018
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АННОТАЦИЯ
Выпускная
квалификационная
работа
на
тему
«Анализ аутентичных материалов и составление лингвострановедческого
тематического пособия Architecture of Great Britain: from pre-Roman period up
to XX century».
Объем ВКР: 157 страниц
Количество рисунков и таблиц: 95
Количество использованных источников: 72
Ключевые
Великобритания,
слова:
критерии,
лингвострановедение,
принципы
отбора
реалия,
и
архитектура,
приемы
адаптации
лингвострановедческих учебных текстов, Е. М. Верещагин, В. Г. Костомаров,
Г.Д. Томахин, И.Г. Розовая, З.Н. Никитенко, ранняя английская архитектура,
англосаксонский стиль, норманнский стиль, ранняя готика, украшенный и
перпендикулярный
стили,
тюдоровский
период,
ренессанс,
барокко,
Елизаветинский период, Якобинский период, георгианская архитектура,
викторианский период.
Данная работа посвящена составлению лингвострановедческого тематического
пособия с учетом принципов отбора текстов для обеспечения коммуникативной
компетенции в актах межкультурной коммуникации через адекватное восприятие речи
собеседника и понимание оригинальных текстов, которые подверглись адаптации под
носителя языка.
Предмет исследования – англоязычные аутентичные источники
описания архитектуры Великобритании.
Объект исследования – принципы и критерии отбора
лингвострановедческого материала.
Цель
исследования – создание адаптированного текста на основе
первичных материалов.
Результатом
исследования
является
изучение
и
лингвострановедческого компонента, принципов и критериев отбора.
анализ
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СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
Введение ........................................................................................................................... 9
Глава 1.Теоретические основы лингвострановедения .............................................. 11
1.1.Определение лингвострановедения и его методологическая основа ................ 11
1.2. Цели, задачи, объект и предмет лингвострановедения ...................................... 12
1.3 Роль и место лингвострановедческого аспекта при обучении иностранным
языкам ............................................................................................................................. 13
Глава 2. Текст в лингвострановедческом рассмотрении........................................... 14
2.1. Прагматичные и проективные тексты.................................................................. 14
2.2 Принципы отбор лингвострановедческих учебных текстов и их адаптация... 15
Глава 3. Лингвострановедческое тематическое пособие “Architecture of Great
Britain: from pre-Roman period up to XX century” ...................................................... 18
3.1 Описание Лингвострановедческого пособия “Architecture of Great Britain: from
pre-Roman period up to XX century” ............................................................................ 18
I. Early English architecture
1.1 General characteristic of the period (Anglo-Saxon, Norman, Early Gothic) .......... 20
1.1.1 Anglo-Saxon........................................................................................................... 20
1.1.2 Norman ................................................................................................................... 20
1.1.3 Early Gothic ........................................................................................................... 21
1.2 The most famous architects of the period ................................................................. 22
1.2.1 Anglo-Saxon........................................................................................................... 22
1.2.2 Norman ................................................................................................................... 23
1.2.3 Early Gothic ........................................................................................................... 25
1.3 Buildings of the period .............................................................................................. 29
1.3.1 Anglo-Saxon........................................................................................................... 29
1.3.2 Norman ................................................................................................................... 32
1.3.3 Early Gothic ........................................................................................................... 35
1.4 Check yourself........................................................................................................... 42
1.4.1 Keys ........................................................................................................................ 44
II. Decorated and Perpendicular styles
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2.1 General characteristic of Decorated and Perpendicular styles .................................. 45
2.2 The most famous architects of the period ................................................................. 46
2.2.1 Decorated style ....................................................................................................... 46
2.2.2 Perpendicular style ................................................................................................. 49
2.3 Buildings of the period .............................................................................................. 51
2.3.1 Decorated style ....................................................................................................... 51
2.3.2 Perpendicular style ................................................................................................. 54
2.4 Check yourself........................................................................................................... 59
2.4.1 Keys ........................................................................................................................ 61
III. Tudor period
3.1. General characteristic of Tudor period and Tudor architectural style ..................... 62
3.1.1 Typical features ...................................................................................................... 62
3.2 The most famous architects of the period ................................................................. 64
3.3 Buildings of the period .............................................................................................. 66
3.4 Check yourself........................................................................................................... 75
3.4.1 Keys ........................................................................................................................ 76
IV. Renaissance and Baroque
4.1 General characteristics .............................................................................................. 77
4.1.1 Renaissance ............................................................................................................ 77
4.1.2 Baroque .................................................................................................................. 78
4.1.2.1 Typical features ................................................................................................... 78
4.2 The most famous architects of the periods................................................................ 80
4.3 Buildings of the periods ............................................................................................ 85
4.4 Check yourself........................................................................................................... 91
4.4.1 Keys ........................................................................................................................ 92
V. Elizabethan and Jacobean architecture
5.1 General characteristics .............................................................................................. 93
5.1.1 Elizabethan architecture ......................................................................................... 93
5.1.1.1 Typical features ................................................................................................... 93
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5.1.2 Jacobean architecture ............................................................................................. 94
5.1.2.1 Typical features ................................................................................................... 95
5.2 The most famous architects of the periods................................................................ 95
5.3 Buildings of the periods ............................................................................................ 98
5.4 Check yourself......................................................................................................... 104
5.4.1 Keys ...................................................................................................................... 105
VI. Georgian architecture
6.1 General characteristic of Georgian architecture...................................................... 106
6.1.1 Typical features .................................................................................................... 107
6.2 The most famous architects of the period ............................................................... 108
6.3 Buildings of the period ............................................................................................ 113
6.4 Check yourself......................................................................................................... 119
6.4.1 Keys ...................................................................................................................... 120
VII. Victorian period
7.1 General characteristic of Victorian period and Victorian architectural style ......... 121
7.1.1 Typical features .................................................................................................... 121
7.2 The most famous architects of the period ............................................................... 125
7.3 Buildings of the period ............................................................................................ 126
7.4 Check yourself......................................................................................................... 131
7.4.1 Keys ...................................................................................................................... 133
A list of realities ............................................................................................................ 134
Glossary ......................................................................................................................... 141
Заключение .................................................................................................................. 149
Список Литературы ..................................................................................................... 150
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ВВЕДЕНИЕ
На сегодняшний день, с учетом этапа развития общества и перехода в
стадию
глобализации,
значительно
возрастает
необходимость
изучения
иностранного языка, особенно овладения им как средством общения. Элементы
лингвострановедения вводятся в школьную программу уже на начальном этапе
изучения языка, так как в процессе обучения иностранному языку данные
элементы сочетаются с языковыми явлениями, становясь способом ознакомления
обучающихся с новой действительностью.
Страноведческая
информация
способствует стремлению
формирует
учащихся к
мотивацию
к
изучению,
расширению кругозора, а
также
стимулирует общение на иностранном языке, которое становится подкрепленным
внеязыковой средой в учебных заведениях. Для систематизации страноведческих
сведений создаются лингвострановедческие тематические пособия и словари,
включающие в себя реалии вместе с их толкованием и являющиеся важным
средством изучения языка.
Актуальность данной квалификационной работы заключается в дефиците на
сегодняшний день страноведческих источников, содержащих подробную и
всестороннюю информацию об архитектуре Британии. Нередко требуется
исследование множество ресурсов, чтобы найти точные сведения, но данные
информационные источники не всегда и не в полной мере доступны, вместе с тем
предлагаемый материал представлен отрывочно.
По этой причине, цель составленного нашего лингвострановедческого
тематического пособия по британской культуре заключаются в анализе
аутентичных
источников
по
архитектуре
Великобритании,
и
создании
собственного лингвострановедческого пособия.
Для достижения поставленной цели предстояло решить следующие задачи:
1) определить основные принципы составления лингвострановедческих
пособий;
2) изучить принципы отбора и адаптации лингвострановедческих текстов;
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3)
изучить
аутентичные
источники
для
нахождения
сведений
об
архитектуре Великобритании.
4) отобрать необходимую информацию и составить словарные статьи,
отражающие наиболее полную и значимую информацию о каждой отобранной
реалии;
5) создать тесты для самоконтроля пройденного материала.
Работа состоит из введения, теоретической части (описание теоретические
основы лингвострановедения, и рассмотрение текста в лингвострановедческом
аспекте) и практической части (описание наиболее значимых архитектурных
сооружений британской культуры со списком реалий и словарем, составленного
для снятия языковых трудностей).
Практическая значимость данной работы заключается в том, что данное
лингвострановедческое тематическое пособие «Architecture of Great Britain: from
Pre-roman period up to XX century» в будущем может быть использовано при
самостоятельной подготовки студентами к семинарским занятиям по дисциплине
«Культура стран первого изучаемого языка», а также в целом для расширения
кругозора в сфере современной английской культуры.
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ГЛАВА 1. ТЕОРЕТИЧЕСКИЕ ОСНОВЫ ЛИНГВОСТРАНОВЕДЕНИЯ
1.1 Определение лингвострановедения и его методологическая основа
Главной задачей лингвострановедения как особой ветви лингводидактики
является изучения языка не обособленно, а в тесной взаимосвязи с культурой
страны–носителя этого языка. В наши дни курсы страноведения не являются
редкостью во многих высших учебных заведениях. Даже школьники при
изучении иностранного языка, получают огромное количество информации
касаемо культуры, быта и традиций народа, говорящего на этом языке.
Преподаватели иностранного языка всегда использовали дополнительные
сведения о стране изучаемого языка. Лингвострановедение как особая область
филологии
возникла
как
раз
на
фундаменте
разностороннего,
издавна
накопленного опыта преподавания языка [69, с.77].
Одна из целей государственного образовательного стандарта обучения
иностранному
языку
на
базовом
уровне
–
воспитание
у
школьников
«положительного отношения к иностранному языку, культуре народа, говорящего
на этом языке … Образование средствами иностранного языка предполагает …
знание о культуре, истории, реалиях и традициях страны изучаемого языка …
включение школьников в диалог культур…» [70, с.5].
Фундаментальным принципом лингвострановедения является
языка с точки зрения кумулятивной функцию.
изучение
В добавление к этому,
лингвострановедение занимается изучением приемов и способов включения
ознакомительно-познавательного потенциала языка в процессе преподавания его
иностранцам. Без изучения методологических основ лингводидактики нельзя
анализировать носители страноведческой информации и заниматься разработкой
практических приемов этих носителей в учебном процессе.
Базис
лингвострановедения образуют пять основных методологических
принципов:
1) Принцип принятие факта, согласно которому, изучая язык, у учащихся есть
возможность приобщиться к другой действительности.
Три важные функции
12
общественной природы языка: коммуникативная (передача информации от
одного участника акта коммуникации к другому), кумулятивная (не просто
передача сообщения, но и накопление информации о действительности) и
директивная (направлена на воздействие и формирование личности).
2) Принцип необходимости понимания процесса изучения и преподавания
иностранного языка как процесса аккультурации.
3) Принцип формирования позитивной установки по отношению к стране
изучаемого языка в процессе аккультурации.
4) Принцип цельности – языковой учебный процесс должны быть цельным,
страноведческая информация должна извлекаться из естественных форм языка.
5) Пятый принцип – реализация в процессе обучения филологического способа
вторичного познания действительности.
Также стоит отметить, что существует обществоведческая методика,
заключающаяся в презентации географических сведений и истории без включения
иностранного языка.
Выработка осознания аспектов культуры, которые не имеют схожих в
родном языке и культуре – неотъемлемая часть обучения лингвострановедению.
1.2 Цели, задачи, объект и предмет лингвострановедения
Содержанием лингвострановедения принято считать культуру страны
изучаемого языка.
Главной
целью
лингвострановедения
является
обеспечение
коммуникативной компетенции в актах межкультурной коммуникации через
адекватное восприятие речи собеседника и понимание оригинальных текстов,
которые адаптированы под носителя языка.
Наиболее важная задача лингвострановедения – исследование языковых
единиц, которые ярче всего отражают особенности культуры страны изучаемого
языка. К таким языковым единицам можно отнести:
– реалии (явления и предметы, имеющиеся в изучаемой культуре и
отсутствующие в родной);
13
– коннотативная лексика (одинаковые по основному значению слова, но
разные по культурно–историческим ассоциациям);
– фоновая лексика (предметы, аналогичные в двух культурах, но отличные
по национальным особенностям функционирования и формы).
Предметом лингвострановедения является отобранный языковой материал,
отражающий культуру страны изучаемого языка.
Основным объектом, по мнению Г.Д. Томахина являются фоновые знания,
которыми располагают члены определенной языковой и этнической общности.
[69, с.77]
1.3 Роль и место лингвострановедческого аспекта при обучении
иностранным языкам
В процессе обучения иностранцев в стране изучаемого языка широко
используется
лингвострановедческий
аспект,
что
способствует
развитию
естественной коммуникации. Адекватное речевое поведение невозможно без
знания национальной культуры, быта, традиций страны изучаемого языка.
Важнейшая задача лингвострановедческого аспекта – обучение общению на
иностранном языке и формирование коммуникативных способностей. Эти
факторы определяют важность и актуальность вопросов, связанных с разработкой
лингвострановедческого аспекта в обучении иностранному языку в средней
общеобразовательной школе [71, с.24].
14
ГЛАВА 2. ТЕКСТ В ЛИНГВОСТРАНОВЕДЧЕСКОМ РАССМОТРЕНИИ
2.1 Прагматичные и проективные тексты
Существует два
принципиально
разных
способа
сообщения новой
информации.
Во-первых, информацию можно выразить прямо и точно: На улице
холодно; Я иду гулять. Во-вторых, новую информацию можно сообщить
косвенным путем, через указание на близкие или смежные явления и факты, на
причинно-следственные связи.
Из этого следует, что, если речевая интенция переведена в рациональнологическое, прямое и самодостаточное высказывание (для его понимания
умозаключения не требуется), то данный текст называется прагматичным.
Данный термин показывает, что такие тексты непосредственно нацелены на
сообщение «деловой», «сущностной» информации, так что роль адресата
сводится
к
сложению
смыслов
номинативных
единиц,
включенных
в
высказывание.
Если же речевая интенция соотнесена с чем-то аналогичным, близким,
подобным, но не прямо с предметом мысли, если она является посылкой, а не
выводом умозаключения, то соответствующий текст называется проективным.
Таким образом, следует различать прагматичный и проективный способы
передачи информации. Иногда оба способа могут переплетаться между собой, так
что текст одновременно должен восприниматься и прямо, и переосмыслено.
Оба способа существенны с точки зрения лингвострановедения. Новые для
иностранца
публикаций,
сведения
поэтому
сообщаются
очень
с
помощью
существенно
разнообразных
значение
текста
печатных
наряду
с
номинативными формами языка в аккультурации иностранца.
Некоторые жанры словесности целиком состоят из прагматичных текстов.
Например, справочники, словари, учебные пособия, протоколы и т.д. Практически
вся научная, учебная и справочная литература ориентирована исключительно на
прагматичные тексты. [72, с.112-113]
15
2.2 Принципы отбора лингвострановедческих учебных текстов и их
адаптация
При составлении лингвострановедческих пособий важно помнить, что
учебные тексты являются основой эффективного обучения. Однако не каждый
учебный текст пригоден к использованию в учебных целях. Прежде чем попасть в
учебную аудиторию любой заимствованный текст должен пройти процедуру
отбора. Затем такой текст подвергается адаптации, то есть текст сокращают,
перефразируют, делают все, что необходимо, чтобы повысить его учебную
отдачу.
Каждый текст оценивается со стороны формы (языковая точка зрения) и со
стороны внеязыкового содержания (познавательно-воспитательная точка зрения).
По мнению Е.М. Верещагина и В.Г. Костомарова, высший критерий оценки
содержательного
плана
учебных
текстов
–
их
учебно-методическая
целесообразность, что, в свою очередь, делится на более конкретные критерии:
1)Содержательная ценность текста определяется его страноведческим
наполнением. Чем больше страноведческих сведений содержит текст, тем выше
его ценность;
2)Страноведческая
ценность
текста
определяется
степенью
его
современности. Только лишь актуальные сведения могут быть пригодны в
изучении;
3)Принцип актуального историзма. В текст учебника следует включать всем
известные исторические данные, помогающие лучше понять культуру страны
изучаемого языка;
4)Требование типичности отражаемых фактов. Не следует насыщать текст
занимательными, но редкими явлениями, либо же чрезвычайными ситуациями,
которые не являются типичными для страны. [72, с.115-117]
К принципам отбора страноведческого материала относятся:
1)Принцип
учащихся);
аутентичности
(расширяет
страноведческий
кругозор
16
2)Принцип воздействия на эмоциональную и мотивационную сферу
личности с учетом возрастных особенностей и интересов учащихся (отбирает
только интересный страноведческий материал);
3)Принцип методической ценности для формирования базовых речевых
навыков и умений учащихся.
Нельзя пренебрегать одним или несколькими принципами при составлении
учебников, они все в равной степени ценны.
Одним из важнейших критериев отбора лингвострановедческого материала
является готовность учащихся к восприятию сведений о культуре страны
изучаемого языка. Такая готовность предполагает формирование и развитие
необходимых субъективных условий или свойств личности наряду с имеющимися
лингвистическими умениями и навыками.
Отбор должен производиться на основе учета критерия культурологической
и страноведческой ценности. Отбираются те реалии и знания, которые повысят
уровень страноведческой образованности и культуры в целом, сформируют
национально–культурную компетенцию. Современность – один из критериев
отбора. Именно он помогает определить границы отбора реалий. Также нужно
учитывать
возраст
учащихся,
их
интересы,
а
также
их
исходный
общеобразовательный уровень и уровень языковой подготовки.
В процессе создания учебников и учебных пособий, все оригинальные
тексты проходят процесс адаптации. Обычно, внимание составляющих нацелено
на языковую адаптацию, приближая исходный оригинальный текст к уровню
языковой компетенции учащихся и уменьшая объем текста, что прощает его
восприятие. Но не менее важным вопросом является лингвострановедческая
адаптация, при которой берутся во внимание трудности, связанные с усвоением
страноведческой информации в тексте.
Существует несколько этапов лингвострановедческой адаптации:
1)Анализ текста с целью определения ведущей страноведческой темы
текста и возможных периферийных тем;
17
2)Анализ страноведческой информации, заключенной в тексте, вычленение
новой для учащихся страноведческой информации, информации, которая уже
известная учащимся, но может быть закреплена, активизирована и расширена в
данном контексте;
3)Определение объема известной ранее страноведческой информации, на
которую будут опираться учащиеся при усвоении данного текста;
4)Анализ безэквивалентной и фоновой лексики с учетом того, к какой теме
– основной или одной из периферийных для данного текста – она относится;
5)Удаление из текста частей, которые не имеют лингвострановедческой
ценности
или
не
имеют
непосредственного
отношения
к
основной
страноведческой теме, с целью концентрации внимания учащихся;
6)Насыщение текста дополнительными фактами, помогающими более
глубокому раскрытию темы;
7)Изъяснение новых страноведчески ценных слов непосредственно в тексте
или в системе комментариев и методического аппарата учебника или учебного
пособия.
Благодаря лингвострановедческой адаптации можно создавать разные по
степени адаптированности тексты – от слабой и до написания практически нового
текста на основе первичных материалов.
18
ГЛАВА 3. ЛИНГВОСТРАНОВЕДЧЕСКОЕ ТЕМАТИЧЕСКОЕ ПОСОБИЕ
“ARCHITECTURE OF GREAT BRITAIN: FROM PRE-ROMAN PERIOD UP TO
XX CENTURY”
3.1 Описание лингвострановедческого пособия пособия “Architecture of
Great Britain: from pre-Roman period up to XX century”
Целью данной выпускной квалификационной работы является составление
лингвострановедческого тематического пособия “Architecture of Great Britain:
from pre-Roman period up to XX century” с учетом принципов отбора текстов,
сформулированных Е.М. Верещагиным и В.Г. Костомаровым.
В
процессе
отбора
текстов
для
лингвострановедческого
пособия
необходимо принимать во внимание определенные критерии. Вся информация в
текстах должна быть тематической, соответствовать лингвострановедческому
аспекту. Все тексты должны быть актуальными и современными, что можно
определить, используя аутентичные материалы. Информация в пособии должна
быть полная и исчерпывающая.
При составлении данного лингвострановедческого пособия за основу были
взяты самые лучшие стороны пособий: краткость и доступность изложения,
список реалий и глоссарий, иллюстрации.
Лингвострановедческое пособие разделено на главы, облегчая тем самым
ознакомление и работу с материалом:
1.
Early English architecture (Anglo-Saxon, Norman, Early Gothic)
2.
Decorated and Perpendicular styles
3.
Tudor period
4.
Renaissance and Baroque
5.
Elizabethan and Jacobean periods
6.
Georgian architecture
7.
Victorian period.
Каждая часть содержит иллюстрации и краткое описание основных
архитектурных отличий того или иного периода, информацию о выдающихся
19
архитекторах и известные архитектурные сооружения. Также, каждая часть
содержит раздел “Check yourself”, в котором сформулированы вопросы,
нацеленные на проверку понимания содержания. После раздела “Check yourself”
расположен раздел “Keys”, который включает ответы на сформулированные
вопросы. Данные разделы позволяют преподавателю проверить знания студентов,
а студентам самостоятельно проверить, насколько хорошо они усвоили
предоставленный материал.
Все лексические единицы, вошедшие в лингвострановедческий словарь
реалий (“A list of realities”), помечены знаком “*”, расположены согласно
алфавитному порядку для упрощения поиска словарной статьи для слова.
В разделе Glossary можно найти все трудные для чтения и понимания слова
с их объяснением и транскрипцией, в тексте такие лексические единицы
помечены знаком “**”. В данном разделе слова расположены также в алфавитном
порядке, что облегчает поиск нужного слова.
В процессе составления данного лингвострановедческого пособия были
использованы
различные
аутентичные
материалы,
то
есть
подлинные,
невыдуманные тексты. Аутентичность также являлась одним из главных
критериев отбора текстов для составления пособия, ведь важно, передавая
историю, предоставить только подлинную информацию и факты, не исказить
данные.
При составлении данного пособия, помимо такого критерия, как
аутентичность, также были учтены следующие критерии отбора материала:
степень насыщенности материала реалиями, образами, персонажами, его
страноведческая значимость.
20
I. EARLY ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE
1.1 General characteristics of the period (Anglo-Saxon, Norman, Early Gothic)
1.1.1 Anglo-Saxon
The majority of Anglo-Saxon buildings were constructed mainly using wood. The
timber-building tradition left its mark, however, on later stone-built churches.
The Anglo-Saxon style – from the German “Angelsachsen” – a style in
architecture that existed in England in the period from VI to XI century. The AngloSaxon style, in many respects, combines the features of Celtic architecture and the
Roman defensive constructions.
After assimilation Anglo-Saxons with Celts in V-VI centuries, they brought
together their culture. Initially, the typical architecture of that period were primitive
wooden huts**. However, since the beginning of the VII century, wealthy peasants,
artisans and nobility emerged, for whom construction began on large houses, called
“hall”. They were long buildings with gable roofs**, which subsequently became basic
to the Anglo Saxon style of architecture. Urban development in the British Anglo-Saxon
began to develop later in VIII-IX centuries. The first large settlements were Canterbury
and Rochester, as well as Kent.
In other areas of England, the emergence of the urban system refers to the time of
the beginning of the Scandinavian invasions. At the King Alfred’s request*, in all parts
of the country, fortifications were built around regional shopping centers in order to
protect from Danish raids*. In the regions under the power of the Vikings, also sharply
accelerated the development of cities and trade.
High walls and picket fence**, as well as moats surrounded Anglo-Saxon towns.
Castles and cities of this period had no Central building or dungeons**, as in later
fortresses – all constructions located on the perimeter.
1.1.2 Norman
Due to Norman invasion, the term Norman architecture is traditionally used for
English Romanesque architecture. Castles, fortifications, keeps, and monasteries,
abbeys, churches, cathedrals were constructed, under the influence of Normans.
21
The conquest of England began with the victory of the Normans, under the
leadership of William the Conqueror, in the battle of Hastings in 1066, after which
Duke Wilhelm* became king of England. Finally, invasion concluded with that local
feudal nobility was under the authority of the King to 1070-1075 years. Because of the
conquest, classical forms of feudalism and the military system were transferred to
England; a centralized state was established with strong Royal power. The country's
orientation towards continental Europe and its involvement in European politics
increased dramatically, and traditional communication with Scandinavia diminished.
The conquest also had a significant impact on the development of English culture and
language. William the Conqueror established the Anglo-Norman monarchy, which,
afterwards, existed until the middle of XII century.
