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Скиба Ирина Валерьевна. Анализ аутентичных материалов и составление лингвострановедческого тематического пособия American Architecture. The Modern Movement: Since 1920s

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АННОТАЦИЯ
Выпускная квалификационная работа состоит из трёх глав, первые две
из них являются теоретической частью работы, в которую входят введение,
две главы “Определение лингвострановедения и его методологическая
основа”, “Текст в лингвострановедческом рассмотрении”, заключение и
список литературы. Третья же глава представляет собой тематическое пособие
“American Architecture. The Modern Movement: Since 1920s” со словарем,
списком реалий, тестами и ключами к ним, которое, в свою очередь, является
практической частью дипломной работы.
Составленное пособие может быть использовано как учебная книга по
заданной теме, так как в нем присутствуют такие разделы, как «Реалии» и
«Глоссарий», что делает его справочным.
5
СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
Введение ………………………………………………………………...…..…. .8
Глава 1. Теоретические основы лингвострановедения ……………………....10
1.1. Определение лингвострановедения и его методологическая основа.......10
1.2. Цели, задачи, объект и предмет лингвострановедения…...…………….. 11
1.3 Роль и место лингвострановедческого аспекта при обучении
Иностранным языкам………………………………………………...…………12
Глава 2. Текст в лингвострановедческом рассмотрении…………..….….…..13
2.1. Прагматичные и проективные тексты………………………………....….13
2.2. Принципы отбора лингвострановедческих учебных текстов ….……... ..13
Глава 3. Лингвострановедческое тематическое пособие
“American Architecture. The Modern Movement: Since 1920s” ……………….16
3.1 Описание Лингвострановедческого пособия
“American Architecture. The Modern Movement: Since 1920s” ……………….16
3.2 “American Architecture. The Modern Movement: Since 1920s” ………… ..18
3.2.1 Introduction.................................................................................................. 18
3.2.1.1 Modernist Architecture in America (C.1925-1960) ……………….. 19
3.2.1.2 International Style …………………………………………….……. 21
3.2.1.3 Developments During The 1940s and 1950s ………………….…… 22
3.2.1.4 Corporate Modernism……………………………………….……….23
3.2.1.5 Decorative Formalism……………………………………….…….... 24
3.2.1.6 Postmodernist Architecture (1970s-Present) ……………….……….26
3.2.1.7 Deconstructivism (1980s) …………………………………………...29
3.2.2 Greatest American Architects (1920s - Present) …………………………. .30
3.2.2.1 Harrison & Abramovitz firm ………………………………….…….31
3.2.2.2 Peter Eisenman ...…………………………………………………....38
3.2.2.3 Frank O. Gehry …………………………...…………….……….... .44
3.2.2.4 Philip Johnson …………………………..………………..……..…..51
3.2.2.5 SOM (Skidmore Owings Merrill) ………..…………………….…...58
3.2.2.6 Jeanne Gang ………………………………..………….……………66
6
3.2.2.7 Steven Holl ……………………………………..…...……..………. 71
3.2.2.8 Thom Mayne ……………………………………..…………………77
3.2.2.9 KPF (Kohn Pedersen Fox) …………………….…..………………..81
3.2.2.10 Check Yourself ………………………………….……..…………. 86
3.2.2.11 Keys …………………………………………….……..………….. 90
3.2.3 Greatest American Buildings (1920s - Present) ……….…………………. 92
3.2.3.1 Marina City ……………………………………..………..…….…..92
3.2.3.2 The Pentagon ……………………………………..………..….…...93
3.2.3.3 Griffith Observatory ………………….…….…….…...……….….. 94
3.2.3.4 Baha’i House ……………………………………..………..….……95
3.2.3.5 Hearst Tower …………………………………..……..…………….96
3.2.3.6 Seattle Public Library …………………………...….…...…..…...... 97
3.2.3.7 American Radiator Building …………………....……………….....98
3.2.3.8 Chrysler Building ……………………………..…………….….......99
3.2.3.9 Check Yourself ……………………………….………….……...... 100
3.2.3.10 Keys …………………………………………………..….……… 104
3.2.4 Greatest American Bridges (1920s - Present) ….……….………………...106
3.2.4.1 Golden Gate Bridge ……………………..………..…………...….. 106
3.2.4.2 Sunshine Skyway Bridge………………..….………....…………... 107
3.2.4.3 New River Gorge Bridge …………………..…..…………………..108
3.2.4.4 Sundial Bridge …………………………...…..…………………….109
3.2.4.5 Coronado Bridge ……………………..……..…………………….. 110
3.2.4.6 Navajo Bridge………………………..………..……………………111
3.2.4.7 Seven Mile Bridge ………………...……………………………….112
3.2.4.8 Check Yourself ……………………...………………….………….113
3.2.4.9 Keys ………………………………………………………..………116
A list of realities ………………………………………....……………………... 118
Glossary …………………………………………………………………………123
Заключение……………………………...……………………………….…….. 130
Библиография ………………………...………………....…….………………. 131
7
ВВЕДЕНИЕ
В современном мире лингвострановедение является одним из важных
научных направлений для людей, изучающих иностранные языки. Информации
лишь о самом языке недостаточно, прежде всего необходимо дать определенные
знания о культуре, ценностях, быте, менталитете страны изучаемого языка, тем
самым расширяя кругозор учеников и мотивируя их общаться на иностранном
языке. Предметом изучения лингвострановедения является изучение реалий,
фоновой и коннотативной лексики, то есть тех языковых единиц, которые
показывают национальные особенности носителей изучаемого языка.
Объективность существования фоновых знаний хорошо отражена в работах
Е.М. Верещагина и В.Г. Костомарова – основателей лингвострановедения в
России.
Анализ аутентичных материалов и составление лингвострановедческого
тематического пособия “American Architecture. The Modern Movement: Since
1920s” – это главная цель моей выпускной квалификационной работы.
Для достижения этой цели были сформулированы следующие задачи:
1) изучение лингвострановедения, его цели, предметы и объекты исследования, а
также задачи;
2) анализ аутентичных материалов для получения необходимых сведений об
американских зданиях;
3) составление опорных словарей по выбранному материалу о каждой реалии;
4) составление
лингвострановедческого
тематического
пособия
“American
Architecture. The Modern Movement: Since 1920s”
Объектом работы является лингвострановедение как отрасль лингвистики, а
предметом – основные правила и принципы отбора и описания лексики при
составлении лингвострановедческого пособия.
Моя выпускная квалификационная работа состоит из трёх глав, первые две
из них являются теоретической частью работы, в которую входят введение, две
главы “Определение лингвострановедения и его методологическая основа”,
8
“Текст
в
лингвострановедческом
рассмотрении”,
заключение
и
список
литературы. Третья же глава представляет собой тематическое пособие “American
Architecture. The Modern Movement: Since 1920s” со словарем, списком реалий,
тестами и ключами к ним, которое, в свою очередь, является практической частью
дипломной работы.
Практическая значимость данной квалификационной работы заключается в
том, что составленное мной лингвострановедческое пособие в дальнейшем может
быть использовано студентами для самостоятельной подготовки к семинарским
занятиям по дисциплине «Культура стран первого изучаемого языка».
9
ГЛАВА 1. ТЕОРЕТИЧЕСКИЕ ОСНОВЫ ЛИНГВОСТРАНОВЕДЕНИЯ
1.1 ОПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕ ЛИНГВОСТРАНОВЕДЕНИЯ И ЕГО
МЕТОДОЛОГИЧЕСКАЯ ОСНОВА
В лингводидактике привыкли выделять особое течение, главная задача
которого – изучение языка не обособленно, а в тесной связи с культурой страны
изучаемого языка. Во многих высших учебных заведениях кроме иностранного
языка изучаются специальные курсы страноведения. Лингвострановедение как
особая область филологии возникла как раз на фундаменте разностороннего
преподавания языка [7].
Основу лингвострановедения образуют пять основных методологических
принципов:
1) Первый принцип – это принятие факта, согласно которому, изучая язык,
учащиеся имеют возможность приобщиться к новой действительности.
Три
важные функции общественной природы языка: коммуникативная (передача
информации),
кумулятивная
(накопление
информации)
и
директивная
(воздействие и формирование личности).
