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Блинова Е.П., Ларенкова А.С. Анализ аутентичных материалов и составление лингвострановедческого тематического пособия American architecture: 1500-1815

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АННОТАЦИЯ
Выпускная квалификационная работа на тему «Анализ аутентичных
материалов и составление лингвострановедческого тематического пособия
American architecture:1500-1815»
Год защиты: 2018
Направление подготовки 45.03.02. Лингвистика
Студент: Блинова Е.П. Ларенкова А.С.
Научный руководитель: кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры
английской филологии Александрова Анжелика Паруйровна
Объем ВКР: 215 стр.
Количество использованных источников: 53
Краткая характеристика ВКР: в данной выпускной квалификационной
работе рассматривается понятие «лингвострановедение»; разбираются основы
методологии, которые стали фундаментом данной дисциплины; рассматриваются
особенности текста в лингвострановедческом аспекте.
Методологическую основу исследования составляют диалектический метод
научного познания, общенаучные и частнонаучные методы теоретического
анализа.
По
результатам
проведенного
теоретического и практического характера.
исследования
сделаны
выводы
5
СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
Введение ………………………………………………………………………………10
Глава 1. Теоретические основы лингвострановедения …………………………….12
1.1.Определение лингвострановедения и его методологическая основа…............12
1.2. Цели, задачи, объект и предмет лингвострановедения…………………..…….14
1.3 Роль и место лингвострановедческого аспекта при обучении иностранным
языкам…………………………………………………………………...……………..15
Глава 2. Текст в лингвострановедческом рассмотрении…………………………...17
2.1. Прагматичные и проективные тексты…………………………………………..17
2.2.
Принципы
отбор
лингвострановедческих
учебных
текстов
и
их
адаптация……………………………………………………………...…………….....18
Глава 3. Лингвострановедческое тематическое пособие “American Architecture:
1500-1815”……………………………………………………………..………………20
3.1.
Описание
лингвострановедческого
тематического
пособия
“American
Architecture: 1500-1815”………………………………………………………………20
3.2. The Colonial Period 1500-1783…………………………………………………...22
3.2.1. First Period………………………………………………………………………24
3.2.1.1. A List of Realities……………………………………………….……………..25
3.2.1.2. Glossary………………………………………………………….…………….26
3.2.2. Fairnbanks House………………………………………………..…………….27
3.2.2.1.. A List of Realities…………………………………………….……………..29
3.2.2.2. Glossary……………………………………………………………………...30
3.2.3. Gedney and Cox Houses……………………………………………………….31
3.2.3.1. A List of Realities…………………………………………….……………….34
3.2.3. Glossary………………………………………………………..……………….35
3.3. French Colonial…………………………………………………….……………36
3.3.1. A List of Realities………………………………………………..…………….37
3.3.2. Glossary…………………………………………………………..……………39
6
3.3.3. Old Ursuline Convent…………………………………………….…………..40
3.3.3.1. A List of Realities…………………………………………………………....44
3.3.3.2. Glossary………………………………………………………………………45
3.3.4. Hotel St. Pierre…………………………………………………………….……47
3.3.4.1. A List of Realities………………………………………………………….....49
3.3.4.2. Glossary……………………………………………………………………….50
3.3.5. Louis Bolduc House…………………………………………………………….51
3.3.5.1. A List of Realities……………………………………………………………..54
3.3.5.2. Glossary………………………………………………………………………55
3.3.6. In Canada………………………………………………………………………..57
3.3.6.1. A List of Realities……………………………………………………………..58
3.3.6.2. Glossary……………………………………………………………………….59
3.3.7. Old Quebec……………………………………………………………………..61
3.3.7.1. A List of Realities…………………………………………………………….65
3.3.7.2. Glossary……………………………………………………………….………68
3.3.8. The Manoir Boucher-De Niverville……………………………………………..69
3.3.8.1. A List of Realities……………………………………………………………..71
3.3.8.2. Glossary…………….…………………………………………………………72
3.3.9. Chateau Ramezay………………………………………………………………..73
3.3.9.1. A List of Realities……………………………………………………………75
3.3.9.2. Glossary……………………………………………………………………….76
3.4. Spanish Colonial………………………………………………………………….77
3.4.1. A List of Realities………………………………………………………………..79
3.4.2. Glossary………………………………………………………………………….80
3.4.3. The Historic Gonzalez- Avarez House…………………………………………..82
3.4.3.1. A List of Realities……………………………………………………………..83
3.4.3.2. Glossary………………………………………………………………………..84
3.4.5. Castillo De San Marcos………………………………………………………….85
3.4.5.1. A List of Realities……………………………………………………………..87
3.4.5.2. Glossary………………………………………………………………………..88
7
3.5. Dutch Colonial…………………………………………………………………….90
3.5.1. A List of Realities…………………………………………………………….....91
3.5.2. Glossary…………………………………………………………………………92
3.5.3. Bronck House………………………………………………………………….93
3.5.3.1. A List of Realities……………………………………………………………95
3.5.3.2. Glossary……………………………………………………………………...96
3.6. German Colonial…………………………………………………………………97
3.6.1. A List of Realities……………………………………………………………….98
3.6.2. Glossary………………………………………………………………………..99
3.6.3. Schifferstadt Architectural Museum…………………………………………..100
3.6.1. A List of Realities………………………………………………………………101
3.6.2. Glossary………………………………………………………………………..102
3.6.4. Byers Muma House……………………………………………………………103
3.6.4.1. A List of Realities……………………………………………………………104
3.6.4.2. Glossary……………………………………………………………………..105
3.7. Mid-Atlantic Colonial……………………………………………………………106
3.7.1. A List of Realities……………………………………………………………..107
3.7.2. Glossary……………………………………………………………………….108
3.7.3. Hammond-Harwood House…………………………………………………..109
3.7.3.1. A List of Realities……………………………………………………………112
3.7.3.2. Glossary……………………………………………………………………..113
3.8. Colonial Georgian Architecture…………………………………………………115
3.8.1. A List of Realities……………………………………………………………..116
3.8.2. Glossary……………………………………………………………………….117
3.8.3. Crowninshield-Bentley House……………………………………………….118
3.8.3.1. A List of Realities…………………………………………………………..119
3.8.3.2. Glossary……………………….……………………………………………120
3.8.4. Hawkes House…………………………………………………………………121
3.8.4.1. A List of Realities……………………………………………………………123
3.8.4.2. Glossary……………………………………………………………………..124
8
3.8.5. Pierce-Nichols House…………………………………………………………125
3.8.5.1. A List of Realities…………………………………………………………..126
3.8.5.2. Glossary…………………………………………………………………….127
3.9. Federal Architecture…………………………………………………………….128
3.9.1. A List of Realities……………………………………………………………..131
3.9.2. Glossary……………………………………………………………………….132
3.9.2. Representatives………………………………………………………………..133
3.9.2.1. Charles Bulfinch…………………………………………………………….133
3.9.2.1.1. A List of Realities………………………………………………………...139
3.9.2.1.2. Glossary…………………………………………………………………..141
3.9.2.2. Thomas Jefferson…………………………………………………………..142
3.9.2.2.1. A List of Realities………………………………………………………..145
3.9.2.2.2. Glossary………………………………………………………………….146
3.9.2.3. James Hoban……………………………………………………………….147
3.9.2.3.1. A List of Realities………………………………………………………...151
3.9.2.3.2. Glossary…………………………………………………………………..152
3.9.2.4. Asher Benjamin…………………………………………………………….153
3.9.2.4.1. A List of Realities………………………………………………………...156
3.9.2.4.2. Glossary…………………………………………………………………..158
3.9.2.5. Benjamin Henry Boneval Latrobe …………………………………………159
3.9.2.5.1. A List of Realities………………………………………………………...163
3.9.2.5.2. Glossary…………………………………………………………………..164
3.9.2.6. Minard Lafever……………………………………………………………..165
3.9.2.6.1. A List of Realities………………………………………………………...170
3.9.2.6.2. Glossary…………………………………………………………………..172
3.9.2.7. Pierre Charles L’Entant…………………………………………………….173
3.9.2.7.1. A List of Realities………………………………………………………...176
3.9.2.7.2. Glossary…………………………………………………………………..177
3.9.2.8. Samuel McIntire……………………………………………………………178
3.9.2.8.1. A List of Realities………………………………………………………...181
9
3.9.2.8.2. Glossary…………………………………………………………………..182
3.9.2.9. Robert Mills…………………………………………………………………183
3.9.2.9.1. A List of Realities…………………………………………………………186
3.9.2.9.2. Glossary…………………………………………………………………..187
3.9.2.10. Alexander Parris…………………………………………………………..188
3.9.2.10.1. A List of Realities……………………………………………………….192
3.9.2.10.2. Glossary…………………………………………………………………193
3.9.2.11. Dr. William Thornton……………………………………………………..194
3.9.2.11.1. A List of Realities……………………………………………………….198
3.9.2.11.2. Glossary…………………………………………………………………199
3.9.2.12. William Strickland………………………………………………………...200
3.9.2.12.1. A List of Realities……………………………………………………….204
3.9.2.12.2. Glossary…………………………………………………………………205
3.9.2.13. Ammi Burnham Young……………………………………………………206
3.9.213.1. A List of Realities…………………………………………………………209
3.9.2.13.2. Glossary………………………………………………………………….210
Заключение…………………………………………………………………………..211
Список литературы…………………………………………………………………212
10
ВВЕДЕНИЕ
В наши дни изучение английского языка становится неотъемлемой частью
действительности современных профессионалов. С началом глобализации и
расширением сетей международного сотрудничества английский язык вышел на
передовые позиции по степени востребованности, именно поэтому знакомство с
ним начинается еще с начальных классов. Вскоре стало понятно, что
всестороннее знакомство с иностранным языком может быть осуществлено
только при параллельном рассмотрении культурной среды, в которой данный
язык функционирует. В 70-х годах двадцатого века Е.М. Верещагин и В.Г.
Костомаров
написали
работу,
посвященную
важности
фоновых
культурологических знаний при изучении иностранных языков. Впервые этими
авторами в лексический оборот было введено слово «лингострановедение».
Сегодня этот термин прочно вошел в лингвистическую сферу, а специалисты и
преподаватели
иностранного
языка
подчеркивают
особую
важность
лингвострановедения и необходимость его изучения.
Работа
с
пособиями
по
лингвострановедению
становится
важной
составляющей занятий как в школах, так и в высших учебных заведениях. Многие
пособия содержат в себе списки реалий и глоссарии для лучшего понимания
прорабатываемого материала. Составление такого пособия является главной
целью данной квалификационной работы.
Для достижения цели были поставлены нижеследующие задачи:
1) изучение лингвострановедения как отрасли лингводидактики, его целей,
задач и его роли при изучении иностранного языка;
2) анализ материалов, относящихся к теме американской архитектуры от
колониального периода до конца федерального периода
3) составление глоссария и списка реалий, прилагающихся к каждой
отдельной главе пособия;
11
4) структурирование
и
упорядочивание
отобранного
материала
и
непосредственное составление пособия «American architecture: 15001815».
Объектом данного исследования выступает лингвострановедение как
отрасль лингвистики. В роли предмета исследования выступают правила и
принципы отбора и описания лексики при составлении пособия, включающего в
себя лингвострановедческий словарь.
В дальнейшем эта квалификационная работа может послужить наглядным
учебным пособием как для студентов факультета иностранных языков, так и для
людей, интересующихся американской архитектурой и изучающих английский
язык. Подробные списки реалий и словари в конце главы помогут читателю легко
ориентироваться в текстах.
Выпускная
квалификационная работа
состоит из двух
частей:
из
теоретической и практической. В теоретическую часть входят введение, две главы
(«Теоретические
основы
лингвострановедения»
и
«Текст
в
лингвострановедческом рассмотрении»), заключение и список литературы. В
практической части содержится само пособие «American architecture: 1500-1815» с
описанием самых известных архитекторов указанного периода и их выдающихся
архитектурных произведений, списком реалий и глоссарием, следующими после
каждой отдельной главы.
Практическая значимость данной работы состоит в том, что в дальнейшем
это пособие может послужить отличным помощником для студентов, желающих
расширить свои знания в области архитектуры США.
12
ГЛАВА 1. ТЕОРЕТИЧЕСКИЕ ОСНОВЫ ЛИНГВОСТРАНОВЕДЕНИЯ
1.1.
ОПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕ ЛИНГВОСТРАНОВЕДЕНИЯ И ЕГО
МЕТОДОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ ОСНОВЫ
В связи с продолжающейся гуманитаризацией образования педагоги
занимаются разработкой и исследованием методов, которые помогают поднять
качество образования на новый уровень. Специфика преподавания иностранного
языка теперь включает в себя не только изучение базовых правил грамматики и
структуры языка, но также предполагает знакомство с культурой, традициями и
национальными особенностями народов, говорящих на нем. Необходимость
изучения лингвострановедения как отдельной дисциплины была отмечена
многими преподавателями иностранных языков, так как коммуникативная
компетенция является одной из составляющих успешной межкультурной
коммуникации. Давайте дадим определение термину «лингвострановедени»
прежде чем мы продолжим разбор темы.
Лингвострановедение – направление в лингвистике и лингводидактике,
сочетающее в себе элементы лингвистики (раскрытие семантики языковых
единиц)
с
элементами
страноведения
(изучение
реалий
страны
через
обозначающие их слова).
Как пишет Г.Д. Томахин, «знакомство с культурой страны изучаемого языка
было одной из главных задач еще со времен античности». Томахин подчеркивает,
что в наши дни этот тезис как никогда актуален, и изучение иностранных языков
сегодня требует дополнительного освещения и комментирования.[1]
Очень важно не только научить человека понимать иностранную речь, но и
воспроизводить ее, а это может быть достигнуто через ознакомление с этикетом,
культурой общения в стране и многих других фоновых знаний.
Маслова В.А, в своей работе «Лингвокультурология», пишет, что проблема
соотношения и взаимосвязи языка, культуры, этноса есть междисциплинарная
проблема, решение которой возможно только усилиями нескольких наук – от
13
философии и социологии до этнолингвистики и лингвокультурологии. «Язык
теснейшим образом связан с культурой: он прорастает в нее, развивается в ней и
выражает ее. Если традиционный способ осмысления проблемы взаимодействия
языка и культуры заключается в попытке решить лингвистические задачи,
используя некоторые представления о культуре», то есть и способы, «с помощью
которых язык воплощает в своих единицах, хранит и транслирует культуру». [2]
Впервые сам термин «лингвострановедение» был использован в 1971 г.
После выхода книги Е.М. Верещагина и В.Г. Костомарова «Язык и культура». По
словам авторов, «под этим термином следует понимать такую организацию
изучения языка, благодаря которой школьники знакомятся с настоящим и
прошлым народа, с его национальной культурой через посредство языка и в
процессе овладения им». [4]
Как пишут авторы далее, содержанием лингвострановедения является
«культура страны изучаемого языка, превращенная в предмет методики
преподавания этого языка, или, точнее, в предмет соизучения при изучении этого
языка» (Верещагин Е.М., Костомаров В.Г.) то есть в интерпретации Е.М.
Верещагина
и
культуроведение
В.Г.
Костомарова
ориентированное
лингвострановедение
на
задачи
и
понимается
потребности
как
изучения
иностранных языков. Авторы подчеркивают тот факт, что лингвострановедение
отличается от иных культурно-ориентированных дисциплин тем, что имеет
«филологическую основу», то есть, осуществляется только в процессе изучения
иностранного языка.
А теперь рассмотрим методологическую основу лингвострановедения.
Первая методика – обществоведческая,
она используется географами и
историками (по базовому образованию – обществоведы, которым приходится
вести
курс
страноведческих
лекций).
Сочетание
в
преподавании
1)
страноведческого материала, 2) обществоведческой методики обычно называется
термином – общее страноведение. Преподавание страноведческого материала с
помощью обществоведческой методики – это общестрановедческий учебный
процесс.
14
Вторая методика – филологическая, используемая по большей мере
учителями русского языка и литературы. Такая методика обычно задействована
на уроках языка. Процесс преподавания страноведческого материала через
лингвистическую
методику
называется
линговстрановедческим
учебным
процессом.
Основное
различие
данных
методик
заключается
в
том,
что
лингвострановедческие материалы неотделимы от изучаемого языка. В них сам
язык выступает предметом исследования истории и культуры.
Таким образом, учебный материал в страноведении и лингвострановедении
совпадают. Различия в приёмах и способах преподавания, закрепления и
активизации этого материала. И филологи, и обществоведы знакомят изучающего
русский язык с современной российской действительностью.
1.2. ЦЕЛИ, ЗАДАЧИ, ОБЪЕКТ И ПРЕДМЕТ
ЛИНГВОСТРАНОВЕДЕНИЯ
Целью изучения страноведения является обеспечение коммуникативной
компетенции в актах межкультурной коммуникации, через адекватное понимание
аутентичных текстов и речи собеседника.
Главная задача лингвострановедения – изучение тех языковых единиц,
которые наиболее ярко отражают аспекты и особенности культуры людей,
говорящих на изучаемом языке. К этим единицам относятся:
1) Реалии – предметы или явления материальной культуры, особенности
этносов, исторические процессы или факты, не имеющие эквивалентов в других
языках и требующие отдельного рассмотрения.
2) Коннотативная лексика – слова, имеющие субъективный характер, в них
отражается оценочное суждение о людях и явлениях, в отношении которых эти
единицы употребляются. Обычно они совпадают по общему значению, но имеют
различные культурно – исторические ассоциации.
15
3) Фоновая лексика – значения различных предметов или явлений,
имеющих эквиваленты в других культурах, но различающихся особенностями
функционирования, предназначения.
Лингвострановедение имеет свой объект. По мнению В.Г. Томахина им
являются фоновые знания, которые имеют представители той или иной
этнической общности.
Верещагин
Е.М.
лингвострановедения
и
Костомаров
являются
факты
В.Г. считают,
языка,
что
отражающие
предметом
особенности
национальной культуры, но, в отличие от других культуроведческих предметов,
лингвострановедение связано с филологией, так как действует оно только в
процессе изучения языка. [4]
В.А. Маслова считает, что предмет лингвострановедения – это анализ
значений языковых единиц в общем комплексе представлений этноса об
обозначаемых ими предметах, явлениях или категориях на фоне своего
культурно-исторического наследия. [2]
Таким образом, важно сразу обозначить все вышеперечисленные тезисы,
чтобы
сформировать
у
учащихся
представление
о
том,
что
такое
лингвострановедение и почему оно требует нашего внимания, ведь сообщение
знаний о культуре, истории, реалиях и традициях способствует воспитанию
позитивного отношения к иностранным языкам и прививает уважение к культуре
других людей.
1.3 РОЛЬ И МЕСТО ЛИНГВОСТРАНОВЕДЧЕСКОГО АСПЕКТА ПРИ
ОБУЧЕНИИ ИНОСТРАННЫМ ЯЗЫКАМ
Как уже было упомянуто выше, богатый культурологический фон помогает
учащимся
эффективнее
пользоваться
иностранными
языками,
позволяет
обогатить словарный запас и украсить речь за счет включения в нее различных
идиом, фразеологизмов и фразовых глаголов. Все это также облегчает трудности
16
при переходе непосредственно к переводческой деятельности.
В процессе обучения лингвострановедению у обучающихся формируется
понятие об узусе – наилучшем способе выражения, соотнесенным с условиями
коммуникации.
Современное образование требует постоянного совершенствования методик
преподавания, заставляет учителей искать новые пути мотивации учеников. Для
этого преподаватели стараются сделать свой материал как можно более
информативным, обогатить его интересными фактами и подбирать именно те
учебники, которые помогают сформировать у учащегося представление о
культуре разных этносов. Нет сомнения, что все эти нововведения помогают
мотивировать учащихся, ведь основным критерием мотивации в данной ситуации
является желание расширить свой общий кругозор и как можно обширнее понять
быт и образ жизни людей разных стран. Отсюда мы видим, что реализовать
языковой потенциал в полной мере можно лишь добавив лингвострановедческий
аспект к учебному плану.
Итак, лингвострановедение полностью оправдывает себя с начальных
стадий обучения иностранным языкам и дает возможность формирования у
школьников
и
студентов
специальных
фоновых
знаний,
помогающих
соприкоснуться с географией, литературой и искусством другой страны. При
включении лингвострановедения к программе обучения важно помнить, что
наилучший результат в усвоении материала может быть достигнут при
использовании разных аутентичных источников. Ими могут быть литературные и
музыкальные произведения, иллюстрации и другие предметы настоящей
действительности, которые помогут учащемуся приблизиться к естественной
культурологической среде.
17
ГЛАВА 2. ТЕКСТ В ЛИНГВОСТРАНОВЕДЧЕСКОМ
РАССМОТРЕНИИ.
В обыденном языке термин «текст» понимается не так, как в лингвистике и
лингводидактике.
В
обиходном
представлении
текст
–
это
письменно
зафиксированная речь, в то время, как с точки зрения лингвистики, текст – это
любое речевое произведение в устном, либо письменном виде. Текст должен
обязательно относиться к реальности, т.е. быть предикативным. На основе этого
можно сделать вывод, что любой текст является предикативным высказыванием.
Предикативность обеспечивает сообщение новой информации, на основе чего
решается
одна
из
важнейших
задач
современного
преподавания
–
коммуникативность. [3]
2.1. ПРАГМАТИЧНЫЕ И ПРОЕКТИВНЫЕ ТЕКСТЫ.
Новая
информация
может
быть
выражена
либо
прямо,
точно
и
недвусмысленно, либо косвенно, через указания на близкие факты и явления.
Прагматический текст – это рационально-логическое, прямое речевое
высказывание, не требующее умозаключения для своего понимания. Если же
речевая интенция представляет собой посылку, а не вывод умозаключения и
связана с чем-то не прямым с предметом речи, то такой текст называется
проективным.
Необходимо уметь различать эти два типа текстов, так как они очень
существенны с позиции лингвострановедения. В процессе аккультурации текст
играет главную роль, так как новая для иностранца информация содержится в
печатных источниках.
Так, например, справочная, научная и учебная литература полностью
построена на прагматических текстах. [3]
18
2.2. ПРИНЦИПЫ ОТБОРА ЛИНГВОСТРАНОВЕДЧЕСКИХ
УЧЕБНЫХ ТЕКСТОВ И ИХ АДАПТАЦИЯ.
При отборе текстов для составления пособий следует учитывать тот факт,
что тексты не только несут знания, но и формируют мировоззрение и активное
отношение к действительности, т.е. выполняют воспитательную функцию.
Необходим тщательный отбор текстов, богатых страноведческим фоном, что
обеспечивает коммуникацию, а также таких текстов, которые дадут нужную
мотивацию для изучения и вызовут положительные эмоции к стране изучаемого
языка.
Каждый текст оценивается с языковой и познавательно-воспитательной
точек зрения. Е.М. Верещагин и В.Г. Костомаров считают учебно-методическую
целесообразность высшим критерием оценки содержательного плана учебных
текстов. Этот руководящий критерий распадается на четыре более конкретных.
1) Содержательная ценность текста определяется его страноведческим
наполнением. Чем больше страноведческой информации содержит текст, тем
больше его содержательная ценность.
2) Страноведческая
ценность
текста
определяется
степенью
его
современности. Только актуальная информация считается пригодной для
обучения.
3) Принцип актуального историзма. В содержание учебника следует
включать исторические сведения, которые известны всем носителям языка,
помогающие лучше понять культуру стран изучаемого языка.
4) Требование типичности отражаемых фактов. Не следует включать в
текст учебника редкие явления, не типичные для стран изучаемого языка.
Эти критерии делают учебник страноведчески ценным, если они
реализуются в комлексе.
В процессе создания пособий и учебников для повышения учебной
отдачи все тексты должны проходить процесс адаптации. Все тексты проходят
19
языковую адаптацию, которая приближает текст оригинала к уровню
языковой компетенции обучающихся, и лингвострановедческую адаптацию,
при которой выявляются трудности, связанные с усвоением страноведческой
информации в тексте. Благодаря лингвострановедческой информации, можно
создавать тексты, разные по степени адаптации. [4]
20
ГЛАВА 3. ЛИНГВОСТРАНОВЕДЧЕСКОЕ ТЕМАТИЧЕСКОЕ
ПОСОБИЕ «AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE:1500–1815»
3.1. ОПИСАНИЕ ЛИНГВОСТРАНОВЕДЧЕСКОГО
ТЕМАТИЧЕСКОГО ПОСОБИЯ «AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE:1500–1815».
Целью
данной
квалификационной
работы
является
составление
лингвострановедческого тематического пособия «American Architecture:15001815».
Данное
пособие
содержит
необходимые
сведения
культурно-
страноведческого характера, которые помогают расширить знания в этой области,
избежать ошибок при переводе соответствующих текстов и предупредить и
устранить лингвострановедческую интерференцию.
Создание пособия потребовало, прежде всего, знакомства со значительным
количеством тематической информации, из которой, с помощью аутентичных
материалов, была выбрана только актуальная.
При составлении данного лингвострановедческого пособия за основу были
взяты самые лучшие стороны пособий: краткость и доступность изложения,
список реалий и глоссарий, иллюстрации.
Лингвострановедческое тематическое пособие «American Architecture:15001815» разделено на главы, что значительно облегчает ознакомление и работу с
материалом:
1.
The First Period
2.
French Colonial
3.
Spanish Colonial
4.
Dutch Colonial
5.
German Colonial
6.
Mid – Atlantic Colonial
7.
Colonial Georgian architecture.
8.
Federal Period
21
Каждая часть содержит краткое описание архитектурного периода, самых
выдающихся работ и архитекторов. В конце каждой главы приведен список
реалий (the list of realities), которые помечены знаком «*», и список трудных для
чтения и понимая слов (glossary), помеченных знаком «**».
При
составлении
данного
пособия
были
использованы
различные
аутентичные материалы, что позволило передать подлинную информацию об
архитектуре колониального периода, знаменитых архитекторах данного периода и
их выдающихся работах.
Пособие составлено для студентов и преподавателей, интересующихся
культурой, историей и архитектурой США.
22
3.2. THE COLONIAL PERIOD 1500-1783
The pilgrims weren't the only people to settle in what we now call Сolonial
Period. Between 1600 and 1800, men and women poured in from many parts of the
world, including Germany, France, Spain, and Latin America. Families brought their
own cultures, traditions, and architectural styles. New homes in the New World were as
diverse as the incoming population.
Using locally available materials, America's colonists built what they could and
tried to meet the challenges posed by the climate and landscape of the new country.
They constructed the types of homes they remembered, but they also innovated and, at
times, learned new building techniques from Native Americans. As the country grew,
these early settlers developed not one, but many, uniquely American styles. [5]
American colonial architecture includes several building design styles
associated with the colonial period of the United States, including First Period English
(late – medieval), French Colonial, Spanish Colonial, Dutch Colonial, and Georgian.
These styles are associated with the houses, churches and government buildings of the
period from about 1600 through the 19th century.
Several relatively distinct regional styles of colonial architecture are recognized
in the United States. Building styles in the 13 colonies were influenced by techniques
and styles from England, as well as traditions brought by settlers from other parts of
Europe. In New England, 17th century colonial houses were built primarily from wood,
following styles found in the southeastern counties of England. Saltbox style homes and
Cape Cod style homes were some of the simplest of homes constructed in the New
England colonies. The Saltbox homes known for their steep roof among the back the
house made for easy construction among colonists. The Cape Cod style homes were a
common home in the early 17th of New England colonists, these homes featured a
simple, rectangular shape commonly used by colonists. Dutch Colonial structures, built
primarily in the Hudson River Valley, Long Island, and northern New Jersey, reflected
23
construction styles from Holland and Flanders and used stone and brick more
extensively than buildings in New England. In Maryland, Virginia, and the Carolinas, a