Soon the construction began on large Church buildings. Normans needed fortified
castles, behind high walls of which it was possible to shelter both from hostile Saxons,
and from warlike neighbors. Tower of the Norman castles had usually square forms and
one room on each floor. For example, in Hedingham castle, the only way to penetrate to
the first floor of the main tower was from inside the building.
Soon the construction began on large Church buildings. Normans needed fortified
castles, behind high walls of which it was possible to shelter both from hostile Saxons,
and from warlike neighbors. Tower of the Norman castles had usually square forms and
one room on each floor. For example, in Hedingham castle, the only way to penetrate to
the first floor of the main tower was from inside the building.
In turn, flight of stairs led to the second floor, where was located the room in
which lived, ate and slept family members. There were fireplaces on each floor, served
for heating, but since window glasses did not exist yet, in the winter such house got
drafty and it was cold. To protect against enemies and bad weather, the windows were
small, so that twilight prevailed in the castle. Security was in favour.
1.1.3 Early Gothic
In England, Gothic works varied with heaviness, overloading of composite lines,
complexity and richness of architectural decoration. Several circumstances had some
22
repercussions** on the nature of English Gothic that determined the historical
development of the English as a state.
England was experiencing an economic growth at that time. In villages the raw
materials intended for export were made and processed. The Cathedral was built not in
the city center, but outside, where the monastery was placed. British architects
constructed cathedrals longer, supplied them with pointed arcs**, recurring in the
windows, and the same opulence** of vertical wall sashes** with the addition of a third
tower located above the middle cross.
The focus of the Cathedral building in England became large Abbeys, such as
Westminster, in cities and rural areas were common parish churches. The key features
of the English Gothic were marked fairly early. Already Canterbury Cathedral had a
number of significant differences from the French buildings: it had two transepts**, one
shorter than the another. Double transept later became a distinctive feature of the
cathedrals of Lincoln, Wales, and Salisbury, in which the originality of the Gothic
architecture of England was most distinctly.
In the development of English Gothic architecture can be divided into two
periods. In the last decades of the 13th century and the beginning of the 14th century
represent the period of Decorated and Perpendicular Gothic*. [52, p. 45]
1.2 The most famous architects of the period
1.2.1 Anglo-Saxon
Augustine of Canterbury
Augustine of Canterbury was a Benedictine monk, the first Archbishop of
Canterbury. He went down in a history as the founder of the Church of England.
He was the prior of the monastery of St. Andrew in Rome, and in 595, Pope
Gregory I appointed him to lead the mission in Britain, also known as The Gregorian
mission in the Kent Kingdom, with a view to conversion the heathen king Ethelbert to
Christianity. After receiving permission to settle in Canterbury Augustine managed to
baptize the king and his thousands of subjects. Augustine founded the monastery
outside the city walls and he was appointed Archbishop in 601. In the year 604, other
23
Roman Catholic bishops settled in London and Rochester. They created school, where
Anglo-Saxon priests and missionaries were enrolled. [28, pp. 3-9]
Augustine took continuous efforts over his last years to improve the Roman
hierarchy in England, but could not persuade Celtic bishops to obey his authority,
despite the constant support of the Pope. He also prepared the dedication of his
successor - Lawrence of Canterbury. Augustine of Canterbury was canonized soon after
his death in the year 604.
Since the followers of Augustine did not leave
written evidence, the only sources were letters from
Pope Gregory. A hundred years after his death, the
Benedictine monk Bede the Venerable gathered the
rest of intelligence about the first Archbishop and
included them in his “Church history of the people of
England”.
Bede said that Augustine, with the support of the
King Ethelbert, rebuild the Church built by Roman
Christians in Canterbury. Bede intended whether
Augustine rebuild the Church or not, or just he blessed
it once again, remained unknown. Archaeological evidences maintain the latest version:
in 1973, south of the present Canterbury Cathedral, the remains of the building with
offset wings off the Roman-British period were discovered.
1.2.2 Norman
Lanfranc
Archbishop Lanfranc rebuilt the Peterborough Cathedral after the Norman
Conquest in the spirit of Norman Romanesque.
Lanfranc was of Lombard’s origin, and born in 1010 years in Pavia. His father
Ganbald was a scholar and held a nice service position in Pavia. Later, he moved to
France, where he enrolled as a student of Berenger de Tours and absorbed the reform
ideas of the Cluniac movement of the middle of the XI century. About 1039 years
Lanfranc began to teach in the Cathedral’s church school in the Norman town
24
Avranches, and in 1042 he became one of the founders of BEC Abbey in South-East
Normandy. Three years later, he was elected as prior of the monastery. Lanfranc
became widely known soon and gained considerable credibility in theology.
In 1050 years, Lanfranc became one of the closest
advisers of William, Duke of Normandy and his chief assistant
in Church politic.
One of the main merits and Lanfranc’s undoubted
achievement was the return of the land previously owned by the
Church, and afterward land parcels** taken away from it – socalled “Canterbury lands”. As is known, one of the
consequences of the Norman invasion was a large-scale
acquisition of Church lands for distribution to the Norman knights, who went along
with William the Conqueror.
Unfortunately, the efforts of Archbishop Canterbury were futile because William
II Rufus* confiscated the lands and incomes of the Canterbury Church... and left the
Archbishop’s pulpit vacant for four years.
After the death of King William I* in 1087, Lanfranc brought about a shift to the
throne to his second son William II Rufus, despite the dissatisfaction of a significant
part of the Anglo-Norman nobles. Largely due to the support provided by Lanfranc and
the English clergy to William II during the rebellion of barons led by Odo of Bayeux in
1088, the king was able to combat the rebellion and strengthened on the throne.
However, a year later, on May 24, 1089 Archbishop Lanfranc died.
Anselm of Canterbury
Anselm of Canterbury (Catholic theologian and medieval philosopher,
Archbishop of Canterbury (1093) raised the construction to a new level, reached till our
time a wide crypt.
Anselm was born about 1034, in a wealthy family in Aosta, at Saint-Bernard pass.
After graduating from various religious schools in France, in 1060 Anselm moved to a
monastery in Normandy, one of the main religious centers of the time, led by Lanfranc.
25
Become a monk, he soon reached the post as a prior, and in 1078 he was elected as an
abbe. In Beck Anselm wrote his first philosophical works, which brought him European
fame and a high reputation in theology. Monastery in Beck, due to the patronage of
Lanfranc, became one of the most influential Church organizations Anglo-Norman
monarchy with considerable possessions in England. Anselm often visited Britain after
he became the abbe, and soon he was considered to be as the natural successor of
Lanfranc. However, when in 1089 the last died, King William II* did not assign him,
using the income from the lands of the Archbishopric of Canterbury, which by feudal
law in the absence of the Bishop belonged to the king. Only four years later, in 1093,
when William II fell gravely ill and lay close to death, he agreed to allow the election of
Anselm to be an Archbishop. Anselm himself tried to give up this post, but despite his
protests, the election was held. [16, p. 120]
On September 23, 1100, he arrived in England.
By that time, the Archbishop became an ardent
supporter of the Cluniac reform*, so he refused to
accept investiture** at the Church lands from the king.
This caused a new crisis in the English Church.
After the settlement of the investiture problem,
Anselm returned to England in 1107. He adopted the
bishops selected by the king, and the remaining two
years of his life, he spent in Canterbury, engaged in the ongoing cases of the English
Church. He died on 21 April 1109, in 1494; Pope Alexander VI canonized Anselm. The
feast day of St. Anselm - 21 April - is celebrated in the Catholic, Anglican and Lutheran
churches.
1.2.3 Early Gothic
William of Sens
The Early Gothic period dates from around 1170 - 1240 years. At this early stage,
a cathedral choir in Canterbury was formed, the construction of which launched by the
French architect from Sens, who used the elements of the architecture of the Sens
Cathedral, the St. Denis Church and other examples of French Gothic.
26
William of Sens was a 12th-century French architect. He was born at Sens, in
France.
In September 1174, he assumed the task of
rebuilding the choir of Canterbury cathedral,
originally built by Conrad, the prior of the
monastery, but burnt down in a fire in same year.
William had supposedly worked upon the first
major Gothic religious building, the Sens Cathedral
near Paris and as such was brought in for his skills
in the modern, lighter method of building. [62, p.
51]
William seemed like a fiercely ambitious man; the monks thought he was a little
too prideful. He was working on the church when he fell from the tree. He was badly
injured and was about to die. The monk, Gervase, wrote down that perhaps it was
“God’s punishment.”
He was paralyzed after the fall and could not work anymore. He turned the job
over to a man known as William the Englishman.
William the Englishman finished the eastern part of the church by 1184.
William of Sens died at Canterbury on 11 August 1180.
Roger de Pont L’Évêque
Roger de Pont L’Évêque (another name Robert of Bishop’s Bridge) was
Archbishop of York from 1154 to 1181. He was born in Normandy, he was a precursor
of Thomas Becket, and served as Archdeacon of Canterbury.
Together with Becket served Theobald of Bec who was Archbishop
of Canterbury. While on duty for Theobald, Roger de Pont
L’Évêque committed a crime which Thomas Becket helped to hide.
Roger succeeded William FitzHerbert as archbishop in 1154, and
while at York reconstructed York Minster, which had been affected
by fire.
27
Roger was not caught up in the conflict between King Henry II of England and
Becket until 1170, when the King had Roger instruct to conduct the coronation of the
king’s son Henry the Young King, a performance that would normally have been
fulfilled by the Archbishop of Canterbury. In the revenge, Becket excommunicated
Roger later in 1170. Some people claimed that it was reason for King Henry’s rage* at
Becket, which led Becket to die a most gruesome death. After being dismissed from his
post by the pope for his alleged involvement in Becket's death, Roger was reinstated in
1171, and died in 1181.
Elias of Dereham
Elias of Dereham was an English master stonemason**
designer, closely associated with Bishop Jocelin of Wells.
Elias became a Canon of Salisbury, and oversaw the
construction of Salisbury Cathedral. He was also responsible
for building work at Clarendon Palace.
The chapter house at Salisbury Cathedral displays a
copy of the Magna Carta*. This copy was brought to
Salisbury because Elias, who was present at Runnymede in
1215, was to distribute original copies of the document. He
died in 1246.
Richard Poore
Richard Poore was a medieval English clergyman, known for his role in the
formation of modern Salisbury and its cathedral, far from the fortress at Old Sarum.
Richard could be the son of Richard of Ilchester, further known as Richard
Toclive, who served as Bishop of Winchester. He was the brother of Herbert Poore,
who served as bishop of Salisbury from 1194 to 1217. Richard educated under Stephen
Langton at Paris. Richard Poore became Dean of Salisbury in 1197, and unsuccessfully
was appointed to the see of Winchester in 1205 and the see of Durham in 1213. Pope
Innocent III banned his election to Durham before it was made public, probably because
28
the pope knew that King John wished for the reassignment of his advisor John de Gray
from the see of Norwich to Durham. During the prohibition on England during King
John’s reign, Richard returned to Paris to teach until the prohibition was lifted. [41, p.
163]
When Poore served as an episcope that he completed Osmund’s Institutio, which
detailed the duties of the cathedral clergy and his rights at Salisbury, as well as his own
works the Ordinale and the Consuetudinarium.
Poore was Bishop of Chichester in 1215, being
elected about 7 January and consecrated on 25 January at
Reading. He attended the Fourth Lateran Council in
1215. He also held the position of one of the executors of
King John’s estate.
As Richard’s brother Herbert Poore died in 1217,
and Richard moved to a new post of Bishop of Salisbury
by 27 June. During this time that he supervised and
assisted plan the construction of the new Salisbury
Cathedral as a replacement for the old cathedral at Old
Sarum. In 1219, he ordered the workers to build the cathedral a less cramped than the
old one at Old Sarum. The cathedral, however, was not completed until 1258.
While Poore was at Salisbury that he issued his Statutes of Durham. These
statutes were powerful on many other episcopal legislation. He also welcomed the first
Franciscan friars to Salisbury around 1225 and served as a royal justice in 1218 and
1219.
In 1220, he ordered his clergy to provide guidance to a few children so that the
children might in turn teach the rest of the children in basic religion and prayers. In
order to prevent accidents, he told the clergy to preach every Sunday that children
should not be left without parents in a house with a fire or water. Richard founded a
retirement house for the old and feeble clergy of the diocese** of Durham in 1237.
Poore House at Bishop Wordsworth’s School, Salisbury is named for his legacy to
Salisbury schools.
29
He died on 15 April and he was buried in the church at Tarrant Keyneston as he
wished. His statue located in niche 170 on the west front of Salisbury Cathedral.
1.3 Buildings of the period
1.3.1 Anglo-Saxon
Leeds Castle
Leeds Castle is in Kent, in England, about five miles from southeast of
Maidstone. A castle founded in 1086. In the 11th century, it became a favorite residence
of King Edward I.
From 857 a Saxon chief Leed owned
the site and built a wooden structure on two
islands in the middle of the River Len. In
1119, Robert de Crevecoeur restructured it
in stone as a Norman fortress and it
belonged to the de Crevecoeur family until
the 1260s.
In 1278, King Edward I’s Queen, Eleanor of Castile*, bought the castle. As a
favored residence of Edward’s, it saw considerable investment. The king strengthened
its defence stores. Perhaps Edward I made the lake that surrounds Leed castle. A
barbican** spanning three islands was also created, each part of his had its own
entrance, drawbridge, gates and portcullis. In addition, a gloriette** with apartments for
the king and queen was added.
On 31 October 1321, the castle was seized by the forces of Edward II from
Margaret de Clare, Baroness Badlesmere*, wife of the castle's constable, Bartholomew
de Badlesmere, who had left her at the helm** at the time he was absent. The King laid
siege Leeds after she had refused Edward's wife Isabella of France to let enter in her
husband's absence; when the latter attempted to force an entry, Lady Badlesmere
directed her archers to fire upon Isabella and her squad, six of whom were killed. Lady
Badlesmere remained detention in the Tower of London until November 1322. After
Edward II died in 1327 his widow nominated Leeds Castle as her main residence.
30
Richard II’s first wife, Anne of Bohemia, spent the winter of 1381 at the castle to
get married to the king. The castle was never besieged, remaining for centuries the
residence of the Queen of England. In 1395, Richard II welcomed in the castle the
French chronicler** Jean Froissart, who described this episode in Froissart’s
Chronicles.
St Augustine’s Abbey
This abbey was founded by St. Augustine in AD 598 to accommodate the monks
who arrived with him to convert the Britons to Christianity.
The site was used as a burial for kings of Kent and the first archbishops of
Canterbury, which can still be seen among the abbey ruins.
The best remaining part of the
medieval abbey is the great 14th century
gatehouse, called Fyndon’s Gate and the
north wall of the nave of the abbey
church, which stands to a great height
and adjacent to a partial wall of the
Ethelbert
Tower.
However,
more
entertaining is the circular remain of Abbot Wulfric’s rotunda, which was built around
1050.
The
abbey
including
Canterbury
Cathedral and the nearby church of St
Martin’s makes up part of the Canterbury.
[9, pp. 9-10]
The way into the ruins is carried out
through the St. Augustine’s Abbey Visitor’s
Centre, which is efficiently run (though with
limited opening hours in winter) by English
Heritage. Tickets include an audio guide and the museum, which visitors go through on
the way out the door to the ruins.
31
St Anne’s Chapel is a richly-decorated and located in the south transept. Juliana
de Leybourne, Countess of Huntington, in 1362 was buried here after her death in 1367.
We can see foundations of two buildings on the south side of the nave**. The
westernmost one was a temporary repair shop constructed during the deconstruction of
the abbey in 1539. The eastern one was a chapel, used for burials.
The Far East part of the nave is the site of the Anglo-Saxon Church of St. Peter
and St. Paul, started during St. Augustine’s life and completed around 613. Its
foundations are about a meter beneath the Norman nave floor.
The chapel Porticus of St Gregory, ongoing along the north side of the AngloSaxon church. It contains the tombs of early archbishops but as it turned out on a dig,
they were empty. There is the crypt of Abbot Wulfric’s Rotunda at the east end of the
abbey church.
The Norman crypt located in eastern part of the Rotunda, built beneath the choir
and High Altar, this crypt was used for worship and burials. It was the first part of the
new Norman church.
At the easternmost part of the site is the 7th-century Church of St Pancras, one of
three Anglo-Saxon churches constructed at St Augustine’s Abbey. It is preserved
greatly.
The cloister** is on the north side of the church in order to avoid violating an
existing cemetery on the south. Abbot Scotland laid out the cloister in the 1070s, built
mainly under Hugh of Fleury (1099-1124) and took its final form under Abbot Thorne
in 1276.
The cloister was used by the monks for spending most of their time beyond the
church. The south walkway was used for reading and meditation; the school for
newcomers was on the west side. The library of King's School is just right of center of
the building.
The King’s School
The King’s School is a private British co-educational independent school for
pupils in Kent, about an hour and a half away from London.
32
Augustine of Canterbury founded this
school in 597, what makes it one of the
oldest schools in England. The school was
opened as part of a monastic institution.
Initially, Benedictine monks were enrolled
there; they devoted their lives to prayer,
work and learning. In the XVI century, the
school got its present name thanks to the
English king Henry VIII. The main campuses are located near the Canterbury Cathedral
and St Augustine’s Abbey, under the protection of UNESCO, included in the world
heritage list.
The King’s School consists of three branches: Junior school (Shell Year, 9 Year),
high school (Middle School – 10-11 year) and high school (Sixth Form). The school
curriculum is based on balanced programs.
Amberley Castle
Amberley Castle is located in the village of Amberley, West Sussex.
The castle was constructed as a 12thcentury manor house and was reinforced in
1377. It has a rhomboid shaped stonework
enclosure**
with high
curtain
walls,
internal towers in each corner, a hall and a
gateway. The bishops of Chichester used it
as
a fortress. Now it is in use as a privately owned hotel.
1.3.2 Norman
St John’s Chapel
St. John’s Chapel (another name - the Chapel of St. John the Evangelist), is
placed on the second floor in the Tower of London. It was built as a keep, ancient part
of William the Conqueror’s great fortress and was completed in 1080, and the church
remains as the oldest church in London.
33
It was made of stone imported from
France, and has a tunnel-vaulted nave with an
east apse, groin-vaulted aisles, as well as the
gallery above curves around the apse**. Thick,
round piers** support unmoulded arches,
characterized by their simplicity, with carvings
of scallop and leaf designs which are the only
decorations.
Services are performed in the chapel frequently during the year.
Lincoln Cathedral
Despite the fact that some notable parts preserved from the Norman period,
Lincoln Cathedral is mostly in gothic style of
Decorated period of the 13th century.
The west front is one of the great honors of
Lincoln Cathedral, standing tall and wide. The lower
part with the portals and tall niches dates back to the
Romanesque period. It comprises a few notable
sculpture, including a frieze** of Heaven and Hell.
The remainder of the facade – the huge Gothic
“barrier” decorated with small blind arches, added in
the 1240s.
The central tower continues to be the tallest cathedral tower in European counties
without a spire**. Originally, the tower carried a lead-encased wooden spire, but it
crashed during bad weather in 1549. [43, p. 542]
It is well worth walking around to the back of the cathedral, especially in the
morning, where there is a fine view across a manicured lawn to the cathedral’s east end
and the polygonal chapter house. Both date from the mid-13th century.
The great transept is space of the cathedral's two finest stained glass windows,
rose windows “the Dean’s Eye” and “the Bishop’s Eye”. The Dean’s Eye so far
34
contains much of its authentic medieval stained glass, which has on it the Last
Judgment.
St. Hugh’s Choir contains carved wooden stalls which include 62 misericords and
plenty of finely carved bench-ends, dating from 1360-80. Pulpitum** (the choir screen)
separating choir from nave. We can see on it fine carvings and traces of original paint.
Christ Church
Christ Church is a collaborative foundation of the college and the Cathedral of the
Oxford diocese, the latest contains Christ Church Cathedral and its Cathedral School.
King Henry VIII* founded in
1546, and this site is one of the larger
colleges of the University of Oxford
with more than 500 students. Christ
Church
has
a
number
of
architecturally important buildings
like Tom Tower, Tom Quad, and the Great Dining Hall. The Great Dining Hall was
used as the residence of the parliament assembled by King Charles I during the English
Civil War. [15, pp. 4-5] Structure of the buildings inspired to be included in movies
such as The Golden Compass and Harry Potter.
Christ Church has many significant graduates including seventeen Archbishops,
thirteen British prime ministers, King William II of the Netherlands, King Edward VII,
philosopher John Locke, writers Lewis Carroll and W.H. Auden, and scientist Robert
Hooke.
Durham Cathedral
The front entrance to Durham Cathedral passes through the north door with a
huge bronze sanctuary knocker**, used for incomers in the church, which waked the
two guards above the door. Naturally, not it is a replica; the original one is in the
cathedral’s vault**.
35
Impressive, massive carved pillars** with geometric designs dominate the
cathedral’s nave. Durham was fitted with stone rib vaulting and it has pointed transverse
arches. There were no seats in the nave
until the late 1800s. Women had to stay
behind the point of the long, narrow
slab of Frosterly stone on the floor until
the mid-16th century. [60, pp. 26-29]
The
Daily
Bread
Window,
colored window is located near the entrance door. It is an abstract depiction of the Last
Supper. The large Galilee Chapel is situated in the west end. On the northern side, there
are wall paintings of 12th century. They portray St. Cuthbert and St. Oswald. In the
chapel, we can also find the tomb of the Venerable Bede, who wrote the Ecclesiastical
History of the English People.
A choir “The Quire” is the place of daily services. The stalls of finely carved
wood date from the 1660s. There is the Bishop’s throne and below the throne is located
the Hatfield Chantry, a chapel containing the tomb of Thomas Hatfield, Bishop of
Durham (1345-81). He was a founder of Trinity College, in Oxford.
The Shrine of St. Cuthbert was a basic pilgrimage center in the Middle Ages.
In the south transept, do not look over Prior Castell’s Clock, provided by Thomas
Castell, who was a Prior of the Monastery in 1494 to 1519. The cloisters were heavily
rebuilt in 1828, but the west door to the cloisters features 12th century ironwork.
On the wall of the Treasury Museum are placed the relics of St. Cuthbert, a
collection of manuscripts, and other ancient artifacts.
1.3.3 Early Gothic
Westminster Palace
Each room of the Palace of Westminster is full of history. For example, Queen’s
Robing Room is used by the Queen to get ready for special occasions. The room is
decorated with a terrific marble fireplace, some paintings by William Duce.
36
In Royal Gallery, ceremonies and
state presentations take place. There are the
statues of Richard I and Edward III and
others. Paintings of Daniel Maclise’s are
laid out around the room. One of them
displays the scene of the Death of Nelson,
another – the scene from the Napoleonic
War.
Central Lobby is the place where the entrances to the House of Commons, House
of Lord, and Westminster Hall come together. Grilles still cover the windows, but
previously they were installed in the Ladies Room to make male politicians stay focused
from the women who spent time in the room.
A statue of Churchill located in Members’ Lobby, in this lobby members get their
mail. The Churchill Arch was built as a monument to those who lost their lives in the
war.
Commons Chamber contains the green seats since 1941, more than that, there is a
large space where public and the press can monitor the debates.
You can also notice statues of Queen Victoria, Sir Charles Barry, Charles James
Fox, William Pitt, Viscount Falkland, Margaret Thatcher and Clement Atlee in the
Palace.
Canterbury Cathedral
The exterior of Canterbury Cathedral
is viewed from various angles. We might
just see the changing from Romanesque
style to Gothic one - round arches, blind
arcades**, and rough surfaces**, the
abundant pointed arches and pinnacles of
the nave.
37
Archbishop Anselm’s reconstruction consisted of intertwined blind arches
adorned with ornamentally carved columns and figurative capitals in 1120. Through the
Gothic, southwest porch comes the front entrance, built in 1424-25 by Thomas
Mapilton and by Richard Beke in from1455 to 1459. Theodore Pfyffers restored it with
new statues of Canterbury’s most notable archbishops in 1862.
The nave ends at a pulpitum at the top of a extensive stairway. Richard Beke built
this pulpitum in 1455 adorned it originally with sculptures of Christ and the twelve
apostles including the shield-bearing angels and six kings.
East of the choir is the large Trinity Chapel, a level higher than the rest of the
interior and surrounded by an ambulatory. Stone stairs on either side reach it. Moreover,
notable feature of the ambulatory are its many tombs of archbishops and royals. [30, p.
153]
The far east end of the cathedral is occupied by an apse chapel known as the
“crown”, because it once housed the relic of St. Thomas’ head. Here we can see two
medieval windows – the Tree of Jesse and the Redemption Window, dated from about
1200. The main entrance is through the Gothic southwest porch.
The Crypt built in Romanesque style is the oldest existing part of Canterbury
Cathedral, dating from 11th century; it is the largest crypt from this time surviving in
Britain. Still to be seen are wall paintings in St Gabriel’s Chapel, decorated columns
and carved capitals.
Salisbury Cathedral
Salisbury
Cathedral
has
its
own
remarkable feature - towering central spire, the
tallest in England (404 feet tall). If you walk up
the stairs, you will see seldom showing of the
timber scaffolding** above the nave and inside
the spire and great views of Salisbury and its
countryside.
38
The west front includes different the statues, but just 10 of the authentic medieval
sculptures remain today. Other sixty statues of bishops and doctors, saints and martyrs,
apostles and evangelists, prophets and patriarchs located below Christ.
The nave inside is made of light grey Chilmark stone on the walls and dark
polished Purbeck marble to the columns . The nave has three levels, for instance, a tall
pointed arcarde, an open gallery and a small clerestory**.
In the north nave, there is the oldest in Europe working clock, made of handwrought iron. The misericords** in choir carved with foliage decoration.
At the easterner’s part, behind the choir, there is one more small transept and the
Trinity Chapel decorated with slender columns**. They support a dramatic rib vault,
where is placed the tomb of St. Osmund.
The chapter house is in the Geometrical Decorated style, with rib vaults fanning
out from a slender central pillar. A medieval frieze runs around the walls with 60 reliefs
of scenes from Genesis and Exodus. Moreover, one copy of the Magna Carta is the best
preserved of four other originals.
Salisbury Cathedral was used as a prison in the Civil War in 17th century. It is a
home of two giant cedar trees, which were planted in 1837.
In the library storage of cathedral library are kept ancient manuscripts, for
example, a 10th-century Gallican Psalter.
Westminster Abbey
It is one of the main assets of London,
and the whole of Great Britain. A more
complete name is St Peter’s Collegiate Church
in Westminster. Having appeared more than a
thousand years ago, the Abbey still serves as a
clear example of Gothic architecture in
England. In addition, it is necessary to notice,
on the full bases: a magnificent silhouette with
two huge towers is decorated with original stained glass windows and finishing from an
39
openwork stone. Abbey is attractive because it became the last resting place for more
than 3 thousand famous people in Great Britain - there are tombs of many creators and
writers. In the southern part of the Abbey is called poet's corner, the last buried here was
Geoffrey Chaucer in 1556. Among other well-known figures are Byron*, Bronte