2) Второй
принцип
–
необходимость
понимания
процесса
изучения
и
преподавания иностранного языка как процесса аккультурации.
3) Третий принцип – в процессе аккультурации важно формирование позитивной
установки по отношению к стране изучаемого языка.
4) Четвертый принцип – языковой учебный процесс должны быть цельным,
страноведческая информация должна извлекаться из естественных форм языка.
5) Пятый принцип – реализация в процессе обучения филологического способа
вторичного познания действительности.
10
1.2 ЦЕЛИ, ЗАДАЧИ, ОБЪЕКТ И ПРЕДМЕТ ЛИНГВОСТРАНОВЕДЕНИЯ
Главной
целью
лингвострановедения
является
обеспечение
коммуникативной компетенции в актах межкультурной коммуникации через
адекватное
восприятие
речи
собеседника
и
понимание
оригинальных
адаптированных текстов.
Наиболее важная задача лингвострановедения – исследование языковых
единиц, которые ярче всего отражают особенности культуры страны изучаемого
языка. К таким языковым единицам можно отнести:
– реалии (явления и предметы, имеющиеся в изучаемой культуре и
отсутствующие в родной);
– коннотативная лексика (одинаковые по основному значению слова, но
разные по культурно- историческим ассоциациям);
– фоновая лексика (предметы, аналогичные в двух культурах, но отличные по
национальным особенностям функционирования и формы). [24]
Предметом лингвострановедения является отобранный языковой материал,
отражающий культуру страны изучаемого языка.
Основным объектом, по мнению Г. Д. Томахина являются фоновые знания,
которыми располагают члены определенной языковой и этнической общности. [7]
11
1.3 РОЛЬ И МЕСТО ЛИНГВОСТРАНОВЕДЧЕСКОГО АСПЕКТА ПРИ
ОБУЧЕНИИ ИНОСТРАННЫМ ЯЗЫКАМ
До 1920 года при изучении иностранного языка национальной культуре не
отводилось должного внимания. Преподавание национальной культуры стало
обязательным в курсе изучения живых языков в университетах Франции
благодаря реформе Фуше [5].
В процессе обучения иностранцев в стране изучаемого языка широко
используется
лингвострановедческий
аспект,
что
способствует
развитию
естественной коммуникации. Адекватное речевое поведение невозможно без
знания национальной культуры, быта, традиций страны изучаемого языка.
Важнейшая задача лингвострановедческого аспекта – обучение общению на
иностранном языке и формирование коммуникативных способностей. Эти
факторы определяют важность и актуальность вопросов, связанных с разработкой
лингвострановедческого аспекта в обучении иностранному языку в средней
общеобразовательной школе [4].
12
ГЛАВА 2. ТЕКСТ В ЛИНГВОСТРАНОВЕДЧЕСКОМ РАССМОТРЕНИИ
В обыденном представлении текст – это письменно зафиксированная речь.
С лингвистической позиции текст – это совершенно любое речевое произведение.
Текст обязательно должен быть предикативным, то есть относиться к реальности.
Предикативность обеспечивает сообщение новых знаний и формирует к ним
установку. Именно на основе предикативности решается одна из важнейших
задач современного преподавания – коммуникативность. [3]
2.1 ПРАГМАТИЧНЫЕ И ПРОЕКТИВНЫЕ ТЕКСТЫ
Исходя из вышесказанного, прагматичный текст – это рациональное,
прямое высказывание, не требующее умозаключения для его понимания,
нацеленное на передачу важной информации. Если же речевая интенция связана с
чем–то косвенным, не прямым с предметом речи, представляет собой посылку, то
такой текст называется проективным.
Учебные пособия, справочники, словари – иными словами, почти вся
учебная, справочная и научная литература полностью построена на основе
прагматичных текстов.
2.2 ПРИНЦИПЫ ОТБОРА ЛИНГВОСТРАНОВЕДЧЕСКИХ УЧЕБНЫХ
ТЕКСТОВ И ИХ АДАПТАЦИЯ
В процессе отбора текстов для учебников следует не забывать, что тексты
несут не только знания, они выполняют еще и воспитательную функцию –
формируют
мировоззрение
и
активное
отношение
к
действительности.
Необходим тщательный выбор текстов, которые вызовут положительные эмоции
к стране изучаемого языка, и дадут нужную мотивацию для изучения, а также
текстов,
богатых
страноведческим
фоном,
без
которого
невозможна
коммуникация.
Каждый текст оценивается со стороны формы (языковая точка зрения) и со
стороны внеязыкового содержания (познавательно-воспитательная точка зрения).
13
По мнению Е. М. Верещагина и В. Г. Костомарова, высший критерий оценки
содержательного
плана
учебных
текстов
–
их
учебно-методическая
целесообразность, что, в свою очередь, делится на более конкретные критерии:
1) Содержательная
ценность
текста
определяется
его
страноведческим
наполнением. Чем больше страноведческих сведений содержит текст, тем выше
его ценность;
2) Страноведческая ценность текста определяется степенью его современности.
Только лишь актуальные сведения могут быть пригодны в изучении;
3) Принцип актуального историзма. В текст учебника следует включать всем
известные исторические данные, помогающие лучше понять культуру страны
изучаемого языка;
4) Требование типичности отражаемых фактов. Не следует насыщать текст
занимательными, но редкими явлениями, либо же чрезвычайными ситуациями,
которые не являются типичными для страны [2].
С точки зрения И. Г. Розовой, к принципам отбора страноведческого материала
относятся:
1) Принцип аутентичности (расширяет страноведческий кругозор учащихся);
2) Принцип воздействия на эмоциональную и мотивационную сферу личности с
учетом возрастных особенностей и интересов учащихся (отбирает только
интересный страноведческий материал);
3) Принцип методической ценности для формирования базовых речевых навыков
и умений учащихся. [12]
Нельзя пренебрегать одним или несколькими принципами при составлении
учебников, они все в равной степени ценны.
З.Н. Никитенко считает, что отбор должен быть обязательно на основе
учета критерия культурологической и страноведческой ценности. Отбираются те
реалии и знания, которые повысят уровень страноведческой образованности и
культуры
в
целом,
сформируют
национально–культурную
компетенцию.
Современность – один из критериев отбора. Именно он помогает определить
границы отбора реалий. З.Н. Никитенко полагает, что нужно учитывать и возраст
14
учащихся, их интересы, а также их исходный общеобразовательный уровень и
уровень языковой подготовки [6].
В процессе создания учебников и учебных пособий, все оригинальные
тексты проходят процесс адаптации.
Существует несколько этапов лингвострановедческой адаптации:
1) Анализ текста с целью определения ведущей страноведческой темы текста и
возможных периферийных тем;
2) Анализ страноведческой информации, заключенной в тексте, вычленение
новой для учащихся страноведческой информации, информации, которая уже
известная учащимся, но может быть закреплена, активизирована и расширена в
данном контексте;
3) Определение объема известной ранее страноведческой информации, на
которую будут опираться учащиеся при усвоении данного текста;
4) Анализ безэквивалентной и фоновой лексики с учетом того, к какой теме –
основной или одной из периферийных для данного текста – она относится;
5) Удаление из текста частей, которые не имеют лингвострановедческой
ценности
или
не
имеют
непосредственного
отношения
к
основной
страноведческой теме, с целью концентрации внимания учащихся;
6) Насыщение текста дополнительными фактами, помогающими более глубокому
раскрытию темы;
7) Изъяснение новых страноведчески ценных слов непосредственно в тексте или
в системе комментариев и методического аппарата учебника или учебного
пособия. [1]
15
ГЛАВА 3. ЛИНГВОСТРАНОВЕДЧЕСКОЕ ТЕМАТИЧЕСКОЕ ПОСОБИЕ
“AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE. THE MODERN MOVEMENT: SINCE 1920S”
3.1 ОПИСАНИЕ ЛИНГВОСТРАНОВЕДЧЕСКОГО ПОСОБИЯ
“AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE. THE MODERN MOVEMENT: SINCE 1920S”
Работа с практической частью проходила в несколько этапов:
Первый этап заключался в подборе различных источников соответствующей
тематики, содержащих аутентичные и современные материалы.