style called "Southern Colonial" is recognized, characterized by the hall and parlor and
central-passage house types, which often had large chimneys projecting from the gableends of the house. In the Delaware Valley, Swedish colonial settlers introduced the log
cabin to America. A style sometimes called Pennsylvania colonial appeared later (after
1681) and incorporates Georgian architectural influences. A Pennsylvania Dutch style is
recognized in parts of southeastern Pennsylvania that were settled by German
immigrants in the 18th century.
Early buildings in some other areas of the United States reflect the architectural
traditions of the colonial powers that controlled these regions. The architectural style of
Louisiana is identified as French colonial, while the Spanish colonial style evokes
Renaissance and Baroque styles of Spain and Mexico; in the United States it is found in
Florida, Louisiana, New Mexico, Texas, Arizona, and California. [6]
24
3.2.1. FIRST PERIOD
In colonial American architecture* and design, the First Period* was the time
period of approximately 1626 through 1725. There are more houses constructed by
America's earliest settlers in Essex County, Massachusetts* than anywhere else in the
country. Its successor is the Colonial Georgian Period*.
Among other characteristics, First Period houses have a steeply pitched roof**; a
slightly asymmetrical plan**; and a central chimney**. The first period house is
distinguished from later houses by its exposed (often decorated or chamfered**) frame
in the interior. Some early windows in modest** houses may have had no glazing**,
but the standard first period window, until at least 1700, was the diamond-paned
casement**. No example of this type of window survives in situ**; all current examples
date to (at the very earliest) the late 19th century. Multiple-light, sliding sash
windows** started to appear around 1700, and by about 1750 had supplanted the earlier
type. [7]
25
3.2.1.1.
A LIST OF REALITIES(MARKED ‘*’ IN THE TEXT)
Colonial American Architecture – is architecture which associated with
Colonial Period of the United States.
The First Period – is the time period (1626-1725) of American Colonial
architecture.
Essex County, Massachusetts – is a county in the northeastern part of the United
States state of Massachusetts.
Colonial Georgian Period – is the time period of American Colonial architecture
developed after about 1675.
26
3.2.1.2.
GLOSSARY(MARKED ‘**’ IN THE TEXT)
pitched roof /pɪtʃt ruːf/ – is a roof structure where the roof is sloping and not
flat.
asymmetrical plan /eɪ·sɪˈme·trɪ·kəl plæn/ – is a house geometry when the house
parts have not the same size or shape.
central chimney /ˈsen.trəl ˈtʃɪm.ni/ – a hollow structure, often massive in size,
located in the middle of a house to provide heat for the entire house.
chamfered /ˈʃæm.fərt/ – the same as pitched ( sloping, not flat).
modest /ˈmɒd.ɪst/– not expensive, not large in amount or size.
glazing /ˈɡleɪ.zɪŋ/– is the glass used for windows.
diamond-paned casement windows /ˈdaɪə.mənd peɪnt ˈkeɪ.smənt ˈwɪn.dəʊz/ –
are the windows which are hinged on the side and opened like a door.
in situ /ɪn ˈsɪtʃ.uː/ – when the object is at its original location.
sliding sash windows /slaɪdɪŋ sæʃ ˈwɪn.dəʊz/ – are the windows which consist
of two frames placed one above the other.
27
3.2.2. FAIRBANKS HOUSE (DEDHAM, MASSACHUSETTS)
The Fairbanks House* is the oldest known wooden structure in North America.
Tree ring dating** shows that the house was built between 1637 and 1641,
with parts of the house most likely livable within the first year.
The House is listed in the National Register of Historic Places*.
In 1633 the Fairbanks family came to America from Halifax* in the West Riding
of Yorkshire, England. Prior to moving into the house built for Jonathan, Grace and
their six children, the family lived for several years in Watertown, Massachusetts*.
It is important to note that Jonathan did not build the house himself. Instead, he
hired a master carpenter** and a master mason**, people who knew what they were
doing, to build the house for him. This is a large part of why the house still stands today.
Dendrochronology**, or tree ring dating, on the hall summer beam** shows that
the tree from which it was cut was felled in 1637. The summer beam, as the main
structural support for an entire half of the house, was by necessity one of the first parts
of the house that would have been erected. Dendrochronology on a smaller support post
dated it to 1641. They did not age wood before using it back then; they built with green
28
wood**. With this information we know the house was built between 1637 and 1641,
with parts of the house most likely livable within the first year.
Eight generations of Fairbanks lived in the house; all of them left their mark in
one way or another. Additions have more than doubled the size of the original house,
adding two full wings**, a workshop**, and several small expansions. When the family
was fairly wealthy, luxuries like wallpaper**, paint**, and larger windows** were
added to the house. However, around 1800-1820 times changed and the money
disappeared. No significant changes were made to the house after this time period. The
house has never had modern conveniences** like heat, running water, or electricity. [8]
29
3.2.2.1. A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED ‘*’ IN THE TEXT)
The Fairbanks House – is the oldest known wooden structure in North America.
The National Register of Historic Places – is the federal government's official
list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects deemed worthy of preservation
for their historical significance in the United States.
Halifax – is a city in Canada, the big Atlantic port.
Watertown, Massachusetts – is a city in the Middlesex County, Massachusetts,
the U.S.
30
3.2.2.2. GLOSSARY (MARKED ‘**’ IN THE TEXT)
tree ring dating /triː rɪŋ deɪtɪŋ/ = Dendrochronology /den.drəʊ.krəˈnɒl.ə.dʒi/
– is the scientific method of calculating dates and the age of objects by counting the
rings that appear inside tree trunks.
master carpenter /ˈmɑː.stər ˈkɑː.pɪn.tər/ – a person whose job is making and
repairing wooden objects and structures.
master mason /ˈmɑː.stər ˈmeɪ.sən/ – a person who cuts stone.
summer beam /ˈsʌm.ər biːm/ – a device that locks the door.
green wood /gri:n wʊd/ – is freshly sawed wood.
full wings /fʊl wɪŋz/ – are the parts of house (building) which are subordinated to
the main, central structure.
workshop /ˈwɜːk.ʃɒp/ – is a separate room in the house in which tools are used
for making or repairing things.
wallpaper /ˈwɔːlˌpeɪ.pər/ – is a decorative paper which is used for covering
walls.
paint /peɪnt/ – is a colored liquid which is put on a wall to decorate it.
larger windows / lɑːdʒər ˈwɪn.dəʊz/ – are very big windows with whole walls
being made out of glass for maximum light penetration.
modern conveniences /ˈmɒd.ən kənˈviː.ni.əns/ – are labor saving devices that
make a task easier to perform than a traditional method.
31
3.2.3. GEDNEY AND COX HOUSES
The Gedney House* is a historic Colonial American house, estimated to have
been constructed circa 1665. It is located at 21 High Street, near the intersection of
Summer Street. The Gedney and Cox Houses are operated as a non-profit museum by
Historic New England*. The house is rarely open to the public, though private tours can
be arranged.
The house was built for Eleazor Gedney*, a well-to-do shipwright of the Gedney
family*, married to the sister of John Turner*, builder of Salem's House of the Seven
Gables*. Gedney purchased the unimproved land here in April 1664 close to the shore
and the "buildplace" for his boats. He was married in June 1665, and the original
portion of the house, two stories with gabled attic** to the left and a parlor** with lean
– to roof** to the right was erected at this time. Long – gone extensions at the rear
(where some structural evidence survives) were probably original. They were surely in
existence at the time of Eleazer's early death in 1683 when an estate inventory mentions
the hall**, hall chamber**, a garret**, "parlour or lento" and "lento chambr," and
"Kitchin, Loft over it & little leantoo." The latter lean-to** was presumably in the rear.
32
Around 1703–1706, the original parlor lean-to was raised to a full two stories.
The last (and most extensive) structural changes followed about 1800, whereby a new
two-story lean-to** at the rear with separate chimney** replaced whatever had
preceded it. At this time also the framed overhang along the street was furred out** and
a basement kitchen** introduced. Around 1962 the central chimney** was removed and
the interior stripped. The house was acquired by the Society for the Preservation of New
England Antiquities* (now Historic New England) in 1967.
The house is significant for its structural carpentry** and for surviving early
paint** and decorative finishes**. In the hall chamber** three successive color schemes
can be identified, the earliest thought to be contemporary** or near-contemporary**
with original construction. [9]
GEDNEY FAMILY*
The Gedneys were among the original settlers of Salem, Massachusetts*. The
family patriarch, John Gedney* (originally of Norwich), sailed in 1636 out of
Yarmouth, England* on the Mary Anne. One of his sons, Bartholomew*, was one of the
judges who presided over the infamous witch trials*. Bartholomew's brother, Eleazor
(Eleazar) built the Gedney House which still stands in Salem, around 1665.
During the 18th century, the family moved to Westchester County, New York*,
settling at Mamaroneck* and White Plains*.
The American War of Independence* was particularly hard on the Gedney
family. Bartholomew's great-grandson Thomas Fairfax*, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron,
was forced to forfeit his land in what is now Fairfax, Virginia. Ironically, Fairfax's
father had hired George Washington* to survey this land (giving the general a
familiarity with the area that must have proven useful during the war if not in the
disposition of the spoils after the war).
The land of Joshua Gedney, in Dutchess County along the Hudson River, was
similarly seized and auctioned, eventually ended up in the hands of the Vanderbilts and
33
President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Today it forms part of the Vanderbilt – Roosevelt
Historic Park*. Joshua Gedney and his brother Joseph were forced to change their
names to Gidney and to flee from New York to New Brunswick* and Nova Scotia* in
1783. [10]
34
3.2.3.1.
A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED ‘*’ IN THE TEXT)
The Gedney House – is a historic Colonial American house, estimated to have
been constructed circa 1665
The Historic New England=the Society for the Preservation of New England
Antiquities – is a charitable, non – profit, historic organization headquartered in
Boston, Massachusetts.
Gedney family – is the family of the original settlers of Salem, Massachusetts.
The House of the Seven Gables – is the oldest surviving colonial mansion house
in continental North America.
Salem, Massachusetts – is a historic city in Essex County, Massachusetts, the
U.S. .
Yarmouth, England – is a coastal town in Norfolk, England.
Salem Witch Trials – were a notorious episode in New England colonial history
that led to the execution of 14 women and 6 men, in 1692, for charges of witchcraft.
Westchester County, New York – is the second most-populous county in the
United States, state of New York.
Mamaroneck – is a town in Westchester County, New York, the U.S.
White Plains – is a city in Westchester County, New York, the U.S.
The American War of Independence – was a global war that began as a conflict
between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the
United States of America.
George Washington – was the first president of the United States.
President Franklin D. Roosevelt – is the 32nd US president.
The Vanderbilt – Roosevelt Historic Park – is a historic park museum in Hyde
Park.
New Brunswick – is one of three Maritime provinces, on the east coast of
Canada.
Nova Scotia – is one of Canada's three maritime provinces, and one of the four
provinces that form Atlantic Canada.
35
3.2.3.2.
GLOSSARY (MARKED ‘**’ IN THE TEXT)
gabled attic /ˈɡeɪ.bəld ˈæt.ɪk/ – is the space under the pitched roof at the top of a
house or building.
parlor /ˈpɑr·lər/ – is a room in a house which is used for entertaining guests.
lean-to roof /ˈliːn.tuː ruːf/ – is a roof with a single slope.
hall /hɔːl/ – is the room just inside the main entrance of a house that leads to
other rooms and usually to the stairs.
hall chamber /hɔːl ˈtʃeɪm.bər/ – is a small-scale room.
garret /ˈɡær.ət/ – is the space at the top of a house under the roof.
lean-to /ˈliːn.tuː/ – is a simple building with a roof that slopes in one direction,
used for sleeping in outside.
two-story lean-to / tuː ˈstɔːrɪ ˈliːn.tuː/ – is a simple building with a roof that
slopes in one direction, used for sleeping in outside which has two floors.
separate chimney /ˈsep.ər.ət ˈtʃɪm.ni/ – is a chimney which is outside the house.
to furred out /fɜːd aʊt/ – to evert something that is made of fur or pelt.
basement kitchen /ˈbeɪs.mənt ˈkɪtʃ.ən/ – is a kitchen that is partly or completely
below the level of the ground.
central chimney /ˈsen.trəl ˈtʃɪm.ni/ – a hollow structure, often massive in size,
located in the middle of a house to provide heat for the entire house.
structural carpentry /ˈstrʌk.tʃər.əl ˈkɑː.pɪn.tri/ – the work of making and
repairing wooden objects relating to the way in which parts of an object are arranged.
paint /peɪnt/ – is a colored liquid which is put on a wall to decorate it.
decorative finish /ˈdek.ər.ə.tɪv ˈfɪn.ɪʃ/ – is the last step of building by making a
house look attractive.
hall chamber /hɔːl ˈtʃeɪm.bər/ – is a room used for a special or official purpose.
contemporary /kənˈtem.pər.ər.i/ – belonging to the present time.
near– contemporary /nɪər kənˈtem.pər.ər.i/ – is close to belong to the present
time.
36
3.3. FRENCH COLONIAL
French Colonial* is a style of architecture used by the French during
colonization. Many former French colonies, especially those in Southeast Asia, have
previously been reluctant** to promote their colonial architecture as an asset** for
tourism; however, in recent times, the new generation of local authorities has somewhat
'embraced' the architecture and advertise it.
French Colonial was one of four domestic architectural styles* that developed
during the colonial period* in what would become the United States. The other styles
were Colonial Georgian*, Dutch Colonial*, and Spanish Colonial*. French Colonial
developed in the settlements of the Illinois Country* and French Louisiana*. It is
believed to have been primarily influenced by the building styles of French Canada*
and the Caribbean*. It had its beginnings in 1699 with the establishment of French
Louisiana but continued to be built after Spain assumed control of the colonial territory
in 1763. Styles of building that evolved** during the French colonial period include the
Creole cottage*, Creole townhouse*, and French Creole plantation house*. [11]
37
3.3.1. A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED ‘*’ IN THE TEXT)
French Colonial – is one of the domestic architectural styles in the U.S. that
developed during the Colonial period.
Colonial Period – the colonial history of the United States covers the history
from the start of European settlement and especially the history of the thirteen colonies
of Britain until they declared independence in 1776.
Colonial Georgian – is one of the domestic architectural styles in the U.S. that
developed during the Colonial period.
Dutch Colonial – is one of the domestic architectural styles in the U.S. that
developed during the Colonial period.
Spanish Colonial – is one of the domestic architectural styles in the U.S. that
developed during the Colonial period.
The Illinois Country – was a vast region of New France in what is now the
Midwestern United States.
French Louisiana – colonial French Louisiana, comprising the massive, middle
section of North America claimed by France.
French Canada – is a part of Canada, especially Quebec, where people of
French language and origin predominate.
The Caribbean – is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some
surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the
North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
The Creole cottage– is a term loosely used to refer to a type of vernacular
architecture indigenous to the Gulf Coast of the United States.
The Creole townhouse – is a brick or stucco structure, marked by lacy wroughtiron balconies, courtyards, thick walls, and arcades, was built to replace many of the
city's wooden buildings that burned in the Great New Orleans Fire of 1788.
The French Creole plantation house – is the oldest surviving plantation home
in the lower Mississippi River Valley.
38
Domestic architectural styles – are styles to which belong: Creole cottage,
American townhouse, Creole townhouse, Shotgun house, Double-gallery house,
California-style bungalow house.
39
3.3.2. GLOSSARY (MARKED ‘**’ IN THE TEXT)
reluctant /rɪˈlʌk.tənt/ – unwillingness to do something contrary to your custom.
asset /ˈæs.et/ – a useful or valuable quality.
to evolve /ɪˈvɒlv/ – to undergo development.
40
3.3.3. OLD URSULINE CONVENT, NEW ORLEANS
Ursuline Convent* was a series of historic Ursuline convents in New Orleans,
Louisiana*.
In 1726, nuns** from the Ursuline Convent of Rouen (Normandy) go to New
Orleans to found a convent, run a hospital and take care of educating young girls.
The first building for the Ursuline nuns in New Orleans was designed by Ignace
François Broutin* in 1727 when the nuns arrived in New Orleans. Michael Zeringue*
(Johann Michael Zehringer), the King's Master Carpenter from Franconia, Bavaria and
progenitor** of all "Zeringue" families in Louisiana was the builder. Planning,
collecting material, and construction took years. Existing drawings show the building in
1733, although it was not officially finished until the following year.
Colombage (half -timbered)** or briquette-entre-poteaux (brick-between-post)**
was the major form of French Colonial construction in the colony during the 18th
century. Usually the exterior walls** were then given a protective covering of stucco**
or wooden boards**; but the fact that the timbered walls** of the Ursuline Convent
were left exposed is confirmed by a drawing from 1737. Such construction proved to be
41
inappropriate for the humid climate of New Orleans (with significant deterioration**
already apparent by 1745), in addition to being a fire hazard.
THE HISTORIC SECOND BUILDING
In 1745 plans for a new building of brick and protected colombage were prepared
by Ignace Broutin. The contractor was Claude Joseph Villars Dubreuil*, Contractor of
Public Works for the King. This structure was completed in 1751. It is likely that
Alexandre de Batz* also took part in the design because several payments are listed to
him for work on the new building. The new building was laid out adjacent to the site of
the older structure, and some materials from the older building were used in the
construction of the newer one.
Built of stucco-covered brick**, the new building, also known as Old Ursuline
Convent, is typical for the French neoclassical architecture*. It is a formal, symmetrical
building**, severely designed in its lack of ornamentation**. No applied orders of
pilasters** or columns relieved the plain walls. Only the slightly arched window** set
in shallow moldings**, the rusticated quoins** at the corners and narrow central
pedimented pavilion break the even rhythm of the fenestration**. The broad plain
hipped roof**, broken only by small low-set dormers** contrasts well with the multiwindowed façade** and completes the austere** but not unpleasant, finely proportioned
building.
The ground floor** was used largely for the dormitory**, classrooms**,
refectory**, and infirmary** of the orphanage**, maintained by the nuns. The second
floor contained cells** for the nuns, a library**, (another) infirmary, and storerooms**.
The winding stairway** visible from the main entrance hallway** is believed to be
from the original convent, installed in the new building. [12]
42
THE THIRD BUILDING
In 1824 the nuns moved to a new larger convent in the city's 9th Ward, and the
present structure was turned over to the Bishop of New Orleans* as a residence, and for
a while came to be called "the Archbishop's Palace"*. After 1899 it continued in use as
offices for the Archdiocese and still later as a rectory for the adjacent St. Mary's Church.
43
IGNACE FRANÇOIS BROUTIN
Ignace François Broutin* (La Bassée, 1690–1751) was a French military
officer, commander of Fort Rosalie* among the Natchez people*, and later an architect
in colonial Louisiana. He is chiefly remembered for designing the Ursuline Convent* in
New Orleans.
A native of La Bassée* in northern France, Broutin arrived in Louisiana in 1720
and married Madeleine la Maire (likely a cousin – his mother's maiden name was la
Mairée), widow of Pierre Philippe de Marigny and mother of Antoine Philippe de
Marigny. In 1748 his daughter married Louis Xavier Martin de Lino de Chalmette,
whose Chalmette Plantation became the site of the 1815 Battle of New Orleans and the
source of the name of the seat of St. Bernard Parish: Chalmette*.
He is said to have died in New Orleans, on August 9, 1751; but the whereabouts
of his remains are unknown. [13]
44
3.3.3.1. A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED ‘*’ IN THE TEXT)
Ursuline Convent – is an historic Ursuline convent in New Orleans, Louisiana.
New Orleans, Louisiana – is a major United States port and the largest city and
metropolitan area in the state of Louisiana.
Ignace François Broutin – French Chevalier of the Order of St. Louis military
officer, commander of Fort Rosalie among the Natchez people, and later an architect
and Captain of Engineers of the King in the Province in colonial Louisiana.
Michael Zeringue (Johann Michael Zehringer) – the King's Master Carpenter
from Franconia, Bavaria and progenitor of all "Zeringue" families in Louisiana was the
builder.
Claude Joseph Villars Dubreuil – is the Contractor of Public Works for the
King.
Alexandre de Batz – was a French Illustrator.
French neoclassical architecture – is an architectural style produced by the
neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century.
"the Archbishop's Palace" – is an historic 14th century and 16th century
building on the east bank of the River Medway in Maidstone, Kent.
Fort Rosalie – was a French fort built in 1716 at present-day Natchez,
Mississippi, in the territory of the Natchez American Indians.
The Natchez people – the Natchez are a Native American people who originally
lived in the Natchez Bluffs area, near the present-day city of Natchez, Mississippi.
La Bassée – is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.
The seat of St. Bernard Parish: Chalmette – is a parish located southeast of
New Orleans in the U.S. state of Louisiana.
45
3.3.3.2. GLOSSARY (MARKED ‘**’ IN THE TEXT)
nun /nʌn/ – a woman religious.
progenitor /prəʊˈdʒen.ɪ.tər/ – is an ancestor in the direct line.
colombage (half-timbered) /kɔlɔb
̃ aʒ hɑːfˈtɪm.bəd/ – a half-timbered building
has a wooden frame whose spaces are filled with brick or stone to form the walls, so
that the wood still shows on the surface.
briquette-entre-poteaux (brick-between-post) – is a type of house building
using bricks between cypress studs.
exterior wall /ɪkˈstɪə.ri.ər wɔːl/ – is the outside part of building.
stucco /ˈstʌk.əʊ/ – is a plaster now made mostly from Portland cement and sand
and lime.
wooden board /ˈwʊd.ən bɔːd/ – is a wooden building material.
timbered wall /tɪm.bəd wɔːl/ – is a wall made of logs.
deterioration /dɪˌtɪəriəˈreɪʃən/ – is a reducing quality or strength.
stucco-covered brick /ˈstʌk.əʊ ˈkʌv.ərd brɪk/ – is a brick covered with some
type of plaster that can be formed into decorative patterns.
formal, symmetrical building /ˈfɔː.məl sɪˈmetrɪkəl ˈbɪl.dɪŋ/ – is a building
which is proportional in parts.
ornamentation /ɔː.nə.menˈteɪ.ʃən/ – something used to beautify.
pilaster /pɪˈlæstə/ – is a rectangular column that usually projects about a third of
its width from the wall to which it is attached.
slightly arched window /ˈslaɪt.li ɑːtʃt ˈwɪn.dəʊ/ – is a window with a shape of
arch.
shallow molding /ˈʃæl.əʊ ˈməʊl.dɪŋ/ – is a strip of material with various
profiles used to cover transitions between surfaces or for decoration.
rusticated quoin /ˈrʌs.tɪ.keɪt kɔɪn/ – is usually "dressed", or squared off neatly,
on all sides of the stones except the face that will be visible when the stone is put in
place.
46
fenestration /ˈfɪnɪstreɪʃn/ – hawing windows.
hipped roof /hɪpt ruːf/ – is a type of roof where all sides are sloped.
small low-set dormer /smɔːl ləʊ set ˈdɔː.mər/ – is a roofed structure, often
containing a window, that projects vertically beyond the plane of a pitched roof and that
located short and thick.
multi-windowed façade /ˈmʌltɪ ˈwɪndəʊd fəˈsɑːd/ – is the face or front of any
building with a big amount of windows.
austere /ɔːˈstɪər/ – severely simple.
ground floor /ˈgraʊndˈflɔː/ – is the floor of a building that is at or near the level
of the ground.
dormitory /ˈdɔːmɪtrɪ/ – is a large sleeping room containing several beds.
classroom /ˈklɑːsrʊm/ – is a room in a school where lessons take place.
refectory /rɪˈfektərɪ/ – is a communal dining hall (usually in a monastery).
infirmary /ɪnˈfɜːmərɪ/ – is a health facility where patients receive treatment.
orphanage /ˈɔːfənɪʤ/ – is a public institution for care of orphans.
cell /sel/ – is a small room with not much furniture, especially in a prison or a
monastery or convent.
library /ˈlaɪbrərɪ/ – is a room where books are kept.
storeroom /ˈstɔːruːm/ – is a room in which things are stored.
winding stairway /ˈwɪndɪŋ ˈstɛəweɪ/ – is a stair with an open well hole,
constructed on a geometric (i.e. circular or elliptical) plan.
main entrance hallway /meɪn ˈentrəns ˈhɔːlweɪ/ – is a room through which you
can enter a building or place.
47
3.3.4. HOTEL ST. PIERRE
The Hotel St. Pierre* is a collection of Creole** cottages, many dating from the
early 1780s, in the French Quarter* of New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A. Its business
address is 911 Burgundy Street.
The hotel property includes the Gabriel Peyroux House*, erected in 1780 for
Gabriel Peyroux de la Roche*, a native of France. The house was constructed utilizing
the
French
Colonial
briquette-entre-poteaux
(small-bricks-between-posts)**
architecture and is one of the few extant** such examples in New Orleans*.
This cottage originally stood on the Peyroux plantation* on nearby Bayou Road*,
but it was moved "to town" by the family. Gabriel Peyroux lived here with his wife,
Maria Susana Caue. Maria’s father once owned the entire then empty square which now
includes the Hotel St. Pierre. The house and much of the square (city block) remained in
the Peyroux family until 1850.
In 1961, the New Orleans Jazz Museum*, the first jazz museum in the world,
opened on this site at 1017 Dumaine Street. The collection included many musical
48
instruments used by New Orleans jazz greats, perhaps most famously Louis
Armstrong's* first cornet. The Jazz Collection later relocated – in 1981, to a permanent
home in the Louisiana State Museum's Old Mint Building*. [14]
49
3.3.4.1. A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED ‘*’ IN THE TEXT)
The Hotel St. Pierre – is a collection of Creole cottages, many dating from the
early 1780s, in the French Quarter of New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A.
The Gabriel Peyroux House – is the Hotel St. Pierre property.
Gabriel Peyroux de la Roche – is the Hotel St. Pierre property.