sisters*, Oscar Wilde*, Charles Dickens* and others. [50, pp. 41-43, 56-58.]
There is a legend about how this Abbey came to be. They say that in the 7th
century angler named Aldrich passed across the river Thames and above the river he
saw the image of the patron Saint of fishermen, St. Peter. Afterwards, the Church was
laid right here, and was called Westminster – the Western collegiate Church. While
more people that are practical believe that anglers in those days used to pay the tax in
salmon to the Abbey, so the legend could come up with in order to justify that taxation.
The founders of the Abbey are traditionally known as the Bishop of London
Mellit and king Sabert. However, the first documented facts of the Church appeared in
960 years and they are associated with the name of Edward the Confessor, who rebuilt
the old Church of West Minster in a great building. The construction of the Church was
completed in 1090, but it was consecrated in advance, in 1065, just a week before the
death of Edward. This person erected a Palace next to the Abbey for the Royal family,
which later became the seat of Parliament.
Exeter Cathedral
On the northeast side of Exeter Cathedral is the scenic Cathedral Close,
surrounded with buildings from various eras.
A Decorated Gothic image screen,
begun in the 1340s and completed nearly a
century later, dominates the west front of
Exeter Cathedral. There are three tiers of
sculptures
of
rulers
Alfred,
Athelstand,
Canute, William the Conqueror and Richard
II.
40
The comparative low height of Exeter Cathedral is based on preserved the
Norman towers and walls at the time of the Gothic rebuilding. Within Exeter Cathedral
there is the Late Decorated Gothic nave, sheltered by unbroken Gothic ceiling with ribvaults and painted bosses. On the one of bosses, there is a depiction of the murder of
Thomas a Becket.
In addition, we can see on the left side of the nave the Minstrels’ Gallery with
depicted sculptures of angels. Moreover, in the southwest corner of the nave located the
baptismal font made out of Sicilian marble and crowned with an oak cover encrusted
with eight apostles’ figures. Sir George Gilbert Scott designed the pulpit at the northeast
corner of the nave. The side chapel is devoted to St. Edmund in the northwest corner of
the nave.
Large blue-faced astronomical clock is on the north wall of the north transept,
given by Bishop Peter Courtenay, in which the moon's phases are presented and the day
of the lunar month can be readable from the inner ring. The gold ball in the center is in
the form of the earth.
A doorway in the south transept leads to the Chapter House, decorated with large
modern bronze sculptures showing scenes from the Bible from creation to the
Resurrection of Christ. In the choir, the rib-vaulted ceiling** continues full of set of
misericords. Celling of the oak canopy over the bishop's throne. Presbytery is placed on
east of the choir and on the left of the altar, we can see the tomb of Bishop Walter
Stapeldon.
There is an ambulatory and several side chapels on the east end. In the Lady
Chapel, the tomb of Bishop Stafford is based on. The tomb of Bishop Walter
Bronescombe, the one who started the great Gothic reconstruction, is lying between the
Lady Chapel and the Chapel of St. Gabriel.
York Minster
York Minster has very wide Decorated Gothic nave roofed in wood, also a
Decorated Gothic chapter house and a Perpendicular Gothic choir plus Early English
41
north and south transepts. However, the west towers, west front and central tower were
rebuilt in the Perpendicular style.
The Great West Window, situated at the west end, with stone tracery that set up a
heart in the middle. On the eastern part of the cathedral there is the dragon’s head
sticking out the wall. Colorful panes of
the Great East Window portray biblical
scenes from Genesis and Revelation.
The Western towers have a clock
with chimes and bells. Fourteen bells
of the southwestern tower ring in a
special way; it is a special technique of
the English Church, known as “variable ringing”. [21, pp. 5-6] Chimes in the clock of
the Cathedral regularly strike a quarter of an hour, and the Great Peter bell – every hour.
Before Church services every Sunday and every Tuesday night, when the Cathedral bell
ringers conduct rehearsals, bells of Southwestern tower overwhelms the site with a
changeable ringing. The York Minster is the first Cathedral in England to possess
carillon**.
42
1.4 Check yourself
1. What type of material was used for the majority of Anglo-Saxon buildings?
a) Stone
b) Wood
c) Glass
d) Clay
2. What castle was a favourite residence of King Edward I?
a) Windsor Castle
b) Portchester Castle
c) Leeds Castle
d) Someries Castle
3. What does pulpitum separate from?
a) Choir from nave
b) Walls from roof
c) Hall from confessional
d) Clergy from worshippers
4. What church inspired filmmakers to include its structure in movies such as “The
Golden Compass” and “Harry Potter”?
a) Lincoln Cathedral
b) Christ Church
c) Durham Cathedral
d) Church of St Mary the Great
5. What cathedral was used as a prison in the Civil War in 17th century?
a) Canterbury Cathedral
b) Exeter Cathedral
c) Durham Cathedral
d) Salisbury Cathedral
6. In what abbey are Byron, Bronte sisters, Oskar Wild, Charles Dickens buried?
a) Westminster Abbey
43
b) St Augustine’s Abbey
c) Bedford Abbey
d) Warden Abbey
7. What castle now is used as a privately owned hotel?
a) Donnington Castle
b) Leeds Castle
c) Amberley Castle
d) Windsor Castle
44
1.4.1 Keys
1. b
2. c
3. a
4. b
5. d
6. a
7. c
45
II. DECORATED AND PERPENDICULAR STYLES
2.1 General characteristics of the periods and architectural styles
2.1.1 Decorated period
In the meantime of the Decorated period, detailed carving was at the peak of its
fame, with elaborately carved windows and capitals, frequently with floral patterns. The
Decorated Period is also known as the Decorated Gothic and represents a subdivision of
English Gothic architecture. Commonly, the period
perio is split
lit into two more periods: the
“Geometric” style dated 1250-1290
1250
and the “Curvilinear” style dated 1290
1290-1350.
Window tracery is the Decorated period’s major feature. Convoluted windows are
broken down by mullions**, closely arranged in a parallel position,
position, traditionally up to
the point where the arched top of the window starts. Then mullions ramify and cross,
filling the top part of the window with a mesh of
tracery**, comprising trefoils and quatrefoils. The
division into “Geometric” and “Curvilinear”
“Curviline
styles
is explained by the fact that earlier style was
geometrical and rather flowing later, omitting the
circles
in
the
window
flamboyant
tracery,
introduced in the first quarter of the 14th century
and lasted about fifty years.
Interiors differ by slender tall columns with elegant
form. Vaults became more complex, using large number of
ribs. Arches are equilateral, and the mouldings** are with less
depth in the hollows and with the fillet** (a narrow flat band)
than in the Early English Period. The foliage in the capitals is
less conventional than in Early English and more flowing, and
the diaper patterns in walls are more varied.
You may found the Decorated style in many British churches and cathedrals.
2.2.2 Perpendicular period
The Perpendicular Gothic period is characterized by an emphasis on vertical
lines. Edmund Sharpe suggested an alternative
alternative name, the Rectilinear, [[53, p. 15]. It was
46
introduced by the royal architects William Ramsey and John Sponlee, and was fully
developed in the prolific works of Henry Yevele and William Wynford. [26, p. 115]
The perpendicular linearity became very large, sometimes of immense size, with
slimmer stone mullions than in earlier periods, allowing greater scope for stained glass
craftsmen. The mullions of the windows are carried vertically up into the arch moulding
of the windows, and additional mullions (supermullions) and transoms, forming
rectangular compartments**, known as panel tracery**, subdivide the upper portion.
Buttresses** and wall surfaces are likewise divided up into vertical panels. The
development and elaboration of the vault reached its high level, producing intricate
multipartite lierne** vaults and culminating in the fan vault**.
Doorways are enclosed within a square head over the arch mouldings, the
spandrels being filled with quatrefoils or tracery. Along with pointed arches, used
throughout the period, ogee and four-centered Tudor arches were also appeared.
Inside
the
church
the
triforium**
disappears, or its place is filled with panelling,
and greater importance is given to the clerestory
windows, which are often the finest features in the
churches of this period. The mouldings are flatter
than those of the earlier periods, and one of the
chief characteristics is the introduction of large
elliptical hollows.
Timber roofs and hammer-beam roofs**
were part of this period and in fact appeared for
the first time. People used flushwork decoration**
in flint and ashlar stone** in areas of Southern England and in the wool churches of
East Anglia, this type of architecture called “flint architecture”.
2.2 The most famous architects of the period
2.2.1 The Decorated period
Bishop Remigius
47
Remigius was born approximately in the 1030s. He was short but greathearted
and very charming. He also had a dark complexion. Firstly, he was a monk at Fécamp
Abbey. Remigius participated in the Norman Conquest* of England, and was at the
Battle of Hastings* in 1066. The Ship List states that Remigius was in charge of
Fécamp’s contribution of 20 knights and one ship to William the Conqueror’s cause.
His bishopric was the largest in England, and one of the largest in the western
Church. It encompassed Dorchester, Leicester and Lindsey, combined together by about
1010, and also a number of monasteries (Ely Abbey, Peterborough Abbey, Ramsey
Abbey and Thorney Abbey) [7, p. 7].
The residence was at Dorchester, but in 1072 under the Accord of Winchester*
(bishoprics must live in cities) he was to change his living place, thus the wealth of the
Lincoln and its location was the reason for Remigius’s relocation. He started the
construction of Lincoln Cathedral in the second half of 11th century. The design of the
church was taken from the cathedral at Rouen and the abbey church of St Etienne in
Caen. Apart from construction of a new cathedral, Remigius also assemble the cathedral
the clergy.
Remigius set a date of the dedication of his new cathedral for 9 May 1092, but
received an objection by Thomas of York, who claimed that Lincoln was a part of his
diocese. Having paid a bribe to King William II, most of the English bishops came to
Lincoln to help Remigius with the ceremony. Though Remigius died before the
consecration, and after his death Robert Bloet, the next bishop, paid another bribe to the
king for the withdrawal of Thomas’ claims to Lincoln.
Remigius’s bones were discovered with his chalice, paten and half his pastoral
staff, under a slab of black marble, in the angel choir of Lincoln Cathedral in 1927. [9,
p. 20]
Athelwold
He served as a confessor for King Henry I. Athelwold persuaded Henry to help a
group of clerics at Nostell find a new place for their priory, hence became prior of the
newly established Nostell Priory and founded its daughter houses. Being an abbot, he
48
built the crypt of the monaster. In 1131, he represented King Henry at a papal council
held at Rheims. [45, p. 201]
Athelwold was the prior of Carlisle in 1133. King Henry created Carlisle in
Cumbria, in order to extend the rule of the English*.
Athelwold adopted the Rule of Arrouaise* in the cathedral (a French Augustinian
house, noted for its austerity). In 1135, King David I of Scotland drove Athelwold out,
invading the counties that comprised the residence of Carlisle. Following few years,
Athelwold lived near King Stephen of England. After the Battle of the Standard* in
1138, the papal legate Alberic embrace peace between Athelwold and King David.
Since King Stephen’s coronation, Athelwold signed the charter of liberties*. He held
the primacy of Nostell up to 1153, when he fell gravely ill. After the ascension of King
Henry II, he visited the new king's court. Athelwold died on 25 May 1156.
Walter Branscombe
Walter Branscombe was responsible for the creation of extraordinary
Exeter Cathedral. He was enthroned as Bishop of Exeter in early medieval times from
1258 to 1280. Branscombe decided to rebuild the old Norman cathedral in a new style
with as much window as possible.
Speaking about of his origins, Walter Branscombe was a member of the
family of de Branscombe lived at the manor of Edge in the parish of Branscombe east
Devon, situated about 16 miles east of Exeter [30, pp. 344-345].
Branscombe was a senior member of clergy in of St Nicholas's College at
Wallingford Castle. He also held the position of archdeacon of Surrey. In 1250, he was
a representative of King Henry III of England's at the papal curia, and the king's proctor
in the following year. Apart from being of king’s service, he was named as a papal
chaplain**, a lay representative of a religious tradition.
He died on 22 July 1280 at Bishopsteignton, a village in South Devon, and was
buried in Exeter Cathedral.
49
David I of Scotland
King David I of Scotland founded Melrose Abbey in 1136.
David was the eighth son of King Máel Coluim* and
Queen Margaret. Unfortunately, during an invasion of
Northumberland, his father and brother Edward were killed
at the river Aln, his mother died shortly afterwards. Their
uncle, Domnall Bán forced into exile David and his two
brothers Alexander and Edgar in Edinburgh. English king
William Rufus* stood up to Domnall’s gaining the throne
of northerly kingdom and sent an army. The power struggle continued from 1093 to
1097. [44, p. 49.]
David had become a Normanised prince, when William Rufus’s brother Henry
took control over the country and married David's sister, Matilda.
In 1113, King Henry blessed David and Matilda of Huntingdon, daughter of earl
of Northumberland, to get married, therefore new territories were added under David’
rule. However, David spent much of his time in England and in Normandy.
The death of his sister in 1118 did not undermine the
credibility of King Henry, David still received a favorable
reception from the king and in 1124 when king’s brother
Alexander died, leaving Scotland without a king, David was
crowned King of Scotland.
He
was
a
defender
of
the
Scottish
church’s
independence from claims of over lordship by the Archbishop of York and the
Archbishop of Canterbury.
2.2.2 The perpendicular period
Abbot Serlo
Abbot Serlo laid the foundations of Gloucester Cathedral. Serlo was a national of
Normandy. Starting his carrier as a canon at Avranches Cathedral, he followed up as a
monk at Mont Saint-Michel in 1067and within 5 years Serlo became abbot of
Gloucester Abbey till his death in 1104.
50
During his holding office for 33 years, he rebuilt the abbey's destroyed in the
rebellion of 1088* church. Alas, the new construction was burnt along with the city of
Gloucester in 1102. Still, he dedicated his life to the monastery.
William of Wykeham
William of Wykeham founded New College, Oxford, New College School in
1379, and Winchester College in 1382. Became secretary to the constable of Winchester
Castle, he heard about building and later reconstructed Windsor Castle for King Edward
III.
He climbed quickly the career ladder and
appointed the administration and supervision of royal
building works. Being a royal secretary and then a
royal councilor, he was present on the agreement of the
Treaty of Brétigny in Calais* in 1360. He reached the
position of Chancellor of England and during the war
against France, William struggled to find the funds
necessary to spend on the army and soldiers,
lamentably, lost the favour of the king and resigned the
post in 1371. [40, p. 12] After a while and some
circumstances, he continued his work in political
sphere. William was also Bishop of Winchester and Chancellor of England. He died at
Bishop's Waltham in Hampshire in 1404 and at the time of his death, he was one of the
richest men in England, and was buried in his chantry chapel in Winchester Cathedral.
His motto was “Manners maketh man”.
Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick
Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick, created the Collegiate Church of St
Mary. He was the elder son of Henry de Beaumont, a noble man with great prominence
in England. He was a man of gentle nature, a devout and pious. He also founded the
Hospital of S. Michael for lepers. During the reign of Stephen* a priory of the Abbey of
51
S. Taurinus at Evreux in Normandy was constructed under the leadership of Roger.
Having married life with Elizabeth de Vermandois, he had six children.
James Stanley
The main part of Manchester Cathedral is in the Perpendicular Gothic style.
James Stanley was responsible for wooden furnishings, the pulpitum, choir stalls and
the nave roof. James Stanley was a son of 1st Earl of Derby, Thomas Stanley. After
university study, he took holy orders* in solidarity with his influential family. He
occupied the post of Archdeacon of Richmond from 1500 to 1506 and then of Bishop of
Ely from 1506 to 1515. James Stanley died on 22 March 1515, but during the Blitz*, the
tomb was destroyed, together with the Ely Chapel.
Henry VI
Henry VI was proclaimed king of France in
accordance with the Treaty of Troyes*. Henry VI ruled
the country from 1422 to 1461 and from 1470 to 1471.
His character and incapacity were some of the causes
of the Wars of the Roses*.
Despite of his ineffective reign, there were some
memorable achievements. He founded Eton College,
King's College, Cambridge and All Souls College,
Oxford in late Gothic or Perpendicular style.
William Shakespeare wrote three plays about the
life of Henry VI. Though Shakespeare did not mention the king was mad, conversely, in
plays Henry VI was presented as a pious and peaceful man, ill-suited to the throne.
2.3 Buildings of the period
2.3.1 The Decorated period
Carlisle Cathedral
Another name of this building is “The Cathedral Church of the Holy and
Undivided Trinity”, situated in Carlisle, in Cumbria, North West England. Athelwold
52
founds it in 1133. The cathedral is remarkable for its fine figurative stone carving, a set
of medieval
al choir stalls and the largest window, being 51 feet high and 26 feet wide,
designed in the Flowing Decorated Gothic style.
According to the English history, Carlisle Cathedral and many other large
churches of Augustinian foundation were built during the period of the Archbishop of
Canterbury, William de Corbeil. The Scottish Presbyterian Army, during the English
Civil War, demolished a part of the nave in order to use the stone to reinforce Carlisle
Castle. In addition, in the late 19th century Ewan Christian
Christian restored Carlisle Cathedral.
Carlisle Cathedral was originally in the
Norman architectural with solid masonry**,
large round piers, round arches and smallish
round headed windows. Echoes of that time
may be found in the south transept and two
bays off the nave. The choir of the cathedral
was redesigned in the Gothic style in the 13th
century, and was roofed by a fine wooden barrel vault. Inside there are 46, carved with
numerous figures and creatures of legends (for example, of St. Anthony the Hermi
Hermit, St.
Cuthbert, St. Augustine, and the twelve apostles), wooden choir stalls with misericords,
made out of black oak. The arcade has richly moulded arches with dog's tooth
decoration, and the twelve capitals are carved with vegetation along with small liv
lively
figures representing
g the labours of the months. [61,
[ p.55]
Exeter Cathedral
This cathedral is also known as the
Cathedral Church of Saint Peter in
Exeter,
South
West
England.
The
founding dedicated to Saint Peter, dated
1050, when the seat of the bishop of
Devon and Cornwall was relocated from
53
Crediton because of a fear of sea-raids. In 1107 William Warelwast (future Bishop), a
nephew of William the Conqueror, was appointed to the post in Exeter Cathedral.
Warelwast was a native of Normandy, that served as a reason to build a new cathedral
in the Norman style, with the two massive square towers and part of the walls of
Purbeck Marble, but it took too many years to complete. Forthcoming Bishop, Walter
Bronescombe, considered it to be outdated and rebuilt in the Decorated Gothic style by
1400, taken from Salisbury.
Like most English cathedrals, Exeter suffered
during the Civil War and was subjected to the
Dissolution of the Monasteries, but not as much as it
would have done had it been a monastic foundation.
Further damage was done during the Second World
War; “Baedeker Blitz”* was forwarded to British cities
of cultural and historical importance, so that Exeter was
one of the targets. Nevertheless, cathedral was able to
retain magnificent misericords, astronomical clock, the
organ, the multiribbed ceiling and the compound piers in the nave arcade indoors.
Melrose Abbey
St Mary’s Abbey, Melrose is known for its many carved decorative details, for
example, likenesses of saints, dragons, gargoyles and plants. According to the history,
Old Melrose, is a mile and a half from the present abbey, was founded at the end of the
6th century, but sometime later, the Danes ruined the monastery. As it has been already
mentioned, king David of Scotland ordered to build the abbey in ten years. Monastery’s
54
church was dedicated to St. Mary*. 50 superb
superb windows, 4 doors, 54 niches, and more
than 50 buttresses in the carved work located externally. What is interesting is that
Melrose Abbey is built in the form of St. John's cross, but large part of construction is
ruined. Many nobles are buried at Melrose.
Melrose. There is a stone coffin with a stone head at
the foot of the famous Michael Scott* together with an altar. They say that Michael
Scott predicted his own death by a small stone falling on his head.
2.3.2 The Perpendicular period
Gloucester Cathedral
The formal name of the cathedral is
“the Cathedral Church of St Peter and the
Holy and Indivisible Trinity”. It is founded
in 678 year near the River Severn.
The cathedral consists of a Norman
and
Gothic
architecture,
the
Norman
massive nave with an Ear
Early English roof. In
addition, Norman character is felt in the apsidal crypt, under the choir (on top there is
Perpendicular tracery), the chapter house**, aisles** and chapels. In the Perpendicular
style remain the south porch** with a fan-vaulted
fan
roof, thee north transept. Windows are
partly filled with surviving medieval stained glass. A cross Lady Chapel is located
between the apsidal chapels, and the cloisters, the carrels are in the north of the nave. Its
most impressive monuments are the shrine of Edward
Edward II* of England and tomb of
Robert Curthose*.
55
New College, Oxford
New College, an obvious example of the Perpendicular style, was founded along
with Winchester College. Both of them were used for the education of priests. However,
New College was the first, which was designed in form of quadrangle**, it opens
through the Middle Gateway and possesses the largest herbaceous border in UK and a
mound with one set of stairs. The cloisters and bell-tower were added later in 1400.
The hall is consider being the dining
room of the college, inside it is prohibited
from wrestling, dancing and playing noisy
games, because of the close proximity of
the college chapel. Through the time, the
college was changed: the panelling, the
marble flooring appeared, and the open oak
roof was replaced by a ceiling. The
ordinary windows were also replaced with
painted glass and the portraits were put at a higher level.
In the choir, traditionally, there is an organ. The choir stalls contain 62 14thcentury misericords; some of them were copied for covering the underside of folding
seats in Canterbury Cathedral. The niches of the reredos** were fitted with statues in
the 19th century. There is one silver gilded and enamel relic, named the Founder’s
Crosier, near the east end of the chapel.
Windsor Castle
Windsor Castle is located in Windsor in Berkshire. William the Conqueror
founded it in the 11th century. The castle is comprised a royal palace with park and a
chapel and a range of attractions for visitors, for instance, the State Rooms, St. George’s
Chapel, Queen Mary’s Dolls’ House and the Drawings Gallery. Despite of the Queen’s
spending the weekends at the Windsor Castle, It is open to the public throughout the
whole year.
56
The
Drawings
Gallery shows exhibitions
from the Royal Library.
The
Changing
of
the
Guard, accompanied with
the band, is in demand as
usual.
St George’s Chapel
represents
the
Gothic
architecture, dates from 1475 by Edward IV*, but it took 50 years more to complete its
construction under the reign of Henry VIII*. It also serves as a spiritual home of the
Order of the Garter*.
The State Rooms are fitted with
lavish interiors and works of art of
Canaletto,
Leonardo
da
Vinci,
Rembrandt, and Van Dyck, as well as a
collection of armour.
Queen Mary’s Dolls’ House was
built with a scale of 1 to 12 for Princess
Marie Louise. Numerous details, objects
and the miniature furniture have been
built with great care and attention and took craftsmen three years to complete.
Collegiate Church of St Mary
The Collegiate Church of St Mary obtained its status of “collegiate” after having
a college of secular canons.
Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick created foundations of the church nine
hundred years ago and established, as an extension, the College of Dean and Canons at
the church. Only the crypt stays well-preserved of all, what Roger de Beaumont built.
57
After the Great Fire of Warwick* in 1693, the
church was ruined and partly destroyed, and in
1704 William Wilson was appointed to
redesign it in Gothic.
A later Earl of Warwick, Thomas de
Beauchamp, in the Perpendicular Gothic style,
extensively rebuilt the chancel vestries and
chapter house of the church in the 14th century.
The Chapel of Our Lady (another name is the
Beauchamp Chapel) was constructed by his descendants. The chapel contains the
sculptures of medieval noblemen.
Manchester Cathedral
Manchester Cathedral is officially called “the
Cathedral and Collegiate Church of St Mary, St Denys
and St George”. Manchester Cathedral is considered as
the mother church of the Anglican Diocese of
Manchester.
The main body of the cathedral is in the
Perpendicular Gothic style. Wooden furnishings, the
pulpitum, choir stalls and the nave roof supported by
angels with gilded instruments were in James Stanley
charge. The cathedral underwent extensive rebuilding,
restoring and extension in the Victorian period, and
one more in the 20th century after bomb damage. [51, p. 53] The cathedral is
constructed of two types of stone. The dark brown sandstone walls are of Collyhurst
sandstone formed in the early Permian period and its floors of limestone from the Peak
District that contains crinoid fossils.
All Souls College
All Souls College has its own full name “College of the souls of all the faithful
departed”. In 1438, King Henry VI founded All Souls College together with Henry
58
Chichele, Archbishop of Canterbury. It served as a chantry; members of this church had
to pray for the souls of those in Purgatory, primarily of those murdered during the
Hundred Years War*. Interesting fact, over five hundred years in All Soul’s College
there are only male students; women were first allowed to join in 1979.
An academic library, comprising 185,000 items and a chapel are presented in the
territory of college. The chapel
has its own two the most
distinctive
beam
features:
roof*
and
hammera
large
decoration placed behind the
altar
–
antechapel
the
and
reredos*.
the
The
slender
columns that support the roof
create a graceful area for the
tombs and memorials of workers
and fellows of the college. In addition, in the west wall of the Old Library, there is the
Royal Window, dating from the mid-15th-century and depicting different kings.
59
2.4 Check yourself
1. What is the major feature of the Decorated period?
a) Vertical lines
b) Lots of columns
c) Diamond-shaped patterns
d) Window tracery
2. Who was responsible for the creation of Exeter Cathedral?
a) Abbot Serlo
b) James Stanley
c) Athelwold
d) Walter Branscombe
3. Whose was a motto “Manners maketh man”?
a) William of Wykeham
b) Roger de Beaumont
c) David I of Scotland
d) Athelwold
4. About who did William Shakespeare write a trilogy?
a) Richard Poore
b) Henry VI
c) Bishop Remiguis
d) Walter Branscombe
5. What “Baedeker Blitz” was forwarded to?
a) Hostage-taking
b) Plants and factories
c) British cities of cultural and historical importance
d) farms
6. Where can we find a tomb of Robert Curthose?
a) Gloucester Cathedral
b) Windsor Castle
c) Melrose Abbey
60
d) Carlisle Cathedral
7. What college was the first, which was designed in form of quadrangle?
a) Oxford
b) New College
c) Cambridge
d) Queen Mary University
61
2.4.1 Keys
1. d
2. d
3. a
4. b
5. c
6. a
7. b
62
III.
3.1
TUDOR PERIOD
General characteristics of Tudor period and Tudor architectural style
The Tudor architectural style is the final
development
of Medieval
architecture in
England, during the Tudor period (1485–1603)
and even beyond, and also the tentative
introduction
of Renaissance
architecture to
England. It is generally not used to refer to the
whole period of the Tudor dynasty (1485–1603),
but in prestige buildings to the period roughly between 1500 and 1560. It followed the
Late Gothic Perpendicular style and was superseded by Elizabethan architecture from
about 1560 in domestic building of any pretensions to fashion. In the much more slowmoving styles of vernacular architecture** “Tudor” has become a designation for styles
like half-timbering ** that characterise the few buildings surviving from before 1485
and others from the Stuart period. The first half of the sixteen century comprises the
reigns of Henry VII * (1485 - 1509), Henry VIII* (1509 – 1547), Edward VI * (1547 –
1553), Mary* (1553 – 1558). [66]
Medieval houses must have been very uncomfortable places to live in. By our
standards they had hardly any furniture, the chimneys** were little more than holes in
roof, and everyone lived huddled together in the great hall, choked by smoke, and
frozen by the draughts from the front door. During sixteenth century things changed
considerably, for, with the establishment of a strong government under the Tudors, it
became possible to build houses with an eye to comfort rather than defense; and,
towards the end of the century , the new Tudor aristocracy, enriched by Church land
(The Dissolution of the Monasteries*), had both money and the desire to build
‘prestige’ houses in which to settle their ambitious families. Another factor was the rise
of the architect. [38, p.155]
3.1.1 Typical features
Tudor style buildings have several features that separate them from Medieval and
later 17th-century design.
63
Buildings constructed by the wealthy had these common characteristics [1]:

The four-centered arch, now known as the Tudor arch, was a defining feature. It
is a low, wide type of arch with a pointed apex.

Some of the most remarkable oriel windows belong to this period. An oriel
window is a form of bay window** which projects from the main wall of a building but
does not reach to the ground.

Mouldings** are more spread out.

Typical features of domestic buildings of this period were square-headed
mullioned windows**, ornamented fireplaces with heraldic** carvings**, high
moulded** chimneys and carved finials**.

An ‘E’ or ‘H’ shaped floor plan. For
example, H-plan based on Penshurst Place.
The reason why this plan is called the Htype is immediately obvious, and this
arrangement of the hall in the centre, with
the private room or rooms of the owner on
one side and the service block on the
other, was so sensible and practical that it
lasted unchanged for centuries. The only important modification of it is the slightly
smaller E-plan, in which two projections are omitted, and the centre of the E is the front
door. [38, p.157]

Large displays of glass in very large windows several feet long; glass was
expensive so only the rich could afford numerous large windows.

Hammer-beam roofs* still in use for great halls from Medieval period
under Henry VII until 1603; were built more decoratively, often with geometricpatterned beams and corbels carved into beasts

Large brick chimneys, often topped with narrow decorative chimney pots in the
homes of the upper middle class and higher. Ordinary medieval village houses were
64
often made much more pleasant to live in by the addition of brick fireplaces and
chimneys, replacing an open hearth.

Wide, enormous stone fireplaces with very large hearths meant to accommodate
larger scale entertaining; in aristocratic homes the formal rooms may have
large chimney pieces in stone, sometimes with the family's heraldry.