Второй этап основывался на сопоставлении различных точек зрения
касательно одного и того же явления. Такой подход позволил получить не только
достоверную, но и актуальную информацию по заданной теме.
На третьем этапе велась работа над комбинированием и преобразованием
имеющейся информации с целью уменьшения ее объёма и вычленения самых
важных и интересных элементов.
Каждая часть содержит иллюстрации и краткое описание архитекторов,
сооружений и архитектурных стилей. Также, каждая часть содержит раздел
“Check yourself” и “Keys”, для проверки освоения ключевых моментов,
изложенных в текстах.
В разделе “Glossary” (**) можно найти в трудные для понимания слова с их
объяснением. Все незнакомые лексические единицы вошли в раздел “A list of
realities” (*). В данных разделах слова расположены в алфавитном порядке для
облегчения поиска нужных слов.
В своей работе я раскрыла самые основные архитектурные направления, на
которых базировалась строительная деятельность данного периода.
Архитекторы и архитектурные фирмы, которые были включены мной в
учебное пособие, внесли огромный и ценный вклад в становление архитектуры
XX-го и XXI-го веков этой страны и сделали ее именно такой, какой мы с вами
видим ее сегодня. Начиная от American Radiator Building (1924), и заканчивая
Princeton University Lewis Center for the Arts (2017), все эти культурные
сооружения являются символами Американской эпохи.
16
Выбранные мной для лингвострановедческого пособия здания и мосты
являются, в первую очередь, историческим достоянием и наследием Америки в
области архитектуры.
Работа демонстрирует, на мой взгляд, лучшие сооружения, датируемые
началом тридцатых годов XX века вплоть до наших дней. В нее были включены
самые различные здания; от частных домов до высочайших небоскребов, и мосты;
соединяющие между собой штаты, и те, которые выполняют функцию дороги для
прогулок, бега и т.д. Вне зависимости от их предназначения, все они считаются
шедеврами инженерного строения.
Для изучения данных элементов культуры, а также для охвата наиболее
важных событий тех времён, в пособие были включены не только сами значимые
объекты, но и основные исторические факты, связанные с ними.
Благодаря использованию большого количества источников, тема была
всесторонне представлена, а содержание получилось очень насыщенным.
Таким образом, опираясь на материал, представленный в пособии, студенты
смогут «окунуться» в богатый знаковыми объектами и событиями мир и обсудить
на семинарах их важность для настоящего и будущего целой нации.
17
3.2 “AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE.
THE MODERN MOVEMENT: SINCE 1920S”
3.2.1. INTRODUCTION
American Architecture has enjoyed a complex but inspiring history, and –
through firms like Skidmore, Owings and Merrill – continues to lead the world in
advanced Skyscraper Architecture, although today only four of the twenty-five highest
buildings in the world are actually located in America.
From the early colonial style (1600-1720), architectural design in America
followed Georgian (c.1700-1770) and then the Federal style of Neoclassical
Architecture (c.1776-1920) and revivalist Greek Architecture followed by 19th century
Gothic Revival Architecture (c.1800-1900) - including “Carpenter's Gothic” - BeauxArts Renaissance Architecture (c.1850-1880), the Second Empire style (c.1855-1880),
and various forms of domestic architecture including Frank Lloyd Wright's Prairie
School and so-called Frontier style (c.1850-1890s).
Since 1850, however, building design in the United States has been dominated by
skyscraper architecture - now the most visible form of American art of the modern era.
The first really supertall buildings were designed and engineered by the Chicago
School, led by William Le Baron Jenney, Daniel Hudson Burnham, Dankmar Adler and
Louis Sullivan. Today, Chicago still competes with New York to be the home of the
tallest building in America.
After the Art Deco movement (c.1920-1940), as a result of the exodus** of artists
and architects from Europe to America in the lead-up to World War II,
including Bauhaus designers such as Walter Gropius and Mies van der Rohe, the
Modernist school became the pre-eminent** architectural movement. Its purist variant,
the International Style of modern architecture, championed by American designers like
George Howe and William Lescaze, as well as Europeans like Gropius and Mies, led to
the minimalism idiom known as 'corporate modernism', and the more interesting
'decorative formalism'. However, only since the advent of postmodernist architecture (a
18
spin-off from Postmodernist Art) in the 1970s, has architecture become re-humanized,
by the introduction of new styles, historical content, and building techniques.
The
most
famous
variant
of
postmodernist
architectural
design
is
undoubtedly Deconstructivism (1980s onwards), championed by Frank O. Gehry and
others. Meanwhile, skyscraper design has continued to develop, thanks to innovative
architects like the Bangladesh-born Fazlur Rahman Khan, a partner in Skidmore,
Owings & Merrill, who was the highly influential inventor of tubular** designs for
skyscrapers, like the John Hancock Center, Chicago, the Willis Tower (formerly the
Sears Tower) Chicago and several other landmark buildings.
3.2.1.1 MODERNIST ARCHITECTURE IN AMERICA (C.1925-1960)
A late feature of modern art in general, Modernist Architecture was the attempt to
create new designs for the “modern man”. It rejected all traditional styles based on older
prototypes, and proposed a new type of functional design which used modern materials
and construction techniques, to create a new aesthetic and sense of space. Unlike in
Europe, where Modernism emerged during the first decade of the 20th-century,
modernist American architecture only appeared in the mid-to-late 1920s, because
America relied much more heavily on historical models than Europe, whose avant-garde
art movement was altogether stronger.
In addition, given the importance of urban development in the economic recovery
of the United States, and the growth of numerous markets within America, it is hardly
surprising that most modernist developments during the 1930s involved large
commercial buildings, notably skyscrapers. In keeping with its anti-historical attitude,
Modernist architecture favoured simplified forms, and only the sort of essential
ornamentation that reflected the theme and structure of the building. Important
architects in the history and development of the modernist movement in America,
included a number of refugees from Europe, such as Ludwig Mies van der
Rohe, Walter Gropius the former director of the Bauhaus Design School, and Louis
Kahn. Other important modernists included: Frank Lloyd Wright, Richard
Neutra, Eero Saarinen, Louis Skidmore, Nathaniel Owings , John Merrill , Philip
Johnson, I.M.Pei and Robert Venturi.
19
Architects/ Famous names of Modern Style
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1886-1969) – New York's Seagram Building (19541958) (with Philip Johnson)
Walter Gropius (1883-1969) the former director of the Bauhaus Design School,
Louis Kahn (1901-1974).
Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959),
Richard Neutra(1892-1970),
Eero Saarinen (1910-1961),
Louis Skidmore (1897-1962),
Nathaniel Owings (1903-84),
John Merrill (1896-1975),
Philip Johnson (1906-2005),
I.M.Pei (B. 1917),
Robert Venturi (B. 1925).
20
3.2.1.2 INTERNATIONAL STYLE
The International style of modern architecture was a particular (purist)** style of
modernism, which appeared in Europe during the 1920s. It received its name from the
“International Exhibition of Modern Architecture”, curated by the architectural
historian Henry-Russell Hitchcock and the architect Philip Johnson, which was held
at the Museum of Modern Art (MOMA) in New York. A book was published
simultaneously with the MOMA exhibit. The aim of Hitchcock and Johnson was to
identify and promote a style that encapsulated** modern architecture. To achieve this,
they had carefully vetted** all the structures showcased in the exhibition, to ensure that
only those designs that met certain criteria were included.
Nearly all were European buildings, designed by the likes of Jacobus Oud, Walter
Gropius, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Erich Mendelsohn, and Alvar Aalto. Only two
were American buildings - the Film Guild Cinema, New York City, designed
by Frederick John Kiesler; and Lovell House, by Richard Neutra.
The criteria used by Hitchcock and Johnson to identify their archetypal style
included the following three design rules:
(1) the expression of volume rather than mass;
(2) the importance of balance rather than preconceived symmetry**;
(3) the elimination** of applied ornament. All the buildings in the exhibition
observed these design rules, and were therefore presented to the show's American
audience as examples of the “International Style”.