New Orleans – is a major United States port and the largest city and metropolitan
area in the state of Louisiana.
Peyroux plantation – is a place where the Hotel St. Pierre stands.
Bayou Road – is a road in New Orleans.
The New Orleans Jazz Museum – is a music museum in New Orleans,
Louisiana, U.S., dedicated to preserving and celebrating the history of jazz music.
Louis Armstrong – was an American trumpeter, composer, singer and
occasional actor who was one of the most influential figures in jazz.
The Louisiana State Museum's Old Mint Building – founded in New Orleans
in 1906, is a statewide system of National Historic Landmarks and modern structures
across Louisiana, housing thousands of artifacts and works of art reflecting Louisiana's
legacy of historic events and cultural diversity.
50
3.3.4.2. GLOSSARY (MARKED ‘**’ IN THE TEXT)
creole /ˈkriːəʊl/ – is a characteristic of native-born persons of French descent in
Louisiana.
briquette-entre-poteaux (small-bricks-between-posts) – is a type of house
building using bricks between cypress studs.
extant /ɪksˈtent/ – still in existence.
51
3.3.5. LOUIS BOLDUC HOUSE
The Louis Bolduc House*, also known as Maison Bolduc, is a historic house
museum at 123 South Main Street in Ste. Geneviève, Missouri*. It is an example of
poteaux sur solle ("posts-on-sill")** construction, and is located in the first European
52
settlement in the present-day state of Missouri. The first historic structure in Ste.
Genevieve to be authentically restored**, the house is a prime example of the traditional
French Colonial architecture* of the early 18th century in North America and was
designated** in 1970 as a National Historic Landmark*.
St. Genevieve was founded in the mid-eighteenth century by French-Canadian
settlers, most of whom migrated from villages on the east bank of the Mississippi
River*, such as Prairie du Rocher, Illinois*. Because of repeated flooding from the
Mississippi River, with an especially bad occurrence in 1785, they decided to relocate to
a higher site further away from the river.
In 1792 Louis Bolduc*, a successful merchant and trader, who also had lead
mines to the west, built a one-story house** at the new village site, about three miles
north of the first. First to be built in the one-story house was a large "keeping room",
about 26'x 27', where the family conducted most of its activities. It has a large
fireplace** at the north end, and a wide-plank puncheon floor**, made of logs cut flat
on only one side, with the curved** side laid down. Storage** for lead, corn and other
goods was in the attic** above the room. In 1793, Bolduc had the wide hallway** and a
large sleeping chamber** added, the latter also about 26' x 27' in size. Historians
believe the sleeping chamber had two "sleeping cells," areas partially walled off for
privacy: one for him and his wife and one shared by their three children. Bolduc had tall
windows with glass installed in both large rooms, another mark of his wealth.
The walls of the house were built with heavy oak timbers** set about six inches
apart and infilled with bousillage**, a mixture of mud, straw, and horsehair that
hardened to a cement-like texture. Sometimes other animal or human hair was added to
the mixture. Diagonal timbers on each supporting wall added stability. The steep hip
roof**, made of cedar shakes, was supported by heavy, hand-hewn Norman trussers
held together by mortise** and tenon joinery**. It extends over the four sides of the
house's porches** to provide shade and cooling. The house is surrounded by a
reconstructed stockade fence** typical of the time (to keep out livestock that roamed in
the area). Gardens have been reconstructed on the grounds.
53
Located at 123 South Main, the property was owned by Bolduc family
descendants until the 1940s. Furnished with pieces typical of the period, today it is
operated as a historic house museum. [15]
54
3.3.5.1. A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED ‘*’ IN THE TEXT)
The Louis Bolduc House ( Maison Bolduc) – is a historic house museum at 123
South Main Street in Ste. Geneviève, Missouri.
Missouri – is a state in the Midwestern United States. With over six million
residents, it is the 18th most populous state of the Union.
French Colonial architecture – is one of the domestic architectural styles in the
U.S. that developed during the Colonial period.
National Historic Landmark – is a building, district, object, site, or structure
that is officially recognized by the United States government for its outstanding
historical significance.
Mississippi River – is the chief river of the second-largest drainage system on
the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system.
Prairie du Rocher, Illinois – is a village in Randolph County, Illinois, United
States.
Louis Bolduc – is a successful merchant and trader, who also had lead mines to
the west.
55
3.3.5.2. GLOSSARY (MARKED ‘**’ IN THE TEXT)
poteaux sur solle (‘posts-оn-sill’) – is a style of timber framing, in which
relatively closely spaced posts rest on a timber sill.
restored /rɪˈstɔːd/ – returned to its original or usable and functioning condition.
designate /ˈdezɪgnɪt ˈdezɪgnɪt/ – assign a name or title to.
one-story house /wʌn – ˈstɔːrɪ haʊs/ – is a house with only one floor.
fireplace /ˈfaɪəpleɪs/ – is an open recess in a wall at the base of a chimney where
a fire can be built.
wide-plank puncheon floor / waɪd plæŋk ˈpʌnʧən/ – is a floor with split logs
or heavy slab timbers with one face smoothed.
curved /kɜːvd/ – having a smoothly rounded bend.
storage /ˈstɔːrɪʤ/ – is a depository for goods.
attic /ˈætɪk/ – is a floor consisting of open space at the top of a house just below
roof.
hallway /ˈhɔːlweɪ/ – is an interior passage or corridor onto which rooms open.
large sleeping chamber /lɑːʤ ˈsliːpɪŋ ˈʧeɪmbə/ – is a bedroom.
oak timbers /əʊk ˈtɪmbəz/ – is a long piece of oak wood used for building.
bousillage – is a mixture of mud, straw, and horsehair that hardened to a cementlike texture.
steep hip roof /stiːp hɪp ruːf/ – is a type of roof where all sides slope downwards
to the walls, usually with a fairly gentle slope.
mortise /ˈmɔːtɪs/ – is a square hole made to receive a tenon and so to form a
joint.
tenon joinery /ˈtenən ˈʤɔɪnərɪ/ – is a type of joint that connects two pieces of
wood or other material.
porch /pɔːʧ/ – is a structure attached to the exterior of a building often forming a
covered entrance.
56
stockade fence /stɔˈkeɪd fens/ – a fence of closely fitted vertical boards with
pointed tops.
57
3.3.6. IN CANADA
French settlements in Canada date back to the mid – 16th century and until the
annexion** of Quebec* by the British Crown* after the Treaty of Paris* (1763), French
Canada* alongside with Louisiana*, was immensely prosperous. Hence the abundant
architectural legacy from that period particularly in Quebec City but also in Montreal*.
Most buildings constructed during the French colonial period utilized a heavy timber
frame of logs** installed vertically on a sill**, poteaux-sur-sol**, or into the earth,
poteaux-en-terre**. An infill of lime mortar** or clay** mixed with small stones
(pierrotage**) or a mixture of mud**, moss**, and animal hair (bousillage**) was used
to pack between the logs. Many times the infill would later be replaced with brick. This
method of construction was used in the Illinois Country* as well as Louisiana. General
characteristics of a French Colonial dwelling** included a raised basement which
would support the floor of the home's primary living quarters. Exterior stairs** were
another common element; the stairs would often climb up to a distinctive, full-length
veranda** or "gallery," on a home's façade**. The roof over the veranda was normally
part of the overall roof**. French Colonial roofs were either a steep hipped roof**, with
a dormer** or dormers, or a side-gabled roof**. The veranda** or gallery was often
accessed via French doors**. French Colonial homes in the American South commonly
had stuccoed** exterior walls. [11]
58
3.3.6.1. A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED ‘*’ IN THE TEXT)
Quebec – is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada.
The British Crown – is the symbol of the power of the British monarchy.
The Treaty of Paris (1763) – was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms
of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement.
French Canada – is a term to distinguish the French-speaking population of
Canada from English Canada.
Louisiana – is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Montreal – is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of
Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada as a whole.
The Illinois Country – was a vast region of New France in what is now the
Midwestern United States.
59
3.3.6.2. GLOSSARY (MARKED ‘**’ IN THE TEXT)
annexion /anɛksjɔ/̃ – is incorporating (territory) into an existing political unit
such as a country, state, county, or city.
timber frame of logs /tɪmbə freɪm ɔv lɒgz/ – is the basic,wooden structure of a
building.
poteaux-sur-sol – is a style of timber framing, in which relatively closely spaced
posts rest on a timber sill.
poteaux-en-terre – is a type of construction in which vertical, roof-bearing
timbers, called posts, are in direct contact with the ground.
lime mortar /laɪm ˈmɔːtə/ – is composed of lime and an aggregate such as sand,
mixed with water.
clay /kleɪ/ – is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one
or more clay minerals with possible traces of quarz, metal oxides and organic matter.
pierrotage – is an infill of lime mortar or clay mixed with small stones.
bousillage – is a mixture of mud, moss, and animal hair.
mud /mʌd/ – is earth that has been mixed with water.
moss /mɔs/ – is a very small, green or yellow plant that grows especially in wet
earth or on rocks, walls, and tree trunks.
dwelling /ˈdwelɪŋ/ – is a house or place to live in.
exterior stairs /eksˈtɪərɪə stɛəs/ – are stairs that are on or from the outside.
full-length veranda /fʊl leŋθ vəˈrændə/ – is a roofed, open-air gallery or porch
accommodating the full height of the human figure.
overall roof /ˈəʊvərɔːl ruːf/ – is a long range roof.
steep hipped roof /stiːp hɪpt ruːf/ – is a roof having sloping, steep ends as well
as sloping, steep sides.
dormer /ˈdɔːmə/ – is a window that sticks out from a sloping roof.
side – gabled roof /saɪd geɪbld ruːf/ – is a roof constructed with a single slope
on each side of the ridge supported at the end by a gable.
60
french door /frenʧ dɔː/ – is a light door with transparent or glazed panels
extending the full length.
stuccoed /ˈstʌkəʊt/ – decorated with stucco.
façade /fəˈsɑːd/ – is the face or front of any building.
veranda /vəˈrændə/ – is a roofed, open-air gallery or porch.
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3.3.7. OLD QUEBEC
Old Quebec* is a historic neighborhood of Quebec City*, Canada. Comprising
the Upper Town and Lower Town, the area is a UNESCO World Heritage Site*.
Administratively, Old Quebec is part of the Vieux-Québeс-Cap – Blanc-colline
Parlementaire district* in the borough of La Cité-Limoilou*.
Samuel de Champlain* chose the Upper Town as the site for Fort Saint Louis* in
1608. It has remained the city's military and administrative centre because of its
strategic position atop the promontory of Cap Diamant*. It was occupied mainly by
British government officials and Catholic clergy after the British Conquest*, while
French and English merchants** and artisans** lived in Lower Town.
Military use did hamper growth in the Upper Town for many years, and a
movement arose in the late 19th century to demolish** the fortifications as obsolete**
and as an obstacle** to urban development. It was Lord Dufferin* who successfully
persuaded officials to preserve and rebuild them.
The area declined and fell into disrepair in the 1950s but new building began in
the 1970s.
62
Most of the buildings date to the 19th century, although some 17th and 18th
centuries remain as well. The area has several commercial streets like Saint Jean, Sainte
Anne and De Buade. Some public administration and other institutions in the Upper
Town are the Quebec City Hall (Hôtel de Ville)*, the Séminaire de Québec*, the
Ursulines Convent*, and the Augustinian Monastery and l'Hôtel-Dieu de Québec*.
There are many hotels, including the Château Frontenac*, the Old City* being a very
popular tourist destination**.
Parks in the Upper Town include De l'Esplanade*, Artillerie*, Des Gouverneurs*
and Montmorency parks* as well as the grounds of l’Hotel-de-Ville*.
The Lower Town is a historic district located at the bottom of Cap Diamant*.
During 1608, Samuel de Champlain built a habitation** where its remains can be found
with Place Royale* as its centre. It was restored with the goal of reconstructing the
French flair from its origins. Construction of the Church of Notre-Dame-des-Victoires*
started during 1687 at this location and was completed during 1723.The Musée de la
civilization*, the Musée naval de Québec*, the caserne Dalhousie and the Théâtre Petit
Champlain* are among some of the museums, performance halls, theatres and
exhibition venues in Lower Town.
Places such as the Louise Basin*, Brown Basin*, La-Pointe-à-Carcy*, the Gare
du Palais* and the Marche du Vieux-Port* can be seen from the Port of Quebec*.
The Old Quebec heritage site is located in Quebec City although it is
administratively recognized as a part of the borough La Cité-Limoilou*. It has gained
recognition as a part of Quebec’s cultural heritage and is also among UNESCO’s World
Heritage Sites*. [16]
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SAMUEL DE CHAMPLAIN
French explorer Samuel de Champlain was born in 1574 in Brouage*, France. He
began exploring North America in 1603, establishing the city of Quebec in the northern
colony of New France, and mapping the Atlantic coast* and the Great Lakes*, before
settling into an administrative role as the de facto governor of New France in 1620. He
died on December 25, 1635, in Quebec.
ESTABLISHING QUEBEC
In 1608, Champlain was named lieutenant to de Monts, and they set off on
another expedition up the St. Lawrence. When they arrived in June 1608, they
constructed a fort in what is now Quebec City. Quebec would soon become the hub**
for French fur trading**. The following summer, Champlain fought the first major
battle against the Iroquois*, cementing a hostile relationship that would last for more
than a century.
64
In 1615, Champlain made a brave voyage** into the interior of Canada
accompanied by a tribe of Native Americans with whom he had good relations, the
Hurons*. Champlain and the French aided the Hurons in an attack on the Iroquois, but
they lost the battle and Champlain was hit in the knee with an arrow and unable to walk.
He lived with the Hurons that winter, between the foot of Georgian Bay* and Lake
Simcoe*. During his stay, he composed one of the earliest and most detailed accounts of
Native American life. [17]
65
3.3.7.1. A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED ‘*’ IN THE TEXT)
Old Quebec – is a historic neighborhood of Quebec City, Canada.
Quebec City, Canada – is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec.
The UNESCO World Heritage Site – is a landmark or area which is selected by
the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as
having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally
protected by international treaties.
The Vieux-Québec-Cap-Blanс-colline Parlementaire district – is one of the
35 districts of the City of Quebec, and one of six that are located in the borough of La
Cité-Limoilou.
La Cité-Limoilou – is the central borough of Quebec City, the oldest (in terms
of architecture), and the most populous, comprising 21.85% of the city's total
population.
Samuel de Champlain – "The Father of New France", was a French navigator,
cartographer, draftsman, soldier, explorer, geographer, ethnologist, diplomat, and
chronicler.
Fort Saint Louis – is a seaside fortress in Fort-de-France, Martinique.
Cap Diamant – is the official name of the cape and promontory on which
Quebec City is located, formed by the confluence of a bend in the St. Lawrence River to
the south and east, and the much smaller St. Charles River to the north.
The British Conquest – was the British military conquest of New France during
the French and Indian War, otherwise known the Seven Years' War.
Lord Dufferin – was the 3rd Governor-General of Canada.
The Quebec City Hall (Hôtel de Ville) – is the seat of local government in
Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
The Séminaire de Québec – is a Roman Catholic community of priests in
Quebec City founded by Bishop François de Laval, the first bishop of New France in
1663.
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The Ursulines Convent – was the second building-out of three-constructed for
the Ursulines, in the city of New Orleans.
The Augustinian Monastery – is a former Augustinian monastery located in the
Salzstraße, in the historic center of Freiburg im Breisgau.
l'Hôtel-Dieu de Québec – is a teaching hospital located in Quebec City, Quebec,
Canada and affiliated with Université Laval's medical school.
The Château Frontenac – is one of Canada's grand railway hotels, located in
Quebec City, Quebec.
The Old City – is a historic neighbourhood of Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.
De l'Esplanade – is a hotel in Quebec, Canada.
Artillerie – is a historic place and park.
Des Gouverneurs – is a hotel in Quebec, Canada.
Montmorency park – is a park located in Quebec City and home to Parliaments
of Lower Canada, Canada East and Quebec from 1791 to 1883.
l’Hotel-de-Ville – is a hotel in Quebec, Canada.
Place Royale – is a hotel in Quebec, Canada.
The Church of Notre-Dame-des-Victoires – is a small Roman Catholic stone
church in the Lower Town of Quebec City.
The Musée de la civilization – is a museum located in Quebec City, Quebec,
Canada. It is situated in the historic Old Quebec area near the Saint Lawrence River.
The Musée naval de Québec – is a museum located in Quebec City, Quebec,
Canada.
The caserne Dalhousie – is among some of the museums, performance halls,
theatres and exhibition venues in Lower Town.
The Théâtre Petit Champlain – is among some of the museums, performance
halls, theatres and exhibition venues in Lower Town.
The Louise Basin , Brown Basin, La-Pointe-à-Carcy, The Gare du Palais,
The Marche du Vieux-Port – are historic places in the Port of Quebec.
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The Port of Quebec – is an inland port located in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.
It is the oldest port in Canada, and the second largest in Quebec after the Port of
Montreal.
Brouage, France – was the best port in France.
The Atlantic coast – any coast fronting the Atlantic Ocean.
The Great Lakes – are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes located
primarily in the upper mid-east region of North America, on the Canada-United States
border, which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lawrence River.
The Iroquois – are a historically powerful northeast Native American
confederacy.
The Hurons – refer to the Wyandot (or Wendat) indigenous people of North
America, who were Native allies to the French during the French and Indian War, and
to the Wyandot language.
Georgian Bay – is a large bay of Lake Huron, located entirely within Ontario,
Canada.
Lake Simcoe – is a lake in southern Ontario, Canada, the fourth-largest lake
wholly in the province, after Lake Nipigon, Lac Seul, and Lake Nipissing.
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3.3.7.2. GLOSSARY (MARKED ‘**’ IN THE TEXT)
merchant /ˈmɜːʧənt/ – is a person whose job is to buy and sell products in large
amounts, especially by trading with other countries.
artisan /ɑːtɪˈzæn/ – is someone who does skilled work with their hands.
to demolish /dɪˈmɔlɪʃ/ – to completely destroy a building, especially in order to
use the land for something else.
obsolete /ˈɔbsəliːt/ – is not in use any more, having been replaced by something
newer and better or more fashionable.
obstacle /ˈɔbstəkl/ – is something that blocks you so that movement, going
forward, or action is prevented or made more difficult.
destination /destɪˈneɪʃn/ – is the place where someone is going or where
something is being sent or taken.
habitation /hæbɪˈteɪʃn/ – is the act of living in a building.
hub /hʌb/ – is the central or main part of something where there is most activity.
fur trading /fɜː ˈtreɪdɪŋ/ – is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and
sale of animal fur.
voyage /ˈvɔɪɪʤ/ – is a long journey.
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3.3.8. THE MANOIR BOUCHER – DE NIVERVILLE
In 1668, Jacques LeNeuf de la Potherie*, a fur** trader, was granted a piece of
land owned by François Champflour. He built a two-storey dwelling**, a bakery**, a
barn**, a stable**, a flour mill**, and other buildings that would be necessary for his
subsistence and that of his tenants. And thus the manor** was born.
In 1729, François de Chastelain*, a naval officer, acquired the de la Potherie
fiefdom and its manor. He made major modifications** to the building involving a
substantial enlargement**, which gave it the shape we see today. He passed the building
on to his daughter, Marie-Josephte, on the occasion of her marriage to Joseph-Claude
Boucher de Niverville. This is when the manor got its present-day name. After the death
of this famous soldier, in 1805, the building was preserved by his heirs for several
decades.
Manoir Boucher de Niverville is a priceless witness to the French colonial
architectural style*. Its original wood framework** is among the oldest in the St.
Lawrence Valley*. In addition to the permanent exhibition on bourgeois** life in New
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France*, each year, the manor hosts a different exhibition on archaeology in TroisRivières*. [18]
71
3.3.8.1. A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED ‘*’ IN THE TEXT)
Jacques LeNeuf de la Potherie – was a fur merchant, businessman, seigneur and
co-founder of the Communauté des habitants in 1645.
François de Chastelain – was a naval officer, acquired the de la Potherie
fiefdom and its manor.
The French colonial architectural style – is one of four domestic architectural
styles that developed during the colonial period of the U.S.
The St. Lawrence Valley – is a physiographic province of the larger
Appalachian division, containing the Champlain and Northern physiographic section.
New France – was the area colonized by France in North America during a
period beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier
in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763.
Trois-Rivières – is a city in the Mauricie administrative region of Quebec,
Canada, located at the confluence of the Saint-Maurice and Saint Lawrence rivers, on
the north shore of the Saint Lawrence River across from the city of Bécancour.
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3.3.8.2. GLOSSARY (MARKED ‘**’ IN THE TEXT)
fur /fɜː/ – is the thick hair that covers the bodies of some animals, or the haircovered skin(s) of animals, removed from their bodies.
two-storey dwelling /tuː – ˈstɔːrɪ ˈdwelɪŋ/ – is a house with two floors.
bakery /ˈbeɪkərɪ/ – is a place where bread and cakes are made and sometimes
sold.
barn /bɑːn/ – is a large building on a farm in which animals or hay (= dried
grass) and grain are kept.
stable /steɪbl/ – is firmly fixed or not likely to move or change.
flour mill /ˈflaʊə mɪl/ – is a mill for grinding grain into flour.
manor /ˈmænə/ – is a large old house in the country with land belonging to it.
modification /mɔdɪfɪˈkeɪʃn/ – is a change to something, usually to improve it.
enlargement /ɪnˈlɑːʤmənt/ – is the process of something becoming bigger, or
being made bigger.
wood framework /wʊd ˈfreɪmwɜːk/ – is the base structure of the house
consisted of a combination of linear wooden elements.
bourgeois /ˈbʊəʒwɑː/ – belonging to or typical of the middle class.
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3.3.9. CHÂTEAU RAMEZAY
When Claude de Ramezay* was appointed as the eleventh governor of Montreal*
in 1704, he wanted a mansion to match his new status. His château, which was
completed two years later, was one of the grandest in the city.
The building was designed by stonemason** Pierre Couturier* and featured onemeter (3ft) thick walls**, three stories and a saddle roof** with dormers**. Ramezay
boasted it was the most beautiful house in all of New France*. But the governor, who
paid for the house out of his own pocket, went almost bankrupt** trying to maintain it.
Ramezay's heirs sold it in 1745 to the Compagnie des Indes Occidentales* – the
French West India Company, which had it significantly expanded around 1756 and used
it as their headquarters and warehouse** until 1763.
After the British gained control over New France, British governors resided in
Ramezay's château and during the American occupation* in 1775 it served as the
headquarters of Montgomery's American army*. During this period Benjamin Franklin*
stayed here for three months in a vain attempt to convince the Canadians to join the
American Revolution*.
74
The château was restored in 1895, when the Antiquarian and Numismatic Society
of Montreal established a museum in the building. It was last altered in 1903, when the
small towers, which give the building a castle-like look**, were added. [19]
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3.3.9.1. A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED ‘*’ IN THE TEXT)
Claude de Ramezay – was an important figure in the early history of New
France. He was a military man by training and rose to being commander of the colonial
regular troops.
Montreal – is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of
Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada as a whole.
Pierre Couturier – was a stonemason who designed Château Ramezay.
The Compagnie des Indes Occidentales – was a French trading company
founded in 1664 by Jean-Baptiste Colbert and dissolved in 1674.
The American occupation – was the first major military initiative by the newly
formed Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War.
Montgomery's American army – was the army that was founded by Bernard
Montgomery, a senior British Army officer who fought in both the First World War and
the Second World War.
Benjamin Franklin – was an American polymath and one of the Founding
Fathers of the United States.
The American Revolution – was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765
and 1783.
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3.3.9.2. GLOSSARY (MARKED ‘**’ IN THE TEXT)
stonemason /ˈstəʊnmeɪsn/ – is a person whose job it is to cut, prepare, and use
stone for building.
thick walls /θɪk wɔːlz/ – are walls of a large diameter.
saddle roof /sædl ruːf/ – is a roof form which follows a convex curve about one
axis and a concave curve about the other.
dormer /ˈdɔːmə/ – is a window that sticks out from a sloping roof.
bankrupt /ˈbæŋkrʌpt/ – is unable to pay what you owe, and having had control
of your financial matters given, by a law court, to a person who sells your property to
pay your debts.
warehouse /ˈwɛəhaʊs/ – is a large building for storing things before they are
sold, used, or sent out to shops.
castle – like look /kɑːsl laɪk lʊk/ – when a building looks like a castle.
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3.4. SPANISH COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE
Settlers in the Spanish territories of North America built simple, low homes made
using rocks**, adobe brick**, coquina**, or stucco**.
Settling in Florida*, California*, and the American Southwest*, settlers from
Spain and Mexico* built homes with many of these features:

Located in the American South, Southwest, and California

One story**

Flat roof**, or roof with a low pitch**

Earth, thatch**, or clay tile** roof covering

Thick walls** made with rocks**, coquina**, or adobe brick** coated
with stucco**

Several exterior doors**

Small windows, originally without glass

Wooden or wrought iron bars** across the windows

Interior shutters**
Later Spanish Colonial homes* had more elaborate features, such as:
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
Second story with recessed porches** and balconies**

Interior courtyards**

Carved wooden brackets** and balustrades**

Double hung sash windows**

Dentil moldings** and other Greek Revival* details
During the 20th century, a variety of Spanish house styles borrowed ideas from
Spanish Colonial architecture*. Spanish Revival*, Mission*, and Neo – Mediterranean*
homes often have details inspired by the Colonial past. [20]
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3.4.1. A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED ‘*’ IN THE TEXT)
Florida – is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.
California – is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States of America.
American Southwest – is the informal name for a region of the western United
States.
Mexico – is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Spanish Colonial Architecture – represents Spanish colonial influence on New
World and East Indies cities and towns, and it is still being seen in the architecture as
well as in the city planning aspects of conserved present-day cities.
Greek Revival – was an architectural movement of the late 18th and early 19th
centuries, predominantly in Northern Europe and the United States.
Spanish Revival – is an American architectural stylistic movement arising in the
early 20th century based on the Spanish Colonial architecture of the Spanish
colonization of the Americas.
Mission – was an architectural movement that began in the late 19th century for a
colonial style's revivalism and reinterpretation, which drew inspiration from the late
18th and early 19th century Spanish missions in California.
Neo – Mediterranean – is an architectural style.
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3.4.2. GLOSSARY (MARKED ‘**’ IN THE TEXT)
rock /rɔk/ – is the dry solid part of the earth's surface, or any large piece of this
that sticks up out of the ground or the sea.
adobe brick /əˈdəʊbɪ brɪk/ – is a sun dried brick.
coquina /ˈkɒkɪn/ – is a sedimentary rock that is composed either wholly or
almost entirely of the transported, abraded, and mechanically-sorted fragments of the
shells of molluscs, trilobites, brachiopods, or other invertebrates.
stucco /ˈstʌkəʊ/ – is a type of plaster used for covering walls and ceilings,
especially one that can be formed into decorative patterns.
one story /wʌn ˈstɔːrɪ/ – when a house has only one floor.
flat roof /flæt ruːf/ – is a roof which is almost level in contrast to the many types
of sloped roofs.
roof with a low pitch /ruːf wɪð ə ləʊ pɪʧ/ – is a roof with a low vertical rise
divided by its horizontal span (or "run"), what is called "slope" in geometry and stair
construction.
thatch /θæʧ/ – to make a roof for a building with straw or reeds.
clay tile /kleɪ taɪl/ – is a category of burned-clay building materials used to
construct roofing, walls, and flooring for structural and non – structural purposes,
especially in fireproofing applications.
thick walls /θɪk wɔːlz/ – are walls of of large diameter.
exterior door /eksˈtɪərɪə dɔː/ – is a door from the outside of a house.
wooden or wrought iron bars /wʊdn ɔː rɔːt ˈaɪən bɑːz/ – are blocks that serve a
similar purpose to glass panes, but made of iron or wood instead of glass blocks.
interior shutter /ɪnˈtɪərɪə ˈʃʌtə/ – is a solid and stable window covering usually
consisting of a frame of vertical stiles and horizontal rails (top, centre and bottom).
recessed porch /rɪˈsest pɔːʧ/ – is a type of porches which is built into house.
balcony /ˈbælkənɪ/ – is an area with a wall or bars around it that is joined to the
outside wall of a building on an upper level.
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interior courtyard /ɪnˈtɪərɪər ˈkɔːtjɑːd/ – is an area of flat ground outside that is
partly or completely surrounded by the walls of a building.
carved wooden bracket /kɑːvd wʊdn ˈbrækɪt/ – is a piece of decorative wood,
usually L-shaped, that is fastened to a wall and used to support something such as a
shelf.
balustrade /bæləsˈtreɪd/ – is a railing or wall to prevent people from falling
over the edge of stairs, a balcony, etc.
double hung sash window /dʌbl hʌŋ sæʃ ˈwɪndəʊ/ – is a window having two
sashes that slide up and down.
dentil molding /ˈdentɪl ˈməʊldɪŋ/ – is usually projects below the cornice, along
the roof line of a building.
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3.4.3. THE HISTORIC GONZÁLEZ – ALVAREZ HOUSE IN ST.
AUGUSTINE
The González-Alvarez House*, also known as The Oldest House, is a historic
house museum at 14 St. Francis Street in St. Augustine, Florida*. With a construction
history dating to about 1723, it is believe to be the oldest surviving house in St.
Augustine. [21]
The first houses in St. Augustine were made of wood with palm thatching**.
None of these survived. The González-Alvarez House we see today has been
remodeled**. When it was built in the early 1700s, the González-Alvarez House
probably had one story** and a flat roof**.
Like many Spanish Colonial buildings in St. Augustine, Florida, the GonzálezAlvarez House is made using coquina**, a sedimentary rock composed of shell
fragments. [20]
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3.4.3.1. A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED ‘*’ IN THE TEXT)
The González-Alvarez House – is a historic house museum at 14 St. Francis
Street in St. Augustine, Florida.
St. Augustine, Florida – is a city in the Southeastern United States, on the
Atlantic coast of northeastern Florida.
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3.4.3.2. GLOSSARY (MARKED ‘**’ IN THE TEXT)
palm thatching /pɑːm θæʧin/ – is a palm roof covering.
remodel /ˈriːˈmɔdl/ – to give a new shape or form to something.
one story /wʌn ˈstɔːrɪ/ – when a house has only one floor.
flat roof /flæt ruːf/ – is a roof which is almost level in contrast to the many types
of sloped roofs.
coquina /ˈkɒkɪn/ – is a sedimentary rock that is composed either wholly or
almost entirely of the transported, abraded, and mechanically-sorted fragments of the
shells of molluscs, trilobites, brachiopods, or other invertebrates.
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3.4.5. CASTILLO DE SAN MARCOS, FLORIDA
The Castillo de San Marcos* is unique in North American architecture. As the
only extant 17th century military construction** in the country and the oldest masonry
fortress** in the United States it is a prime example of the "bastion system" of
fortification**, the culmination of hundreds of years of military defense engineering**.
It is also unique for the material used in its construction. The Castillo is one of
only two fortifications in the world built out of a semi-rare form of limestone** called
coquina **(The other is Fort Matanzas National Monument 14 miles south)
The fortress itself is both a product of and evidence to the multitude of forces
both political and technological that created the competition for empire during the
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colonial era*. But above all the Castillo is an enduring legacy of the craftsmanship**
and skill of the engineers, artisans** and labourers** who built it.
Originating in Italy in the 15th century the particular star shaped design of the
Castillo is a result of architecture adapting to technology. The change in warfare
brought about by black powder weapons** created new types of defensive** structures
adapted both to withstand** or avoid the impact of cannon projectiles** and to
effectively mount cannons** to repel** any attackers. Of the major architectural
variations the "bastion system," named for the projecting diamond or angle shaped
formations added onto the fort walls, was the most commonly and effectively used.
Given its light and porous nature**, coquina would seem to be a poor choice of
building material for a fort. However the Spanish had few other options; it was the only
stone available on the northeast coast of La Florida*. However, coquina's porosity
turned out to have an unexpected benefit. Because of its conglomerate** mixture
coquina contains millions of microscopic air pockets making it compressible**.
A cannon ball fired at more solid material**, such as granite** or brick would
shatter the wall into flying shards**, but cannon balls fired at the walls of the Castillo
burrowed their way into the rock and stuck there, much like a bb would if fired into
Styrofoam**. So the thick coquina walls absorbed or deflected projectiles rather than
yielding** to them, providing a surprisingly long-lived fortress.
The fort was designed by the Spanish engineer Ignacio Daza*. [22]
87
3.4.5.1. A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED ‘*’ IN THE TEXT)
The Castillo de San Marcos – is the oldest masonry fort in the continental
United States.
The Colonial era – covers the history of European settlements from the start of
colonization in the early 16th century until their incorporation into the United States of
America.
La Florida – is a suburban commune of Chile located in the South East of
Santiago, Santiago Metropolitan Region.
Ignacio Daza – the Spanish engineer who designed the Castillo de San Marcos.
88
3.4.5.2. GLOSSARY (MARKED ‘**’ IN THE TEXT)
military construction /ˈmɪlɪtərɪ kənˈstrʌkʃn/ – is any construction, alteration,
development, conversion, or extension of any kind carried out with respect to a military
installation.
masonry fortress /ˈmeɪsnrɪ ˈfɔːtrɪs/ – is a large, strong building or group of
buildings built of stone that can be defended from attack.
fortification /fɔːtɪfɪˈkeɪʃn/ – is strong walls, towers, etc. that are built to protect a
place.
military defense engineering /ˈmɪlɪtərɪ dɪˈfens enʤɪˈnɪərɪŋ/ – is loosely
defined as the art, science, and practice of designing and building military works and
maintaining lines of military transport and communications.
limestone ( coquina) /ˈlaɪmstəʊn ˈkɒkɪn/ – is a white or light grey rock that is
used as a building material and in the making of cement.
craftsmanship /ˈkrɑːftsmənʃɪp/ – is a skill at making things.
artisan /ɑːtɪˈzæn/ – is someone who does skilled work with their hands.
labourer /ˈleɪbərə/ – is a person who does unskilled physical work, especially
outside.
black powder weapon /blæk ˈpaʊdə ˈwepən/ – refers to any type of weapon or
firearm that uses black powder (or gunpowder) as propellant for a bullet or projectile.
defensive /dɪˈfensɪv/ – used to protect someone or something against attack.
withstand /wɪðˈstænd/ – to be strong enough, or not be changed by something,
or to oppose a person or thing successfully.
cannon projectile /ˈkænən ˈprɔʤɪktaɪl/ – is an object that is shot forwards from
a cannon.
mount cannon /maʊnt ˈkænən/ – is a powerful weapon.
to repel /rɪˈpel/ – to force something or someone to move away or stop attacking
you.
89
porous nature /ˈpɔːrəs ˈneɪʧə/ – not protected enough to stop people going
through.
conglomerate /kənˈglɔmərɪt/ – is a company that owns several smaller
businesses whose products or services are usually very different.
compressible /kəmˈpresəbl/ – capable of being pressed together or forced into a
narrower compass, as an elastic or spongy substance.
solid material /ˈsɔlɪd məˈtɪərɪəl/ – hard or firm material.
granite /ˈgrænɪt/ – is a very hard, grey, pink, or black rock, used for building.
flying shards /ˈflaɪɪŋ ʃɑːdz/ – are pieces of a broken glass, cup, container, or
similar objects which are flying in the air.
yielding /ˈjiːldɪŋ/ – is soft substances or qualities that are yielding can bend.
styrofoam /ˈstaɪərəfəʊm/ – is a type of polystyrene.
90
3.5. DUTCH COLONIAL
Settling along the Hudson River* in the land that became New York State*,
Dutch colonists built brick and stone homes like those found in the Netherlands*.
Located in New York State and nearby areas in Delaware*, New Jersey*, and western
Connecticut*, Dutch Colonial homes often have "Dutch doors,"** where upper and
lower halves can be opened independently. Other common characteristics include

Matching chimneys** on each side, a massive wishbone-shaped
chimney** at the front

Wide, slightly flared eaves**

Gambrel roof**

Gambrel roof with flared eaves**
Later Dutch style buildings became known for their elaborately shaped gables**,
dormers**, and parapets**. [23]
91
3.5.1. A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED ‘*’ IN THE TEXT)
The Hudson River – is a 315-mile (507 km) river that flows from north to south
primarily through eastern New York in the United States.
New York State – is a state in the northeastern United States. New York was
one of the original thirteen colonies that formed the United States.
The Netherlands – is a country in Western Europe with a population of
seventeen million.
Delaware – is one of the 50 states of the United States, located in the MidAtlantic or Northeastern region.
New Jersey – is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United
States.
Western Connecticut – is the southernmost state in the New England region of
the northeastern United States.
92
3.5.2. GLOSSARY (MARKED ‘**’ IN THE TEXT)
dutch door /dʌʧ dɔː/ – is a door divided horizontally in such a fashion that the
bottom half may remain shut while the top half opens.
chimney /ˈʧɪmnɪ/ – is a vertical flue that provides a path through which smoke
from a fire is carried away through the wall or roof of a building.
wishbone-shaped chimney /ˈwɪʃbəʊn ʃeɪpt ˈʧɪmnɪ/ – is a large chimney that has
the shape of an arc.
slightly flared eave /ˈslaɪtlɪ flɛət iːv/ – an eave that projects beyond the surface
of the wall and curves upward toward its outer edge.
gambrel roof /ˈɡambrəl ruːf/ – is a usually symmetrical two-sided roof with two
slopes on each side.
gambrel roof with flared eaves /ˈɡambrəl ruːf wɪð flɛət iːv/ – is a usually
symmetrical two – sided roof with two slopes on each side with an eave that projects
beyond the surface of the wall and curves upward toward its outer edge.
shaped gable /ʃeɪpt geɪbl/ – is the vertical triangular wall between the sloping
ends of gable roof which has a definite shape.
dormer /ˈdɔːmə/ – is a gabled extension built out from a sloping roof to
accommodate a vertical window.
parapet /ˈpærəpɪt/ – is a low wall along the edge of a roof or balcony.
93
3.5.3. BRONCK HOUSE
Bronck House*, also known as Pieter Bronck House, is a Swedish homestead
house in Coxsackie* in Greene County, New York, that was constructed in 1663 and
added to later. It is the oldest structure in upstate New York, and was declared a
National Historic Landmark* in 1967.
A stone house** was built first, by Pieter Bronck*, born in Jönköping*, Sweden,
a relative of Jonas Bronck, for whom the Bronx was named, who bought the property
from native Americans. That was expanded soon after, and, in 1738 a larger brick house
that was connected by a doorway** was built by his grandson. The house is reputed to
be the location where the Coxsackie Declaration of Independence* was signed, more
than a year before the Continental Congress* signing in 1776.
The house remained in the family until 1938. It now is owned and operated as a
museum by the Greene County Historical Society*. The Bronck Farm 13-Sided Barn*
is related to, but listed separately from the Bronck House. It was listed on the National
Register of Historic Places* in 1984. [24]
94
Pieter Bronck* is a rather mysterious person. He claims that he is born in 1616
in Jönköping*, Sweden. Researchers have suggested that he could be a son or maybe a
niece to Jonas Bronck. He could even be a cousin. He witnesses Jonas Bronck’s estate
inventory in 1643 in Niewe Amsterdam*. After this, he pops up** again in Amsterdam
in 1645 and gets married. Later, he buys some land at the village Koixhacking*. This
will later become Coxsackie*. He is building the stone house** in 1663-64 that still
stands. Pieter gets two sons. The oldest one is Pieter, born in1647. However, he
became pushed out** by the family when he married the Indian Chief’s daughter. As of
today, we know almost nothing about him. His younger daughter Jan (1652-1742) takes
over the farm. Jan Bronck marries Commertje Leendertse Conyn that was daughter
to Leendert Conyn. Jan and his wife got 10 children. He becomes, apart from a
farmer, also a lieutenant in the English army. [25]
95
3.5.3.1. A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED ‘*’ IN THE TEXT)
Bronck House (Pieter Bronck House) – is a Swedish homestead house in
Coxsackie in Greene County, New York, that was constructed in 1663 and added to
later.
Coxsackie – is a town in Greene County, New York, United States.
(Koixhacking)
A National Historic Landmark – is a building, district, object, site, or structure
that is officially recognized by the United States government for its outstanding
historical significance.
Pieter Bronck – was the owner and builder of the Bronck House.
Jönköping, Sweden – is a city in southern Sweden.
The Coxsackie Declaration of Independence – is a lesser-known declaration
signed a year prior to the more famous Declaration of Independence. It was reputedly
signed at the Bronck House in Coxsackie, New York.
The Continental Congress – was a convention of delegates called together from
the Thirteen Colonies.
The Greene County Historical Society – is a self-supporting, non-profit
organization that has served as the caretaker of local written and physical histories.
The Bronck Farm 13 – Sided Barn – is a historic barn located at Coxsackie in
Greene County, New York.
The National Register of Historic Places – is the United States federal
government's official list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects deemed
worthy of preservation for their historical significance.
96
3.5.3.2. GLOSSARY (MARKED ‘**’ IN THE TEXT)
stone house /stəʊn haʊs/ – is the house which was built of stones.
doorway /ˈdɔːweɪ/ – is the entrance through which you enter or leave a room or
building.
to pop up /pɔp ʌp/ – appear suddenly or unexpectedly.
to push out /pʊʃ aʊt/ – push to thrust outward.
97
3.6. GERMAN COLONIAL
Developed after about 1675, when the Delaware River Valley* area
(Pennsylvania*, New Jersey* and Delaware*) was settled by immigrants** from
Sweden, Finland, Scotland, Ireland, Germany and several other northern European
nations. The early colonists to this region adapted the "half-timber"** style of
construction then popular in Europe, which used a frame of braced timbers** filled-in
with masonry**. The "bank house" was a popular form of home during this period,
typically constructed into a hillside** for protection during the cold winters and hot
summers of the region.
The two-story "country townhouse"** was also common around Pennsylvania
during this time.
German Settlers* in the American colonies used local materials to recreate
building styles from their homeland.
Schifferstadt Architectural Museum* in Frederick, Maryland* is a landmark
example of German Colonial Architecture*. Named by Joseph Brunner* after his
childhood home near Mannheim, Germany*, the house was completed in 1756.
Typical of German Colonial architecture, the Schifferstadt Architectural Museum
has these features:

Most often found in New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Maryland

Two-feet thick walls made with sandstone**

Reinforced stone arches** above the first floor windows and doors

Hand-hewn beams** pinned with wooden pegs**

Exposed half-timbering**

Flared eaves**

Massive wishbone-shaped chimney**. [26]
98
3.6.1. A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED ‘*’ IN THE TEXT)
The Delaware River Valley – is a major river on the Atlantic coast of the United
States.
Pennsylvania – is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of
the United States.
New Jersey – is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United
States.
Delaware – is one of the 50 states of the United States, located in the MidAtlantic or Northeastern region.
German Settlers – are the Germans who arrived in the U.S. to live and use the
land.
Schifferstadt Architectural Museum – is the oldest standing house in Frederick,
Maryland.
Frederick, Maryland – is a city in, and the county seat of, Frederick County in
the U.S. state of Maryland.
German Colonial Architecture – is one of the domestic architectural styles in
the U.S. that developed during the Colonial period.
Joseph Brunner – was a German immigrant who built the Schifferstadt.
Mannheim, Germany – is a city in the southwestern part of Germany, the thirdlargest in the German state of Baden-Württemberg.
99
3.6.2. GLOSSARY (MARKED ‘**’ IN THE TEXT)
immigrant /ˈɪmɪgrənt/ – is a person who has come to a different country in order
to live there permanently.
half-timbered /hɑːfˈtɪm.bəd/ – a half-timbered building has a wooden frame
whose spaces are filled with brick or stone to form the walls, so that the wood still
shows on the surface.
braced timber /breɪs ˈtɪmbə/ – is the method of creating structures using heavy
squared off and carefully fitted and joined timbers.
masonry /ˈmeɪsnrɪ/ – is the bricks and pieces of stone that are used to make a
building.
hillside /ˈhɪlsaɪd/ – is the sloping surface of a hill, rather than the level surface at
the top of it.
"country townhouse" /ˈkʌntrɪ ˈtaʊnhaʊs/ – is a type of terraced housing.
sandstone /ˈsændstəʊn/ – is a type of rock formed from sand.
reinforced stone arches /riːɪnˈfɔːst stəʊn ɑːʧz/ – are very big arches made of
stone.
hand-hewn beam /hænd hjuːn biːm/ – is cutting the logs with your own hands.
wooden peg /wʊdn peg/ – is small, pointed piece of wood, used in fastening
boards together.
exposed half
– timbering /ɪkˈspəʊzd hɑːfˈtɪm.bərin/ – is a construction
employing wood framing with spaces filled with masonry.
flared eave /flɛət iːv/ – is an eave that projects beyond the surface of the wall and
curves upward toward its outer edge.
massive wishbonе-shaped chimney /ˈmæsɪv ˈwɪʃbəʊn ʃeɪpt ˈʧɪmnɪ/ – is a large
chimney that has the shape of an arc.
100
3.6.3. SCHIFFERSTADT ARCHITECTURAL MUSEUM
Built around 1758, Schifferstadt Architectural Museum* is the one of the
oldest and most historic buildings in the City of Frederick, Maryland*, and
among the best examples of early Colonial German Architecture* in the country.
Built at the beginning of the French and Indian War* as frontier settlers
abandoned their western Maryland farms in fear of raids from the French and
their Indian allies**, Schifferstadt could have been planed to provide a refuge
for families west of Frederick who chose to stay on their land should they need
it.
The large stone house** was built on 303 acres of virgin** timberland**
by Joseph Bruner*, a German immigrant. He and his family left their village of
Klein Schifferstadt in 1729 in hopes of gaining independence including the right
to own property and build a home in the "New Land."
Joseph Bruner named his farm Schifferstadt after his hometown in the
Palatinate region* of South Western Germany. Although its exterior** and
interior** have been altered over the years, Schifferstadt maintains many
original architectural features. [27]
101
3.6.3.1. A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED ‘*’ IN THE TEXT)
Schifferstadt Architectural Museum – is the oldest standing house in
Frederick, Maryland.
Frederick, Maryland – is a city in, and the county seat of, Frederick
County in the U.S. state of Maryland.
Colonial German Architecture – is one of the domestic architectural
styles in the U.S. that developed during the Colonial period.
The French and Indian War – is a name used in the United States for a
series of conflicts in North America that represented the actions there that
accompanied the European dynastic wars.
Joseph Bruner – was a German immigrant who built the Schifferstadt.
102
3.6.3.2. GLOSSARY (MARKED ‘**’ IN THE TEXT)
ally /ˈælaɪ/ – is a country that has agreed officially to give help and
support to another one, especially during a war.
stone house /stəʊn haʊs/ – is a house which was built of stone.
virgin /ˈvɜːʤɪn/ – pure and not spoiled.
timberland /ˈtɪmbəlænd/ – is a land that is covered with trees and
shrubs.
exterior /eksˈtɪərɪə/ – on or from the outside.
interior /ɪnˈtɪərɪə/ – is an inside part of something.
103
3.6.4. BYERS – MUMA HOUSE
Byers – Muma House* is a historic home located in East Donegal Township,
Lancaster County, Pennsylvania*. It is a 2 ½-story, stone dwelling** with Pennsylvania
German Colonial and Georgian style* design influences. The original section** was
built about 1740, with additions about 1805, 1840-1850, and 1998. Also on the property
is a mid-18th century well.
It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places* in 2002. [28]
104
3.6.4.1. A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED ‘*’ IN THE TEXT)
Byers-Muma House – is a historic home located in East Donegal Township,
Lancaster County, Pennsylvania.
East Donegal Township – is a township in northwestern Lancaster County,
Pennsylvania, United States.
German Colonial style – is one of the domestic architectural styles in the U.S.
that developed during the Colonial period.
Georgian Colonial style – is one of the domestic architectural styles in the U.S.
that developed during the Colonial period.
The National Register of Historic Places – is the United States federal
government's official list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects deemed
worthy of preservation for their historical significance.
105
3.6.4.2. GLOSSARY (MARKED ‘**’ IN THE TEXT)
dwelling /ˈdwelɪŋ/ – is a house or place to live in.
original section /əˈrɪʤənl sekʃn/ – is a part of the house in original form.
106
3.7. MID-ATLANTIC COLONIAL
The region surrounding the Chesapeake Bay* on America's east coast was settled
primarily by immigrants** from the British isles*. The standard vernacular** house
built by the colonists in this region between the first settlement** in 1607 and the end of
British rule in 1776 followed the I-plan format, had either interior** or exterior** gable
chimneys**, and was either wooden or brick. Most were only one room deep.
Academic architecture was evident, but it was relatively scarce. The best example
of Mid-Atlantic Colonial academic architecture* is the 1774 Hammond-Harwood
House* in Annapolis, Maryland*. This house was modeled on the Villa Pisani* in
Montagnana*, Italy as exhibited in Renaissance architect*, Andrea Palladio's* Four
Books of Architecture* (1570). Colonial architect William Buckland* designed this
house in 1774 and the resulting house is a very skillful adaptation of the Villa Pisani for
the warmer climate of the Chesapeake Bay region*. [29]
107
3.7.1. A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED ‘*’ IN THE TEXT)
Chesapeake Bay – is an estuary in District of Columbia and the U.S. states of
Maryland, Delaware, and Virginia, lying inland from the Atlantic Ocean and
surrounded to the west by the North American mainland and to the east by the
Delmarva Peninsula.
British Isles – are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental
Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland and over six thousand smaller
isles.
Mid-Atlantic Colonial academic architecture – is one of the domestic
architectural styles in the U.S. that developed during the Colonial period.
The Hammond–Harwood House – is a historic house museum at 19 Maryland
Avenue in Annapolis, Maryland, USA.
Annapolis, Maryland – is the capital of the U.S. state of Maryland, as well as
the county seat of Anne Arundel County.
The Villa Pisani – is the name shared by a number of villas commissioned by the
patrician Pisani family of Venice.
Montagnana, Italy – is a town and comune in the province of Padova, in Veneto
(northern Italy).
Renaissance architect – is the European architecture of the period between the
early 14th and early 17th centuries in different regions, demonstrating a conscious
revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and
material culture.
Andrea Palladio – was an Italian architect active in the Republic of Venice.
Four Books of Architecture – is a treatise on architecture by the architect
Andrea Palladio (1508-1580), written in Italian.
William Buckland – was a British architect who designed in colonial Maryland
and Virginia.
108
3.7.2. GLOSSARY (MARKED ‘**’ IN THE TEXT)
immigrant /ˈɪmɪgrənt/ – is a person who has come to a different country in order
to live there permanently.
vernacular /vəˈnækjʊlə/ – is a local style in which ordinary houses are built.
settlement /ˈsetlmənt/ – is a place where people come to live or the process of
settling in such a place.
exterior /eksˈtɪərɪə/ – on or from the outside.
interior /ɪnˈtɪərɪə/ – is an inside part of something.
gable chimney /geɪbl ˈʧɪmnɪ/ – is a chimney in the shape of a triangle, where it
meets the sloping parts of a roof.
109
3.7.3. HAMMOND–HARWOOD HOUSE
The Hammond-Harwood House* is a historic house museum at 19 Maryland
Avenue in Annapolis, Maryland, USA*. Built in 1774, is one of the premier colonial
houses remaining in America from the British colonial period (1607-1776)*. It is the
only existing work of colonial academic architecture* that was principally designed
from a plate in Andrea Palladio’s I Quattro Libri dell’Architettura (The Four Books of
Architecture) (1570)*. The house was designed by the architect William Buckland* in
1773–74 for wealthy farmer Matthias Hammond* of Anne Arundel County, Maryland*.
Construction on the house began in, or around, April 1774 and a majority of the
house was probably completed before the death of the architect in November or
December of the same year. Patron Matthias Hammond probably never occupied his
elegant house because he abruptly left Annapolis for his family's country estate in 1776.
He died in 1786 after renting the house for many years.
Architect William Buckland adapted Palladio's Villa Pisani design to satisfy the
tastes of colonial Annapolis. He re-designed** the plan to accommodate** the tastes for
asymmetrical** regional preferences and modified the hyphens** from Palladio's
arched entries to more practical single storey** connecting links. He also incorporated
fashionable urban design by sinking the windows in the method mandated** by the
London Building Act of 1774*. This device provided better protection from fire and
gave the overall design a greater degree of visual solidity** and three dimensionality**.
This adaptation from Palladio's model marks his maturity** as an architect and ranks
him as one of America's first and finest architects.
110
The Hammond-Harwood House is a five-part brick house** with a five-bay twostory central block**, two-story end wings** and one-story connecting hyphens** on
either side. The central block has a shallow hipped roof**. The wings project toward the
street with three-sided hipped-roof bays**. The hyphens are rendered as a blind arcade,
with the central bay** a door opening with a pediment** above. There is little
decoration, with plain rubbed brick flat arches** over the windows. Ornament** is
confined to the central bay, whose door is framed by engaged Ionic columns** and
topped by a fanlight**. Above the door the second floor window is framed with a
surround and entablature**.
The interior** presents the appearance of symmetry** where it is in fact not
symmetrical, using false doors** where necessary to maintain the illusion**. The main
rooms are the first-floor dining room and the second-floor ballroom** immediately
above, at the rear of the house overlooking the garden. The dining room features an
opening, centered in the façade**, that is treated as a door on the outside and as a
window on the inside. [30]
111
WILLIAM BUCKLAND
William Buckland* (1734-1774) was a British architect who designed in
colonial Maryland* and Virginia*.
Born at Oxford*, England, Buckland spent seven years as an apprentice to his
uncle, James Buckland, "Citizen and Joiner" of London. At 21, he was brought to
Virginia as an indentured** servant to Thomas Mason, brother of George Mason. Most
notable among his repertoire are: Gunston Hall* (c. 1755-1759) and HammondHarwood House*. [31]
112
3.7.3.1. A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED ‘*’ IN THE TEXT)
The Hammond-Harwood House – is a historic house museum at 19 Maryland
Avenue in Annapolis, Maryland, USA.
Annapolis, Maryland – is the capital of the U.S. state of Maryland, as well as
the county seat of Anne Arundel County.
Colonial academic architecture – is one of the domestic architectural styles in
the U.S. that developed during the Colonial period.
Andrea Palladio – was an Italian architect active in the Republic of Venice.
Four Books of Architecture – is a treatise on architecture by the architect
Andrea Palladio (1508–1580), written in Italian.
William Buckland – was a British architect who designed in colonial Maryland
and Virginia.
Matthias Hammond – was an owner the Hammond-Harwood House.
Anne Arundel County, Maryland – is a county in the U.S. state of Maryland.
The London Building Act of 1774 – was a comprehensive set of building
regulations covering the whole built-up area that forced conformity on artisan builders.
Maryland – is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering
Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C. to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its
north; and Delaware to its east.
Virginia – is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United
States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.
Oxford – is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of
Oxfordshire.
Gunston Hall – is an 18th century Georgian mansion near the Potomac River in
Mason Neck, Virginia, U.S.A. .
113
3.7.3.2. GLOSSARY (MARKED ‘**’ IN THE TEXT)
redesigned /riːdɪˈzaɪnd/ – is used to describe something that has been changed in
appearance, structure, or in the way it works.
to accommodate /əˈkɔmədeɪt/ – to provide with a place to live or to be stored in.
asymmetrical /eɪsɪˈmetrɪkl/ – having parts on either side or half that do not
match or are not the same size or shape.
hyphen /ˈhaɪfən/ – is a connecting link between two larger building elements.
single storey /sɪŋgl ˈstɔːrɪ/ – having only one floor or level.
mandate /ˈmændeɪt/ – is the authority given to an elected group of people, such
as a government, to perform an action or govern a country.
solidity /səˈlɪdɪtɪ/ – is the quality of being hard or firm, not a liquid or gas.
dimensionality /dɪmenʃəˈnælɪtɪ/ – is measure of spatial extent, especially width,
height, or length.
maturity /məˈtjʊərɪtɪ/ – is a very advanced or developed form or state.
brick house /brɪk haʊs/ – is a house that was made of brick.
two-story central block /tuː ˈstɔːrɪ ˈsentrəl blɔk/ – is a building with two floors.
two-story end wings /tuː ˈstɔːrɪ end wɪŋz/ – are the parts of house (building)
which are subordinated to the main, central structure which have two floors.
shallow hipped roof /ˈʃæləʊ hɪpt ruːf/ – is a type of roof where all sides slope
downwards to the walls, usually with a fairly gentle slope.
three-sided hipped – roof bay /θriː saɪd hɪpt ruːf beɪ/ – is a type of roof where
all sides slope downwards to the walls, usually with a fairly gentle slope which has
three-sided bay.
central bay /ˈsentrəl beɪ/ – is recess in the wall to place anything in the center of
the house.
pediment /ˈpedɪmənt/ – is a triangular part at the top of the front of a building
that supports the roof and is often decorated.
brick flat arch /brɪk flæt ɑːʧ/ – is an arch made of brick with mutually
supporting voussoirs that has a straight horizontal extrados and intrados.
114
ornament /ˈɔːnəmənt/ – is decoration that is added to increase the beauty of
something.
ionic column /aɪˈɒnɪk ˈkɒləm/ – is one of the three main orders of classical
Greek architecture, characterized by two opposed volutes in the capital.
fanlight /ˈfanlʌɪt/ – is a small window over the top of a door.
entablature /enˈtæbləʧə/ – is the superstructure of moldings and bands which lie
horizontally above columns, resting on their capitals.
interior /ɪnˈtɪərɪə/ – is an inside part of something.
symmetry /ˈsɪmɪtrɪ/ – is the quality of having parts that match each other.
false door /fɔːls dɔː/ – is an artistic representation of a door which does not
function like a real door.
illusion /ɪˈluːʒən/ – is something that is not really what it seems to be.
ballroom /ˈbɔːlruːm/ – is a large room that is used for dancing.
façade /fəˈsɑːd/ – is the face or front of any building.
indentured /ɪnˈdentʃərd/ – relating to an official agreement that someone will
work for someone else for a length of time, especially in order to learn a job.
115
3.8. COLONIAL GEORGIAN ARCHITECTURE
Between 1725 and 1775, the principle architectural style of 18th century America
was Georgian*, named after the three Kings George* who ruled England* and her
colonies from 1714 to 1820. Balance** and symmetry** are the main features of
Georgian architecture, and is reflected in the floor plans of homes of this period, and in
the placement** of windows and doors in the street façade**. In addition, side or end
chimneys** often replaced the central chimney** of First Period homes*. Structures
built at the beginning of the period typically have gambrel roofs**, while later houses
often feature a hipped roof**. In New England*, brick became a popular material for
house construction in the mid-to-late 18th century, although wood was still the most
common building material. [32]
116
3.8.1. A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED ‘*’ IN THE TEXT)
Colonial Georgian architecture – is the name given in most English-speaking
countries to the set of architectural styles current between 1714 and 1830.
Three Kings George – Georg Ludwig von Hannover (George I), George II,
George William Frederick (George III).
England – is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders
with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west.
The First Period – was the colonial arhitecture period of approximately 1626
through 1725.
New England – is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern
United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and
Connecticut.
117
3.8.2. GLOSSARY (MARKED ‘**’ IN THE TEXT)
balance /ˈbæləns/ – is a state where things are of equal weight or force.
symmetry /ˈsɪmɪtrɪ/ – is the quality of having parts that match each other.
placement /ˈpleɪsmənt/ – is a temporary position or job in an organization.
street façade /striːt fəˈsɑːd/ – is the front of a building.
side chimney /saɪd ˈʧɪmnɪ/ – is a hollow structure which is located on the one
side of house that allows the smoke from a fire inside a building to escape to the air
outside.
end chimney /end ˈʧɪmnɪ/ – is a chimney located at an end gable of a house.
central chimney /ˈsentrəl ˈʧɪmnɪ/ – a hollow structure, often massive in size,
located in the middle of a house to provide heat for the entire house.
gambrel roof /ˈɡambrəl ruːf/ – is a usually symmetrical two-sided roof with two
slopes on each side.
hipped roof /hɪpt ruːf/ – is a type of roof where all sides are sloped.
118
3.8.3. CROWNINSHIELD-BENTLEY HOUSE
The Crowninshield-Bentley House* was built for ship captain and merchant John
Crowninshield*, and is where the famous diarist** Rev. William Bentley* boarded with
the Crowninshield family for many years. For most of the 18th century, the house was a
duplex**, because two members of the family each inherited half of the house. This was
very common in New England*, and explains the presence of multiple kitchens in many
18th century homes. Like most town houses at the time, it originally stood at the
curb**, but in 1959 it was moved down Essex Street* to its present location. The house
is owned by the Peabody Essex Museum* and is currently closed for renovation**. [32]
119
3.8.3.1. A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED ‘*’ IN THE TEXT)
The Crowninshield-Bentley House – is a Colonial house in the Georgian style,
located at 126 Essex Street, Salem, Massachusetts in the Essex Institute Historic
District.
John Crowninshield – was a ship captain and merchant, the owner of the
Crowninshield – Bentley House.
William Bentley – was an American Unitarian minister, scholar, columnist, and
diarist.
New England – is a geographical region comprising six states of the
northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode
Island, and Connecticut.
Essex Street – is a north-south street on the Lower East Side of the New York
City borough of Manhattan.
The Peabody Essex Museum – is an American Museum of art in Salem, Essex
County, Massachusetts, existing since 1992.
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3.8.3.2. GLOSSARY (MARKED ‘**’ IN THE TEXT)
diarist /ˈdaɪərɪst/ – is someone who is known for writing or having written a
diary.
duplex /ˈdjuːpleks/ – is a set of rooms for living in that are on two floors of a
building.
curb / kɜːb/ – to control or limit something that is not wanted.
renovation /renəʊˈveɪʃn/ – is the process of repairing and improving a building
so that it is in good condition again.
121
3.8.4. HAWKES HOUSE
About 1780, the Derby family* hired Samuel McIntire* to design a house to
replace the brick home they had lived in for twenty years. The new house was in the late
Georgian style*, with tall ceilings**, large windows**, an imposing three story
façade**, and hipped roof**. The Derbys did not, however, move into the house, and it
was left unfinished until about 1800, when it was sold to Benjamin Hawkes*, who
completed the building. The Hawkes House* is part of Salem Maritime National
Historic Site*, and is not open to the public. [32]
122
SAMUEL MCINTIRE (1757 – 1811)
Was one of the first American architects. These “designers” usually oversaw**
house construction and carved decorative work** as well as drawing house plans. By
the late 19th century, design and construction of homes were different professions. [32]
123
3.8.4.1. A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED ‘*’ IN THE TEXT)
The Derby family – was the owner of the Hawkes House.
Samuel McIntire – was an American architect and craftsman, best known for the
Chestnut Street District, a classic example of Federal style architecture.
Benjamin Hawkes – was the second owner of the Hawkes House after the Derby
family.
The Hawkes House – is part of Salem Maritime National Historic Site.
Salem Maritime National Historic Site – is a National Historic Site consisting
of 12 historic structures, one replica tall – ship, and about 9 acres (36,000 m2) of land
along the waterfront of Salem Harbor in Salem, Massachusetts.
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3.8.4.2. GLOSSARY (MARKED ‘**’ IN THE TEXT)
tall ceiling /tɔːl ˈsiːlɪŋz/ – is an overhead tall interior surface that covers the upper
limits of a room.
large window /lɑːʤ ˈwɪndəʊ/ – is a big space usually filled with glass in the
wall of a building or in a vehicle, to allow light and air in and to allow people inside the
building to see out.
three story façade /θriː – ˈstɔːrɪ fəˈsɑːd/ – is the front of a building with three
floors.
hipped roof / hɪpt ruːf/ – is a type of roof where all sides are sloped.
oversaw /ˈəʊvəˈsiː/ – to watch or organize a job or an activity to make certain
that it is being done correctly.
carved decorative work /kɑːvd ˈdekərətɪv wɜːk/ – is a type of decorating a
house with using of carving.
125
3.8.5. PEIRCE – NICHOLS HOUSE*
At about the same time McIntire* was building a new house for the Derbys, he
was also designing a similar house for Jerathmiel Peirce*, co-owner of the merchant
ship Friendship. McIntire returned to the Peirce house in 1801 to remodel** the interior
of the east side for the wedding of Sally Peirce to George Nichols. Behind the house are
stables** and a terraced garden extending back to a small arbor**. The property
originally swept down to the North River*, where Peirce could dock his vessels**. The
house is owned by the Peabody Essex Museum*, and will be open for tours in the fall of
2007. [32]
126
3.8.5.1. A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED ‘*’ IN THE TEXT)
Peirce-Nichols House – is a historic house museum located at 80 Federal Street
in Salem, Massachusetts.
Samuel McIntire – was an American architect and craftsman, best known for
the Chestnut Street District, a classic example of Federal style architecture.
Jerathmiel Peirce – was a co-owner of the merchant ship Friendship, the owner
of the Pierce-Nichols House.
The Peabody Essex Museum – is the American art Museum in Salem, Essex
County, Massachusetts, has been in existence since 1992 after the merger of the Essex
Institute with the Peabody Museum in Salem.
127
3.8.5.2. GLOSSARY (MARKED ‘**’ IN THE TEXT)
remodel /ˈriːˈmɔdl / – to give a new shape or form to something.
stable /steɪbl/ – firmly fixed or not likely to move or change.
arbor /ˈɑːbɔ/ – is a sheltered place in a garden formed by trees and bushes that
are grown to partly surround it.
vessel /vesl/ – is a large boat or a ship.
128
3.9. FEDERAL ARCHITECTURE
After the end of a Great War for the independence a newly proclaimed nation was