Geometric landscaping in the back of the home: large gardens and
enclosed courtyards were a feature of the very wealthy. Fountains begin to appear in the
reign of Henry VIII.
The houses and buildings
of ordinary
people were
typically timber framed. The frame
was usually filled with wattle and
daub*
but
occasionally
with brick. These houses were also
slower to adopt the latest trends, and
the great hall continued to prevail.
3.2 The most famous architects of the period
Pietro Torrigiano
Pietro Torrigiano (24 November 1472 – August 1528) was an Italian sculptor of
the Florentine school. He was important in introducing Renaissance art to England.
After some time spent as a hired soldier in the service of different states,
Torrigiano was invited to England, possibly by the young Henry VIII immediately after
the death of his father, Henry VII. He produced terracotta sculptures depicting Henry
VII, Henry VIII and the ecclesiastic John Fisher .He was commissioned to create the
tomb monument of Lady Margaret Beaufort, mother of Henry VII, in 1510.
After the success of this work, he was given the commission for the magnificent
effigial monument for Henry VII and his queen, which still exists in the Henry VII Lady
Chapel of Westminster Abbey. [65]
65
Giovanni da Maiano
Giovanni da Maiano II (1486 – 1542) was an Italian sculptor employed by Henry
VIII of England and Cardinal Wolsey to decorate their palaces. Maiano, from which
village Giovanni took his name, is near Fiesole and Florence.
The Hampton Court medallions and Greenwich Palace. Giovanni worked at
Hampton Court. He had made, painted, and gilded, eight terracotta medallions with
three Stories of Hercules. [54, p.254]
From 1527 Giovanni worked with Hans
Holbein the Younger on decorations at Greenwich
Palace for Henry VIII. Some of his relief decorations
for a temporary banqueting house were made with old
linen cloth in a papier-mâché technique. Edward Hall
described these decorations in his Chronicle. The
engraved decoration of armour produced in the royal
workshop at Greenwich is thought to have been
influenced by Giovanni's Italian renaissance style.
Giovanni began to work on a tomb for Wolsey
with
the
Italian
sculptor
and
bronze-founder,
Benedetto da Rovezzano, but the project had to be abandoned after the Cardinal fell out
of royal favour in 1529. The artist and biographer of artists, Giorgio Vasari mentions
the project under Benedetto's name, but thought the tomb was for Henry VIII. [22]
John Abel
John Abel (1578 – 1675) was an English carpenter and mason, granted the title of
'King's Carpenter', who was responsible for several notable structures in the ornamented
half-timbered construction typical of the West Midlands. John Abel was born in
Sarnesfield, Herefordshire. He was a Catholic recusant, along with his wife Johanna.
John married twice, but there is no record of his second wife except on his table tomb in
Sarnesfield. He had one son, named John, who later became churchwarden of
Sarnesfield. John’s first known commission was in 1625 when he was contracted to
66
build Lady Hawkins’ grammar school in Kington. In March 1633, it is known that John
was contracted again, this time by John, 1st Viscount Scudamore, to renovate Abbey
Dore Church, a former Cistercian monastery in Herefordshire. Other works built by him
are market houses in Brecnoc (1624), Kington and Lemster (1634). The Kington market
hall was demolished in 1820. In 1645, during the middle of the civil war, John was in
Hereford when the Scots besieged it. Charles I and his soldiers were inside the city
walls, mills were important to ensure the food supply lasted, and the powder mills to
make gunpowder. The Roundheads* had burnt down the mills that the town had
previously owned. John was able to design and build another one. The King granted
John the title of the King's Carpenter. Abel died in January 1675 and was buried at
Sarnesfield on January31, 1675. He was 97 years old. [32]
3. 3 Buildings of the period
Henry VII’s tomb
The tomb was built by Pietro Torrigiano. The location of it is the Henry VII Lady
Chapel of Westminster Abbey. It was made of between 1512 and 1518. The tomb was
the first pure Renaissance work to be seen in England. [38, p.156]
Torrigiano’s design departed widely from English traditions. Instead of the
restrained architectural treatment of the English tradition, where the figures were
solitary, and every fold of
drapery harmonized with the
main architectural members,
Torrigiano
treatment
sculptors.
gave
of
the
the
The
free
Italian
general
arrangement of the panels is
simple enough. There are three
circular wreaths** on each of
the longer sides of the tomb,
divided by Italian pilasters
67
adorned with arabesques**, into which the rose and portcullis** of the Tudors are
introduced. A rose also fills each of the four spandrils** formed by the circular wreaths.
These wreaths were new to English eyes; so, too, was the treatment of the spandrils,
where the flower is simply applied to the triangular space, instead of appearing to be a
growth on the structure itself in the old Gothic way. The panels themselves contain
figures in action, figures which have cast away conventional attitudes and stiffness of
attire, and comport themselves in the most natural way imaginable. Henry's patron
saints are there to the number of ten, but instead of standing in niches, statuesque and
motionless, they are grouped in pairs, every pair seeming interested in a common
subject, instead of each individual being rapt in solitary contemplation. As there are six
panels, the ten patron saints are supplemented by two other figures – the Virgin with the
Child, and St. Christopher. Another novelty appears in the shape of the four cherubs
poised at each corner of the tomb; they have no niches or other architectural
background; they are detached pieces of sculpture, self-reliant; their purpose, which
they no longer fulfill, was to hold banners, but these have long disappeared. [54, pp.1214]
The Palace of Hampton Court
The original Tudor palace
was begun in 1514 by Cardinal
Wolsey* and he continued work on
it until he gave it to Henry VIII in
1529. After Henry began to enlarge
the house into a royal palace and
work continued until 1540. Later
Wren added further ranges of
buildings. Later, Georgian kings
and princes occupied the splendid
interiors. When the royals left in
1737,
impoverished
‘grace
and
favour’
aristocrats
moved
in.
Queen Victoria opened the palace to the public in 1838. It has remained a magnet for
68
millions of visitors, drawn to the grandeur, the ghosts and the fabulous art
collection. [38, p.159]
The original house was planned as a series of courts. As one passes from the
Clock Court to the Base Court one goes through Queen Anne Boleyn’s Gateway, which
still bears the arms of Cardinal Wolsey in terracotta* as well as part of a series of
terracotta roundels of the Roman Emperors.
These are of very high quality, and were
probably the first such decorations in England;
they are the work of Giovanni da Maiano, but
the buildings accounts show that the actual
structure o the palace was the work of
Englishmen. Under Henry VIII the Great Hall
built by Wolsey was greatly enlarged and
enriched, and the wonderful hammer-beam roof
was built between 1531 and 1536. The structure
was probably the work of the King’s mastercarpenter, John Nedeham, but the superb
carving is by Richard Rydge.
By the 1530s, Henry VIII’s Hampton
Court was a palace, a hotel, a theatre and a vast leisure complex.
The King used it to demonstrate magnificence and power in every possible way,
through lavish banquets, extravagant court life and fabulously expensive art.
In addition to Henry’s state and private apartments, where he slept, ate and
relaxed, and the queen’s private apartments, the palace contained accommodation for
courtiers. The style depended on the status of the occupant, but again, were intended to
impress.
Around Base Court, the first big courtyard of the Tudor palace inside the West
Front, there were 30 suites of lodgings used for the grandest visitors.
Up to 800 courtiers could accompany Henry VIII; all needed to be fed.
69
The King enlarged and added to the existing Great Kitchen, built in the late 1400s
by a former resident Lord Daubeney.
The kitchens became an efficient food factory serving 1600 meals a day.
The 17th century saw many dramatic events at the palace, some of them taking
place in Hampton Court’s Great Hall.
In 1603 William Shakespeare’s ‘King’s Men’ first performed Hamlet and
Macbeth for the new Stuart king James I. James was also responsible for organising the
1604 Hampton Court Conference that resulted in the publication of the King James
Bible in 1611 – the Authorised Version of the Bible in English.
His son Charles I used the palace to house much of his astonishing art collection,
including Mantegna's ‘Triumph of Caesar’ paintings. The King must have felt a keen
sense of irony when his art-adorned palace became his temporary prison. In 1647, he
found himself under house arrest after his defeat in the Civil War. In an attempt to flee
Oliver Cromwell’s Parliamentarians, the King escaped through the Privy Garden.
Charles was later recaptured and executed in 1649.
During the Commonwealth (1649-60) Cromwell saved the palace from
destruction by making it his home. Despite his Puritan ideals, he appreciated fine art,
particularly the tapestries and enjoyed living like a king here. [25]
Layer Marney Tower
The gatehouse and remaining wings of a great early 16 century house which was
never completed. It was begun by the first Lord Marney who died in 1523 and his son in
1524. There has been some restoration and a few small additions in 20 century.
The gatehouse is a remarkable and very fine example of early renaissance work
and ornament. The King's Italian architect, Guialamo de Travizi, is said to have
designed the building. It stands 80 feet high, built in red brick with terracotta dressings.
There are three storeys and on the south side flanking semi-octagonal turrets** of eight
storeys with subsidiary turrets of seven storeys on the north side, square turrets. There is
much fine original detail in the windows, parapets and bands of cusped panelling. The
small west ring is of two storeys and attics**, roofs tiled, and with windows and detail
70
similar to that of the gatehouse but more restored, small modern north wing. Original
part of wing has a moulded band between the storeys and a number of original
windows. This wing forms the north side of the outer courtyard. A barn, largely rebuilt,
incorporating 13 century material is on the east side The long gallery forms-the south
side, two storeys in red brick with diapering in flared headers, and a number of original
doorways and windows. The south side is divided into eight bays by buttresses**. The
west end has a crow
stepped
gable**.
Internally
block
the
main
retains
many
original doorways with
moulded
and
four
centred
arches.
The
eastern room of the
west
wing
fireplace
has
made
a
of
original moulded oak jambs and four centred head. Extensive 16 century paneling re-set
original terracotta fireplace in modern wing, has Corinthian pilasters**, acanthus
consoles** and enriched entablature**. There are numerous other original fireplaces.
Original plaster ceilings with moulded ribs, one forming a geometrical pattern and the
other a pattern of intersecting lines. [39]
Anne Hathaway's Cottage
Anne Hathaway's Cottage is a twelve-roomed farmhouse where Anne Hathaway,
the wife of William Shakespeare, lived as a child in the village of Shottery,
Warwickshire, England, about 1 mile (1.6 km) west of Stratford-upon-Avon. Spacious,
and with several bedrooms, it is now set in extensive gardens.
The small thatched cottage that was Anne’s home before her marriage has been
preserved as it was in her childhood. Say the words 'English cottage' and most people
71
would
conjure
up
an
image of a thatched roof,
timber-framed
dwelling
with a bit of garden in
front, a picture of timeless
England if ever there was
one.
Though
Hathaway’s
Anne
cottage
is
quite a bit more than the
cramped, old fashioned
house you might imagine.
The earliest part of the house was built prior to the 15th century; the higher part is 17th
century. A lovely garden stands before the cottage door, featuring plants known to have
been used in Shakespeare's time.
The house is built on sloping ground, with the result that the interior has floors at
several levels, making progress through the building a bit of a chore.
The house has been furnished in the style of the Elizabethan period, using original
furniture and household implements wherever possible. In an upstairs bedroom is a
wooden bedstead said to be the very bed upon which Anne Hathaway was born.
Another piece of furniture believed to be original is the settle beside the main fireplace.
The cottage stayed in the hands of the Hathaway family until 1892 when it was
purchased by the Shakespeare's Birthplace Trust so that it could be preserved. [2]
Grange Court
Grange Court is a Grade II listed timber-framed market hall built by John Abel in
1633. The building has had many different functions in its near 400-year life, and every
new owner has adapted the building to make it fit for their purpose.
72
The building originally stood at the top of Broad Street in Leominster and housed
the weekly butter market, selling chickens, eggs, and butter. It was then known as the
Butter Crosse.
By the mid nineteenth century, the market hall was proving a traffic hazard in the
town centre. The building was dismantled and lay in pieces in a builder’s yard until
1859, when the building was
bought by John Arkwright .
It was then rebuilt on the
park known as the Grange
and,
with
some
modifications, leased to the
Moore family.
Today
it
is
a
Community, Heritage and
Enterprise Hub, owned by
the people of Leominster. It is a place for people to meet, work, learn and enjoy. [24]
Athelhampton Hall
The house is named after Aethelric, a Saxon who is known as the first to have
built his home on the property. Unfortunately, there are no remains of the original
house. The one that stands on the property today dates back to the 15th century. Its
construction was begun by Sir William Martyn in 1485.
Martyn is responsible for creating the remarkable Great Hall, which today is the
highlight of the house. Much of the heraldic glass in the windows of this medieval hall
also dates from this time. He received license to enclose 160 acres of deer park. The
following years, the Martyn family improved and extended the manor house. A
gatehouse was built, followed by the bedrooms and the dining room incorporated in the
newly constructed west wing.
However, after Nicholas Martyn died in 1598 without leaving male heirs, his four
daughters inherited the manor house, which was equally divided into four parts. Each
73
part had its own owner, and some were even sold several times until 1848 when they
were all finally reunited.
Pieces of the original medieval furniture can still be seen in the interior.
Elizabethan carved panels, ornate ceilings, and impressive artwork decorate the rooms,
as
in
Among
Tudor
the
times.
precious
pieces of art is The
Adoration of the Magi,
painted circa 1520 by
an unknown Flemish
artist. [3]
In his 27 years at
Athelhampton, it was Lafontaine who began not only to restore the house to its early
Tudor roots but to create a garden to match. He engaged the services of Reginald
Blomfield* and Inigo Thomas*. [4]
Speke Hall
Speke Hall is a wood-framed wattle-and-daub Tudor manor house in Speke,
Liverpool, England. It is one of the finest surviving examples of its kind.
Construction of the current building began under Sir William Norris in 1530,
though earlier buildings had been on the site, parts of which are incorporated into
today's structure. The Great Hall was the first part of the house to be built, in 1530. The
Great (or Oak) Parlour wing was added in 1531. Around this time the North Bay was
also added to the house. Between 1540 and 1570 the south wing was altered and
extended. The west wing was added between 1546 and 1547. The last significant
change to the building was in 1598, when the north range was added by Edward Norris.
Since then there have only been minor changes to the Hall and gardens.
74
The oak frame,
typical of the period,
rests on a base of red
sandstone
surrounded
by a now dry moat.
The main beams of the
house
are
stiffened
with smaller timbers
and filled with wattle
and daub.
During the turmoil of the Reformation the Norrises were Roman Catholics so the
house incorporated a priest hole and a special observation hole built into a chimney in a
bedroom to allow the occupant to see the approach to the house to warn the priest that
people were coming. There is also an eavesdrop (a small open hole under the eaves of
the house) which allowed a servant to listen in on the conversations of people awaiting
admission at the original front door.
In 1612 a porch was added to the Great Parlour. A laundry and dairy were
founded in 1860; the laundry was altered in the 1950s.
The house was owned by the Norris family for many generations until 1736 when
Mary Norris, the heiress, married Sir Sidney Beauclerk. After Mary's death in 1766 the
house was leased to various tenants.
The gardens date from the 1850s. In the courtyard of the main building are two
ancient yew trees, male and female, called ‘Adam’ and ‘Eve’. First recorded in
correspondence dating to 1712, they are estimated to be at least 500 years old. [58]
75
3.4 Check yourself
1. What time does the Tudor architectural style encompass?
a) the 13th century
b) 1703 – 1725
c) the end of the 15th century – the first half of the 16th century
2. What are the main typical features of Tudor style?
a) an emphasis on vertical lines, arches of wide span;
b) the four-centered arch, brick chimneys, An 'E' or 'H' shaped floor plan;
c) symmetrical planning of the building , usage of flat red bricks and plastered white
ornament.
3. Who is not considered to be an architect of this period?
a) Pietro Torrigiano
b) John Abel
c) Inigo Jones
4. Where is Henry VII’s tomb located?
a) Westminster Abbey
b) Abbey Dore Church
c) Greenwich Palace
5. How does the exterior of Speke Hall look like?
a) it is made of red brick
b) it is a wood-framed wattle-and-daub
c) it is completely wooden
6. The architectural style of Athelhampton House is
a) late Gothic
b) late Tudor
c) early Tudor
Answer the question.
7. Why is the Cottage in the village of Shottery, Warwickshire, England so famous?
76
3.4.1 Keys
1. c
2.b
2.c
4.a
5.b
6. c
7. 1) Anne Hathaway, the wife of William Shakespeare, lived there as a child 2) it
represents the Tudor architectural style in its exterior
77
IV.
RENAISSANCE AND BAROQUE
4.1 General characteristics of the architectural styles
4.1.1 Renaissance
The term Renaissance means the reintroduction of Classic architecture all over
Europe in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. It is in the atmosphere of the richest of
Southern trading republics that about 1420 the new style appeared. The Renaissance
developed in Florence for thirty or forty years, before other cities of Italy, let along
foreign countries, began to understand its meaning.
It appeared in England in the early sixteenth century. According to Alberti’s*
theoretical writings, the very essence of beauty is ‘the harmony and concord of all the
parts achieved in such a manner that nothing could be added or taken away or altered
except for the worse’. Such definitions make one feel the contrast of the Renaissance
and the Gothic most sharply.
In the Renaissance style the building is an aesthetic whole consisting of selfsufficient parts. The relation of height and width in one place of the building
corresponds to that of another place there. The position of every detail is determined.
No shifting is possible.
In the Renaissance buildings the walls appear active, with decorative elements
which in their sizes and arrangement follow laws of human reasoning. It is this
humanizing that makes a Renaissance building what it is. Arcades are more open than
they had been, the graceful columns have the beauty of animate beings.
English Renaissance architecture may be divided as following:
Early Renaissance
 Elizabethan (1558 – 1603)
 Jacobean (1603-1625)
Late Renaissance
 Stuart (1625-1702)
 Georgian (1702 – 1803)
78
4.1.2 Baroque
The word “Baroque” has been and still is used in many different senses, but here
it will be taken to mean the style which was created in Rome roughly in the period
1620-70.
Both political and artistic ideals changed rapidly during the period, which may be
divided into three phases. The first began with the Restoration of Charles II* to the
throne in 1660 after Cromwell’s short-lived republic* and ended with the Glorious (and
bloodless) Revolution* of 1688 in which James II was succeeded by his nephew and
son-in-law, William III, and his daughter Mary, as joint constitutional monarchs
responsible to Parliament and people. Subsequently artistic initiative passed from the
monarch to noblemen and nouveau riche commoners, and in the decades either side of
1700 a number of great Baroque houses were built for prominent Whigs, members of
the party which accomplished the Revolution of 1688 and secured the succession not of
James II's Catholic son but of the Protestant Queen Anne (1702) and George I (1714).
These two phases overlapped with a third, which comprised the mature and late work of
Sir Christopher Wren between c. 1680 and c. 1710.
4.1.2.1
Typical features
The salient features of Baroque architecture as it was created in Rome and as it
later spread to other areas of Europe may be summarized as follows.
 Baroque architects preferred curves to straight lines and complex forms to those
which were regular and simple. The ideal form of the architects of the Renaissance had
been the circle, which is symmetrical about every diameter, and the square and the
Greek cross, which are symmetrical about their two principal axes. Baroque architects
preferred the oval to the circle because it had greater variety in its changing curvature,
and the Latin cross to the Greek; but in each case they liked to introduce variations,
combinations of different ovals, or curves to break up the straight lines of the Latin
cross.
 Baroque architects also sought movement in the actual walls of their buildings. This
interest is most clearly displayed in their treatment of facades. Whereas a typical
79
Renaissance façade tends to be more or less in one plane, articulated by pilasters or at
most half-columns, Baroque architects liked to treat their façades almost like sculpture,
setting columns into the walls, opening them up with niches of varying scales, and
finally actually curving the whole surface of the façade, which is sometimes treated
almost as a single surface, but is often given the sculptural treatment just described.
 In the decoration of the interior again Baroque architects employed a number of
methods which were foreign to the spirit of the Renaissance. They often combined in a
single whole the three arts of painting, sculpture, and architecture, so that the painting of
the altarpiece, the sculptured figures of saints or donors contribute as much as the
architecture to the whole effect. Further, artists working in one medium often use means
proper to others, thus creating an actual fusion of the arts. Architectural members are
sometimes replaced by sculpture or are so contorted and decorated that they seem more
like sculpture than supporting elements. Sculptors introduce colour – almost like
painters – in the form of illusionist marble inlay, by imitating the texture of velvet or
silk, or by creating effects of false perspective. Painters use this last device on a vast
scale and set up complete buildings on the ceilings of their churches or the saloni in
their palaces. Architects execute similar effects in three dimensions, producing, for
instance, arcades which appear twice their actual length. All these devices contribute, by
their element of surprise, to the shock-effects sought by Baroque architects.
 The effects of surprise were heightened by carefully controlled light, either directed to
highlight some particular feature, or to shine on a fresco or a relief from a concealed
source, thus producing an unexplained and dramatic effect.
 Other devices are equally “theatrical”. A favourite method was to spread an action
across the whole space of a church: for instance, a martyrdom may be depicted over the
altar and the saint may be shown being received in Heaven in a fresco on the vault.
 Baroque architects often heightened the striking impression created by their churches
by the use of elaborate ornament and rich materials. This is often quoted as the first and
chief feature of Baroque architecture, but it is important to remember that it is not to be
found in by any means all Baroque works. Some of the most accomplished architects
80
used the simplest material as brick and stucco—and obtained their effects solely by the
ingenuity of their architectural forms.
 Symbolism of a complicated kind is often used in the decoration and even the planning
of Baroque churches. The attributes of the particular saint to whom the church is
dedicated may be included in stucco or painted panels or even worked into the
architectural plan.
 Finally most Baroque architects liked to work on a big scale.
 To cope with the articulation of these vast buildings architects adopted the use of a
giant Order**, embracing two, sometimes three, storeys of a building, a device which
had been rediscovered in the sixteenth century but not used extensively till the Baroque
period. [8, pp.11-19]
4.2
The most famous architects of the period
While some seventeenth-century patrons and architects had personal knowledge
of European architecture, travel was not essential for the absorption of current ideas. Of
the principal English Baroque architects only Thomas Archer (c.1668-1743) visited
Italy ; James Gibbs ( 1682-1754) reached London in 1709 by way of Carlo Fontana’s
studio and soon recognized that Baroque was not the school of the morrow;
Christopher Wren (1632-1723) only reached the Ile-de-France; Hugh May (1622-84)
visited Holland and probably France; Sir John Vanbrugh (1664-1726) stayed in the
latter country mainly as a political prisoner; Nicholas Hawksmoor (1661-1736) did not
travel, and his extensive knowledge of recent and ancient building was derived entirely
from books and engravings. Indeed by making available to architects disposed to use
them a wide range of visual sources, developments in reproductive engraving were the
biggest single factor in the establishment of the English Baroque style. [8, p.148]
John Vanbrugh
Sir John Vanbrugh (1664 –1726) was an English architect and dramatist. He
wrote two argumentative and outspoken Restoration comedies, The Relapse (1696) and
81
The Provoked Wife (1697), which have become enduring stage favourites but originally
occasioned much controversy.
As an architect Vanbrugh is thought to have had no formal training. To what
extent Vanbrugh’s exposure to contemporary French architecture during years of
imprisonment in France affected him is hard to gauge, in April 1691 he was transferred
to Château de Vincennes in the months he spent as a prisoner there he would have got to
know the architect Louis Le Vau's grand classical work (1656–61) in the château well.
On his release from prison (he was at the Bastille by then) on 22 November 1692 he
spent a short time in Paris, there he would have seen much recent architecture including
Les Invalides, Le Vau's Collège des Quatre-Nations and Claude Perrault's east wing of
the Louvre Palace. His inexperience was compensated for by his unerring eye for
perspective and detail and his close working relationship with Nicholas Hawksmoor.
Hawksmoor was to be Vanbrugh's collaborator in many of his most ambitious projects,
including Castle Howard and Blenheim. During his almost thirty years as a practising
architect, Vanbrugh designed and worked on numerous buildings. [8, p.161]
Vanbrugh’s chosen style was the Baroque. The first baroque country house built
in England was Chatsworth House, designed by William Talman three years before
Castle Howard. In the contest for the commission of Castle Howard, the untrained and
untried Vanbrugh astonishingly managed to out-charm and out-clubman the
professional but less socially adept Talman and to persuade the Earl of Carlisle to give
the great opportunity to him instead.
Seizing it, Vanbrugh instigated European
baroque's metamorphosis into a subtle, almost understated version that became known
as English baroque. Four of Vanbrugh’s designs act as milestones for evaluating this
process: Castle Howard, commissioned in 1699; Blenheim Palace, commissioned in
1704; Kings Weston House, begun in 1712; Seaton Delaval Hall, begun in 1718. [36]
Nicholas Hawksmoor
Nicholas Hawksmoor (probably 1661 –1736) was an English architect. He was a
leading figure of the English Baroque style of architecture in the late-seventeenth and
early-eighteenth centuries. Hawksmoor worked alongside the principal architects of the
82
time, Christopher Wren and John Vanbrugh, and contributed to the design of some of
the most notable buildings of the period, including St Paul's Cathedral, Wren's City of
London churches, Blenheim Palace and Castle Howard. Part of his work has been
correctly attributed to him only relatively recently, and his influence has reached several
poets and authors of the twentieth century.
From about 1684 to about 1700, Hawksmoor worked with Christopher Wren on
projects
including Chelsea
Hospital, St.
Paul’s
Cathedral, Hampton
Court
Palace and Greenwich Hospital.
He then worked for a time with Sir John Vanbrugh, assisting him on the
building Blenheim Palace and Castle Howardfor Charles Howard. There is no doubt
that Hawksmoor brought to the brilliant amateur the professional grounding he had
received from Wren, but it is also arguable that Wren’s architectural development was
from the persuasion of his formal pupil, Hawksmoor.
By 1700 Hawksmoor had emerged as a major architectural personality, and in the
next 20 years he proved himself to be one of the great masters of the English Baroque.
His baroque, but somewhat classical and gothic architectural form was derived from his
exploration
of Antiquity,
the Renaissance,
the
English Middle
Ages and
contemporary Italian baroque. Unlike many of his wealthier contemporaries,
Hawksmoor never travelled to Italy, where he might have been influenced by the style
of architecture there.
In 1702, Hawksmoor designed the baroque country house of Easton Neston in
Northamptonshire for Sir William Fermor. This was the only country house for which
he was the sole architect.
In 1711, parliament passed an Act for the building of Fifty New Churches in the
Cities of London and Westminster or the Suburbs thereof. The six churches in London
wholly designed by Hawksmoor were St Alfege’s Church, Greenwich, St George’s
Church, Bloomsbury, Christ Church, Spitalfields, St George in the East, Wapping, St
Mary Woolnoth and St Anne’s Limehouse They are his best-known independent works
of architecture. [8, p. 159]
83
William Talman
William Talman (1650–1719) was an English architect and landscape designer.
He was apupil of Sir Christopher Wren. Talman worked with Wren in his rebuilding
of Hampton Court Palace and its gardens and, by proposing a cheaper interior
decoration scheme for the new building, won that commission over Wren’s head.
Talman’s principal work is recognised to be Chatsworth House, considered to be
the first baroque private house in Britain. During his long career Talman worked on
many of England's country houses. [8, p.151]
Hugh May
Hugh May (1621 –1684) was an English architect. Although May's only
surviving works are Eltham Lodge, and the east front, stables and chapel at Cornbury
House, his designs were influential.
Following the Great Fire of London, in September 1666, May was one of the
three “Commissioners for Rebuilding the City of London”, appointed by Charles II. The
others were Roger Pratt and Christopher Wren, and along with three representatives of
the City of London, Robert Hooke, Edward Jerman and Peter Mills, they were charged
with surveying the damage, and promoting methods of rebuilding. The commissioners’
work led to two Parliamentary acts for rebuilding, in 1666 and 1670, although May's
role in the reconstruction work was limited.
James Gibbs
James Gibbs (23 December 1682 – 5 August 1754) was one of Britain's most
influential architects. Born in Scotland, he trained as an architect in Rome, and practiced
mainly in England
His architectural style did incorporate Palladian* elements, as well as forms from
Italian Baroque and Inigo Jones, but was most strongly influenced by the work of
Sir Christopher Wren, who was an early supporter of Gibbs. Overall, Gibbs was an
individual who formed his own style independently of current fashions.
84