The most commonly used materials used by International style architects were
glass for the facade, steel for exterior support**, and concrete for interior supports**
and floors. Furthermore, floor plans were deliberately functional and logical.
Although modernist architecture never became very popular for single-dwelling
residential buildings in the United States it rapidly became the dominant style for
skyscrapers, and for institutional and commercial buildings. Later, it even supplanted**
the traditional historical styles in schools and churches. Moreover, in schools of
architecture it was the only acceptable design platform until the early 1980s.
21
Architects/ Famous names of International Style
Philip Johnson (1906-2005),
Walter Gropius (1883-1969),
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1886-1969),
Erich Mendelsohn (1887-1953),
Richard Neutra – Lovell House, LA (1929).
3.2.1.3 DEVELOPMENTS DURING THE 1940S AND 1950S
The Second World War was one of the most destabilizing events of the 20th
century, with important consequences also in the field of architecture. The conditions
that had caused the birth of modern architecture had lost force, and architects found
themselves forced to seek new solutions while at the same time heeding the importance
of the architectural revolution of the 1920s. This concerned most of all the famous
European architects, who reworked their language to avoid sterile imitation**, but did
so without betraying the principles they had matured in the prewar years, or their preeminent status in the industry. Gropius founded The Architects Collaborative*, the
members of which designed the modernistic Harvard Graduate Center, while Mies van
der Rohe became head of the architecture department at the Illinois Institute of
Technology at Chicago in 1938 and designed its new campus.
True, the works Gropius was responsible for in the United States, primarily
schools and single-family homes, do not share the expressive intensity of his prewar
designs in Germany, but Mies van der Rohe found Chicago - birthplace of the
skyscraper and the steel framework – highly congenial** to his style.
22
3.2.1.4 CORPORATE MODERNISM
On the banks of Lake Michigan, Mies van der Rohe designed his first steel-andglass skyscrapers. With the collaboration of Philip Johnson, Mies designed one of the
most influential buildings of the postwar period, New York's Seagram Building, an
impressive skyscraper whose sharp glass-and-steel silhouette** became a highly
imitated prototype. The thirty-eight-floor building on Park Avenue was designed for the
Canadian multinational Seagram & Sons*. Hailed as a masterpiece of corporate
modernism, its curtain wall of bronze and glass forms a dense grid that accentuates the
building's stark verticality. It is embellished by the grey-amber tint of the window glass
and the green travertine* dressing of the columns at the base. Mies van der Rohe's style
of simple minimalism and use of steel and glass were repeated by other architects,
like Philip Johnson, Eero Saarinen and Charles Eames, whose language went
through progressive evolutions.
The Seagram Building epitomized** the use of modern architecture by large
corporate concerns, and their search for distinctive emblems of prestige during the
postwar
period.
The
Connecticut
General
Life
Insurance
Company
commissioned Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill (SOM)*, one of the biggest firms of
modern architects, to design their new Hartford headquarters . Lever Brothers had
already hired the firm to design Lever House (1952), whose park-like plaza, glasscurtain walls, and thin aluminum mullions** had Mies van der Rohe's name all over
them. The austere**, geometric aesthetic of the General Motors Technical Center in
Michigan, was another building that followed Miesian principles, as was the UN
Headquarters Building, designed by Le Corbusier, Oscar Niemeyer and others.
Other examples of 1950s modernism include: the tower for the Aluminum Company of
America at Pittsburgh, designed by Harrison and Abramovitz; and the Inland Steel
Building at Chicago, designed by Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill. Frank Lloyd Wright
was one of the few to reject the rectilinear geometry of these office buildings: see, by
contrast, the faceted design of his concrete and copper Price Tower, Bartlesville,
Oklahoma.
23
Architects/ Famous names of Corporate Modernism
Eero Saarinen and Charles Eames (1907-1978),
Mies van der Rohe - Lever House (1952), New York's Seagram Building (19541958),
Oscar Niemeyer Harrison and Abramovitz - UN Headquarters Building (19471952), the tower for the Aluminum Company of America at Pittsburgh (1954),
Le Corbusier - UN Headquarters Building (1947-1952)
Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill (SOM) - Inland Steel Building at Chicago (19551957).
Frank Lloyd Wright – Price Tower (1955), Bartlesville, Oklahoma.
3.2.1.5 DECORATIVE FORMALISM
During the early 1950s, in a move away from 'functionalism' towards
'formalism', modern architects became increasingly interested in the decorative
qualities of different building materials and exposed structural systems. In simple terms,
they began using the formal attributes of buildings for decorative, even expressive,
purposes. An interesting example of this new aesthetic was Frank Lloyd Wright's design
for the Guggenheim Museum in New York, a building organized around a spiral
ramp** that constitutes the arrangement of the museum's display as well as the
generative element of its overall design. Other American architects also used
curvilinear** structural geometry, as exemplified by the sports arena at Raleigh,
designed by Matthew Nowicki , where two parabolic arches, held up by columns, and a
stretched-skin roof enclose a massive space devoid of interior supports.
Eero Saarinen's TWA terminal at John F. Kennedy International Airport, was
another dynamic example of a monumental, single-form building, whose geometric
shapes and silhouettes reflected a new formal expressiveness, whose zenith** was
undoubtedly the Sydney Opera House, designed by Jorn Utzon. The more muted
formalist style of Minoru Yamasaki is illustrated by his 1,360 foots Twin Towers of
the World Trade Center, buildings 1 and 2, designed in 1965-1966. Another example of
formalist decoration was the John Hancock Center, designed by Skidmore, Owings
and Merrill, which made a feature of the building's X-shaped support braces, designed
24
by Fazlur Khan, probably the greatest skyscraper design-engineer of the 20th century.
This trend of structural expressionism, dynamic monumentalism remains a presence in
modern architecture: witness the sleek** rectangular patterns of SOM's Time Warner
Center, New York.
An interesting recipient of the Gold Medal of the American Institute of architects,
in 1971, was the Estonian-born Louis Isidore Kahn. Kahn's career followed a different
course from many of those cited above. His training had taken place before the
international style had taken root in the United States. He studied at the University of
Pennsylvania, where he acquired the elements of classical definition following the
academic tradition of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts*: symmetries, axiality**, proper
proportions, the hierarchy of parts. His most important works from the 1950s and 1960s
period, include: the Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven; the Richards Medical
Research Laboratories at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia; the Salk
Institute for Biological Studies at La Jolla, in California; and the Kimbell Art Museum
in Fort Worth, which some see as his masterpiece of these years.
Architects/ Famous names of Decorative Formalism
Frank Lloyd Wright – the Guggenheim Museum in New York (1943-1959)
Matthew Nowicki (1910-1949) – sports arena at Raleigh (1952-1953)
Jorn Utzon – Eero Saarinen's TWA terminal at John F. Kennedy International Airport
(1956-1962), the Sydney Opera House (1959-1973).
Minoru Yamasaki (1912-1986) – 1,360 Towers of the World Trade Center, buildings
1 and 2, designed in 1965-1966.
Skidmore, Owings and Merrill (SOM) – John Hancock Center (1967-1970),
Fazlur Khan (1929-1982) – SOM's Time Warner Center (2003-2007), New York.
Louis Isidore Kahn (1901-1974) – the Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven (19511953).
25
3.2.1.6 POSTMODERNIST ARCHITECTURE (1970S-PRESENT)
The 1960s witnessed the beginnings of a general dissatisfaction with
consequences of 20th century architecture in the United States, where its shortcomings
were outlined in two influential publications: The Death and Life of Great American
Cities (1961),
by
Jane
Jacobs;
and Complexity
and
Contradiction
in
Architecture (1966), by Robert Venturi. While Jacobs criticized the soulless Utopianism
of the Modern movement, Venturi bemoaned** the fact that because Modern structures
lack any trace of historical elements, they also lack the meaningful irony and
complexity with which architecture is usually enriched.
One particularly unpopular and soulless form of experimental modern
architecture was known as Brutalism (from the French “beton brut”*, meaning raw
concrete), a term coined** by British designers Alison and Peter Smithson to describe
the geometric concrete structures, often erected in areas of social decay, by Utopian
architects such as Le Corbusier. The basic idea behind Brutalist architecture was to
encourage functional patterns of living, by eliminating all ornament and other visual
distractions. The idea failed. Infamous examples of Brutalist design in North America
include: Yale Art and Architecture Building, designed by Paul Rudolph; and Habitat
'67, Montreal by Moshe Safdie.