inspired by the beginning of a brand new chapter in their history and changes covered
literally all the spheres of life including architecture. The Federal, or Adam, style
dominated the American architectural landscape from roughly 1780 to 1840, having
evolved from Georgian, the principal design language of the colonial period.
Fundamentally, it was the comparatively progressive European ideas about architecture
that prompted this American change in taste. Indeed, many historians today think of the
Federal style as merely a refinement of the Georgian style, a view easily justified by a
close comparison of the two. In general, the term Federal connotes that period in
American history when our Federal system of governance was being developed and
honed. More specifically, it refers to the buildings that went up during the ensuing
construction boom in which designers readily incorporated styling variants popular in
Europe. Buildings which represent Federal style could be found practically in every
western city of the USA. Especially it could be recognized throughout the architectural
image of the Greater Washington D.C.
In the early American republic, the founding generation consciously chose to
associate the nation with the ancient democracies of Greece and the republican values of
Rome. Grecian aspirations informed the Greek Revival, lasting into the 1850s. Using
Roman architectural vocabulary, the Federal style applied to the balanced and
symmetrical version of Georgian architecture that had been practiced in the American
colonies' new motifs of neoclassical architecture as it was epitomized in Britain by
Robert Adam, who published his designs in 1792. [33]
129
Massachusetts State House (1798, in a drawing by Alexander Jackson Davis,
1827
Central Pavilion, 1793–94, by Charles Bulfinch
130
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE REPRESENTED PERIOD
American Federal architecture typically uses plain surfaces with attenuated**
detail, usually isolated in panels**, tablets**, and friezes**. It also had a flatter**,
smoother façade** and rarely used pilasters**. It was most influenced by the
interpretation of ancient Roman architecture*, fashionable after the unearthing of
Pompeii* and Herculaneum*. The bald eagle was a common symbol used in this style,
with the ellipse frequent architectural motif.
The classicizing manner of constructions and town planning undertaken by the
federal government was expressed in federal projects of lighthouses and harbor
buildings; hospitals; in the rationalizing, urbanistic layout of L'Enfant's city of
Washington; and in New York the Commissioners' Plan of 1811*.
In two generations during which a gentleman's education included the ability to
draw up an idiomatic classical elevation for craftsmen who were themselves trained in
the classical vocabulary, and where masons** and house carpenters** on their own
produced a refined vernacular architecture, this American neoclassical high style was
the idiom of America's first professional architects, in the generation of c. 1800, men
such as Charles Bulfinch, architect of the Massachusetts State House*, Boston, and
Minard Lafever.
The two brothers, Robert Adam and James Adam, were Scottish architects who
never visited America, but through their books were leading influences.
So, now I want to represent to you the list of the most gifted architects of the
Federal architecture period. [34]
131
3.9.1. A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED ‘*’ IN THE TEXT)
Pompeii – a ruined city of Roman Empire near modern Naples in the Italian
region of Campania, in the territory of the commune of Pompeii.
Herculaneum – an ancient Roman town destroyed by volcanic pyroclastic flows
in 79 AD.
Commissioners' Plan of 1811 – the original design plan for the streets of
Manhattan, which put in place thegrid plan that has defined Manhattan to this day.
Massachusetts State House – a state capitol and seat of government for the
Commonwealth of Massachusetts, located in the Beacon Hill.
132
3.9.2. GLOSSARY (MARKED ‘**’ IN THE TEXT)
attenuated /əˈten.ju.eɪ.tɪd/ – reduced, weakened, diminished.
panel /ˈpæn.əl/ – flat, usually rectangular piece forming a raised, recessed, or
framed part of the surface in which it is set.
tablet /ˈtæb.lət/ – a thin sheet or leaf, used as a writing surface.
frieze /friːz/ a plain or decorated horizontal part of an entablature between
the architrave and cornice.
flatter /ˈflæt.ər/ – a blacksmith's tool, resembling a flat – faced hammer, that is
placed on forged work and struck to smooth the surface of the forging.
façade /fəˈsɑːd/ – the face of a building, especially the principal face.
pilaster /ˈplɑːstə/ – a rectangular column with a capital and base, projecting only
slightly from a wall as an ornamental motif.
mason /ˈmeɪ.sən/ – the one who builds or works with stone or brick.
carpenter /ˈkɑː.pɪn.tər/ – a skilled worker who makes, finishes, and repairs
wooden objects and structures.
133
3.9.2 REPRESENTATIVES
3.9.2.1. CHARLES BULFINCH
Charles Bulfinch (August 8, 1763-April 15, 1844) was an early American
architect, and has been regarded by many as the first native-born American to practice
architecture as a profession.
Bulfinch split his career between his native Boston and Washington, D.C., where
he served as Commissioner of Public Building and built the intermediate United States
Capitol* rotunda** and dome**. His masterpieces are famous for their simplicity,
balance, and good taste, and as the origin of a distinctive Federal style* of classical
domes, columns**, and ornament** that was dominating in early 19th – century
American architecture.
134
Hollis Street Church* is considered to be the first serious work of the
architect (1788).
Among his other early works are a memorial column on Beacon
Hill*(1789), the first monument to the American Revolution*; the Federal Street
Theater (1793)*; the "Tontine Crescent"* (built 1793 1794, now demolished),
fashioned in part after John Wood's Royal Crescent*; the Old State House in
Hartford*, Connecticut (1796); and the. He was elected a Fellow of the
American Academy of Arts and Sciences* in 1791.
135
Massachusetts State House (1798)
The Old State House in Hartford, Connecticut (1796)
Over the course of ten years, Bulfinch built a remarkable number of private
dwellings** in the Boston area, including Joseph Barrell's Pleasant Hill* (1793), a
series of three houses in Boston for Harrison Gray Otis* (1796, 1800, 1806), and the
John Phillips House (1804). He built several churches in Boston, of which New North*
(built 1802–1804) is the last standing.
136
From 1799 to 1817, he was the chairman of Boston's board of selectmen
continuously, and served as a paid Police Superintendent, improving the city's streets,
drains**, and lighting. Under his direction, both the infrastructure and civic center of
Boston were transformed into a dignified classical style. Bulfinch was responsible for
the design of the Boston Common*, the remodeling and enlargement of Faneuil Hall*
(1805), and the construction of India Wharf*. In these Boston years he also designed the
Massachusetts State Prison* (1803); Boylston Market* (1810); University Hall for
Harvard University* (1813-1814); the Meeting House in Lancaster, Massachusetts*
(1815-17); and the Bulfinch Building home of the Ether Dome at Massachusetts
General Hospital* (1818), its completion overseen by Alexander Parris, who was
working in Bulfinch's office at the time the architect was summoned** to Washington.
Faneuil Hall (1805)
137
Meeting House in Lancaster, Massachusetts (1815-17)
In the summer of 1817, Bulfinch's roles as selectman, designer and public official
coincided during a visit by President James Monroe*. The two men were almost
constantly in each other's company for the week-long visit, and a few months later
(1818) Monroe appointed Bulfinch the successor to Benjamin Henry Latrobe (17641820) as Architect of the Capitol in Washington, D.C. (The Capitol Building had been
partially burned by the British in 1814.) In this position he was paid a salary of $2,500
per year plus expenses.
As Commissioner of Public Building, Bulfinch completed the Capitol's wings**
and central portion, designed the western approach and portico**, and constructed the
Capitol's original low wooden dome to his own design (replaced by the present cast-iron
dome completed in the mid-1860s). In 1829 Bulfinch completed the construction of the
Capitol, 36 years after its cornerstone** was laid. During his interval in Washington,
Bulfinch also drew plans for the State House in Augusta, Maine (1829-1832), a
Unitarian Church and prison in Washington, D.C. . In 1827, he was elected into the
National Academy of Design* as an Honorary member. He returned to Boston in 1830,
where he died on April 15, 1844, aged 80, and was buried in King's Chapel Burial
Ground* in Boston. His tomb was later moved to Mount Auburn Cemetery* in
Cambridge, Massachusetts. In 1943, a United States Liberty ship named the SS Charles
Bulfinch was launched. The ship was scrapped in 1971. [35]
138
United States Capitol, 1846
State House in Augusta, Maine (1829–1832)
139
3.9.2.1.1. A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED ‘*’ IN THE TEXT)
Hollis Street Church – a Congregational (1732 – c. 1800) and Unitarian (c. 1800
– 1887) church. It merged with the South Congregational Society of Boston in 1887.
Beacon Hill – a historic neighborhood in Boston, Massachusetts.
American Revolution – was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and
1783. The American Patriots in the Thirteen Colonies won independence from Great
Britain, becoming the United States of America.
The Federal Street Theater – also known as the Boston Theatre, was located at
the corner of Federal and Franklin streets in Boston, Massachusetts.
The "Tontine Crescent” – also Franklin Place, designed by Charles Bulfinch
and built in Boston, Massachusetts in 1793-95, included a row of sixteen three-story
brick townhouses that extended in a 480-foot curve, a small garden, and four double
houses.
John Wood's Royal Crescent – is a row of 30 terraced houses laid out in a
sweeping crescent in the city of Bath, England.
The Old State House in Hartford – is generally believed to have been designed
by noted American architect Charles Bulfinch as his first public building.
The American Academy of Arts and Sciences – one of the oldest learned
societies in the United States of America. It is devoted to the advancement and study of
the key societal, scientific, and intellectual issues of the day.
Joseph Barrell – was a merchant in Boston, Massachusetts in the 18th century.
Harrison Gray Otis – was a businessman, lawyer, and politician, becoming one
of the most important leaders of the United States' first political party, the Federalists.
New North – a Roman Catholic church located at 401 Hanover Street in the
North End of Boston, Massachusetts.
Boston Common – is a central public park in downtown Boston, Massachusetts.
Faneuil Hall – has been a marketplace and a meeting hall since 1743.
India Wharf – was one of the largest commercial wharves in the port.
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Boylston Market – designed by architect Charles Bulfinch, was located in
Boston, Massachusetts, on the corner of Boylston and Washington Streets.
University Hall, Harvard University – white granite building designed by the
great early American architect Charles Bulfinch and built by the noted early engineer
Loammi Baldwin, Jr.
General Hospital – the original and largest teaching hospital of Harvard Medical
School and a biomedical research facility located in the West End neighborhood of
Boston, Massachusetts.
President James Monroe – an American statesman and Founding Father who
served as the fifth President of the United States from 1817 to 1825.
National Academy of Design – an honorary association of American artists
founded in 1825.
King's Chapel Burial Ground – an independent Christian unitarian
congregation.
Mount Auburn Cemetery – the first rural cemetery in the United States.
141
3.9.2.1.2. GLOSSARY (MARKED ‘**’ IN THE TEXT)
rotunda /rəʊˈtʌn.də/ – in Classical and Neoclassical architecture, a building or
room that is circular in plan and covered with a dome.
dome /dəʊm/ – an architectural element that resembles the hollow upper half of a
sphere.
column /ˈkɒl.əm/ – an upright pillar supporting an arch or other structure or
standing alone as a monument.
ornament /ˈɔː.nə.mənt/ – anything serving to adorn; decoration; embellishment;
also, a desirable or needed adjunct.
drain /dreɪn/ – the hole through which water is carried away.
to summon /ˈsʌm.ən/ – to formally call for the presence of someone.
wing /wɪŋ/ – an addition that extends a main building.
portico /ˈpɔː.tɪ.kəʊ/ – a structure attached to the exterior of a building often
forming a covered entrance.
cornerstone /ˈkɔː.nə.stəʊn/ – a stone at the outer corner of two intersecting
masonry walls.
142
3.9.2.2. THOMAS JEFFERSON
Thomas Jefferson is the third President of the United States of America, as well
as a renowned American architect. He was the author of the Declaration of
Independence*. It was he who largely determined the architectural appearance of
Washington,
inspired
by
the
acquaintance
with
the
classical
architectural
traditions of the Old World*.
Jefferson's authorship extends to the Capitol in Virginia. Jefferson’s
Neoclassicism, introduced in the US by him, defined architectural trends American
developments of the period. His style is based on a combination of French
rationalism** and ancient Roman style*.
In 1785 began the construction of the Virginia State Capitol, Richmond, under the
project of Thomas Jefferson. It was the first building in the United States built in the
image of an ancient temple**, setting a neoclassical** trend for the further development
of the architecture of American public buildings.
143
Virginia State Capitol, Richmond
In 1806 Tomas Jefferson began a construction of a house on his plantation
created by his project: a poplar grove in Bedford County*, Virginia. Construction was
completed only 20 years later, in 1826. Now the Jefferson’s poplar grove is considered
to be one of the main attractions of the state.
Monticello, Jefferson's home
In 1814, the former President came up with the idea of creating a state education
system. With his assist the University of Virginia* was opened. It is not surprising that
Jefferson became the first head of the University. He also developed the project of the
144
science campus**, made plans of educational process, was engaged in search of
experienced teachers from Europe. One of the main buildings of the campus is the
rotunda, designed by Jefferson. The campus includes student accommodation and
pavilions, the rotunda is an architectural face of the campus. Rotunda is also included in
the list of world heritage of UNESCO*. Its image was created by Jefferson under the
influence of inspiration from visiting the Roman Pantheon*. A dome of an ancient
temple came as a base and, beating proportions, Thomas Jefferson created a project of
the rotunda.
Rotunda, University of Virginia
Of course, Jefferson's contribution to American history is invaluable.
Thomas Jefferson is commemorated in the memorial, which was opened in
Washington to the 200th anniversary of his birth. Inside this structure decorated with a
dome and columns, built in his favorite classical style, stands almost six-meter statue of
Jefferson, and the walls are adorned** with his sayings.[36]
145
3.9.2.2.1. A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED ‘*’ IN THE TEXT)
Declaration of Independence – the statement adopted by the Second Continental
Congress meeting at the Pennsylvania State House (now known as Independence Hall)
in Philadelphia on July 4, 1776.
The Old World – used in the West to refer to Africa, Asia and Europe (AfroEurasia or the World Island), regarded collectively as the part of the world known to its
population before contact with the Americas and Oceania (the "New World").
Ancient Roman style – adopted the external language of classical Greek
architecture for the purposes of the ancient Romans, but differed from Greek buildings,
becoming a new architectural style.
Bedford County – United States county located in the Piedmont region of the
Commonwealth of Virginia.
University of Virginia – a public research university and the flagship for the
Commonwealth of Virginia.
UNESCO – its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by
promoting international collaboration through educational, scientific, and cultural
reforms in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and human
rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter.
146
3.9.2.2.2. GLOSSARY (MARKED ‘**’ IN THE TEXT)
temple /ˈtem.pəl/ – a religious building that's meant for worshipping or praying.
rationalism /ˈræʃ.ən.əl.ɪ.zəm/ (architecture) – an architectural current which
mostly developed from Italy in the 1920s – 1930s.
neoclassical /ˌniː.əʊˈklæs.ɪ.kəl/ – characteristic of a revival of an earlier classical
style.
campus /ˈkæm.pəs/ – the land and various buildings that make up a college.
adorn /əˈdɔːn/ – to dress something up by decorating it.
147
3.9.2.3. JAMES HOBAN
James Hoban – (1755-December 8, 1831) an Irish and American architect, who
was a designer and builder of the White House in Washington, D.C.
Hoban studied architecture in Irish and English Georgian style* and worked in
this design tradition throughout his architectural career.
The young architect had big plans for his future. He knew that the little County of
Kilkenny*, popular tourist destination, would not be able to satisfy his professional
ambitions. Hoban considered America an ideal place for his own development, but for a
long time he did not have the opportunity to emigrate. The chance came to James in
1781 – after the American revolutionary war*, the architect forever left his native
Ireland and settled first in Philadelphia, and later moved to South Carolina.
Straightway after relocation Hoban grabs for any orders. His first major project
was the restoration** of the State Capitol building in Columbia*, which was badly
damaged during a fire. Over the next ten years, James worked actively on numerous
architectural projects in the state of South Carolina – he rebuilt and restored dozens of
buildings affected by the war.
The young architect was noticed by George Washington so, the President invited
him to move to the capital of America. In 1792 James Hoban took part in the national
148
architecture competition in Washington, D.C., where he presented his project for the
construction of a presidential mansion**. He won the competition and received a prize
of $ 500, as well as a plot of land in Columbia County.
Hoban's corrected elevation of the White House (late 1793 or early
1794)
In 1793, James Hoban laid the first stone of the presidential mansion.
Construction of the building in Palladian style* lasted for almost 10 years – until 1801,
and more than two and a half million dollars were spent on it. During the war of 1812
the building was destroyed, but restored under the strict guidance of Hoban. Initially,
the color of the walls of the mansion was beige and sand, but after the reconstruction the
architect decided to paint them in white – so the name “White House” appeared.
Moreover, in the period from 1793 to 1802 James Hoban was appointed one of
the chiefs of construction of the Capitol, the main meeting place of the American
Congress*, carrying out the design of Dr. William Thornton*, as well as with The
Octagon House*. Among Hobart's merits are also the creation of the Grand Hotel, the
Church of St. Patrick, the Catholic Church of St. Maria and many other historic
buildings. We certainly should mention Charleston County Courthouse* – a
Neoclassical building in Charleston, South Carolina. It was a likely model for Hoban's
most famous building, the U.S. White House, and both buildings are modeled after
Leinster House*, the current seat of the Irish Parliament in Dublin.
149
In addition to the construction of houses Hoban was also engaged in building
roads, bridges and other architectural objects.
Charleston County Courthouse (1790–92)
The Octagon House
150
The White House
James Hoban died on December 8, 1831 in Washington, D.C., leaving an
immortal contribution to the history of the United States architecture. [37]
151
3.9.2.3.1. A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED ‘*’ IN THE TEXT)
English Georgian style – name given in most English-speaking countries to the
set of architectural styles current between 1714 and 1830.
County of Kilkenny – a county in Ireland. It is in the province of Leinster and is
part of the South-East Region.
American revolutionary war – a global war that began as a conflict between
Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United
States of America.
Palladian style – European style of architecture derived from and inspired by the
designs of the Venetian architect Andrea Palladio (1508–1580).
American Congress – bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the
United States consisting of two chambers: the Senate and the House of Representatives.
Dr. William Thornton – a British - American physician, inventor, painter and
architect who designed the United States Capitol, an authentic polymath. He also served
as the first Architect of the Capitol and first Superintendent of the United States Patent
Office.
The Octagon House – the colonial estate built by John Tayloe II on the north
bank of the Rappahannock River across from Tappahannock, Virginia.
Charleston County – is a Neoclassical building in Charleston, South Carolina,
designed by Irish architect James Hoban.
Leinster House – was originally the ducal palace of the Dukes of Leinster.
152
3.9.2.3.2. GLOSSARY (MARKED ‘**’ IN THE TEXT)
restoration /ˌres.tərˈeɪ.ʃən/ – the act of restoring something or someone to a
satisfactory state.
mansion /ˈmæn.ʃən/ – a large and imposing house.
153
3.9.2.4. ASHER BENJAMIN
Asher Benjamin (June 15, 1773 – July 26, 1845) was an American architect and author
whose work transitioned** between Federal architecture and the later Greek Revival*
architecture. His seven handbooks on design deeply influenced the look of cities and
towns throughout New England until the Civil War. Builders also copied his plans in
the Midwest* and in the South*.
Asher Benjamin was born in rural Hartland, Connecticut. He received his early
training from a local builder, and showed an aptitude for architecture by carving**
Ionic* capitals** for the 1794 modifications to the Oliver Phelps House at Suffield,
Connecticut. In 1795-1796 he designed and built a stone spiral staircase in the Old State
House at Hartford, which had been designed by Charles Bulfinch. The latter's use of
overall symmetry**, blind arches**, fanlights** and smooth brick** greatly influenced
Benjamin, who would help spread the urbane Federal style into the countryside.
He first settled in Greenfield, Massachusetts, where he built two large houses,
including the Leavitt House* (today's Leavitt-Hovey House) for Judge Jonathan Leavitt,
154
as well as publishing his first handbook, The Country Builder's Assistant* (1797).
The Leavitt-Hovey House
Benjamin later moved to Windsor, Vermont, where he built three large houses
and the Old South Congregational Church (1798).
By 1803, he was in Boston. Listed in the city directory as a housewright**, he
designed numerous churches and houses. He also appears to have conducted the
country's first architecture school, credited with teaching Robert Henry Eddy*, Elias
Carter*, Solomon Willard*, Samuel Shepherd *and Ithiel Town*.
Benjamin's greatest influence, however, is due to his pattern books**. They were
the first written by an American architect, bringing architectural history, style and
geometry to ordinary builders in the field. He adapted many designs by James Gibbs*
and Colen Campbell* of Great Britain to fit the scale and finances of New England
communities. These handbooks provided superb** drawings and practical advice for
full house plans, including such details as circular staircases, doorways**, fireplace
mantels**, dormer windows**, pilasters, balusters** and fences**. He sketched**
proposals** for dwellings and churches, even a courthouse. The archeological sources
of his designs were scrupulously cited, from the Temple of Hephaestus* in Athens to
155
the Arch of Titus* in Rome. Other architects, including Ithiel Town and Ammi B.
Young*, freely assimilated his plans, as did innumerable carpenters. Indeed, the charm
of many early New England towns owes a debt to Asher Benjamin. The Ridge in
Oxford, New Hampshire features a series of houses based on designs from his books,
many of which remain in print. And although he helped disseminate** the Federal style,
he was not averse** to changing fashion. In fact, his book published in 1830, The
Architect, or, Practical House Carpenter, helped redirect American taste towards the
Greek Revival.
Asher Benjamin died in Springfield at the age of 72. [38]
Federal style house, from The Country Builder's Assistant, 1797
156
3.9.2.4.1. A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED ‘*’ IN THE TEXT)
Greek Revival – an architectural movement of the late 18th and early 19th
centuries, predominantly in Northern Europe and the United States.
Ionic order – one of the three classical orders of classical architecture, the other
two canonic orders being the Doric and the Corinthian.
Midwest – geographic region, which occupies the northern central part of the
United States of America.
South – a region of the United States of America.
Leavitt House – an historic house located at 402 Main Street in Greenfield,
Massachusetts. Built in 1797, it is a prominent work of local architect Asher Benjamin.