Gibbs was among the list of architects to be responsible for the new churches to
be built under the Act for Fifty New Churches, and in 1713 he was appointed one of the
Commission's
two
surveyors,
the
contemporary
term
for
an
architect,
alongside Nicholas Hawksmoor. He held this post for two years. During his tenure he
completed his first important commission, the church of St Mary-le-Strand (1714–17),
in the City of Westminster.
Thomas Archer
Thomas Archer (1668-1743) was an English Baroque architect, whose work is
somewhat overshadowed by that of his contemporaries Sir John Vanbrugh and Nicholas
Hawksmoor.
Among Archer’s churches was St John Evangelist, Westminster suggestive of
Hawksmoor’s baroque influence. Its four towers were originally built to stabilise
subsidence. Historians believed that was more likely than following Sir John Vanbrgh’s
style. Built in 1750, St Paul’s, Deptford sweeping semi-circular porticos were not
copied for a century until Smirke's magnificent church at St Mary’s, Bryanston Square
that dominated the street. At St Philip's, Birmingham, now Birmingham Cathedral there
was a strong sense of the Italianate Lombardic influences of High Baroque style of
churches: ornate, high ceilings, with cupola and dome. External to St Philips is the roof
balustrade quite unusual in English church architecture. St John's and St Paul’s were
both built for the Commission for Building Fifty New Churches.
Archer's secular works included Roehampton House in Surrey, Welford Park in
Berkshire, and the Cascade House and the west front and broadly bowed pilastered
north front at Chatsworth House.
John Webb
John Webb (1611 – 24 October 1672) was an English architect and scholar. He
had a close association with fellow architect and designer Inigo Jones for whom he
worked as an assistant from 1628.
85
Upon Jones' death in 1652, Webb
inherited a substantial fortune as well as a
library of drawings and designs, many of
which dated back to Jones' influential travels
to Italy.
In 1654 Webb designed the first
classical portico on an English country house,
at The Vyne in Hampshire. In the Corinthian style, this portico stamps this older house
as Palladian 50 years before the birth of Lord Burlington.
He also designed Gunnersbury House in Ealing. An unconstructed design for a
theatre attributed to Webb, discovered in the library of Worcester College, Oxford, was
used as the basis for the Sam Wanamaker Playhouse in London, opened in 2014.
4.3 Buildings of the period
Castle Howard
Although building work began in 1699, the construction of Castle Howard took
over 100 years to complete, spanning the lifetimes of three Earls.
The 3rd Earl of Carlisle enlisted the help of his friend, dramatist and architect
John
Vanbrugh.
Vanbrugh,
having
never
built
anything
before,
recruited Nicholas
Hawksmoor
to
assist him in the
practical
side
of
design
and
construction
and
between 1699 and 1702 the design evolved.
Built from east to west, the house took shape in just under ten years. By 1725,
when an engraving of the house appeared in Vitruvius Britannicus (The British
86
Architect), most of the exterior structure was complete and its interiors opulently
finished.
Vanbrugh raised the hall into a tall 230 dome, opened arches between the hall and
its flanking staircases, and engaged the Venetian Giovanni Antonio Pellegrini to paint,
and the Italian stuccoists Bagutti and Plura to model, in strictly limited fields. He
exploited the corridor, a rather new feature of house design, for its perspective
chiaroscuro**. Castle Howard in consequence combines decoration and architecture
with more emphasis on the latter than in Talman’s and May’s painted interiors. [8,
p.161]
However, at the time of Vanbrugh’s death in 1726 the house was incomplete; it
lacked a west wing as attention had turned to landscaping the gardens. It was still
incomplete when the 3rd Earl died in 1738. Little could both men have guessed that,
when the house came to be completed by Carlisle’s son-in-law Sir Thomas Robinson,
Vanbrugh’s flamboyant baroque design would be brought back down to earth by the 4th
Earl’s conservative Palladian wing.
Blenheim Palace
Blenheim Palace (/ˈblɛnɪm/ ) is
a monumental English country house
situated in the civil parish of
Blenheim
near
Woodstock,
Oxfordshire, United Kingdom.
The Battle of Blenheim was
won on 13th August led by John
Churchill,
first
Duke
of
Marlborough. He was given the Park,
Woodstock Manor, and £240,000 to build the Palace as a gift from Queen Anne and a
grateful nation.
Blenheim Palace was built, designed by Sir John Vanbrugh. Despite an
inscription on the Palace wall stating that it was built between 1705 and 1722, the
87
Chapel (the last part of the Palace to be built) was not consecrated until 1733, 11
years after the death of the 1st Duke. [8, p.162]
It was designed in the rare, and short-lived, English Baroque style. It is unique in
its combined use as a family home, mausoleum and national monument. The palace is
also notable as the birthplace and ancestral home of Sir Winston Churchill.
Christ Church
Christ Church Spitalfields, is an Anglican
church built between 1714 and 1729 to a design by
Nicholas Hawksmoor. Situated on Commercial Street,
in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, on its
western border and facing the City of London, it was
one of the first (and arguably one of the finest) of the
so-called "Commissioners' Churches" built for the
Commission for Building Fifty New Churches, which
had been established by an Act of Parliament in 1711.
The architectural composition of Christ Church
demonstrates Hawksmoor's usual abruptness: the very
plain rectangular box of the nave is surmounted at its
west end by a broad tower of three stages topped by a
steeple more Gothic than classical. The magnificent
porch with its semi circular pediment and Tuscan columns is attached bluntly to the
west end: it may indeed be a late addition to the design intended to add further support
to the tower. Like those of Hawksmoor’s other London churches and many of Wren’s,
the central space is of the nave is organised around two axes, the shorter originally
emphasised by two entrances of which only that to the south remains. It has a richly
decorated flat ceiling and is lit by a clerestory. The aisles are roofed with elliptical
barrel-vaults carried on a raised Composite order (cf. Wren’s St James’s, Piccadilly),
and the same order is used for the screens across the east and west ends. The Venetian
window at the east may show the growing influence of the revival of Palladian
88
Architecture, or it may be a rhyme with the arched pediment of the entrance portico,
repeated in the wide main stage of the tower. The east window is a double window, one
inside, one outside, the effect now obscured by the Victorian stained glass window
between the two. [13, pp. 148-169]
Chatsworth House
Chatsworth House is a stately home in Derbyshire, England.
Standing on the east bank of the River Derwent, Chatsworth looks across to the
low hills that divide the Derwent and Wye valleys. The house, set in expansive parkland
and backed by wooded, rocky hills rising to heather moorland, contains an important
collection of paintings, furniture, Old Master drawings, neoclassical sculptures, books
and other artefacts.
The
Tudor
original
mansion
was
built in the 1560s by
Bess of Hardwick in a
quadrangle layout. The
south and east fronts
were rebuilt under the
order
of
William
Talman [8, pp.151-152]
and were completed by 1696 for William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Devonshire. The 1st
Duke's Chatsworth was a key building in the development of English Baroque
architecture. The design of the south front was revolutionary for an English house, with
no attics or hipped roof, but instead two main stories supported by a rusticated
basement. The facade is dramatic and sculptural with ionic pilasters and a heavy
entablature and balustrade. The east front is the quietest of the four on the main block.
Like the south front it is unusual in that it has an even number of bays and no
centrepiece. The emphasis is placed on the end bays, each highlighted by double pairs
of pilasters, of which the inner pairs project outwards.
89
The west and north fronts may have been the work of Thomas Archer, possibly in
collaboration with the Duke himself. The west front has nine wide bays with a central
pediment supported by four columns and pilasters to the other bays. Due to the slope of
the site this front is taller than the south front. It is also large, with many other nine-bay
three-storey facades little more than half as wide and tall. The west front is very lively
with much carved stonework, and the window frames are highlighted with gold leaf,
which catches the setting sun. The north front was the last to be built.
The facades to the central courtyard were also rebuilt by the 1st Duke. The
courtyard was larger than it is now, as there were no corridors on the western side and
the northern and southern sides only had enclosed galleries on the first floor with open
galleries below. There are carved trophies by Samuel Watson, a Derbyshire craftsman
who did a lot of work at Chatsworth in stone, marble and wood.
St Mary le Strand
St Mary le Strand is a Church of England church
at the eastern end of the Strand in the City of
Westminster, London. The architecture of St. Mary le
Strand proved controversial from the outset and the
architect later expressed unhappiness at the way that his
plans had been altered by the Commissioners. According
to Gibbs, the church was originally intended to be an
Italianate structure with a small campanile over the west
end and no steeple. Instead of the latter, a column 250
feet (76 m) high surmounted with a statue of Queen
Anne was to have been erected a short distance to the
west of the church. A great quantity of stone was purchased and brought to the spot, but
the plan was abandoned on the death of the queen in 1714. Instead, the architect was
ordered to reuse the stone to build a steeple, which fundamentally altered the plan of the
church.
90
The extravagant Baroque ornamentation of the exterior was criticised at the time,
and matters were not helped when one of the decorative urns surmounting the exterior
of the church fell off and killed a passer-by during a procession in 1802.
Even so, the church – Gibbs’ first public building – won him considerable fame.
The interior of the structure is richly decorated with a plastered ceiling in white and
gold, with a ceiling inspired by Luigi Fontana's work in the church of Santi Apostoli
and Pietro da Cortona's Santi Luca e Martina, both in Rome. The porch was inspired by
Cortona's Santa Maria della Pace. The walls were influenced by Michelangelo and the
steeple shows the influence of Sir Christopher Wren.
St Paul’s
St Paul’s, Deptford, is one of London's finest Baroque parish churches. It was
designed by architect Thomas Archer and built between 1712 and 1730 in Deptford. It
was one of the 50 churches that were to be built
by the New Church Commissioners, although
only 12 were ultimately constructed.
Archer
began
almost
immediately,
designing it in his usual Roman Baroque style
and completing the fabric and most of the
decoration by 1720 (though work continued
until its consecration in 1730).
The most unusual feature of the building
is the cylindrical tower with a steeple, around
which is wrapped a semi-circular portico of
four giant Tuscan columns; colossal pilasters
articulate the body of the church facades. [59]
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4.4 Check yourself
1. What does the term Renaissance mean?
a) reintroduction of Classic art
b) reintroduction of Gothic style
c) development of a new form of art
2. What periods does Early Renaissance constitute?
a) Elizabethan and Stuart
b) Stuart and Georgian
c) Elizabethan and Jacobean
3. Where did the Baroque style develop?
a) in England
b) in Italy
c) in France
4. How many churches were actually built after the Commission for Building Fifty New
Churches?
a) 50
b)42
c)12
5. Who participated in this project?
a) Nicholas Hawksmoor, John James, Thomas Archer and James Gibbs
b) John Abel, Christopher Wren, James Gibbs
c) John Vanbrugh
6. What building is in the picture?
a) Greenwich Hospital
b) Castle Howard
c) Blenheim Palace
7. Describe the main typical features of the Baroque architecture.
92
4.4.1 Keys
1.
a
2.
c
3.
b
4.
c
5.
a
6.
b
7.
one’s own answer
93
V. ELIZABETHAN AND JACOBEAN PERIODS
5.1 General characteristics of the periods and architectural styles
5.1.1 Elizabethan architecture
The reign of Elizabeth witnessed the establishment of the Renaissance style in
England. Elizabethan architecture, which followed the Tudor, was a transition from
style with Gothic features and Renaissance detail.
The building were constructed
during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I* of England and Ireland from 1558-1603.
This architecture was secular rather than ecclesiastical in its nature. In contrast to
her father Henry VIII, Elizabeth commissioned no new royal palaces, and very few new
churches were built. Powerful statesmen, successful merchants, and the rich gentry
required mansions suitable to their new position. The great houses throughout the
English countryside displayed many new combinations of features. Towers, gables,
parapets, balustrades and chimney-stacks produced an effective skyline, and walls were
enlivened by oriel and bay-windows with mullions. Mansions were set in a framework
of formal gardens in which forecourts, terraces, lakes, fountains and yew hedges of
topiary work combined to make the house and its surroundings one complete and
harmonious scheme.
5.1.1.1 Typical features
In England, the Renaissance first manifested itself mainly in the distinct form of
the prodigy house, large, square, and tall houses such as Longleat House, built by
courtiers who hoped to attract the queen for a ruinously expensive stay, and so advance
their careers. Often these buildings have an elaborate and fanciful roofline, hinting at
the evolution from medieval fortified architecture.
 It was also at this time that the long gallery became popular in English houses. It is a
narrow room, often with a high ceiling. Such rooms were often located on the upper
floor of the great houses of the time, and they stretched across the entire frontage of the
building. They served several purposes: they were used for entertaining guests, for
taking exercise in the form of walking when the weather was inclement, and for
displaying art collections.
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A long gallery has the appearance of a spacious corridor, but it was designed as a room
to be used in its own right, not as a means of passing from one room to another.
 A growing range of parlours (different reception rooms) and withdrawing rooms
(where visitors may be entertained) supplemented the main living room for the family,
the great chamber.
 The great hall was now mostly used by the servants, and as an impressive point of
entry to the house.
5.1.2 General characteristics of Jacobean architecture
The second phase of Renaissance architecture in England, the architecture of the
reign of James I* (1603-1625), inherited Elizabethan traditions; but as Roman models
became better known, the sober regularity of Classic columns and entablatures
gradually replaced the picturesque irregularity of Elizabethan architecture. Buildings
still continued to be for domestic rather than for religious use, and thus the style
developed along lines suited to popular needs. Furniture became more abundant in
quantity and more decorative in quality.
Courtiers continued to build large prodigy houses, even though James spent less
time on summer progresses round his realm than Elizabeth had. There continued to be
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very little building of new churches, though a considerable amount of modifications to
old ones, but a great deal of secular building.
5.1.2.1 Typical features
Although the general lines of Elizabethan design remained, there was a more
consistent and unified application of formal design, both in plan and elevation. Much
use was made of columns and pilasters, round-arch arcades, and flat roofs with
openwork parapets. These and other classical elements appeared in a free and fanciful
vernacular rather than with any true classical purity. The proportion of window to wall
increased enormously during the reign of Elizabeth I*, but the fashion chanced again
under James I and smaller windows came back. The style influenced furniture design
and other decorative arts.
5.2 The most famous architects of the periods
Robert Smythson
Robert Smythson (1535 – 15 October 1614) was an English architect. Smythson
designed a number of notable houses during the Elizabethan era. His first mention in
historical records comes in 1556, when he was stonemason for the house at Longleat,
built by Sir John Thynne. He later designed Hardwick Hall, Wollaton Hall, and other
significant projects.
In Britain at this time, the profession of architect was in its most embryonic stage
of development. Smythson was trained as a stonemason, and by the 1560s was
travelling England as a master mason leading his own team of masons. In 1568 he
moved from London to Wiltshire to commence work on the new house at Longleat for
Sir John Thynne; he worked there for almost eighteen years, carving personally much of
the external detail, and he is believed to have had a strong influence on the overall
design of the building. In 1580 he moved to his next project– tWollaton Hall and was in
charge of overall construction.
Smythson's style was more than a fusion of influences; although Renaissance,
Flemish and English Gothic notes can be seen in his work, he produced some ingenious
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adaptations, resulting in classically detailed, innovative domestic buildings. Hardwick
in particular is noted for its use of glass.
Smythson died at Wollaton in 1614 and is buried in the parish church there; his
memorial includes these words “Architecter (sic) and Surveyor unto the most worthy
house of Wollaton with divers others of great account.” His son John Smythson and
grandson Huntingdon Smithson were also architects. [49]
John Thynne
Sir John Thynne (1515 – 1580) was the steward to Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of
Somerset (c. 1506 – 1552) and a member of parliament.
At Longleat, Thynne took thirty-seven years to design and build his own great
house with four facades, Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian pilasters, and regularly spaced bay
windows. A perfectionist, he employed only the best craftsmen, including the English
master mason and architect Robert Smythson and the French mason Alan Maynard. He
suffered a setback in 1567, when there was a major fire at the house. However, during
the long process of construction, Longleat became the centre of a new school of
building. Smythson went on to design Hardwick Hall, Wollaton Hall, Burghley House,
and Burton Agnes Hall, and is described by Mark Girouard in the Oxford Dictionary of
National Biography as “the strongest architectural personality to have survived from the
Elizabethan and Jacobean age”.[23]
Robert Lyminge
Robert Lyminge (1607–1628) was an English carpenter and architect.
From 1607–12 he was in charge of the design and construction of Hatfield House
for Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury. But Inigo Jones is also known to have been
consulted about the design, and who may be responsible for some of the detail on the
south front. In 1616–17 Lyminge was designing Blickling Hall in Norfolk for Sir Henry
Hobart, 1st Baronet. [38, p.171]
Both country houses are typical examples of Jacobean architecture, brick built
with stone mouldings around the windows and doors, with stone string courses and
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quoins, the central feature of each building is a clock tower, stone at Hatfield House and
wood designed and painted to look like stone at Blickling.[48]
Simon Basil
Simon Basil (1590 – 1615) was an English surveyor or architect, who held the
post of Surveyor of the King’s Works, 1606-15.
Basil worked on the New Exchange (1608 –1609), where Basil’s design was
preferred to one drawn up by Inigo Jones. His major patron was Robert Cecil, 1st Earl
of Salisbury, in his London residence, ‘Salisbury’ or ‘Cecil House’ in the Strand,
London (1601), and at Cecil's main seat, Hatfield House, Hertfordshire (1607–12). It is
unclear to what extent he was involved in design at Hatfield, where he served as clerk of
the works. [38, p.171]
William Arnold
William Arnold (1595 – 1637) was an important master mason in Somerset,
England.
As a stonemason and architect, William Arnold was head of a migrating band of
professional Somerset stonemasons who worked on many houses.
His first known commission was for the design of Montacute House in c1598.
This is one of the finest Elizabethan mansions in the country and was designed for Sir
Edward Phelips.
Other works include the remodelling of a hunting lodge at Cranborne to form the
Manor House for Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury in 1607–1610. He was then
commissioned in 1610–1613 by Dorothy Wadham, a Somerset resident, to design and
oversee the building of Wadham College, Oxford.
His last known work was remodelling Dunster Castle in 1617 for the owner
George Luttrell. The interiors were completely modernised in the 1680s, and the
exterior work only partially survives as the castle was remodelled and extended in
1868. [68]
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5.3 Buildings of the periods
Longleat House
Longleat is one of the first of the great Elizabethan houses and it is certainly one
of the great achievements of English architecture. Its builder was Sir John Thynne who
had visited France. He had considerable experience of building. The mason at Longleat
was Robert Smythson, but it is impossible to say how much the design owes to him.
Both in plan and elevation the most striking thing about Longleat is irs symmetry
and restrain. The east, west, and north sides are designed with three projecting bays
each, one in centre, and one at each end, so arranged that the angles of the building
appear strengthened.
The first impression of the façade is of the amount of glass, the second of its
horizontal extent. These large windows recur in another houses related to Longleat, for
example Hardwick Hall, and so does the horizontality. In fact, the basic element of the
Longleat façade is really a vertical one, consisting of two tall rectangular windows
separated and flanked be three pilasters. The essential horizantality is maintained by the
entablatures** of the pilasters and the strong linking the bases which together produce
the bands across the front of the house; in addition to this the roof is flat. [38, pp.163 164]
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Kirby Hall
Kirby Hall is an Elizabethan country house, located near Gretton,
Northamptonshire, England. Kirby was owned by Sir Christopher Hatton, Lord
Chancellor to Queen Elizabeth I. It is a leading early example of the Elizabethan
prodigy house. Construction on the building began in 1570. The plan of Kirby is very
French in that it consists of a court with
the entrance front and loggia, two long
wings of longings for guests, and then
the house proper, with the porch in the
centre leading into the great hall on the
right. On the left of the porch there are
two floors, but, to maintain the
symmetry of the façade, the windows
run down like those of the great hall,
which actually rises the full size of the house. On the walls of this front there are Iconic
pilasters of a Giant Order. This is the first use of such pilasters in England. [38, pp.165
- 166], [54, p.60]
The house is now in a semi-ruined state with many parts roof-less although the
Great Hall and state rooms remain intact. The gardens, with their elaborate ‘cutwork’
design, complete with statues and urns, have been recently restored.
Wollaton Hall
Wollaton
Hall
is
an
Elizabethan country house. It
was built between 1580 and
1588
for
Willoughby.
Sir
Francis
Wollaton
is
almost certainly the work of
Robert Smythson since he is
100
buried in Wollaton Churche.
Wollaton undoubtedly derived from Longleat, but the plan is quite different. It
has the angle-towers and the central court is filled in by the great hall. The exterior and
hall have extensive and busy carved decoration, featuring strapwork and a profusion of
decorative forms. [38, p.166]
Hardwick Hall
Hardwick Hall in Derbyshire is
an
architecturally
Elizabethan
country
significant
house
in
England, a leading example of the
Elizabethan prodigy house. Built
between 1590 and 1597 for the
formidable Bess of Hardwick, it was
probably
designed
by
Robert
Smythson.
Hardwick is one of the first English houses where the great hall was built on an
axis through the centre of the house rather than at right angles to the entrance.
Hardwick is very like Longleat in its proportion of window to wall – the local
description is ‘Hardwick Hall, more glass than wall’.
A wide, winding, stone staircase leads up to the state rooms on the second floor.
The interiors are important since they contain some of the finest surviving Elizabethan
decorative work in the gallery, and especially in the Great Presence Chamber. [38,
p.168]
Charlton House
Built between 1607 and 1612 for Sir Adam Newton, who was tutor to Henry,
Prince of Wales – the eldest son of James I, Charlton House is one of the finest
surviving Jacobean manor houses in England.
101
The house incorporated
the ideas of the Renaissance.
Symmetry
and
balanced
proportions were important to
Renaissance architecture and
ideas, and Charlton House
was built on a double EShaped plan. The chimney
stacks, towers, parapets and balustrades stand out against the skyline and the house was
built with a great deal of ornament both inside and outside in the fashion of the time.
The oak fireplace in the Jenkins Room bears the date 1612.
Charlton House is built of the red brick characteristic of the period, relieved with
white stone quoins and dressings. Its shape is that of a shallow H, an oblong with
slightly projecting cross pieces at each end. Externally, the chief features are the richly
decorated porch which stands in a bay projecting from the middle of the west front.
Internally the house is remarkable for the plaster-work of the ceilings, the numerous
interesting chimney-pieces, and the staircase. [12]
Hatfield House
Hatfield House is a country
house in Hatfield, Hertfordshire,
England. The present Jacobean
house, a leading example of the
prodigy house, was built between
1607 and 1612 by Robert Cecil,
First Earl of Salisbury and Chief
Minister to King James I and has
been the home of the Cecil family
ever since. It is a prime example of Jacobean architecture.
102
The house was built of brick and stone. The great hall was retained, complete
with screens-passage**, because this was the house of a great personage, but at the
same time the half-H-plan is developed to give a series of rooms in each of the wings,
with the ends of the wings expanded to three rooms thick. The south front is classical in
appearance, with a stone loggia and a central clock-tower, and it is now thought that it is
one of the earliest works of Inigo Jones. The other people concerned it its design were
Simon Basil, Robert Lemyinge, and Cecil himself. Much of the interior has been
altered, but the splendid wooden staircase with its open still exists, and was one of the
first and finest of its kind. [38, p.171]
Montacute House
Montacute House was built to impress by Sir Edward Phelips, a wealthy lawyer
and member of Elizabeth I’s Parliament.
Built in English Renaissance style in about 1598, this building is one of the few
houses to have remained virtually unchanged since Elizabethan times. The stunning east
front with its large mullioned windows gives the impression that the whole façade is
made of glass. Montacute House is built in an ‘E’ shape. The ground floor houses the
Great Hall and kitchens, with the Great Chamber for entertaining on first floor, along
with some bedrooms and other rooms used by the family and their guests.
103
On the second floor, the 172 foot Long Gallery is the longest of its type in
England. [54, pp.65, 67]
Burghley House
Burghley House is a grand sixteenth-century country house. It is a leading
example of the Elizabethan prodigy house, built by and still lived in by the Cecil family.
The exterior very largely retains its Elizabethan appearance, but most of the interiors
date from remodellings before 1800.
William Cecil was his own architect. During the 1540’s, when William Cecil was
establishing himself both politically and economically, there was a change in
architectural fashion in England. The Italian influence was superseded by the classical
style of buildings that were popular in France and Flanders. Many of the great men of
the day began the construction of substantial houses and Cecil amongst them.
The
period
of
building
the
house
extended over a period of
32 years. It is known
from the State Papers that
the east range was erected
in
1555
and
work
continued on the east and
south ranges until 1564.
Sir William Cecil had
purchased Theobalds Manor, Hertfordshire in 1563 and for a whole decade was fully
engaged there in the building of his great ‘prodigy’ house.
At Burghley in August 1564, Edmund Hall, the surveyor, promised that the south
side should be finished by winter. Thereafter, little more work was done until 1575
when the team of masons was reassembled. The west front with its great gate-house (it
was originally intended to be the main entrance) was finished in 1577. The north front
was completed in 1587. [10]
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5.4 Check yourself
1. What time does the two periods, Elizabethan and Jacobean, encompass?
a)
1500 – 1560
b)
1603 – 1625
c)
1558 – 1652
2. What is the most famous building designed by Robert Smythson?
a)
Wollaton Hall
b)
Hampton Court
c)
Christ Church
3. Name other architects of this period.
4. Where is the longest gallery situated?
a)
In Lomgleat Gouse
b)
In Burghley House
c)
In Montacute House
5. What became popular in Elizabethan era?
a)
Giant order
b)
Long gallery
c)
White brick
6. Describe one of the Elizabethan houses.
7. Describe one of the Jacobean houses.
105
5.4.1 Keys
1.c
2. a
3. William Arnold, Robert Lyminge, William Arnold, Simon Basil
4.c
5.b
6, 7 one’s own answers
106
VI.
GEORGIAN ARCCHITECTURE
6.1 General characteristics of Georgian architecture
Georgian Architecture (1702-1803). Under this title is classed the architecture of
the reigns of Anne (1702-14), George I (1714-27), George II (1727-60), George III
(1760-1820), George IV (1820-30). As we see, the period of architecture that we call
Georgian is very roughly equivalent to the 18th century. Describing this period very
superficially we may say that Georgian style is linked with the classical period of
Greece and Rome.
The Georgian period was influenced by the classical architecture to a great extent.
A large number of young people coming from aristocratic families traveled throughout
Europe on the “Grand Tour”, which was supposed to bring their education to a higher
level. These Grand Tours exposed the most influential class in Britain to the classical
traditions of style and architecture. These young men (women were very rare
participants of a Grand Tour), came home to Britain hugely inspired by classical
architecture and design.
The main characteristics of Georgian architecture are elegance, purity and
correctness as the architecture started to involve a great deal of work from scholars
rather than craftsmen due to the change in architect-patron-builder relationship.
With the exception of Inigo Jones (1573-1652), whose confident handling of
classical detail and proportion set him apart from all other architects of the period, most
early 17th century buildings tended to take the innocent exuberance of late Tudor work
one step further. Traditional planning was hidden in the gorgeously overblown
ornament, which sometimes at that time was described as «a heap of craziness of
decorations... very disgusting to see”.
But during the 1640s and 50s the Civil War and its aftermath sent many
gentlemen and nobles to Europe either to escape the fighting or, when the war was lost,
to follow Charles II into exile. There they came into contact with French, Dutch and
Italian architecture and, with Charles's restoration in 1660, there was a flurry of building
activity as royalists reclaimed their property and built themselves houses reflecting the
107
latest European trends. English architecture, was still being chiefly civic and domestic,
started to show the influence of Italy. Georgian classicism is understated elegance.
6.1.1 Typical features
Speaking about Georgian style we can single out its several major characteristics:

Terraces and Town Houses

Palladianism

Country Houses
Terraces. The type of building which most characterized the Georgian period was
the Town House, usually joined end to end to create “terraces”.
The 18th century was a time of great urban growth. At the same time, there was a
need to pack a lot of houses into a small space due to the density of population. This
resulted in the appearance of the terrace, which gave the streets a sense of architectural
wholeness, while the size of houses was still small. Most terraces were made of brick,
with sloping slate roofs hidden behind stone parapets.
Walls between houses were built thick in order to prevent the spread of fire. Most
terraces were four stories high, and there was a short flight of stairs on the way to the
front door. The most important rooms were on the first floor. (the “first floor” is not the
ground floor, it is up beyond that).
Most of the windows were sash windows**, made of standardized panes of glass
divided by thin wooden glazing bars. The pattern of windowing was the same
everywhere. On the ground floor windows were kept short, for stability of the house
structure. First floor windows were tall and elegantly expansive, second floor windows
were shorter, and top floor windows were almost square.
Terraces took several forms: sometimes laid out in straight lines, but also in
squares around a central garden space, or in crescents or oval “circuses”.
Palladianism. Georgian classicism was most heavily influenced by Palladianism,
a philosophy of design based on the writings and work of Andreas Palladio, an Italian
architect of the 16th century who tried to recreate the style and proportions of the
buildings of ancient Rome.
108
The general characteristics of Palladian architecture are grace, understated
decorative elements, and use of classical “orders”**. Most of the buildings in Palladian
style had a pediment (a large triangle above the entrance) and several columns.
Besides, a great deal of attention was paid to the symbolic nature of architectural
elements. Thus, builders could make a statement of their philosophy through their work.
Nothing was “just” a decorative element.
Country Houses. During the 18th century wealth was accumulating in the hands
of very small amount of people. Basically, the rich were getting richer, and they put
money into their homes. Wealthy landowners purchased huge spaces of land to create
wide landscaped parks, and in those parks were set grand houses, also called “country
houses”.
These country house estates had numerous copies of classical temples and other
allegorical architectural elements such as grottoes**, bridges, and that group of
oddments which can be called “follies”**. These elements were aligned and joined by
wavy avenues or elusive openings in carefully planted trees and bushes. The houses
built in these parks were executed in a classical style. [20]
6.2 The most famous architects of the period
Inigo Jones
Inigo Jones (15 July 1573 – 21 June 1652) was a British painter, architect, and
designer who founded the English classical tradition of architecture. His first major
work was The Queen’s House (1616–19) at Greenwich, London, which became a part
of the National Maritime Museum in 1937. The Banqueting House (1619–22) at
Whitehall is considered to be his greatest achievement.
His father was a Welsh cloth worker, which meant that Jones belonged to lower
classes of society at that time. Nevertheless, he managed to attract attention designing
exquisite masques for the royalty. Jones primarily provided the costumes and settings
for these fantasy ballroom dances.
Around 1598, Jones took a trip to Italy. Italy was in the late stages of its
Renaissance and was the epicenter of European education and culture. Jones toured
Florence, Venice, and Rome, all the places that rising architects visited. During the five
109
years he was in Italy, Jones discovered the work of Italian architect Andrea Palladio.
Palladio was one of the great masters of the Renaissance, most famous for translating
the Classical styles of ancient Greece and Rome into the modern architecture of the
Italian Renaissance. Jones acquired several Palladio’s drawings, visited his buildings,
and studied the ruins of the Roman temples. When he returned to England in 1603, he
brought Palladian architecture with its focus on Classical elements back with him.
Back in England, Inigo Jones got back to designing masques, a passion he never
stopped indulging. This helped him gain favor with the nobility, and in 1608 he finished
his first architectural project for the Earl of Salisbury. In 1611 he became the surveyor*
of works to Prince Henry, then toured Italy again in 1613.
During his career, Inigo Jones designed mansions, churches and gardens. He is
best remembered for two projects. The first is the Queen’s House in Greenwich. Jones
was employed to design the house for Queen Anne in 1616, although she died before it
was finished in 1636. The Queen's House was the opportunity for Jones to introduce
Palladian architecture into England. Palladianism is characterized by the use of
mathematical proportions which were meant to create an impression of calmness and
rationality. Jones tried to capture that same feeling. The Queen’s House is perfectly
ordered, with the distances between windows, stories, and sections of the building
representing ideal proportions. Resembling an Italian palace, Queen’s House may
appear plain nowadays, but at the time it caused a sensation.
The next Jones’ major project, Banqueting House in Whitehall was even more
successful. The building was supposed to be a setting for formal banquets and court
masques*, and it was meant to be designed as a Roman basilica. The upper hall is built
to a “double cube”, that is 110 x 55 x 55 ft., and classical orders are used in both
exterior and interior. Nowadays the building has been restored as a venue for formal
state occasions after being the home of the Imperial War Museum for a long time.
When Jones died in 1652, he hadn't worked as an architect for more than a
decade. During his brief career he managed to not only become the first great Welsh
architect but was also responsible for singlehandedly introducing a revival of Classical
architecture into Great Britain. Many years later the Italian influence that Jones
110
presented to Britain was revived by Lord Burlington and the Palladian movement. We
may say that in the early 1600s, Jones was a rockstar on the English architectural scene.
[31]
Sir Christopher Wren
Christopher Wren (20 October 1632 – 25 February 1723) was an English
scientist, mathematician, designer, astronomer and the greatest English architect of his
time, best known for the design of many London churches, including St Paul's
Cathedral.
Christopher Wren was born in East Knoyle, Wiltshire, where his father was
rector*. He attended Westminster School and Wadham College, Oxford, where he
graduated with a masters degree in 1651. By the standards of the time at this stage Wren
was considered to be a pure scientist focusing on astronomy, physics, and anatomy. He
had interest in submarine design, road paving, and design of telescopes. Being only 25
years old he was offered the Chair of Astronomy at Gresham College, London.
It was only in 1663 when Wren got into architecture. In 1665, Wren visited Paris,
where he was strongly influenced by French and Italian baroque styles.
At Oxford in the spring of 1666, he made his first design for a dome for St.
Paul’s. It was accepted in principle on August 27, 1666. One week later, however,
London was on fire. The Great Fire of London transformed two-thirds of the City to a
smoking desert and old St. Paul’s Cathedral to a ruin. The news drew Wren to London.
He worked out a plan for rebuilding the City on new and more regular lines, and
submitted it to Charles II. The plan was accepted and Wren was appointed to be one of
the architectural commissioners controlling the rebuilding of the city. Wren designed
and supervised the rebuilding of 51 city churches during the next 46 years. Each church
was different, though all were classical in style. Wren evolved a uniquely British
"wedding cake" style of steeple** based on classical Roman temples. His personal
involvement in the work under his supervision was an important part of Wren’s success.
He insisted on the finest materials and a very high standard of workmanship. [56]
In 1669, he was appointed surveyor of the royal works which gave him control of
all government building in the country. He was knighted in 1673.
111
In 1682, he received a royal commission, to design a hospital in Chelsea for
retired soldiers, and in 1696 a hospital for sailors in Greenwich. Greenwich Hospital
(later the Royal Naval College) was Wren’s last great work. Wren was buried with great
ceremony in St. Paul’s Cathedral. On a nearby to his tomb wall his son later placed a
dedication, including a sentence that was to become one of the most famous of all
monumental inscriptions: “Lector, si monumentum requiris, circumspice” (“Reader, if
you seek a monument, look about you”).
The churches designed by Wren left the strongest mark on following architecture.
In France, where English architecture rarely impressed anyone, St. Paul’s Cathedral did
make an impression, and the Church of Sainte-Geneviève (now the Panthéon) in Paris,
begun about 1757, rises to a drum** and dome** similar to St. Paul’s. Nobody with a
dome to build could ignore Wren’s, and there are hundreds of versions of it, from St.
Isaac’s Cathedral in St. Petersburg to the U.S. Capitol at Washington, D.C. Wren is
rightly regarded as the most influential British architect of all time. [55]
John Soane
John Soane (10 September 1753 – 20 January 1837) was an English architect. His
best-known work was the Bank of England, a building which had a widespread effect
on commercial architecture. The son of a bricklayer, he trained under George Dance the
Younger and Henry Holland before he entered the Royal Academy Schools in 1771.
In 1788 Soane became Surveyor to the Bank of England. Later in 1809 he was
made Professor of Architecture at the Royal Academy.
Soane displayed originality and control and was considered an architectural
innovator. In his work he concentrated on the detailing of internal spaces and lighting.
Soane was knighted in 1832 and in 1833 he obtained an Act of Parliament
through which his house became a national architecture museum. [17]
Henry Holland
Henry Holland (20 July 1745 – 17 June 1806) was an architect to the English
nobility. Beginning as an assistant to his father, a successful builder, Holland later
112
became the partner and son-in-law of the landscape architect Lancelot (“Capability”)
Brown.
In 1783 the prince of Wales hired Holland to remodel Carlton House the prince’s
town residence. The prince encouraged Holland’s interest in French architecture and
decoration, and Holland began to use French craftsmen on his projects. Work for the
prince led to further aristocratic commissions for Holland.
At Brighton, Sussex, Holland built the Marine Pavilion, an addition to an existing
villa owned by the prince. Another of Holland’s relatively few projects was the
remodeling of the Theatre Royal, also known as the Drury Lane Theatre. [27]
Robert Adam
Robert Adam (3 July 1728 – 3 March 1792) was a Scottish neoclassical architect,
interior designer and furniture designer.
His father William was the pre-eminent architect in Scotland. Robert was just 20
when his father died and the young man joined the family architectural firm, which
became known as Adam Brothers.
After a few short years of practice, Robert left on an extensive "Grand Tour" of
France and Italy, where he studied classical Roman ruins and learned drafting and
drawing skills. When he returned he moved to London and was working as a practicing
architect. It did not take him long to become the fashionable architect of the high
society set.
Adam, being a rebel against the Palladians created a style of his own with light,
elegant lines free of strict classical proportion. Adam was most often asked to remodel
existing houses, so much of his work is interior. Adam insisted on designing everything
himself. The result was work that had a sense of overall unity. He moved beyond the
Roman classical style, and borrowed heavily from Greek, Byzantine, and Italian
Baroque influences. [47]
113
6.3 Buildings of the period
The Queens House
The Queens House in Greenwich is one of the most interesting buildings in the
country. Not only is it important architecturally, but also it is famous for its former
occupants and its art collection.
Inigo Jones was commissioned to design the building in 1616 by King James I’s
wife, Anne of Denmark. It was supposed to be a gift for her from the king to apologize
for swearing in front of her after she had accidentally killed during a hunt one of his
favorite dogs.
Sadly, Anne of Denmark died in 1619 when only the first floor was completed. In
the year of 1629, when James’s son Charles I gave Greenwich to his wife Henrietta
Maria, the work on the building restarted. [29]
The Queen’s House was finished around 1636 and is considered to be remarkable
for its moving away from the traditional, red-brick Tudor style of building, for its
elegant proportions and for the high quality of its interiors. We may say that it landed
like a Classical spaceship on a Tudor site. It was the first fully Classical building in
England.
114
Inside there are the exceptional Tulip
Stairs which were the first geometric selfsupporting spiral staircase in the UK.
Although called the 'tulip' stairs, it is thought
that the flowers in the wrought-iron**
balustrade are actually fleurs-de-lis**, as this
was the emblem of the Bourbon family of
which Queen Henrietta Maria was a member.
It was first rumored that the Queen’s
House was haunted in the 1960s after a
photograph taken by a tourist appeared to show one or more ghosts on the Tulip stairs.
[64]
Greenwich Hospital
It was founded on the belief that England should look after her injured and aged
sailors.
Queen Mary, wife of William III, desired to build a home for old and disabled
seamen in order to pay what she viewed as a great debt to the men who had fought to
protect the country. Similar plans had existed for a long time, but little progress had
been made until Queen Mary expressed her personal concern. At first William did not
supported his wife's idea, but after her sudden death in 1694 he granted a charter** to
make her wishes come true. He backdated the charter to a time before her death so that
it could be issued in both their names.
The Royal Charter granted the 'Royal Palace and Grounds at Greenwich' on the
southern bank of the Thames as the site for the Hospital. The palace which existed at
115
Greenwich for centuries, the old Tudor palace of Placentia, had fallen into disrepair.
Charles II decided to rebuild the palace, employing Christopher Wren as architect.
Wren was responsible for the
original ‘Grand Design’ for the
Hospital.
The
surveyor
to
the
Hospital was Sir John Vanbrugh,
who was not only architect but also
soldier
and
dramatist.
It
was
Vanbrugh who added the touches of
grandeur to the design and turned a
shelter
for
old
sailors
into
a
marvelous national monument. There also was an artist John Thornhill who decorated
the walls and ceiling of the splendid Painted Hall and was knighted for his twenty years
of work on this project. Records also show that Mr. Daniel Foe was contracted to supply
bricks for the building. He later became famous as Daniel Defoe, author of Robinson
Crusoe.
By 1714 the long-cherished ambition of Queen Mary was finally fulfilled, and old
and wounded sailors were being cared for, as were their widows and children. There
was a school for the teaching of writing, arithmetic and navigation.
The school is still open, but the hospital was closed in 1873 due to the changes in
patterns of war and the attitude of governments towards social responsibility so it so
happened that there was no need in such an establishment anymore – governmentfunded naval pensions established in this very year took over the role of the Hospital.
After the Hospital was closed, the buildings became the home of the National
Maritime Museum.
The Painted Hall is still used today for banqueting and is open to visitors. [19]
116
Bank of England
The Bank of England was
incorporated by act of Parliament in
1694 with the immediate purpose of
raising funds to allow the English
government to wage war against
France.
The Bank of England started in
Mercer’s Hall but soon moved to the
Grocer’s Hall and then, in 1724, to the private house of Sir John Houblon, head of the
bank. In 1732 it was decided to build a new bank building. The architect was George
Samson. From 1765-70 the bank was enlarged to the designs of Sir Robert Taylor.
In 1788 John Soane succeeded Sir Robert Taylor as architect and surveyor to the
Bank of England and was working there for the next 45 years. His salary was set at 5%
of the cost of any building works at the Bank, paid every six months. He was to make
significant changes to the bank. Soane would virtually rebuild the entire bank, and
vastly extend it. From 1788 to 1823 the new building increased in size to cover an area
of 3 acres as Soane added hall after hall – just a matter of prestige, halls that were much
larger than any action taking place there needed them to be.
The Bank became Soane’s most famous work. Sir Herbert Baker rebuilt the Bank,
destroying most of Soane’s earlier building. This act was considered by some
architectural historians to be one of modern architectural history’s greatest losses. [57]
Carlton House
Carlton House was a
mansion in London, best known
as the town residence of the
Prince
Regent
for
decades from 1783.
several
117
The Prince had the house largely rebuilt
by the architect Henry Holland between 1783
and 1796. At that time the Prince was in love
with “things French” so Henry Holland was
hired to remodel Carlton House in a French
neoclassic
style.
Celebrated
remodeling
exemplified Holland’s dignified neoclassicism.
Carlton House was his most significant
work, built on a slope, the north entrance front
on Pall Mall was of two floors, the south front overlooking the gardens and The Mall
was of three floors. The principal rooms were on the ground floor as entered on the
north front. The various floors were linked by the Grand Staircase – one of Holland’s
finest designs. [11]
Kenwood House
Kenwood House is a former stately home, in Hampstead, London. It was built by
Scottish architect Robert Adam in 1764.
In 1754 the house was purchased by William Murray, later to become the 1st Earl
of Mansfield. After ten years of living in Kenwood Murray decided to remodel the oldfashioned house and create a weekend villa for occasional entertaining. He
commissioned
who
then
Robert
was
the
Adam
most
fashionable architect in England.
Murray gave Adam almost free
reign at Kenwood, and the result
is one of 18th century England's
great examples of Georgian and
Neoclassical architecture.
Adam was restricted by the existing layout of the house and the presence of an
orangery at angles to the west end of the house. He remodeled the orangery and
118
balanced out the facade by creating a matching reception room on the east end of the
house. He raised the house by one story and added an imposing entrance portico.
Kenwood House is operated by English Heritage and is not only open for visitors
but also is used as a venue for regular events, including concerts and fireworks displays.
Nowadays it is considered one of London’s treasures. [37]
119
6.4 Check yourself
1. Georgian architecture was inspired by what?
a. Ancient Greece and Rome
b. The French Baroque
c. Medieval England
2. What building belongs to the design of Inigo Jones?
a. Bank of England
b. Greenwich Hospital
c. The Queens House
3. In 1788 John Soane became the surveyor of _______
a. Bank of Scotland
b. Greenwich Hospital
c. Bank of England
4. Henry Holland’s remodeling of Carlton House was highly inspired by ____style
a. French neoclassical
b. Baroque
c. Neo-Gothic
5. Who initially wanted to establish Greenwich Hospital?
a. William III
b. Queen Mary
c. Anne of Denmark
6. Robert Adam is _______ by origin
a. Scottish
b. Welsh
c. Irish
7. Which places you can visit today as a tourist? (Two variants are possible)
a. Painted Hall
b. Carlton House
c. Kenwood House
120
6.4.1 Keys
1.a
2.c
3.c
4.a
5.b
6.a
7.a, c
121
VII. VICTORIAN PERIOD
7.1 General characteristics of Victorian period and Victorian architectural style
The Victorian style derives from when Queen Victoria was reigning as monarch in
England (1837-1901). Victorian architecture isn't limited to one particular style. It is a
broad notion which describes the many various styles that appeared during Victoria's
63 years as queen. The Industrial Revolution made a change in society and influenced
the design of new buildings. Moreover, the expansion of the railroads allowed for
prefabricated items such as window glass, tiles, and granite to be shipped.
Several different styles emerged during this period. The most prominent ones
were Queen Anne, Classical, Gothic Revival, Arts and Crafts, Italianate, and
Romanesque.
7.1.1 Typical features
Despite numerous styles, there are some factors which stand out that Victorian
buildings share:

Buildings looked like dollhouses.

Houses have curlicue trims**.

Bright colours prevail.

Asymmetrical designs are the most common.

Most of the buildings were brick with large windows.

The majority of houses had balconies, fireplaces in every room, large interior
staircases, and porches.