Jacobs and Venturi were catalysts for a wave of opposition to Modernism, but
they didn't invent “Postmodernism”. The term was actually coined by the American
theorist Charles Jenks in his book The Language of Post-Modern Architecture (1977),
which describes the architectural tendencies that sprang up in the 60s in opposition to
the dominant dictates of rationalist modernism.
The point was, modern architecture had excluded traditional historic forms as
well as decorative elements from its repertory. Postmodernism wanted to “rehumanize”
architecture by using a mixture of styles, including features taken from classical designs
as well as those from popular culture. Playful irony, plus occasional surprises, even
shocks, have all been an essential part of the postmodernist approach to building design.
After all, basic features of architecture, like columns, arches, often lose their original
meaning when used out of context as decorative elements. Postmodernist architecture
26
was following in the footsteps of Pop Art, whose adherents** - such as Andy
Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein and Claes Oldenburg – were already rejuvenating** the
world of contemporary art through their use of more meaningful popular imagery.
One should note however, that a large number of postmodernist architects
began their careers as modernists, and thus many features of Modernism were carried
over into postmodernism, notably in the work of architects such as Robert
Venturi, Michael Graves, Frank O. Gehry and Richard Meier.
Postmodernism in America is generally reckoned to have begun in 1972, with the
demolition** of a series of 14-story slab** blocks that had been erected less than 20
years earlier from designs by Minoru Yamasaki as part of the award-winning Pruitt–
Igoe* housing project in St. Louis, Missouri. In reality, it was a stark, modernist
concrete structure that became a magnet for problems. Although numerous housing
blocks had already been demolished in Europe, it was in St. Louis that the American
postmodernist era began.
During the 1970s, Robert Venturi and his partners Denise Scott Brown
and John Rauch reintroduced historical reference, wit and humanity into the designs of
numerous buildings, including: Michael Graves – one of the famous “New York Five”,
along with Peter Eisenman, Charles Gwathmey, John Hejduk and Richard Meier –
designed the Portland Public Service Building in Oregon, and Humana Tower,
Louisville, Kentucky, both of which combine the mass of a regular skyscraper with
historical motifs. Similar to the Piazza d'Italia, New Orleans, and Alumni Center,
University of California at Irvine, designed by Charles Moore, these confident, upbeat
structures are designed to reassure the public that their cultural identity is no longer
under attack from anti-historical modern architecture.
During the 1970s and 1980s, following the example of Pop art, several American
architects adopted a populist style which occasionally featured classical elements. They
included Philip Johnson and John Burgee, who designed the AT&T Building, New
York City, complete with a Chippendale skyline; and Robert Stern, who used a
classical Jeffersonian design for his Observatory Hill Dining Hall at the University of
27
Virginia, but Spanish Colonial features for his Prospect Point Office Building, La Jolla,
California.
Architects/ Famous names of Postmodernist Style
Le Corbusier (1887-1965),
Paul Rudolph (1918-1997) - Yale Art and Architecture Building (1958-1963) ,
Roy Lichtenstein (1923-1997),
Robert Venturi (B.1925),
Frank O. Gehry (B. 1929),
Richard Meier (B. 1934),
Minoru Yamasaki (1912-1986)– the World Trade Center towers and the St. Louis
Lambert International Airport main terminal,
Michael Graves (b.1934) – one of the famous “New York Five”,
Philip Johnson (1906-2005)
John Burgee (B. 1933).
28
3.2.1.7 DECONSTRUCTIVISM (1980S)
“Deconstructivism” is a particular style of postmodernist architecture that was
developed in Europe and the United States during the 1980s and 1990s. It can be
defined as a design attitude involving a pronounced deformation of Euclidean
geometry* that accords little weight to the traditional principles of proportion.
Recurrent characteristics of deconstructivism are precariousness, disharmony, and
irregularity. Conventional attributes of architecture are deconstructed to create
apparently incoherent forms that often challenge the laws of gravity. The concept was
first unveiled in 1988 at a show called “Deconstructive Architecture”, organized by
Philip Johnson, which was held at New York's Museum of Modern Art. The exhibition
showcased the work of seven postmodernist architects, who were identified as the
leading
advocates
of
the
new
style,
including: Frank
O.
Gehry, Daniel
Libeskind, Rem Koolhaas, Zaha Hadid, Peter Eisenman, Bernard Tschumi and
the Co-op Himmelblau group.
The real pioneer of deconstructivism, however, was Frank O. Gehry, who
performed the first experiments in deconstructivist designwork in California at the end
of the 1970s. These involved a series of buildings in which he combined unusual
materials in apparently unstable and precarious structures. Later designs by Gehry
include: the California Aerospace Museum, Los Angeles; the Walt Disney Concert Hall,
Los Angeles; Weisman Museum, Minneapolis; the Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao; the
amazing Nationale Nederlanden Building, Prague, also known as “Fred and Ginger”;
and the Experience Music Project, Seattle.
Architects/ Famous names of Deconstructivism
Frank O. Gehry, (b.1929),
Daniel Libeskind (B. 1946),
Rem Koolhaas (B. 1944),
Peter Eisenman (B. 1932),
Zaha Hadid (1950-2016) [34].
29
3.2.2 GREATEST AMERICAN ARCHITECTS (1920S - PRESENT)
1) HARRISON & ABRAMOVITZ FIRM
– MAX ABRAMOVITZ (1908-1995)
– WALLACE HARRISON (1895- 1981)
2) PETER EISENMAN (B. 1932)
3) FRANK O. GEHRY (B. 1929)
4) PHILIP JOHNSON (1906-2005)
5) SOM (SKIDMORE, OWINGS, MERRILL)
– LOUIS SKIDMORE (1897-1962),
– NATHANIEL OWINGS (1903-1984),
– JOHN MERRILL (1896-1975),
– FAZLUR KHAN (1929-1982),
– DAVID MAGIE CHILDS (B. 1941)
6) JEANNE GANG (B. 1964)
7) STEVEN HOLL (B. 1947)
8) THOM MAYNE (B. 1944)
9) KPF (KOHN PEDERSEN FOX)
– A. EUGENE KOHN (B. 1930)
– WILLIAM PEDERSEN (B. 1938)
– SHELDON FOX (1930-2006)
30
3.2.2.1 HARRISON & ABRAMOVITZ FIRM
Max Abramovitz (1908-1995)
Wallace Harrison (1895-1981)
Harrison & Abramovitz was an American architectural firm based in New York
and active from 1941 through 1976, a partnership of Wallace Harrison and Max
Abramovitz. They worked on major projects like United Nations Building. In a long
partnership they made a significant contribution to postwar modernist architecture in
New York City.
Buildings:
 Avery Fisher Hall (David Geffen Hall)
 Metropolitan Opera House
 Phoenix Life Insurance Company Building
 U.S. Steel Tower
 University of Illinois Assembly Hall
 “The Egg“ Perfomance Hall
Rewards:
 Rome Prize (1961)
 Doctorate in Fine Arts from the University of Illinois (1970).
31
Avery Fisher Hall (David Geffen Hall)
New York, New York, 1962
Style: modern
Avery Fisher Hall is a concert hall in New York City's Lincoln Center for the
Performing Arts complex on Manhattan's Upper West Side. The 2,738-seat auditorium
opened in 1962, and is the home of the New York Philharmonic. The facility was
originally named Philharmonic Hall and was renamed in honor of philanthropist Avery
Fisher*, who donated $10.5 million to the orchestra in 1973. In 2015, the hall was
renamed David Geffen Hall after David Geffen* donated $100 million to the Lincoln
Center.
In 1962, Philharmonic Hall became one of the first buildings to be completed on
the Lincoln Center site and home to one of its first resident organizations, the worldrenowned New York Philharmonic, the oldest symphony orchestra in the U.S [29], [61].