«The Country Builder's Assistant» – this book revolutionized 19th century
American architecture.
Robert Henry Eddy – was an architect, civil engineer, and in later life, a very
successful patent attorney.
Elias Carter – was an American architect whose first church design, at
Brimfield, was completed in 1805.
Solomon Willard – was a carver and builder in Massachusetts who is
remembered primarily for designing and overseeing the Bunker Hill Monument, the
first monumental obelisk erected in the United States.
Samuel Shepherd – was a British barrister, judge and politician who served as
Attorney General for England and Wales and Lord Chief Baron of the Scottish Court of
Exchequer.
Ithiel Town – was a prominent American architect and civil engineer. One of the
first generation of professional architects in the United States, Town made significant
contributions to American architecture in the first half of the 19th century.
James Gibbs – was one of Britain's most influential architects. Born in Scotland,
he trained as an architect in Rome, and practised mainly in England.
157
Temple of Hephaestus – is a well-preserved Greek temple; it remains standing
largely as built.
Arch of Titus – a 1st century AD honorific arch, located on the Via Sacra, Rome,
just to the south - east of the Roman Forum.
Ammi B. Young – was a 19th century American architect whose commissions
transitioned
from
the
Greek
Revival
to
the
Neo-Renaissance
styles.
158
3.9.2.4.2. GLOSSARY (MARKED ‘**’ IN THE TEXT)
transition /trænˈzɪʃ.ən/ – a change from one thing to the next, either in action or
state of being.
to carve /kɑːv/ – engrave or cut by chipping away at a surface.
overall /ˌəʊ.vəˈrɔːl/ – covers all the parts of something.
symmetry /ˈsɪm.ə.tri/ – when each side reflecting the other.
blind arch /blaɪnd ɑːtʃ/ – an arch found in the wall of a building which has been
infilled with solid construction so it cannot serve as a passageway, door, or window.
fanlight /ˈfæn.laɪt/ – a semicircular window over the door or window.
smooth /smuːð/ – free of roughness, stubble, or other imperfections that you can
feel with your hands.
housewright /ˌhaʊs raɪt/ – a person who builds and repairs houses, especially
wooden ones.
superb /suːˈpɜːb/ – surpassingly good.
doorway /ˈdɔː.weɪ/ – the place through which you enter a room.
fireplace mantel /ˈfaɪə.pleɪs ˈmæn.təl.piːs/ – a hood that projected over a
fire grate to catch the smoke.
dormer window /ˈdɔr·mər ˈwɪn·doʊ/ – a roofed structure, often containing a
window, that projects vertically beyond the plane of a pitched roof.
pilaster /pɪˈlæstər/ – an architectural element in classical architecture used to
give the appearance of a supporting column and to articulate an extent of wall, with
only an ornamental function.
fence /fens/ – is a structure that encloses an area, typically outdoors, and is
usually constructed from posts that are connected by boards, wire, rails or netting.
to sketch /sketʃ/ – to draw something for later elaboration.
proposal /prəˈpəʊ.zəl/ – an act of making a suggestion.
to disseminate /dɪˈsem.ɪ.neɪt/ – to spread information, knowledge, opinions
widely.
averse /əˈvɜːs/ – to be opposed to it on moral, philosophical or aesthetic grounds.
159
3.9.2.5. BENJAMIN HENRY BONEVAL LATROBE
Benjamin Henry Boneval Latrobe – (1764-1820), American architect and engineer. He
was one of the first formally trained, professional architects in the new United States,
drawing on influences from his travels in Italy.
He was born in Fulneck (United Kingdom) may 1, 1764. He studied in Silesia and
Saxony, and in 1786 returned to England and began architectural practice. According to
what we heard, he worked for engineer J. Sithona and architect S. Cockerell.
In 1795, after his wife's death, Latrobe left for the United States. Among his first
works in America – houses in Norfolk and Richmond, as well as Richmond
reformatory. In Philadelphia, where the architect moved in1798, he built the
Pennsylvania Bank* and the Philadelphia water pipe**, reinforcing** his reputation as
an architect and engineer.
160
aPennsylvania Bank
In the United States, Latrobe quickly achieved eminence** as the first
professional architect working in the country. Among his friends were the most famous
people of the time, including President T. Jefferson, who in 1803 appointed him to the
position public buildings inspector in Washington and instructed to complete the
reconstruction of the burned down in 1814 building of the US Congress – the US
Capitol*. Latrobe also designed the Church of St. Johns and several other buildings in
Washington. Latrobe also worked on projects in Baltimore, including the Old Baltimore
Cathedral or Baltimore Basilica*, the surviving first Roman Catholic Cathedral
constructed in the United States, commissioned by John Carroll*, first bishop** in
America for the Roman Catholic Diocese* of Baltimore. Construction of the old
Baltimore Cathedral of the Assumption of Mary (later elevated to a Basilica) on
Cathedral Hill at Cathedral Street, between West Franklin and Mulberry Streets,
commenced in 1806 and the incomplete building was opened in 1821, after several
financial setbacks** slowed construction.
161
Basilica of the National Shrine of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary
The United States Capitol, often called the Capitol Building
162
St. John's Church, Washington, D.C.
Latrobe worked on the construction of canals and together with R. Fulton built
the first steamships** on Mississippi. In 1818 he went to New Orleans to complete the
construction of the water pipe, which his son began in 1811.
The Latrobe buildings are outstanding because of their original layout** and
excellent proportions; they are characterized by a combination of smooth wall surface
and finely crafted details among which antique Greek motives prevail. To decorate the
building of the Pennsylvania Bank He was the first who used the ionic order, and that is
why he sometimes considered to be the founder of the neoclassical style in American
architecture. At the same time, the architect has never been a simple imitator of classical
forms, as we can judge by the invented design of the facades of the Capitol. They are
"corn" and "tobacco" orders developed by him. His work had a huge impact on the
further development of American architecture, and his students, W. Strickland* and R.
Mills*, became the leading masters of the next generation.
Latrobe died in New Orleans on September the 3rd in 1820. [39]
163
3.9.2.5.1. A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED ‘*’ IN THE TEXT)
Pennsylvania Bank – was established on July 17, 1780, by Philadelphia
merchants to provide funds for the Continental Army during the American
Revolutionary War.
US Capitol – is the home of the United States Congress, and the seat of the
legislative branch of the U.S. federal government.
Old Baltimore Cathedral or Baltimore Basilica – was the first Roman Catholic
cathedral built in the United States, and was among the first major religious buildings
constructed in the nation after the adoption of the U.S. Constitution.
John Carroll – was a prelate of the Roman Catholic Church who served as the
first bishop and archbishop in the United States. He served as the ordinary of the
Archdiocese of Baltimore, Maryland.
W. Strickland – was a noted architect and civil engineer in Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania; and Nashville, Tennessee.
R. Mills – known for designing the Washington Monument, is sometimes
called the first native born American to be professionally trained as an architect.
164
3.9.2.5.2. GLOSSARY (MARKED ‘**’ IN THE TEXT)
water pipe /ˈwɔː.tər paɪp/ – a pipe that takes water from one place to another.
to reinforce /ˌriː.ɪnˈfɔːs/ – to strengthen.
bishop /ˈbɪʃ.əp/ – a religious authority figure in some Christian churches.
eminence /ˈem.ɪ.nəns/ – is superior status and importance.
setback /ˈset.bæk/ – an unfortunate happening.
diocese /ˈdaɪ.ə.sɪs/ – in the Western Church, the district is under the supervision
of a bishop (who may have assistant bishops to help him or her) and is divided into
parishes under the care of priests.
steamship /ˈstiːm.ʃɪp/ – ship powered with one or more steam engines.
layout /ˈleɪ.aʊt/ – a plan or design of something that is laid out.
165
3.9.2.6. MINARD LAFEVER
Minard Lafever (1798–1854) was an American architect of churches and houses
in the United States in the early nineteenth century.
In 1829 Lafever published The Young Builders' General Instructor, followed by
Modern Builders' Guide in 1833, The Beauties of Modern Architecture in 1835 and The
Architectural Instructor in 1850. His pattern books were influential in spreading his
Greek Revival style.
Four of his buildings which were subsequently** designated National Historic
Landmarks* are:
1)First Presbyterian Church* (Sag Harbor) (tall steeple destroyed in a hurricane)
2)St. Ann and the Holy Trinity Church*
3)Old Merchant's House*
4)Sailors' Snug Harbor*
Sailors' Snug Harbor
166
St. Ann and the Holy Trinity Church
Lafever wrote five pattern books that were influential in spreading his Greek
Revival style, most notably "The Modern Builder's Guide" (1833) and "The Beauties of
Modern Architecture" (1835). The Greek Revival Government Street Presbyterian
Church in Mobile, Alabama is a National Historic Landmark that was designed using
many of the latter book's detailed guidelines. Interestingly, that church's tall steeple, like
the steeple of Lafever's First Presbyterian Church* in Sag Harbor, was destroyed in a
hurricane**.
167
"The Modern Builder's Guide" (1833)
Other historic structures built using Lafever's designs include Rose Hill
Mansion*, a National Historic Landmark in western New York, which was built in the
style of a two – story Greek temple with Ionic columns in 1837.
168
Rose Hill Mansion
Two mansions in the Boston Post Road Historic District the 1838 Peter Augustus
Jay House and Lounsberry were built using Lafever's designs, and greatly resemble
illustrated plates found within Lafever's books. Rose Glen, an antebellum** plantation
house near Sevierville, Tennessee, was modeled after Lafever's "Design for a Country
Villa," which appeared as the frontispiece in both The Modern Builder's Guide and The
Beauties of Modern Architecture.
Lafever did not confine himself to a single style. His St. James' Church*, New
York on James Street near Madison Street in Manhattan (1837) is Greek Revival as is
his building for Sailors' Snug Harbor, his First Presbyterian Church (Sag Harbor) (1844)
is Egyptian Revival*, his brownstone St. Ann and the Holy Trinity Church* at
Montague and Clinton Streets in Brooklyn Heights (1847) is Gothic Revival* and his
Church of the Holy Apostles at Ninth Avenue and 28th Street in Manhattan (1848–
1854) is Romanesque/Italianate*.
169
St. James' Church, New York
His last commission was the Packer Collegiate Institute* in Brooklyn, which
opened in 1854. The Packer building is in Tudor Gothic* style, with 30 schoolrooms,
and a two-story-high chapel** on the third floor. It has two towers of different size, and
the “off-center arrangement of two large peaked gables**, give the school the
exterior** appearance of picturesque irregularity common to the Gothic revival.”
However, the interior is compact and symmetrical, with long crossed hallways**
dividing the building into quadrants. [40]
Packer Collegiate Institute, Brooklyn
170
3.9.2.6.1. A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED ‘*’ IN THE TEXT)
National Historic Landmarks – a building, district, object, site, or structure that
is officially recognized by the United States government for its outstanding historical
significance.
First Presbyterian Church – also known as Old Whaler's Church, is a historic
and architecturally notable Presbyterian church built in 1844 in the Egyptian Revival
style.
St. Ann and the Holy Trinity Church – a historic Episcopal church located at
the corner of Montague and Clinton streets in the Brooklyn Heights neighborhood of
Brooklyn, New York City.
Old Merchant's House – the only nineteenth-century family home in New York
City preserved intact-both inside and out.
Sailors' Snug Harbor – a collection of architecturally significant 19th century
buildings set in an 83-acre park along the Kill Van Kull on the north shore of Staten
Island in New York City.
Presbyterian Church – a collection of architecturally significant 19th century
buildings set in an 83-acre park along the Kill Van Kull on the north shore of Staten
Island in New York City, United States.
St. James' Church – the second oldest Roman Catholic building in the city, built
in 1835-37 of fieldstone, with a pair of Doric columns flanking the entrance.
Egyptian Revival – an architectural style that uses the motifs and imagery of
ancient Egypt.
Gothic Revival – an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in
England.
Romanesque/Italianate
–
an
architectural
style
of
medieval
Europe
characterized by semi-circular arches.
Packer Collegiate Institute – an independent college preparatory school for
students from pre-kindergarten through grade 12.
171
Tudor Gothic – an architectural style originating in France, before then
flourishing in England from about 1180 until about 1520.
172
3.9.2.6.2. GLOSSARY (MARKED ‘**’ IN THE TEXT)
subsequently /ˈsʌb.sɪ.kwəntli / – afterwards.
hurricane /ˈhɝː.ɪ.keɪn/ – a severe tropical storm with high winds and heavy rain.
antebellum /ˌæn.tiˈbel.əm/ – beginning to the period before a war, especially
American Civil War.
сhapel /ˈtʃæp.əl/ – a place of worship. It's usually smaller than a church, and it
has its own altar.
gable /ˈɡeɪ.bəl/ – the triangular part of a house's exterior wall that supports a
pointed or peaked roof.
exterior /ɪkˈstɪə.ri.ər/ – is on the outside of some structure or object.
hallway /ˈhɔːl.weɪ/ – a wide hallway in a building where people can walk.
173
3.9.2.7. PIERRE CHARLES L'ENFANT
Pierre Charles L'Enfant – (August 2, 1754-June 14, 1825) this prominent architect
was born in the family of French painter Pierre L'Enfant (1704-1787 years).
He studied at the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture* in Paris (17711776). From 1777 he participated in the war for independence in North America, taking
part as a volunteer for the American army, where he received the title of major of the
engineering troops in 1783.
Following the American Revolutionary War, L'Enfant established a successful
and highly profitable civil engineering firm in New York City. He achieved some fame
as an architect by redesigning the City Hall* in New York for the First Congress of the
United States*.
In 1791-1793 he developed a master plan for the new US capital (the future city
of Washington) with the participation of T. Jefferson. His project was created under the
influence of the plan of the Park of Versailles* A. Le nôtre (1661-1668 years). It took
into account uneven terrain**: streets forming a rectangular** grid** without a
highlighted centre, which crossed at higher elevations**, where it was proposed to erect
174
public buildings and monuments and parks. It was conceived to highlight the Capitol
and the presidential mansion and to form a large number of squares, circles and
triangles at the intersection of streets where monuments and fountains were to be
placed. The plan took advantage of uneven terrain and prepared the basis for future
transport requirements. [42]
Facsimile of manuscript of Peter Charles L'Enfant's 1791 plan for the
federal capital city (U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1887)
Secretary of state, Thomas Jefferson, provided L'Enfant with maps of various
European cities to use as a model, but instead of copying one of them, L'Enfant
borrowed several basic ideas.
Washington was forced to release the architect from the office in 1792 because of
his stubbornness** in negotiations with contractors, as well as because L'Enfant on his
own ordered to move the house of Daniel Carroll, an influential Washington resident, to
clear the way for the Avenue. Despite this, his plan of the city was mostly fulfilled.
Later, L'Enfant tried to get $ 95,500 as payment for his service. Congress gave him an
amount that it considered to be appropriate, about 3800 dollars. In old age, L'Enfant
lived with friends in the “Green hill”, in an estate** in Maryland, where he died in
175
poverty. In 1909, his body was moved to Arlington national cemetery, where a
monument in his honor was erected by Congress. [41]
The gravesite of Pierre (Peter) Charles L'Enfant in Arlington National
Cemetery below Arlington House
176
3.9.2.7.1. A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED ‘*’ IN THE TEXT)
Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture – was the premier art institution in
France in the eighteenth century.
City Hall – a municipal building, is the chief administrative building of a city,
town, or other municipality.
The First Congress of the United States – consisting of the United States
Senate and the United States House of Representatives, met from March 4, 1789, to
March 4, 1791, during the first two years of George Washington's presidency.
Versailles – is a royal château in Versaillesin the Île-de-France region of France.
177
3.9.2.7.2. GLOSSARY (MARKED ‘**’ IN THE TEXT)
uneven /ʌnˈiː.vən/ – lacking consistency.
terrain /təˈreɪn/ – a piece of ground having specific characteristics of military
potential.
rectangular /rekˈtæŋ.ɡjə.lər/ – having four right angles.
grid /ɡrɪd/ – is a network of intersecting parallel lines, whether real or imaginary.
elevation /ˌel.ɪˈveɪ.ʃən/ – distance of something above the reference point.
stubbornness /ˈstʌb.ən/ – resolute adherence to your own ideas and desires
estate.
178
3.9.2.8. SAMUEL MCINTIRE
Samuel McIntire ( 1757-1811), American builder and furniture maker, was the
most representative craftsman** in New England in the late 18th century.
Samuel McIntire was born in Salem, Massachusetts . His energetic mind soon
passed the average limits of his profession, and rushed to the highest departments of
interesting and wonderful science of architecture. Intire's evolution from artisancarpenter through master craftsman and professional sculptor to the position of head
architect of an "office" can be traced** by stylistic analysis of works attributable to him.
The earlier (1782) parts of the Pierce-Nichols House* in Salem, which McIntire
designed from the half-century-old Builder's Treasury of Batty Langley, are relatively
naïve** in conception**. However, growing refinement** is visible in the later (1801)
woodwork in the hall, east parlor**, and chamber** of the house. The Pingree House*
(1804) in Salem reveals decorative and spatial subtleties suggesting the influence of
Charles Bulfinch.
McIntire stamped Salem with his personality; the stylistic standards and character
of the town's architecture were established in his shop. In Sidney Fiske Kimball's words
(1940): "Salem at the end of his life presented a very different aspect from its
appearance when he began his work. The churches and public buildings had been rebuilt
179
or remodelled from his design…. rows of tall stately mansions, a great number from
McIntire's hand, lined Essex Street, Federal Street, and Washington Square. That was
no idle phrase when the town clerk called Samuel McIntir…. 'the architect of Salem."
The Peirce- Nichols House (1782) is located on one of the most historic streets in
America at 80 Federal Street in the Samuel McIntire Historic District,
Chestnut Street District, Salem, Massachusetts.
In 1792 McIntire, who had never left his native town, submitted a design for the
national Сapitol. Though unsuccessful, it was an indication of how times were
changing, so that a man thoroughly in the tradition of anonymous partisanship could
now assert individuality and make his art a means of personal expression, fame, and
fortune as never before.
After 1797, McIntire worked in the style of Boston architect Charles Bulfinch,
who had made fashionable here the neoclassical manner of Scottish architect Robert
Adam*. Unlike Bulfinch, however, whose designs were featured across the East Coast*,
McIntire built almost exclusively in New England. His wooden or brick houses were
typically 3 stories tall, each with 4 rooms around a central hall. In 1799, he went into
business with his brothers, Joseph and Angier McIntire, who erected the structures,
180
while at the workshop he oversaw various ornamentations, including the swags ,
rosettes**, garlands** and sheaves of wheat which dominate their interior wooden
surfaces. McIntire's Salem works include the Peirce-Nichols, the Peabody-Silsbee, the
Gardner-White-Pingree, and the Elias Haskett Derby residences. His public buildings,
all in Salem, are Assembly Hall, Hamilton Hall, Washington Hall and the courthouse
(the latter 2 demolished).
Looking east on the historic Chestnut Street in Salem, Massachusetts
( Chestnut Street is noted as one of America's architecturally finest.)
He was a skilled artisan, especially in furniture, and his skill extended to
sculpting. Among his works are busts of Voltaire* and John Winthrop, the first
governor of Massachusetts. Both are now owned by the American Antiquaria Society in
Worcester, Massachusetts.
McIntire's achievement was recognized by his contemporaries. "This day," wrote
Salem diarist William Bentley on hearing of McIntire's death, "Salem is deprived of one
of the most ingenious** men it had in it." And on his tombstone McIntire was recorded
as "distinguished for Genius in Architecture, Sculpture and Musik. [43]
181
3.9.2.8.1. A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED ‘*’ IN THE TEXT)
Pierce-Nichols House – a historic house museum located at 80 Federal Street in
Salem, Massachusetts.
The Pingree House – a historic house museum at 128 Essex Street in Salem,
Massachusetts.
Robert Adam – was a Scottish neoclassical architect, interior designer and
furniture designer.
182
3.9.2.8.2. GLOSSARY (MARKED ‘**’ IN THE TEXT)
to trace /treɪs/ – to follow or discover.
naïve /naɪˈiːv/ – marked by or showing unaffected simplicity.
conception /kənˈsep.ʃən/ – the creation of something in mind.
refinement /rɪˈfaɪn.mənt/ – the result of improving something.
parlor /ˈpɑr·lər/ – a living room or a sitting room, the place in the house with
comfortable chairs and sofas.
chamber /ˈtʃeɪm.bər/ – an enclosed space, often where a specific event usually
takes place.
rosette /rəʊˈzet/ – a round, stylized flower design.
garland /ˈɡɑː.lənd/ – a decorative wreath or cord (typically used at festive
occasions) which can be hung round a person's neck or on inanimate objects like
Christmas trees.
ingenious /ɪnˈdʒiː.ni.əs/ – someone who shows creativity and inventiveness.
183
3.9.2.9. ROBERT MILLS
Robert Mills – (August 12, 1781-March 3, 1855) an American architect and
engineer, one of the first professional architects in the United States, who was known
for designing the Washington Monument.
Most of his works are made in neoclassical** forms; Mills’ s creative method
manifested itself primarily in the development of construction plans and in solving
problems of acoustics and fire safety.
Mills was born in Charleston (South Carolina) on August 12, 1781. At the
beginning of his career, he was a draftsman** at T. Jefferson, and then from 1803 to
1808 worked with B. Latrobe, the author of the building of the US Congress. The first
Mill’s independent work was an annex** to the independence hall in Philadelphia. In
1836, after the construction of several churches and a number of public buildings, he
was appointed to the post of the architect of government buildings and held this position
until 1851.
Among the largest projects he has implemented over the years are the Treasury
Department*, the General Post Office* and the old Patent Office Building* in
Washington, D.C.
The Old Patent Office Building, home of the National Portrait Gallery and
Smithsonian American Art Museum
184
Hotel Monaco, formerly the General Post Office building
A view of the North entrance of the U.S. Treasury Building in Washington
D.C.
Mills reaped the glory by the establishment a monument to George Washington in
Baltimore (PC. MD, which began in 1815) and Washington (started in 1848) by order
of Congress. The first of these is a huge column topped with a statue of Washington
made by Causici* .
185
Robert Mills' proposed design for the Washington Monument in
Washington, D.C.
In the construction of the second monument the columnar pantheon**, which,
according to the original plan, was supposed to be at the foot of the monument ,was not
erected . It was completed in 1884, after the death of the author. Mills manifested
Brilliant engineering ability by the creation of the bridge Upper - Ferry across the
Schuylkill river in Philadelphia, which had the widest span** at that time (105 m). Mills
is also the author of several books including the Treatise on river navigation (1820),
Statistics on South Carolina (1826), and the American Faros or the Lighthouse
Orientation (1832). Mills died in Washington on March 3, 1855. [44]
186
3.9.2.9.1. A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED ‘*’ IN THE TEXT)
Treasury Department – an executive department and the treasury of the United
States federal government.
General Post Office – a historic building at 700 F Street NW in Washington,
D.C. Built in 1839 to a design by Robert Mills.
Patent Office Building – in Washington, D.C. covers an entire city block defined
by F and G Streets and 7th and 9th Streets NW in Chinatown.
Causici – Italian-born sculptor.
187
3.9.2.9.2. GLOSSARY (MARKED ‘**’ IN THE TEXT)
neoclassical /ˌniː.əʊˈklæs.ɪ.kəl/ – characteristic of a revival of an earlier classical
style.
draftsman /ˈdrɑːfts.mən/ – an artist skilled in drawing.
annex /ænˈeks/ – extension of or an addition to a building.