In the urban areas rows of houses built together – in the United States they are
called townhouses – were being built.
122
Queen Anne
The Queen Anne style was popular from the
1870s to the early 1900s. This style can be
recognized by its asymmetrical fronts and towers.
Richard Norman Shaw was one of the primary
architects of this style. The buildings look slightly
medieval and
d have fancy ornamentation. One
example of Queen Anne architecture is the Old Swan
House built by Richard Norman Shaw in 1876 and
located in London.
Classical/Neoclassical
The classical, or neoclassical style of Victorian architecture reflects the influences
of ancient Greek and Roman architecture. These buildings were usually symmetrical
with columns. One example of neoclassical Victorian architecture is Witley Court
which is located in Worcestershire, England.
123
Gothic Revival
The
Gothic
Revival
style
of
Victorian
architecture
was the most popular
from the 1850s to the
1880s
in
England,
though it had been used
before Victoria’s reign.
John
Ruskin
was
a
prominent architect of this style. Gothic Revival was mostly used for churches and
some public government buildings such as the new Houses of Parliament because it was
influenced by the cathedrals of European countries like France. The new Houses of
Parliament were built in London starting in the 1840s until completion in the 1870s.
Arts and Crafts
Arts
and
Crafts
style gained its popularity
at the end of the 19th
century and fell out of
favor about twenty years
later. Architects of this
style rejected the premade
and machine like styles.
Instead they developed
their own unique designs.
They wanted their buildings to look more natural and fit in with their surroundings. One
example of Arts and Crafts is the Red House, built in 1859 by Philip Webb in
Bexleyheath, England.
124
Italianate
In the Italianate style,
the models and architectural
vocabulary of 16th-century
Italian
Renaissance
architecture
were
synthesised
with
picturesque aesthetics. The
Italianate style was first
developed in Britain about 1802 by John Nash, with the construction of Cronkhill in
Shropshire. This small country house is generally accepted to be the first Italianate villa
in England. The Italianate style was further developed and popularised by the architect
Sir Charles Barry in the 1830s.
Romanesque
Romanesque Revival (or Neo-Romanesque) is a style of building observed in the
mid-19th century inspired by the 11th- and 12th-century Romanesque architecture. Like
its influencing Romanesque style, the Romanesque Revival style was widely used for
churches, and sometimes for synagogues. [67]
125
7.2
The most famous architects of the period
Richard Norman Show
Richard Norman Show (7 May 1831 – 17 November 1912) was a British architect
and urban designer. Being an eclectic architect, Shaw worked in different styles be it
Gothic Revival or Neo-Baroque. Shaw’s elegant town houses rely primarily on his
individual adaptation of 18th-century styles that was called “Queen Anne.” The
publication of Shaw’s domestic designs carried his influence outside England and
played its role in the development of the American Shingle style. Shaw was also chosen
to design the castle-like New Scotland Yard building in Whitehall, London, which
opened in 1890. In the field of town planning, the garden suburb laid out by Shaw in
1876 at Bedford Park was the first of its kind and influenced the development of
suburban planning. [42]
John Ruskin
John Ruskin (8 February 1819 – 20 January 1900) was an English writer, artist
and critic. Ruskin wrote large volumes of criticism on architecture including “The
Seven Lamps of Architecture” and “The Stones of Venice”. “The Seven Lamps of
Architecture” elevates Gothic architecture above all others, and Ruskin criticizes the
materialistic perspective of architecture that developed due to the Renaissance
movement. In this book Ruskin provides several recommendations to revive Gothic
architecture. In “The Stones of Venice” Ruskin examines Venetian architecture through
a direct study of original buildings. He looks at how once exquisite buildings have
fallen into ruin because of neglect. Not only does the book examine Venetian
architecture, but it takes a hard look at social and political influences on architecture.
Ruskin insists that architecture is a direct expression of current social conditions. Thus,
he contributed immensely to the development of art and architecture, especially to the
Gothic Revival movement. [34]
Philip Webb
Philip Webb (12 January 1831 – 17 April 1915) was a British architect and
designer mostly known for his unconventional country houses. He was the first to
126
introduce the English domestic revival movement. Webb’s approach was fundamentally
practical, demanding respect for site, for local traditions, and for the client’s needs. His
highly original designs related to 20th-century Functionalism in their bold and frank use
of
materials
and
exposure
of
structural elements. Most of his
buildings were country houses but he
also designed London town houses.
Webb
also
furnishings
designed
and
household
decorative
accessories in metal, glass, wood, etc.
He is especially well-known for his
table glassware, stained glass**,
jewelry, and his adaptations of Stuart period furniture. [46]
John Nash
John Nash (18 January 1752 – 13 May 1835) was a British architect and city
planner. He was also a pioneer in the use of the Picturesque in architecture. In 1811
Nash was commissioned by Prince Regent to develop the farmland and the surrounding
areas. Now this area is known as Regent’s Park and Regent Street, a royal estate in
northern London. As the work in London continued, Nash took on other projects for the
Prince Regent, including the remodeling of Brighton Pavillion.
We can definitely say that John Nash helped to define the style of Victorian era.
Through his friendship with the Prince Regent, his influence on Regency art and
architecture cannot be denied. He worked in many architectural styles, from Gothic to
Italianate, Palladian, Greek, and picturesque. [33]
7.3
Buildings of the period
Crystal Palace
Crystal Palace, giant glass-and-iron exhibition hall in Hyde Park, London, that
housed the Great Exhibition of 1851.
127
In 1849 Prince Albert, husband
of Queen Victoria and president of the
Royal Society of Arts, conceived the
idea
of
exhibitors
inviting
to
international
participate
in
an
exposition. The exhibition opened in
the Crystal Palace on May 1, 1851.
The
Crystal
Palace
was
designed by Sir Joseph Paxton. He created a remarkable construction of prefabricated
parts. It consisted of an intricate network of slender iron rods sustaining walls of clear
glass.
More than
six
million
visitors attended the exhibition,
which was open to the public
until October 11. The event
showed a significant profit, and a
closing ceremony was held on
October
15.
Thereafter
the
building was taken down, and it
was rebuilt at Sydenham Hill in
Upper Norwood, overlooking London from the south where it survived until 1936 when
it was destroyed by fire.
The Crystal Palace established an architectural standard for later international
fairs and exhibitions that likewise were housed in glass conservatories. [14]
Manchester Town Hall
Manchester Town Hall is a Victorian, Neo-gothic municipal building in
Manchester, England. It is the ceremonial headquarters of Manchester City Council and
houses a number of local government departments.
128
It
was
designed
by
an
architect Alfred Waterhouse who in
1868 won the competition for the
Manchester
Town
Hall
and
demonstrated a firmer and more
original handling of the Gothic
manner.
The building exemplifies the
Victorian Gothic revival style of architecture, using themes and elements from 13thcentury Early English Gothic architecture. [1]
Palace of Westminster
The Palace of Westminster is the meeting place of the House of Commons and
the House of Lords, the two houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It owes
its stunning Gothic architecture to the 19th-century architect Sir Charles Barry.
The 1835 competition to redesign
the Palace was won by the Westminsterborn architect Charles Barry. Barry
turned for assistance in his drawings for
the competition to Augustus Welby
Pugin, a gifted 23-year-old Catholic
architect who had devoted himself
entirely
to
the
pursuit
of
Gothic
architecture.
During the construction of the Palace, Barry came to rely heavily on Pugin in the
execution of these plans. Indeed, it was Pugin who designed most of the Palace’s Gothic
interiors.
The design and layout of the building were carefully designed to serve the needs
and workings of Parliament. In particular, Barry placed the location of the Sovereign's
129
throne, the Lords Chamber and the Commons Chamber in a straight line, thus linking
the three elements of Parliament in continuous form.
The new Palace had an enormous effect on the imagination of the Victorian
public. It also had a significant influence on the subsequent design of various public
buildings such as town halls, law courts and schools throughout the country, and
internationally. [63]
John Rylands Library
The John Rylands Library is
a
late-Victorian
building
on
neo-Gothic
Deansgate
in
Manchester, England. The library,
which opened to the public in
1900, was founded by Enriqueta
Augustina Rylands in memory of
her
husband,
John
Rylands.
Enriqueta Rylands purchased a site
on Deansgate for her memorial
library in 1889 and commissioned a design from architect Basil Champneys.
The architectural style is primarily
neo-Gothic with elements of Arts and
Crafts Movement. It was designed to
resemble a church in a decorated neoGothic style with Arts and Crafts details.
[35]
130
Balmoral Castle
Balmoral Castle is
a large estate house in
Royal
Deeside,
Aberdeenshire, Scotland.
Balmoral has been one of
the
residences
for
members of the British
Royal Family since 1852.
The
architect
William
Smith
was
of
Aberdeen, although his designs were amended by Prince Albert.
Though called a castle, Balmoral’s primary function is that of a country house. It
is a “typical and rather ordinary” country house from the Victorian period. The sevenstory tower is an architectural feature borrowed from medieval defensive tower houses.
The castle is an example of Scottish baronial architecture. [5]
131
7.4
Check yourself
1. Even though William Morris was an architect, he did not build his Red House. His
friend _____ did.
a. Philip Webb
b. John Ruskin
c. John Nash
2. Victorian architecture refers to buildings built during the reign of Queen Victoria.
How long did she reign?
a. 50 years
b. 64 years
c. 63 years
3. Name two styles of Victorian architecture that were popular before Queen Victoria's
reign.
a. Queen Anne and Arts and Crafts
b. Gothic Revival and Italianate
c. Classical and Romanesque
4. The example of which architectural style is Witley Court
a.
Neoclassical Victorian architecture
b.
Arts and Crafts
c.
Italianate
5. What happened to Crystal Palace?
a.
It was bombed
b.
It fell into disrepair
c.
It was burnt
6. Where is John Rylands library situated?
a.
Aberdeenshire
b.
Manchester
c.
London
132
7. Who built Manchester Town Hall?
a.
Sir Joseph Paxton
b.
Augustus Welby Pugin
c.
Alfred Waterhouse
133
4.4.1 Keys
1.a
2.b
3.b
4.a
5.c
6.b
7.c
134
A LIST OF REALITIES
(marked as *)
Alberti, Leon Battista (Italian: [leˈon batˈtista alˈbɛrti]; 1404 –1472) was an
Italian humanist author, artist, architect, poet, priest, linguist, philosopher and
cryptographer; he epitomised the Renaissance Man. He is often characterized
exclusively as an architect.
Baedeker Blitz raids were a series of attacks by the Luftwaffe on English cities
during the Second World War.
Bronte sisters were Charlotte Brontë (1816-55), Emily Brontë (1818-48) and
Anne Brontë (1820-49), three British writers who lived most of their lives in Haworth, a
small village in Yorkshire, England.
Byron is known as an English nobleman, poet, peer, politician, and leading figure
in the Romantic movement. He is regarded as one of the greatest British poets and
remains widely read and influential.
Cardinal Wolsey (1473–1530) was an English churchman, statesman and a
cardinal of the Catholic Church. The highest political position Wolsey attained was
Lord Chancellor, the King's chief adviser.
Charles Dickens was an English writer and social critic. He created some of the
world's best-known fictional characters and is regarded by many as the greatest novelist
of the Victorian era. His works enjoyed unprecedented popularity during his lifetime,
and by the 20th century, critics and scholars had recognised him as a literary genius.
Charles II (1630 – 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland. He was
king of Scotland from 1649 until his deposition in 1651, and king of England, Scotland
and Ireland from the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 until his death.
Danish raids at the beginning of 8th century, pirates from Scandinavia and
Denmark began raiding the eastern shores of Britain. In the 9th century the country had
to struggle with the Danes. At first, they acted as pirates attacking the country &
robbing it, but later they came in larger numbers conquering one territory after another.
135
Duke Wilhelm is the Duke of Cleves (one of the German States) and a wealthy
member of the Protestant League. He is also brother to Anne of Cleves, fourth wife of
Henry VIII of England. His residence is the vast Swan Castle in western Germany.
Edward II was King of England from 1307 until he was deposed in January
1327. The fourth son of Edward I, Edward became the heir apparent to the throne
following the death of his older brother Alphonso. Beginning in 1300, Edward
accompanied his father on campaigns to pacify Scotland, and in 1306 he was knighted
in a grand ceremony at Westminster Abbey.
Edward IV was the King of England from 4 March 1461 to 3 October 1470, and
again from 11 April 1471 until his death. He was the first Yorkist King of England.
Edward VI (1537 –1553) was King of England and Ireland from 1547 until his
death. He was crowned at the age of nine. Edward was the son of Henry VIII and Jane
Seymour, and England's first monarch to be raised as a Protestant.
Elizabeth I (1533 –1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November
1558 until her death on 24 March 1603. Sometimes called The Virgin Queen, Gloriana
or Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth was the last monarch of the House of Tudor.
Henry VII (1457 –1509) was King of England and Lord of Ireland from seizing
the crown on 22 August 1485 until his death on 21 April 1509, and the first monarch of
the House of Tudor.
Henry VIII (1491 –1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death. Henry
was the second Tudor monarch, succeeding his father, Henry VII. Henry is best known
for his six marriages.
Holy orders are bands of troops that can be hired with piety to fight religious
enemies. Holy orders can also operate as independent rulers, constructing castles and
waging their own wars.
Inigo Thomas (1865 – 1950) was a trained architect, landscape designer and
author of “The Formal Gardens of England”, the publication of which, in 1862, resulted
in a number of large commissions from new owners of Tudor houses for restoring and
enlarging buildings and complementing them with 17th and 18th century gardens.
136
James I (1566 -1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and
King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English
crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625. The kingdoms of Scotland and
England were individual sovereign states, with their own parliaments, judiciaries, and
laws, though both were ruled by James in personal union.
King Henry also known as Henry Beauclerc, was King of England from 1100 to
his death. Henry was the fourth son of William the Conqueror and was educated in
Latin and the liberal arts. On William's death in 1087, Henry's elder brothers Robert
Curthose and William Rufus inherited Normandy and England, respectively, but Henry
was left landless. Henry purchased the County of Cotentin in western Normandy from
Robert, but William and Robert deposed him in 1091. Henry gradually rebuilt his power
base in the Cotentin and allied himself with William against Robert. Henry was present
when William died in a hunting accident in 1100, and he seized the English throne,
promising at his coronation to correct many of William's less popular policies. Henry
married Matilda of Scotland but continued to have a large number of mistresses by
whom he had many illegitimate children.
King Máel Coluim was a tenth-century King of Strathclyde. He was a younger
son of Dyfnwal ab Owain, King of Strathclyde, and thus a member of the Cumbrian
dynasty that had ruled the kingdom for generations.
Margaret de Clare, baroness Badlesmere was a Norman-Irish noblewoman,
suo jure heiress, and the wife of Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Baron Badlesmere.
She was arrested and subsequently imprisoned in the Tower of London for the duration
of a year from November 1321 to November 1322, making her the first recorded female
prisoner in the Tower's history.
Mary (1516-1558) was the Queen of England and Ireland from July 1553 until
her death. She is best known for her aggressive attempt to reverse the English
Reformation, which had begun during the reign of her father, Henry VIII. The
executions that marked her pursuit of the restoration of Roman Catholicism in England
and Ireland led to her denunciation as "Bloody Mary" by her Protestant opponents.
137
Michael Scot was a mathematician and scholar in the Middle Ages. He translated
Averroes and was the greatest public intellectual of his days.[1] He served as science
adviser and court astrologer to Frederick II.
Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658) was an English military and political leader. He
served as Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland from
1653 until his death, acting simultaneously as head of state and head of government of
the new republic.
Oscar Wilde was an Irish poet and playwright. After writing in different forms
throughout the 1880s, he became one of London's most popular playwrights in the early
1890s. He is best remembered for his epigrams and plays, his novel The Picture of
Dorian Gray.
Palladian architecture is a European style of architecture derived from and
inspired by the designs of the Venetian architect Andrea Palladio (1508-1580). That
which is recognised as Palladian architecture today is an evolution of Palladio’s original
concepts. Palladio's work was strongly based on the symmetry, perspective and values
of the formal classical temple architecture of the Ancient Greeks and Romans. From the
17th century Palladio’s interpretation of this classical architecture was adapted as the
style known as Palladianism. It continued to develop until the end of the 18th century.
Queen Eleanor of Castile was an English queen, the first wife of Edward I,
whom she married as part of a political deal to affirm English sovereignty over
Gascony.
Reginald Blomfield (1829-1899) was an English architect. He designed many
new buildings and worked on the restoration of old ones.
Rober Curthose was the Duke of Normandy from 1087 until 1106 and an
unsuccessful claimant to the throne of the Kingdom of England.
St Mary was the mother of Jesus.
The Accord of Winchester is the 11th-century document that establishes the
primacy of the Archbishop of Canterbury over the Archbishop of York. It originated in
a dispute over primacy between Thomas, the archbishop of York, and Lanfranc, the new
Norman archbishop of Canterbury, soon after the latter had taken office.
138
The Battle of Hastings was fought on 14 October 1066 between the NormanFrench army of William, the Duke of Normandy, and an English army under the AngloSaxon King Harold Godwinson, beginning the Norman conquest of England.
The Blitz was a German bombing offensive against Britain in 1940 and 1941,
during the Second World War.
The chapter of Liberties was a written proclamation by Henry I of England,
issued upon his accession to the throne in 1100. It sought to bind the King to certain
laws regarding the treatment of nobles, church officials, and individuals.
The Cluniac reform were a series of changes within medieval monasticism of
the Western Church focused on restoring the traditional monastic life, encouraging art,
and caring for the poor. The movement began within the Benedictine order at Cluny
Abbey, founded in 910 by William I.
The Dissolution of the Monasteries was the set of anti-Catholic administrative
and legal processes between 1536 and 1541 by which Henry VIII disbanded Roman
Catholic monasteries, priories, convents and friaries in England and Wales and Ireland,
appropriated their income, disposed of their assets, and provided for their former
personnel and functions.
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow
of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English
Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was
James's nephew and son-in-law. William's successful invasion of England with a Dutch
fleet and army led to his ascension to the throne as William III of England jointly with
his wife, Mary II, James's daughter, after the Declaration of Right, leading to the Bill of
Rights 1689.
The Great Fire of Warwick was a major conflagration that swept through the
small town of Warwick, England, beginning at 2:00 p.m. on 5 September 1694 and
lasting for six hours.
The Hundred Years War was a long-running struggle from 1337 to 1453
between two royal dynasties, the Plantagenets of England and the Valois of France, for
the throne of France.
139
The King Alfred was King of Wessex from 871 to 899. Alfred was the youngest
son of King Æthelwulf of Wessex. Taking the throne after the death of his brother
Æthelred, Alfred spent several years dealing with Viking invasions. After a decisive
victory in the Battle of Edington in 878 Alfred made an agreement with the Vikings,
creating what was known as Danelaw in the North of England.
The Magna Carta is a charter agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede,
near Windsor, on 15 June 1215. First drafted by the Archbishop of Canterbury to make
peace between the unpopular King and a group of rebel barons, it promised the
protection of church rights, protection for the barons from illegal imprisonment, access
to swift justice, and limitations on feudal payments to the Crown, to be implemented
through a council of 25 barons. Neither side stood behind their commitments, nor Pope
Innocent III, leading to the First Barons’ War, annulled the charter.
The Norman Conquest was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of
England by an army of Norman, Breton,Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke
William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror. William's claim to the
English throne derived from his familial relationship with the childless Anglo-Saxon
King Edward the Confessor.
The Order of the Garter is an order of chivalry founded by Edward III in 1348
and regarded as the most prestigious British order of chivalry (though in precedence
inferior to the military Victoria Cross and George Cross) in England and the United
Kingdom.
The rebellion of 1088 occurred after the death of William the Conqueror and
concerned the division of lands in the Kingdom of England and the Duchy of Normandy
between his two sons William Rufus and Robert Curthose. Hostilities lasted from 3 to 6
months starting around Easter of 1088.
The Roundheads were supporters of the Parliament of England during the
English Civil War. Also known as Parliamentarians, they fought against Charles I of
England and his supporters, the Cavaliers or Royalists, who claimed rule by absolute
monarchy and the divine right of kings. The goal of the Roundhead party was to give
the Parliament supreme control over executive administration.
140
The Rule of Arrouaise was the centre of a form of the Augustinian monastic
rule, the Arrouaisian Order, which was popular among the founders of abbeys during
the decade of the 1130s.
The Treaty of Brétigny in Calais was a treaty, drafted on 8 May 1360 and
ratified on 24 October 1360, between King Edward III of England and King John II of
France.
The Treaty of Troyes was an agreement that King Henry V of England and his
heirs would inherit the French crown upon the death of King Charles VI of France.
The Wars of the Roses were a series of English civil wars for control of the
throne of England fought between supporters of two English rival branches of the royal
House of Plantagenet: the House of Lancaster (associated with a red rose), and the
House of York (whose symbol was a white rose).
William I is known as William the Conqueror, was the first Norman King of
England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087. A descendant of Rollo, he was
Duke of Normandy (as William II) from 1035 onward. After a long struggle to establish
his power, by 1060 his hold on Normandy was secure, and he launched the Norman
conquest of England six years later. The rest of his life was marked by struggles to
consolidate his hold over England and his continental lands and by difficulties with his
eldest son.
William II Rufus is the third son of William the Conqueror, was King of
England from 1087 until 1100, with powers over Normandy, and influence in Scotland.
He was less successful in extending control into Wales. William is commonly known as
William Rufus (Rufus being Latin for ‘the Red’), perhaps because of his red-faced
appearance or, more likely, due to having red hair as a child that grew out in later life.
141
GLOSSARY
(marked as **)
Abundant /əˈbʌndənt/ - existing or available in large quantities.
Acanthus console /əˈkanθəs kənˈsəʊl/ - a piece of furniture designed to hold
something in the form of architectural decor of acanthus leaves.
Aesthetic /iːsˈθetɪk/ - relating to beauty or to the study of the principles of
beauty, especially in art.
Aisle /aɪl/ - a passage between rows of seats, for example in a church, theatre.
Altar-piece /ˈɔːltəpiːs / - a painting or other work of art designed to be set above
and behind an altar.
Apse /æps/ - an area with curved walls at the end of a building, usually at the the
east end of a church.
Arabesque /ˌærəˈbesk/ - is a form of artistic decoration consisting of "surface
decorations based on rhythmic linear patterns of scrolling and interlacing foliage,
tendrils" or plain lines, often combined with other elements. It usually consists of a
single design which can be 'tiled' or seamlessly repeated as many times as desired.
Ashlar stone /ˈaʃlə stəʊn/ - a square-hewn stone, esteemed as superior in strength
and form, for building purposes.
At the helm /helm/ - officially controlling an organization or company.
Attic /ˈætɪk/ - the room in a house under the roof.
Balustrade /ˌbæləˈstreɪd/ - a stone structure like a fence around the edge of a
balcony or other area higher than the ground.
Barbican /ˈbɑːbɪk(ə)n/ - an outer fortification of a city or castle.
Bay /beɪ/ - an area of a room that sticks out from the main walls of a house and
usually contains a window.
Bay window /beɪ ˈwɪndəʊ/ - a large window that sticks out from the main wall of
a house.
Blind arcade /blʌɪnd ɑːˈkeɪd/ - an arcade that is composed of a series of arches
that has no actual openings and that is applied to the surface of a wall as a decorative
element.
142
Broken pediment /ˈbrəʊkən ˈpedɪmənt/ - a decoration shaped like a triangle built
over the top of a door, window. In the broken pediment the raking cornice is left open at
the apex.
Buttress /ˈbʌtrəs/ - a structure made of brick or stone that sticks out from the wall
of a building to support it.
Buttress /ˈbʌtrɪs/ - a structure made of stone or brick that sticks out from and
supports a wall of a building.
Capital /ˈkæpɪt(ə)l/ - the decorated top part of a column (=tall stone post that
supports a building).
Carillon /ˈkarɪljən/ - a set of bells, usually hung in a tower.
Carved finials /kɑː(r)vd ˈfineəl/ - a carved crowning ornament or detail (such as
a decorative knob).
Carving /ˈkɑː(r)vɪŋ/ - an object, pattern, or piece of writing made by cutting
stone or wood.
Chapter house /ˈtʃaptə haʊs/ - a building or room that is part of a cathedral,
monastery or collegiate church in which larger meetings are held.
Charter /ˈtʃɑː.tər/ - a written grant by a country's legislative or sovereign power,
by which an institution such as a company, college, or city is created, and its rights and
privileges defined.
Chiaroscuro /kiˌɑːrəˈskjʊəroʊ/ - in art, is the use of strong contrasts between
light and dark, usually bold contrasts affecting a whole composition. It is also a
technical term used by artists and art historians for the use of contrasts of light to
achieve a sense of volume in modelling three-dimensional objects and figures.
Chimney /ˈtʃɪmni/ - the part of a chimney, often made of bricks, that you can see
on a roof.
Chronicler /ˈkrɒnɪk(ə)lə/ - a written record of historical events.
Clerestory /ˈklɪəˌstɔːri/ - is a high section of wall that contains windows above
eye level.
143
Cloister /ˈklɔɪstə/ - a covered stone passage around the four sides of a courtyard
(a square or rectangular space) especially in a religious building such as a church or
monastery.
Court masques /kɔːt mɑːsk/ - a dramatic entertainment of the 16th to 17th
centuries in England, consisting of pantomime, dancing, dialogue, and song, often
performed at court.
Diocese /ˈdʌɪəsɪs/ - an area controlled by a bishop.
Dome /dəʊm/ - is an architectural element that resembles the hollow upper half of
a sphere. A dome can rest upon a rotunda or drum, and can be supported by columns or
piers.
Drum /drʌm/ - is the upright part of a building on which a dome is raised.
Dungeon /ˈdʌn(d)ʒ(ə)n/ - an underground prison, especially in a castle.
Ecclesiastical /ɪˌkliːziˈæstɪk(ə)l/ - relating to a church.
Enclosure /ɪnˈkləʊʒə/ - an area surrounded by fences or walls.
Entablature /ɪnˈtablətʃə/ - a horizontal part in classical architecture that rests on
the columns and consists of architrave, frieze, and cornice.
Fleurs-de-lis /flœr də li/ (French: “lily flower”) - stylized emblem or device
much used in ornamentation and, particularly, in heraldry, long associated with the
French crown.
Flint stone /flɪnt stəʊn/ - a piece of shiny grey or black stone that is like glass.
Flushwork /flʌʃˈwɜːk/ - the decorative combination on the same flat plane of flint
and ashlar stone.
Folly /ˈfɒli/ - a costly ornamental building with no practical purpose, especially a
tower or mock-Gothic ruin built in a large garden or park.
Frieze /friːz/ - a narrow piece of decoration along a wall, either inside a room or
on the outside of a building just under the roof.
Gable /ˈɡeɪb(ə)l/ - the top part of a wall of a building just below the roof, that is
shaped like a triangle.
144
Gable roof /ˈɡeɪb(ə)l ruːf/ - consists of two roof sections sloping in opposite
directions and placed such that the highest, horizontal edges meet to form the roof ridge.
The design of this type of roof is achieved using rafters, roof trusses or purlins.
Giant order, also known as colossal order, is an order whose columns or
pilasters span two (or more) storeys. At the same time, smaller orders may feature in
arcades or window and door framings within the storeys that are embraced by the giant
order.
Gloriette /glɔrjɛt/ - a building in a garden erected on a site that is elevated with
respect to the surroundings.
Grotto /ˈɡrɒt.əʊ/ - a natural or artificial cave used by humans in both modern
times and antiquity, and historically or prehistorically. Naturally occurring grottoes are
often small caves near water. Sometimes, artificial grottoes are used as garden features.
Half-timbering /ˈhaftimbəriŋ/ constructed of wood framing with spaces filled
with masonry.
Hammerbeam roof /ˈhæmərˌbim ruːf/ is a decorative, open timber roof truss,
they are traditionally timber framed, using short beams projecting from the wall on
which the rafters land, essentially a tie beam which has the middle cut out.
Heraldic /həˈraldik/ - relating to heraldry, a system of designing and recording
the coats of arms of famous families.
Investiture /ɪnˈvɛstɪtʃə/ - a ceremony in which someone is given an official rank,
authority, power, etc.
Ionic column /aɪˈɒnɪk ˈkɒləm/ - a tall thick post used for supporting a roof or
decorating a building, made in the style of buildings in ancient Greece, with tall stone
posts that have round bases.
Land parcel /lænd ˈpɑːs(ə)l/ - area of land.
Lierne /lɪˈəːn/ - a rib of a Gothic vault.
Manor /ˈmænər/ - a large country house with lands; the principal house of a
landed estate.
Masonry /ˈmeɪs(ə)nri/ - the bricks and pieces of stone that are used to make a
building.
145
Misericord /mɪˈzɛrɪkɔːd/ - is a small wooden structure formed on the underside
of a folding seat in a church which, when the seat is folded up, is intended to act as a
shelf to support a person in a partially standing position during long periods of prayer.
Moulded /məʊldid/ - given a particular shape or form.
Mullion /ˈmʌljən/ - a piece of metal, wood, or stone used for separating the
pieces of glass in a window.
Nave /neɪv/ - the long central part of a church where people sit.
Opulence /ˈɒpjʊl(ə)ns/ - expensive and luxurious.
Orders /ˈɔːdərs/ - a formalized system of proportions. The major Greek classical
orders were Ionic, Doric, and Corinthian.
Overmantel
/ˈoʊvərˌmæn(t)l/- an ornamental structure (such as a painting)
above a mantelpiece.
Papal chaplain /ˈpeɪp(ə)l ˈtʃaplɪn/ – a pope.
Parapet /ˈpærəpɪt/ - a low wall at the edge of something high such as a bridge or
a roof.
Parish\parish church/ˈpærɪʃ/ - the main church or the only church in a parish, a
district that has its own church building and priest.
Pediment /ˈpedɪmənt/ - a decoration shaped like a triangle built over the top of a
door, window etc.
Picket fence /ˈpɪkɪt fɛns/ - a type of fence often used decoratively for domestic
boundaries, distinguished by their evenly spaced vertical boards, the pickets, attached to
horizontal rails.
Piers /pɪəz/ - strong thick columns used to support a wall, roof, or other structure.
Pilaster /pɪˈlæstə(r)/ - a flat column that is slightly further forward than the rest of
a wall, which is usually for decoration rather than for supporting something.
Pillars /ˈpɪləz/ - strong columns made of stone, metal, or wood that supports part
of a building.
Pointed arch /ˈpɔɪntɪd ɑːtʃ/ - is not merely a bold variation from the round, but it
admitted of millions of variations in itself; for the proportions of a pointed arch are
changeable to infinity, while a circular arch is always the same.
146
Porch /pɔːtʃ/ - a covered structure in front of the entrance to a building.
Quadrangle /ˈkwɒdraŋɡ(ə)l/ - a flat shape with four straight sides.
Portcullis /pɔː(r)tˈkʌlɪs/ (from the French porte coulissante, "sliding door") is a
heavy vertically-closing gate typically found in medieval fortifications, consisting of a
latticed grille made of wood, metal, or a combination of the two, which slides down
grooves inset within each jamb of the gateway.
Portico /ˈpɔː(r)tɪkəʊ/ - a structure with no sides that has a roof supported by
columns, usually built at the entrance to a building.
Pulpitum - a massive screen, most often constructed of stone, or occasionally
timber, that divides the choir.
Rectangular compartments /rɛkˈtaŋɡjʊlə kəmˈpɑːtm(ə)nt/ - square sections.
Rector /ˈrektər/ - a priest in charge of a parish (= area) in the Church of England.
Repercussion /riːpəˈkʌʃ(ə)n/ - the effect that an action, event, or decision has on
something, especially a bad effect.
Reredos /ˈrɪədɒs/ - a large altarpiece, a screen, or decoration placed behind the
altar in a church.
Rib-vaulted Ceiling /rɪb ˈvɒl.tɪd ˈsiːlɪŋ/ - the intersection of two to three barrel
vaults produces a rib vault or ribbed vault when they are edged with an armature of
piped masonry often carved in decorative patterns.
Rough surface /rʌf ˈsəːfɪs/- a surface texture.
Sanctuary /ˈsaŋ(k)tjʊəri/ - the most holy part of a religious building.
Sash window /sæʃ ˈwɪn.dəʊ/ – a window made of one or more movable panels,
or "sashes", that form a frame to hold panes of glass, which are often separated from
other panes by glazing bars. Although any window with this style of glazing is
technically a sash, the term is used almost exclusively to refer to windows where the
glazed panels are opened by sliding vertically, or horizontally.
Scaffolding /ˈskafəʊldɪŋ/ - a structure of metal poles and wooden boards put
against a building for workers to stand on when they want to reach the higher parts of
the building.
147
Screens passage - the passage at one end of the great hall of an English medieval
house or castle, and separated from it in a timber house by the spere.
Secular /ˈsekjʊlə(r)/ - not religious, or not connected with religion.
Semi-octagonal turret /ˈtʌrɪt/ - is a small half octagon tower that projects
vertically from the wall of a building .
Slender columns /ˈslɛndə ˈkɒləmz/ - Columns are said to be slender if its crosssectional dimensions are small compared with its length.
Spandrel, less often spandril or splaundrel, is the space between two arches or
between an arch and a rectangular enclosure.
Spire /spʌɪə/ - a tall, pointed structure on top of a building, especially on top of a
church tower.
Stained glass /steɪnd ˈɡlɑːs/ - in the arts, the coloured glass used for making
decorative windows and other objects through which light passes.
Steeple /ˈstiːpəl/- a pointed structure on the top of a church tower, a whole church
tower.
Stonemason /ˈstəʊnmɛɪs(ə)n/ - a person whose job it is to cut, prepare, and use
stone for building.
Surveyor /səˈveɪər/ - a person who surveys, especially one whose profession is
the surveying of land.
Tracery /ˈtreɪs(ə)ri/ - the stonework elements that support the glass in a Gothic
window.
Transept /ˈtransɛpt/ - either of the two side parts of a cross-shaped church that
are at an angle of 90 degrees to the main part.
Triforium /trʌɪˈfɔːrɪəm/ - shallow arched gallery within the thickness of an inner
wall, above the nave of a church or cathedral.
Vault /vɔːlt/ - a type of arch that supports a roof or ceiling, especially in a church
or public building, or a ceiling or roof supported by several of these arches.
Vernacular architecture
/və(r)ˈnækjʊlə(r)/ - architecture concerned with
domestic and functional rather than public or monumental buildings.
Wall sashes /wɔːl ˈsæʃɪz/ – translucent walls.
148
Wattle and daub /ˈwɒt(ə)l/ , /dɔːb/ - a substance used in the past for building
walls, consisting of wattle covered with clay.
Wooden huts /ˈwʊd(ə)n hʌts/- wooden house.
Wreath /riːθ/ - is an assortment of flowers, leaves, fruits, twigs, or various
materials that is constructed to resemble a ring.
Wrought-iron /rɔːt ˈaɪən/ - iron that can be bent into attractive shapes and used to
make gates, furniture, etc.
149
ЗАКЛЮЧЕНИЕ
Проделанная
нами
работа
позволяет
сделать
вывод
о
том,
что
лингвострановедческое пособие формирует базовые культурологические знания у
студентов «background knowledge», изучающих иностранный язык, которые
обеспечивают
коммуникативную
компетенцию,
адекватное
восприятие
иностранного собеседника и понимание оригинальных текстов. Ведь в
лингвострановедческом тематическом пособии заключены языковые единицы,
которые наиболее ярко отражают реалии и лексику.
Важно отметить, что мы старались сделать наше пособие содержательно
наполненным, опираясь на критерии содержательного плана учебных текстов:
1) Наше пособие содержит достаточное количество страноведческих
сведений;
2) Мы использовали только актуальные сведения;
3) Указывали хронологию исторических событий Великобритании;
4) У нас отсутствует перенасыщение незначительными фактами.
В
заключении
хотелось
бы
добавить,
что
лингвострановедческое
тематическое пособие, по своей природе, также ориентированно на задачи и
потребности изучения иностранных языков, потому что студентам при изучении
иностранного языка приходится сталкиваться с этнокультурными фактами,
которые становятся доступными, благодаря подобным пособиям. Усвоенные
знания о культуре, истории носителей иностранного языка способствуют
всестороннему усвоению навыков иноязычной коммуникации у студентов
высших учебных заведений.
150
СПИСОК ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ
1.
Alfred Waterhouse by the Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica: [Электронный
ресурс].
–
Режим
доступа:
https://www.britannica.com/biography/Alfred-
Waterhouse#ref944477. – Дата доступа: 07.05.2018
2.
Anne Hathaway’s Cottage [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа:
http://www.britainexpress.com/counties/warwickshire/az/Stratford/Anne-Hathaway.htm
- Дата доступа: 18.03.2018
3.
Athelhampton
House
[Электронный
ресурс].
–
https://www.thevintagenews.com/2017/11/28/athelhampton-house/’
Режим
доступа:
Дата
доступа:
29.04.2018
4.
Athelhampton
House
[Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа:
http://www.dorsetlife.co.uk/2011/04/athelhampton-house/ - Дата доступа: 29.04.2018
5.
Balmoral
Castle:
[Электронный
ресурс].
–
Режим
доступа:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balmoral_Castle. – Дата доступа: 07.05.2018
6.
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