32
Metropolitan Opera House
New York, New York, 1966
Style: modern
The Metropolitan Opera House is the Largest Repertory Opera House in the
World. Behind the stunning productions at New York City’s Metropolitan Opera at
Lincoln Center is an institution and building full of history and secrets. It has a capacity
of 3,995 people including standing room, the largest capacity of any opera house in the
world. As a point of reference, the Sydney Opera House can seat up to 2,679 and the
Paris Opera Garnier can seat 1,900.
The Metropolitan Opera house was designed by Wallace Harrison, the architect
also behind the Rockefeller Center complex. The resulting structure was the
culmination of competing design interests, a compromise between the Metropolitan
Opera House Company which wanted a more traditional opera house design and the
other Lincoln Center architects who favored a Modernist look for the arts center as a
whole. Harrison went through forty-two other possible designs. Construction began in
1963 and the first public performance at the new opera house took place on April 11,
1966 with Giacomo Puccini’s La fanciulla del West*[72].
33
Phoenix Life Insurance Company Building
Hartford, Connecticut, 1963
Style: modernist
The Phoenix Mutual Life Insurance
Building, also known locally as the “Boat
Building”, is home to the Phoenix Mutual
Life Insurance Company.
The building, a major architectural
landmark in the city, is a significant example
of the modernist architectural style that was
prevalent in urban renewal projects in the
1950s and 1960s.
The building was completed in 1963
and was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2005. Known technically
as an elliptic lenticular** cylinder or lenticular hyperboloid**, the 13-story high-rise
was the world’s first two-sided building and was designed by recognized 20th-century
master Max Abramovitz of the firm Harrison & Abramovitz.
Abramovitz designed the building as he envisioned it: a reflection of a daring and
progressive company. Some 225 feet along its axis and 87 feet at its widest point, it is
oriented so that its pointed ends face east and west and the sides face north and south.
Constructed of steel with glass curtain walls, the building today looks as modern and
contemporary as it did when it was built in the 1960s [37].
34
U.S. Steel Tower
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1970
Style: international
Constructed in 1970, the U.S. Steel Tower
has come to signify the transformation of
Pittsburgh from the Steel City to a bustling
metropolis filled with art, technology, and
innovation. The 64-story skyscraper is home to
numerous building tenants.
Located
in
the
heart
of downtown
Pittsburgh, PA, the U.S. Steel Tower is
architecturally noted for its triangular shape with
indented corners. The steel building also made
history for being the first to use liquid-filled
fireproofed columns. Fire protection of the U.S.
Steel Tower is provided by 18 hollowed columns
filled with a mixture of water, antifreeze, and rust
inhibitor.
The tower’s architects and building contractors deliberately placed the massive
steel columns on the exterior to showcase a new product of the time called Cor-ten
steel. Cor-ten was resistant to the corrosive effects of rain, snow, ice, fog, and other
weather conditions by forming a coating of dark brown oxidation over the metal [11].
35
University of Illinois Assembly Hall
Champaign, Illinois, 1963
Style: modernist
The Assembly Hall at the University of Illinois (U of I) in Urbana, Illinois, the
first concrete domed sport structure, was completed in 1963. It was designed by Max
Abramovitz. The dome was the first of its kind, and at one time it was one of only two
edge-supported domes in existence. Total cost of the project was $8.5 million.
Assembly Hall is considered an engineering marvel because of Abramovitz's
concrete contractors used prestressed concrete in a way it had never been used before.
Previously, buildings had been constructed of posts**, lintels**, arches or shells**.
Assembly Hall had not undergone any renovations since it was completed in
1963, so while the building was once state-of-the-art, by the 1990s it was determined to
lack some necessary facilities. The university decided to remedy these problems in 1996
by adding 50,000 square feet of underground receiving and storage areas. Also part of
the renovation was a pressroom** accessible by elevator, three receiving docks, a 329foot long open ramp and a 141-foot long reinforced concrete tunnel.
Despite the changes, Abramovitz's vision remained very nearly the same. His
concrete wonder now sports a plaza for vehicles and a new tunnel drive but otherwise
remained unchanged [22].
36
“The Egg“ Perfomance Hall
Albany, New York, 1966-1978
Style: international
The construction of The Egg
began in 1966 and was completed
twelve years later in 1978. The Egg
was designed by Wallace Harrison
for all the people of New York State
and to accommodate many events and performances.
Architecturally, The Egg is without precedent. From a distance it seems as much
a sculpture as a building. Though it appears to sit on the main platform, the stem** that
holds The Egg actually goes down through six stories deep into the Earth. The Egg
keeps its shape by wearing a girdle – a heavily reinforced concrete beam** that was
poured along with the rest of the shell. This beam helps transmit The Egg’s weight onto
the supporting pedestal and gives the structure an ageless durability that belies its
nickname.
The Egg houses two theatres – the Lewis A. Swyer Theatre and the Kitty Carlisle
Hart Theatre. Seating 450, the Swyer Theatre is used for chamber music concerts,
cabaret, lectures, multimedia presentations, solo performers and a majority of
educational programming. With a seating capacity of 982, the Hart Theatre is used for
larger productions including musical theatre, dance and music concerts. Wrapping
around fully half The Egg is a lounge area for the Hart theatre. This space is ideal for
seminars, receptions, after theatre parties and small cabaret type performances.
The building’s curved exterior defines the interior statement as well. There are
virtually no straight lines or harsh corners inside The Egg. Instead, walls along the edge
curve upward to meet gently concave** ceiling light for celestial effect. The backs of
performing areas are fanned – inviting one inward – providing an intimacy impossible
in a conventional theatre. And throughout, walls of Swiss pearwood veneer add warmth
and enhance the acoustics in the theatres [32].
37
3.2.2.2 PETER EISENMAN (B. 1932)
The “real architecture” only exists in the drawings.
The “real building” exists outside the drawings.
The difference here is that “architecture” and
“building” are not the same.
Peter Eisenman
Whether built, written or drawn, the work of renowned architect, theorist and
educator Peter Eisenman is characterized by Deconstructivism, with an interest in signs,
symbols and the processes of making meaning always at the foreground. As such,
Eisenman has been one of architecture's foremost theorists of recent decades; however,
he has also at times been a controversial figure in the architectural world, professing a
disinterest in many of the more pragmatic concerns that other architects engage in [75].
Buildings:
 Wexner Center for The Visual Arts, Columbus, Ohio, 1983-1989
 Aronoff Center for Design And Art, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1988-1996
 Greater Columbus Convention Center, Columbus, Ohio, 1990-1993
 University of Phoenix Stadium, Glendale, Arizona, 1997-2006
Rewards:
 The Wolf Prize in Arts (2010)
 American Institute of Architects, National Honor Award for Design (2007)
 Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe, Berlin (2007)
 Golden Cube for Architectural Achievement, Naples, Italy (2006)
 Honorary Doctor of Fine Arts, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York (2006)
 American Institute of Architects, New York Chapter, Honor Award (2005)
38
Wexner Center for The
Visual Arts
Columbus, Ohio, 1983-1989
Style: deconstrutivism
The Center for the first
public building designed by
Wexner Arts Peter Eisenman,
is an international laboratory for the exploration and development of contemporary art.
The entity is a laboratory and public gallery, not a museum, no houses collections
of art. Although, when it was built it replaced the Gallery of Fine Arts of the University,
and took possession and administration of the permanent collection of the University,
with about 3,000 works of art.
Eisenman is based on figures from the Old Arsenal and performs a series of cuts,
using geometric shapes as an ornament. Although the project is governed by a system of
orthogonal grid**, some of the columns do not touch the ground, contradicting the role
to be performed. It is the way for the
architect to play with the classic symbol
of the column, take this recognizable
element of the old building and
deforms,
architectural
deconstrutivism,
principle
alteration
of
and
distortion perfectly.
The steel structure was covered with a skin of red masonry** evoking the old
building. The exterior includes a large white metal grid that suggests some kind of
armor**, which gives the building a sense of incompleteness. At the front and at the
entrance, Eisenman rebuilt a tower of an old arsenal, then cut it and give an image of
disorganization.
In 1985 the design of Peter Eisenman received the “Progressive Architecture” award
[59].