pantheon /ˈpæn.θi.ən/ – a temple for all the gods.
span /spæn/ – a structure which allows people or vehicles to cross an obstacle
such as river or canal or railway.
188
3.9.2.10. ALEXANDER PARRIS
He was an outstanding American architect and engineer. Beginning as a
housewright, he evolved into an architect whose work transformed from Federal style
architecture to the later Greek Revival*. Parris taught Ammi B. Young*, and was
among the group of architects influential in founding what would become the American
Institute of Architects*. Among his works include many lighthouses** along the coastal
Northeastern United States.
Parris was born in Halifax, Massachussets. When aged 16, he apprenticed to a
housewright in Pembroke, but his talent led him towards architecture.
In 1815, he moved to Boston, where he found a position in the office of Charles
Bulfinch. Like his famous employer, Parris produced refined residences, churches and
commercial buildings. By 1809, construction in the city had come to a halt. Parris left
for Richmond, Virginia, where he designed the Wickham House* and the Executive
Mansion*. But architect Benjamin Latrobe examined Parris' preliminary plans for the
Wickham House, which resembled his previous Federal style works in Portland, and
gave it a blistering review.
189
Virginia Executive Mansion
The John Wickham House, Richmond
When in 1817 Bulfinch was called to Washington to work on the U.S. Capitol
Building, Parris helped complete the Bulfinch Building home of the Ether Dome at
Massachusetts General Hospital. With Bulfinch's departure, Parris soon became the
city's leading architect, and a proponent of what would be called "Boston Granite
190
Style," with austere**, monolithic** stonework. Around 1818-1823 he kept an office on
Court Street. He belonged to the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association.
In 1824, however, he began a twenty-year association working for the Boston
Navy Yard* in Charlestown. He would end his career as chief engineer at the
Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in Kittery, Maine. With the federal government as patron,
Parris produced plans for numerous utilitarian** structures, from storehouses** to
ropewalks**, and was superintendent of construction at one of the nation's first
drydocks**, located at the Charlestown base. Today, he is fondly remembered for his
stalwart stone lighthouses, commissioned by the U.S. Treasury Department. They are
often of a tapered form termed "windswept."
Parris balanced the delicacy of his "superb draftsmanship," as it was called, with
the coarseness of his building material of choice: granite. His most famous building,
Quincy Market, is made of it.
United First Parish Church, 1828, Quincy, Massachusetts
191
Quincy Market in 1830, Boston, Massachusetts
Parris died in Pembroke, where he is interred in the Briggs Burying Ground. [45]
192
3.9.2.10.1. A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED ‘*’ IN THE TEXT)
Greek Revival – an architectural movement of the late 18th and early 19th
centuries, predominantly in Northern Europe and the United States.
Ammi B. Young – a 19th century American architect whose commissions
transitioned from the Greek Revival to the Neo-Renaissance styles.
American Institute of Architects – a professional organization for architects in
the United States.
Executive Mansion – located in Richmond, Virginia, on Capitol Square and
serves as the official residence of the Governor of the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Boston Navy Yard – was one of the oldest shipbuilding facilities in the United
States Navy.
193
3.9.2.10.2. GLOSSARY (MARKED ‘**’ IN THE TEXT)
lighthouse /ˈlaɪt.haʊs/ – a building with a warning light that helps boats to
navigate safely, especially when it's dark or foggy.
austere /ɔːˈstɪər/ – something or someone stern or without any decoration.
monolithic /ˌmɒn.əˈlɪθ.ɪk/ – imposing in size or bulk or solidity.
utilitarian /ˌjuː.tɪ.lɪˈteə.ri.ən/ – something that is useful or functional.
storehouse /ˈstɔː.haʊs/ – depository for goods.
ropewalk /rəʊp wɔːk/ – workplace consisting of a long narrow path or shed
where rope is made.
drydock /draɪ dɒk/ – a large dock from which the water can be pumped out.
194
3.9.2.11. DR. WILLIAM THORNTON
(May 20, 1759 – March 28, 1828)
English and American architect, doctor , artist and inventor, man of universal
knowledge and abilities.
W. Thornton studied medicine in the Scottish capital, Edinburgh. In 1787, he left
for the United States. He gained fame primarily by the fact that he was the first architect
of the Capitol in Washington. July 25, 1793 his project won the competition of 17
proposed for consideration, To W. Thornton was awarded a prize of $ 500. As a
consequence of winning the Capitol competition, Thornton was frequently asked to give
ideas for public and residential buildings in the Federal City.
195
Thornton's original Capitol Building design
He responded with designs on several occasions during his tenure as a
commissioner, less so after 1802 when he took on the superintendence** of the Patent
Office*. It was during this time he was asked to design a mansion for Colonel John
Tayloe. The Tayloe House, also known as The Octagon House, in Washington, D.C.,
was erected between 1799 and 1800. It served as a temporary "Executive Mansion"*
after the 1814 burning of the White House by the British and the house's study was
where President Madison* signed the Treaty of Ghent* ending the War of 1812*. In
1899 the building was acquired by the American Institute of Architects*, whose
national headquarters now nestles* behind it.
The Octagon House (1800), Washington, DC
196
Around 1800, he designed Woodlawn* for Major Lawrence Lewice and his wife,
Eleanor (Nelly) Parke Custis (granddaughter of Martha Washington), on 2,000 acres
(8.1 km2) of Mount Vernon land. Sometime around 1808, he designed Tudor Place for
Thomas Peter and his wife, Martha Parke Custis (another granddaughter of Martha
Washington).
Woodlawn Plantation
Tudor Place in Georgetown, Washington, D.C.
197
Thornton died in 1828 and was buried in Congressional Cemetery in eastern
Washington, DC. [46]
198
3.9.2.11.1. A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED ‘*’ IN THE TEXT)
Patent Office – an agency in the U.S. Department of Commerce that issues
patents to inventors and businesses for their inventions, and trademark registration for
product and intellectual property identification.
The Tayloe House – The Octagon House is located at 1799 New York Avenue,
Northwest in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington, D.C.
President Madison – James Madison Jr. (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was
an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the fourth President of the
United States from 1809 to 1817.
Treaty of Ghent – was the peace treaty that ended the War of 1812 between the
United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
War of 1812 – was a conflict fought between the United States, the United
Kingdom, and their respective allies.
American Institute of Architects – a professional organization for architects in
the United States. Headquartered in Washington, D.C.
199
3.9.2.11.2. GLOSSARY (MARKED ‘**’ IN THE TEXT)
superintendence /ˌsuː.pə.rɪnˈten.dəns/ – management by overseeing the
performance or operation of a person or a group.
to nestle /ˈnes.əl/ – position comfortably.
200
3.9.2.12. WILLIAM STRICKLAND
William Strickland (November 1788 – April 6, 1854) was a noted architect and
civil engineer in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Nashville, Tennessee.
A student of Benjamin Latrobe and mentor** to Thomas Ustick Walter*,
Strickland helped establish the Greek Revival movement in the United States. A
pioneering engineer, he wrote a seminal** book on railroad construction, helped build
several early American railroads, and designed the first ocean breakwater** in the
Western Hemisphere.
Strickland and Latrobe competed to design the Second Bank of the United States*
in Philadelphia (1819–1824), a competition that called for "chaste" Greek style.
Strickland, who was still copying classical prototypes at this point, won with an
ambitious design modeled on the iconic Parthenon* of Athens.
201
Second Bank of the United States in Philadelphia
Strickland's evolving talent and confidence is seen in the later Merchants'
Exchange* (1832–34). Also in Philadelphia, the Merchant Exchange is built on classical
example, for example, the cupola** is based on the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates*
but is a unique building styled to fit the site. It was to be located on a triangular plot at
the intersection of two major thoroughfares** between the waterfront and the business
district. The elegant, curved east façade faces the waterfront, and reflects the carriage
and foot traffic that would have been circulating in front of the building. This elevation
is unique -Greek Revival, but modern while a more staid and formal elevation can be
found on the west side, facing Third Street.
202
Merchant Exchange
Strickland also executed works in other styles, including very early American
work in the Gothic Revival style, including his Masonic Hall (1808–11, burned 1819)
and his Saint Stephen's Church* (1823), both in Philadelphia.
Strickland was also a civil engineer and one of the first to advocate the use of
steam locomotives** on railways.
In 1835, the Wilmington and Susquehanna Railroad hired him to survey a route
from Wilmington, Delaware, to Charlestown, Maryland. Later that year, he was named
chief engineer of the Delaware and Maryland Railroad.
Strickland died in Nashville and is buried within the walls of his final, and
arguably greatest work, the Tennessee State Capitol*. [47]
203
Tennessee State Capitol
204
3.9.2.12.1. A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED ‘*’ IN THE TEXT)
Thomas Ustick Walter – was an American architect, the dean of American
architecture between the 1820 death of Benjamin Latrobeand the emergence of H.H.
Richardson in the 1870s.
Second Bank of the United States – was the second federally authorized
Hamiltonian national bank in the United States during its 20-year charter from February
1816 to January 1836.
Parthenon – a former temple, on the Athenian Acropolis, Greece, dedicated to
the goddess Athena, whom the people of Athens considered their patron.
Merchants' Exchange – a historic building located on the triangular site
bounded by Dock Street, Third Street, and Walnut Street in the Old City neighborhood
of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Choragic Monument of Lysicrates – near the Acropolis of Athens was erected
by the choregos Lysicrates, a wealthy patron of musical performances in the Theater of
Dionysus, to commemorate the award of first prize in 335/334 BCE to one of the
performances he had sponsored.
Saint Stephen's Church – is a historic parish of the Episcopal Diocese of
Pennsylvania, founded in 1822 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and located at 19 South
Tenth Street, on the corner of Tenth Street and Ludlow Street.
Tennessee State Capitol – is the home of the General Assembly of Tennessee
(state legislature), the location of the governor's office, and a National Historic
Landmark.
205
3.9.2.12.2. GLOSSARY (MARKED ‘**’ IN THE TEXT)
mentor /ˈmen.tɔːr/ – a person who trains and guides someone a person who
trains and guides someone.
seminal /ˈsem.ɪ.nəl/ – implying later development.
ocean breakwater /ˈəʊ.ʃən ˈbreɪkˌwɔː.tər/ – a protective structure of stone and
concrete.
cupola /ˈkjuː.pəl.ə/ – a roof or a part of roof in a form of a dome.
thoroughfare /ˈθʌr.ə.feər/ – a public road from one place to another.
steam locomotive /stiːm ˌləʊ.kəˈməʊ.tɪv/ – a locomotive empowered by a steam
engine.
206
3.9.2.13. AMMI BURNHAM YOUNG
Ammi Burnham Young – (June 19, 1798-March 14, 1874) was a 19th century
American architect whose commissions transitioned from the Greek Revival to the NeoRenaissance* styles.
His design of the second Vermont State House* brought him fame and success,
which eventually led him to become the first Supervising Architect of the U.S. Treasury
Department. As federal architect, he was responsible for creating across the United
States numerous custom houses**, post offices, courthouses and hospitals, many of
which are today on the National Register*. His traditional architectural forms lent a
sense of grandeur** and permanence** to the new country's institutions and
communities. Young pioneered the use of iron in construction. In 1830, Young opened
his own office in Burlington, Vermont. Here he designed the 1832 St. Paul's Church in
the Gothic Revival style. His first monumental work was the Second Vermont State
House*, a cruciform** Greek Revival structure built between 1833 and 1838, which
combined a Doric portico* modeled on the Temple of Theseus* in Athens, with a low
saucer** dome inspired by the Pantheon in Rome. With considerable respect for
Young's original design, the Vermont State House was rebuilt, although now with wings
extended by a bay, and a cupola crowning the roof-the plan of Thomas Silloway*,
207
trained in Young's office from 1847 until 1851. The result was considered by architect
Stanford White the finest example of the Greek Revival style in the country.
Entering the 1837 competition to design the Boston Custom House*, Young
submitted another cruciform scheme combining a Greek Doric portico** with a Roman
dome. Planned on a large scale at what was then the waterfront**, the building reflected
the strength and confidence of the young, growing nation. It won, defeating several
other entries, including one by Asher Benjamin. Young was appointed supervisor of
construction, which took from 1837 until 1847. In 1838, he established a Boston
drafting room. The building's 32 columns were each carved from a single piece from
Quincy granite. They measured 5 foot 4 inches in diameter, stood 32 feet high, and
weighed 42 tons. Purists decried the Roman dome on a Greek form. Far less
sympathetic to the building's Greek form, however, would be the soaring Custom House
Tower* which replaced the dome from 1913 to 1915. Boston's first skyscraper**, it was
designed by Peabody & Stearns* to add both office space and presence to a building
obscured** by later others.
According to his cemetery information his birth date is June 19, 1799 and his
death date is March 13, 1874.
Boston Custom House showing transverse section plan
208
Custom House, Charleston, South Carolina
Vermont State House
Young was awarded honorary degrees (M.A.) from the University of Vermont
(1839) and Dartmouth College (1841). He died in Washington, D. C. and is buried in
Oak Hill Cemetery. [48]
209
3.9.2.13.1. A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED ‘*’ IN THE TEXT)
Neo - Renaissance – is an all-encompassing designation that covers many 19th
century architectural revival styles which were neither Grecian (see Greek Revival) nor
Gothic (see Gothic Revival) but which instead drew inspiration from a wide range of
classicizing Italian modes. [49]
Vermont State House – is the state capitol of the U.S. state of Vermont. It is the
seat of the Vermont General Assembly.
National Register – is the United States federal government's official list of
districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their
historical significance.
Doric portico – is a porch leading to the entrance of a building, or extended as a
colonnade, with a roof structure over a walkway, supported by columns or enclosed by
walls.
Theseus – was the mythical king and founder-hero of Athens.
Thomas Silloway – was an American architect, known for building over 400
church buildings in the eastern United States.
Boston Custom House – was established in the 17th century and stood near the
waterfront in several successive locations through the years.
Greek Doric portico – Doric order was one of the three orders of ancient Greek
and later Roman architecture; the other two canonical orders were the Ionic and the
Corinthian.
Custom House Tower – a skyscraper in McKinley Square, in the Financial
District neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts, in the United States.
Peabody & Stearns – was a premier architectural firm in the Eastern United
States in the late 19th century and early 20th century.
210
3.9.2.13.2. GLOSSARY (MARKED ‘**’ IN THE TEXT)
custom house /ˈkʌs.təm haʊs/ – a government building where customs are
collected.
grandeur /ˈɡræn.dʒər/ – something that is splendid or magnificent, such as a
lofty idea or an impressive building.
permanence /ˈpɜː.mə.nəns/ – something that lasts forever.
cruciform /ˈkruː.sɪ.fɔːm/ – shaped like a cross.
saucer /ˈsɔː.sər/ – something with a round shape resembling a flat circular plate.
waterfront /ˈwɔː.tə.frʌnt/ – an area of the city alongside a body of water.
skyscraper /ˈskaɪˌskreɪ.pər/ – a very tall building in a modern style.
to obscure /əbˈskjʊər/ – to make unclear, indistinct or blur.
211
ЗАКЛЮЧЕНИЕ
На
современном
этапе
развития
общества
значительно
возрастает
необходимость изучения иностранного языка и овладения им как средством
общения. При этом, большое значение отводится лингвострановедению, элементы
которого вводятся в школьное обучение уже на начальном этапе изучения языка,
так как язык является отражением духовной культуры нации, которая говорит на
нем. В процессе обучения иностранному языку данные элементы сочетаются с
языковыми явлениями, становясь способом ознакомления обучающихся с новой
для них действительностью.
В данной выпускной квалификационной работе рассматривается понятие
«лингвострановедение»; разбираются основы методологии, которые стали
фундаментом данной дисциплины; рассматриваются особенности текста в
лингвострановедческом аспекте. В процессе составления лингвострановедческого
пособия “American Architecture: 1500-1815” важнейшим пунктом выступал анализ
существующей
аутентичной
литературы
по
данной
теме.
Литература
рассматривалась с точки зрения содержания, учебной ценности и доступности для
взрослой аудитории и студентов институтов и факультетов иностранных языков,
которые
являются
активными
пользователями
лингвострановедческой
литературы.
Таким образом, по моему мнению, данное пособие является актуальным на
сегодняшний день; в процессе его написания были достигнуты все поставленные
цели.
212
СПИСОК ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ
1. Томахин, Г.Д. Лингвострановедение: что это такое? / Г.Д. Томахин //
Иностранные языки в школе. – 1993.
2.
Маслова В. А. Лингвокультурология: Учеб. пособие для студ. высш.
учеб. заведений. – М.: Издательский центр «Академия», 2001. – 208с.
3.
Верещагин Е. М., Костомаров В. Г. Лингвострановедение и текст:
Сб.статей. – М.: Русский язык,1987.
4.
Верещагин Е. М. Язык и культура: Лингвострановедение в преподаван
ии русского языка как иностранного; методическое руководство/Е.М. Верещагин,
В.Г. Костомаров.– Москва: Русский язык 1990.
5.
Guide to Colonial American House Styles, 1600 to 1800. Architecture in
the «New World». Jackie Craven, updated June 11, 2017. [Электронный ресурс] –
Режим доступа: https://www.thoughtco.com/guide – to – colonial – american –
house – styles – 178049
6.
American Colonial Architecture. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
[Электронный ресурс]
–
Режим доступа:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_colonial_architecture
7.
First
Period.
[Электронный
ресурс]
–
Режим
доступа:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Period
8.
The Fairbanks House. [Электронный ресурс]
–
Режим доступа:
https://fairbankshouse.org/about – history/the – house/
9.
Gedney and Cox Houses. [Электронный ресурс] – Режим доступа:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gedney_and_Cox_Houses
10.
Gedney Family. [Электронный ресурс]
–
Режим доступа:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gedney_family
11.
French Colonial in the United States. [Электронный ресурс] – Режим
доступа: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_Colonial#In_the_United_States
213
12.
Old Ursuline Convent, New Orleans. [Электронный ресурс] – Режим
доступа: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Ursuline_Convent,_New_Orleans
13.
Ignace François Broutin. [Электронный ресурс]
–
Режим доступа:
https://alchetron.com/Ignace – François – Broutin
14.
Hotel
St.Pierre
[электронный
ресурс]
–
Режим
доступа:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hotel_St._Pierre
15.
Louis Bolduc House. [Электронный ресурс]
–
Режим доступа:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_Bolduc_House
16.
Old
Quebec.
[Электронный
ресурс]
–
Режим
доступа:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Quebec
17.
Samuel de Champlain. [Электронный ресурс]
–
Режим доступа:
https://www.biography.com/people/samuel – de – champlain – 9243971
18.
The manoir Boucher-De Niverville. [Электронный ресурс] – Режим
доступа: http://manoirdeniverville.ca/en/about – us/who – are – we
19. Château Ramezay. [Электронный ресурс]
–
Режим доступа:
http://www.aviewoncities.com/montreal/chateauramezay.htm
20.
1600-1900: Spanish Colonial House Style. [Электронный ресурс]
–
Режим доступа: https://www.thoughtco.com/house – style – guide – american –
home – 4065233
21.
González–Alvarez House. [Электронный ресурс] – Режим доступа:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/González–Alvarez_House
22.
Castillo de San Marcos. [Электронный ресурс]
–
Режим доступа:
https://www.nps.gov/casa/learn/historyculture/construction.htm
23.
1625-mid.1800: Dutch Colonial. [Электронный ресурс]
–
Режим
доступа: https://www.thoughtco.com/house – style – guide – american – home –
4065233
24.
Bronck
House.
[Электронный
ресурс]
–
Режим
доступа:
ресурс]
–
Режим
доступа:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bronck_House
25.
Pieter
Bronck.
[Электронный
http://thebronx.se/pieter – bronck/
214
26.
1600s-mid.1800s: German Colonial. [Электронный ресурс] – Режим
доступа: https://www.thoughtco.com/house – style – guide – american – home –
4065233
27.
Schifferstadt Architectural Museum. [Электронный ресурс] – Режим
доступа: http://www.frederick.com/schifferstadt_architectural_museum – sp – 4425/
28.
Byers-Muma House. [Электронный ресурс]
–
Режим доступа:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Byers – Muma_House
29.
Mid-Atlantic Colonial. [Электронный ресурс]
–
Режим доступа:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_colonial_architecture
30.
Hammond-Harwood House. [Электронный ресурс] – Режим доступа:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hammond–Harwood_House
31.
William Buckland. [Электронный ресурс]
–
Режим доступа:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Buckland_(architect)
32.
Georgian Colonial House Style. [Электронный ресурс]
–
Режим
доступа: https://www.nps.gov/sama/planyourvisit/upload/ArchInSalemSpreads.pdf
33.
Federal
[Электронный
architecture.
From
Wikipedia,
ресурс]
the
–
free
encyclopedia.
Режим
доступа:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_architecture
34.
Famous American Architects. [Электронный ресурс] – Режим доступа :
http://www.conservapedia.com/Famous_American_Architects
35.
Churles Bulfinch biography. [Электронный ресурс] – Режим доступа:
http://www.peoples.ru/art/architecture/bulfinch
36.
Thomas
Jefferson. [Электронный ресурс]
– Режим доступа:
https://24smi.org/celebrity/4997 – tomas – dzhefferson.html
37.
James
Hoban.
[Электронный
ресурс]
–
Режим
доступа:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Hoban
38.
Asher Benjamin Facts. [Электронный ресурс] – Режим доступа:
http://biography.yourdictionary.com/asher – benjamin
39.
Architect Benjamin Latrobe. [Электронный ресурс] – Режим доступа:
http://www.peoples.ru/art/architecture/benjamin_latrobe/
215
40.
Minard
Lafever.
[Электронный
ресурс]
–
Режим
доступа:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minard_Lafever
41.
Pierre Charles L'Enfant. [Электронный ресурс]
– Режим доступа:
http://knowledge.su/l/lanfan – – per – sharl
42.
The history of Washington D.C. [Электронный ресурс]
– Режим
доступа : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Washington,_D.C.#Founding
43.
Samuel McIntire Facts. [Электронный ресурс]
– Режим доступа:
http://biography.yourdictionary.com/samuel – mcintire
44.
Robert
Mills.
[Электронный
ресурс]
–
Режим
доступа:
Режим
доступа:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Mills_(architect)
45.
Alexander
Parris.
[Электронный
ресурс]
–
https://ru.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/1109968
46.
William Thornton. Biography of American Neoclassical Architect:
Designer of US Capitol Building. [Электронный ресурс]
– Режим доступа:
http://www.visual – arts – cork.com/architecture/william – thornton.htm
47.
William Strickland. [Электронный ресурс]
– Режим доступа:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Strickland_(architect)
48.
List of Ammi B. Young architecture. [Электронный ресурс] – Режим
доступа : https://www.ranker.com/list/ammi – b – young – buildings – and –
structures/reference
49.
Neoclassical architecture. [Электронный ресурс]
– Режим доступа:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neoclassical_architecture
50.
Online dictionary. [Электронный
ресурс]
–
Режим доступа:
https://www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/obscure
51.
The Greek Revival architecture. [Электронный ресурс]
– Режим
доступа: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_Revival_architecture –
52.
Culture of the United States. [Электронный ресурс] – Режим доступа:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_the_United_States
53.
Cambridge English Dictionary. [Электронный ресурс] – Режим доступа:
https://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/dictionary/english/
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