39
Aronoff Center for Design and Art
Cincinnati, Ohio, 1988-1996
Style: modern
Aronoff Center for Design and Art is the newest building of the four buildings
that consists the University of Cincinnati College, which ties together the three older
buildings and houses the college library, cafeteria, auditorium, art supply store, and
photography lab. In the building there is not a certain organizational system and the
characteristic “displacement” of Eisenman’s design is quite obvious in every step.
The Aronoff Center for Design and Art is mentioned as the mecca** for the
architects, as being the most architecturally dynamic campuses in America and is a
group of buildings that have brought great distinction to the University of Cincinnati
and to the city itself. Peter Eisenman’s program here was to re-organize 13,400 square
meters of existing space and add 12,000 square meters of new space, including a library,
theater, exhibition space, studio space, and office space. This was to unify the
University of Cincinnati’s schools of Design, Art, Architecture and Planning.
The most intriguing view of the center is of it nestled behind sensuous land forms
and elegant trees – a responsive design to the University of Cincinnati’s precarious
hilltop site [19], [25].
40
Greater Columbus Convention Center
Columbus, Ohio, 1990-1993
Style: deconstructivism
The 1.7-million square-foot SMG-managed Greater Columbus Convention Center
(GCCC) is located near the southern boundary of the vibrant Short North Arts District.
As the winner of multiple Prime Site and Inner Circle Awards, this striking, modern
facility has become one of North America’s most popular sites for local, state, regional,
and national groups and organizations.
Offering flexible space that can be adapted for events of all sizes, the GCCC
includes 74,000-square-foot Battelle Grand, the largest, multipurpose ballroom in the
state of Ohio. Battelle Grand includes an expansive view of downtown Columbus and a
high-tech ceiling system, which provides an array of customized lighting options. The
GCCC includes 65 meeting rooms, the 25,000-square-foot Grand Ballroom, 15,000square-foot Terrace Ballroom and 410,000 square feet of exhibit space [13].
41
University of Phoenix Stadium
Glendale, Arizona, 1997-2006
Style: deconstrutivism
This is the first fully retractable natural grass playing surface built in the United
States. An opening on one side of the stadium allows the playing field to move to the
exterior of the building, both allowing the entire natural turf** playing surface to be
exposed to daylight when it is not in use and allowing the floor to be used for other
purposes without damaging the playing surface.
It is considered an architectural icon for the region and was named by Business
Week as one of the 10 “most impressive” sports facilities on the globe due to the
combination of its retractable roof and roll-in natural grass field. It is the only American
facility on the list. The whole complex is counts with a powerful air conditioning
equipment that allows to play games at times of the year when it would have otherwise
been impossible.
The outside shape of the stadium represents a barrel cactus**, a very typical plant
from the desert where it’s located. That’s the way the architect found to relate such a
huge building with such a characteristic environment as the desert of Arizona can be.
The building features alternating sections of shimmering metal panels intended to
reflect the shifting desert light alongside magnificent vertical glass slots allowing
patrons a spectacular view of the horizon from any level of the exterior.
42
 Approximately 63,400 permanent seats, expandable to 72,200 seats
 160,000 square feet of contiguous exhibit space, 20,000 square feet of meeting
room space
 2 high resolution video scoreboards
 77 Public Restrooms (30 Men’s, 35 Women’s and 12 Family)
 10 Number of elevators for public use in stadium
A concrete structure was used to hold the retractable** roof. Supercolumns
were preferred instead of regular columns in order to minimize the zones where
the structure would obstruct the direct view of the field.
The roof is made out of translucent fabric and opens in twelve minutes. It is
the first retractable roof ever built on an incline [50].
43
3.2.2.3 FRANK GEHRY O. (B.1929)
One of the leading postmodernist artists in 20th
century building design in America, he is a pioneer of
deconstructivist architecture.
Buildings:
 Walt Disney Concert Hall, Los Angeles, California, 2003
 Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health (LRCBH), Las Vegas, Nevada, 2010
 EMP Museum (The Museum of Pop Culture), Seattle, Washington, 2000
 The IAC Building, New York, New York, 2007
 Beekman Tower, New York, New York, 2011
 Jay Pritzker Pavilion, Chicago, Illinois, 2004
Awards:
 Pritzker Architecture Prize (1989)
 Arnold W. Brunner Memorial Prize in Architecture (1977)
 Wolf Prize in Art (Architecture) (1992)
 Praemium Imperiale Award (1992)
 Gold Medal – American Institute of Architects (1999)
 Gold Medal – Royal Institute of British Architects (2000)
 Lifetime Achievement Award – Americans for the Arts (2000) [84], [76]
44
Walt Disney Concert Hall
Los Angeles, California, 2003
Style: postmodern
Walt Disney Concert Hall (WDCH) is the home of the Los Angeles
Philharmonic, presenting the best in classical music, contemporary music, world
music and jazz.
Designed by architect Frank Gehry, Walt Disney Concert Hall (WDCH) is
an internationally recognized architectural landmark and one of the most
acoustically sophisticated concert halls in the world. From the stainless steel
curves of its striking exterior to the state-of-the-art acoustics of the hardwoodpaneled main auditorium, the 3.6-acre complex embodies the unique energy and
creative spirit of the city of Los Angeles and its orchestra.
Thanks to the vision and generosity of Lillian Disney, the Disney family,
and many other individual and corporate donors, Los Angeles enjoys the music
of the Los Angeles Philharmonic, the Los Angeles Master Chorale and visiting
artists and orchestras from around the world [88].
45
Lou Ruvo Center for Brain
Health (LRCBH)
Las Vegas, Nevada, 2010
Style: postmodern
The two main areas of the
building, separated by a corridor
that marks the opposition of one another, bring to mind the classic dichotomy of the
cerebral hemispheres, the medical and research wing more rational and contained events
hall, more free and fantastic. The building of 5.574m2 is divided into 4 floors, with 13
rooms for medical consultations, 27 single rooms for patients, research areas, an
auditorium and a Museum of Mind. A corridor on the ground floor of the clinic leads to
the entrance and exits to patio**, connecting to the Activity Center and whether to
continue with the Garden of Reflection. Inside the clinic, Gehry worked to create an
environment that evokes a medical setting. He made sure that all doors, frames and
furniture were built with rich Douglas fir*, honey-colored. Create curved passages
carefully tailored sight lines that limit interaction between patients in different stages of
the disease.
The design architect Frank Gehry is divided into two different wings representing
logical and creative aspects of brain function. The third sector tour greenery separates
the above two. Designed as a space for conversation and relaxation for medical staff, it
has a café, which through a system of shading, avoiding direct sunlight and ventilation.
The clinic building has a structural steel frame and composite concrete metal deck
floors, while a distinctive curved trellis** overhanging stands on its southern facade.
Architectural and engineering coordination in the design for the building development
was one of the essential requirements to carry out the complex structure. WSP engineers
used 3D BIM technology* for Digital Project and to design structural steel elements that
fit the complex geometry of the different parts of the project [47].
46
EMP Museum (The Museum of Pop Culture)
Seattle, Washington, 2000
Style: deconstructivism
MoPOP is located on the campus of Seattle Center, adjacent to the Space Needle
and the Seattle Center Monorail, which runs through the building. The structure itself
was designed by Frank Gehry and resembles many of his firm's other works in its sheetmetal construction, such as Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, Walt Disney Concert Hall,
and Gehry Tower. MoPOP is a leading-edge, nonprofit museum, dedicated to the ideas
and risk-taking that fuel contemporary popular culture. With its roots in rock ‘n’ roll,
MoPOP serves as a gateway museum, reaching multigenerational audiences through
collections, exhibitions, and educational programs, using interactive technologies to
engage and empower visitors. At MoPOP, artists, audiences, and ideas converge,
bringing understanding, interpretation, and scholarship to the popular culture of our
time.
MoPOP includes multiple innovative galleries; an interactive Sound Lab; Sky
Church —a concert venue with state-of-the-art sound and lighting that houses the
largest indoor LED screen* in the world; and a significant historic music collection of
approximately 140,000 objects, including 80% of all musical output produced in the
Northwest during the last century. The last structural steel beam to be put in place bears
the signatures of all construction workers who were on site on the day it was erected
[31], [64].
47
The IAC Building
New York, New York, 2007
Style: deconstructivism
This deconstructivist style
building, headquarters of the
American
Internet
company
InterActive Corporation located
in West Chelsea neighborhood,
balancing soft shapes evokes the
sails of a ship, as in many of the projects of the architect. The 10-story building is
divided horizontally into two main levels of five floors each, with a narrowing on the
sixth floor. It is divided into five vertical sections at lower levels and three on top,
further enhancing the appearance of the sails of a ship. The sections appear twisted and
joined together like the cells of a beehive**. The skin of the cell units looks like candles
on the skeleton of the building. Because of its shape, composition and color is also
conceptually related to an iceberg.
The windows that cover the full height of each plant transparent fade to white as
amounting creating the impression that the building consists of two floors tall. Contains
the first glass curtain in the world deformed cold. The shape of the IAC is given by a
reinforced concrete structure delicately carved and dressed in a system of glass curtain
wall. The irregular glass facade is the culminating point of the design and sculptural. It
was necessary to create an innovative structural solution to go ahead and give life to the
whimsical** facade. Many of the support columns were placed at an angle rather than
vertical, thereby creating an unusual shape to the structural skeleton of concrete. The
curves and forms free project necessitated a more malleable than steel material to create
the support of the building. What emerged was an intricate system of slabs** and
columns of reinforced concrete structure. A guided laser surveying equipment helped
engineers and builders to find the exact position of each structural component [44].
48
Beekman Tower
New York, New York, 2011
Style: deconstructivist
The conceptual design of the building began in
late 2003. Between 2004 and 2005, the architects
studied 50 different schemes. In late 2005, when the
design had already been decanted into the perforated
stainless steel facade with windows, the project sought
to digital form with the most advanced scanning and 3D
modeling.
The curves of the facade can evoke many feelings, from streams of water,
aluminum sheets, ice shedding, highlight effect when light reflects on the surface,
creating shadows and clear, is up to the viewer decide what feelings it evokes curved
facade, as if it were a sculpture. The Beekman Tower is a unique fusion of public and
private spaces. Here you can find, besides residential apartments, a public school, a
medical center and two outdoor plazas. Many of the emotions created abroad are also
transmitted to the interior, because the curvature of the facade are no two similar plants
and therefore each apartment is unique.
The curtain wall that runs underneath the panels is composed of two layers, an
inner and an outer that ensures water resistance. All of the curtain wall panels are joined
with unions and are anchored individually to the structure. The inner layer consists of
flat glass and insulation is at all points of the building by his side visible from the
interior spaces. The outer skin of the facade is made of stainless steel instead of
titanium. The facade consists of a curtain wall supplied and installed by the company
PNA, one of the few familiar with the use of CATIA software*, with which the study of
Gehry used to treat the complex geometry of its projects. After installing the curtain
wall, which ensures minimum standards of climatic comfort, acoustic, etc. were placed
end steel panels to shape the project [55].
49
Jay Pritzker Pavilion
Chicago, Illinois, 2004
Style: deconstructivist
The
Pavilion
Canadian
Jay
Pritzker
designed
architect
by
Frank
Gehry is the new home of the Grant Park Symphony in Chicago that has been offering
outdoor concerts in the city during the summer season for more than 70 years. The Jay
Pritzker Pavilion is the centerpiece of Millennium Park, a monumental work of recovery
of this area of the city in which they have invested a total of nearly $ 500. The park is an
example of architecture unrivaled. In total the pavilion can accommodate 11,000 people
at a single event, 4000 located in the area of fixed seats immediately in front of the stage
and slightly buried and 7,000 more in the courtyard of 180 by 90 meters which is
located behind this area of fixed seats which is elevated above it allowing unobstructed
view of the stage. As the stage is concerned, this is able to accommodate 120 musicians
and a choir of 150 people. The back- stage areas are shared with the adjacent Music and
Dance Theater. The scenario has turn with large glass doors that allow close completely
allowing it to be used for other purposes during the winter season, such as banquets,
receptions and presentations. One of the most important aspects of the project was
undoubtedly the acoustic quality of the place where worked many acoustical engineers.
Of course the stage is equipped with a number of great speakers focused on the
spectator area as in virtually every major concert stages, but definitely the biggest
challenge was to get the optimal sound quality was not only facing the stage, but a
hundred and two hundred meters away where the grass esplanade which houses extends
to more casual audience. The solution for this effect was both architectural and
technological. Architecturally the grassy esplanade situated to the fixed seating area was
covered with a mesh** of steel tubes that extend the field of influence without making a
big solid block. [45].
50
3.2.2.4 PHILIP JOHNSON (1906-2005)
Arguably the most influential figure in 20th-Century
Architecture in America; designed Seagram Building with
Mies Van der Rohe.
Buildings:
 The Trump International Hotel and Tower, New York, New York, 1969
 Seagram Building, New York, New York, 1958
 Sony Building, New York, New York, 1984
 Crystal Cathedral, Orange County, California, 1980
 Lipstick Building, New York, New York, 1986
 Pittsburgh’s PPG Placel, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1984
Awards:
 The Twenty-five Year Award (1975)
 AIA Gold Medal (1978)
 The Pritzker Prize in Architecture (1979)
51
The Trump International Hotel
and Tower
New York, New York, 1969
Style: internationalism
The Trump International Hotel
& Tower is not as one might think a
new building in its entirety. Perhaps
for the popular dissatisfaction that
New Yorkers have toward the
purchase of this building for this part
of multimillionaire Donald Trump*
to
remodel
and
was
warmly
welcomed when they finally opened
their project within the deadlines set
in late 1997 this was a resounding
success.
In the triangular shaped plaza
facing Columbus Circle Donald
Trump placed a skeleton of stainless
steel globe that has become an icon
of this corner of Central Park. The city has taken the sculpture to the point that most
visitors are unaware that in fact belongs to a private entity.
This monument is a symbol of internationalism and distinctive in the works of
Trump multimillionaire. It was retained the existing steel structure, although only in its
vertical sections were modified since the height of the flats are made of reinforced
concrete. The steel and reinforced concrete forming the structure while the tinted glass
in copper tone gives the image outside the project [57].
52
Seagram Building
New York, New York, 1958
Style: international
The building designed to the
manner of ancient columns, with
bases, shaft and capital.
It is a rectangular building
supported on piles**. It is 157
meters high, spread over 39 floors.
His typology shows clearly
the structure in front, meeting both
an ornamental role, consisting of
steel
beams
and
columns
of
bronze, that without a structural
role
fits
perfectly
the
large
windows that are the most visible
epidermis of the work.
The ornamentation of the
structure borne by the facilities of
steel beams and columns of bronze.
Due to the fire law in force in 1954, at the time of concrete construction was used
as a structural material, both outside and inside.
Metal profiles and panels in bronze and glass light shades of pink in the curtain
wall facade help to give this work a kind of charming New Yorker.
The architect also used as decorative travertine marble or pink granite [51].
53
Sony Building
New York, New York, 1984
Style: postmodern
The building is located at 550
Madison Avenue, between 56th and
57th Street, Manhattan, New York,
United States. This office building
with 37 floors and 197.32 m high is
considered as the first postmodern
skyscrapers, despite the position
defended by Philip Johnson for
years of international style.
Structurally, the building has
structural
tubular
columns
are
frame
connected
whose
with
trusses** at the top and bottom. The
structure covered with pink granite account only for 30% of glazed area, represented
with 9 vertical strips of windows. The large front arcade with 9.14m high and a
coronation referred to the drawer Chippendale style, designed by master cabinetmaker
Thomas Chippendale eighteenth century, presents a break in the center of the facade,
behind which hide mechanical equipment, while provides the building with a unique
and distinctive identity.
It is striking that were Philip Johnson who created this project, the same Johnson
who in 1932 introduced in the United States or the international style was responsible
for pure modernist forms and the Glass House at Connecticut. Philip Johnson completed
this building in it year that PPG Place in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, a remarkably
different but logically like postmodernist approach.
The building of Sony, was also a commercially very timely reaction against
modernism of Mies and derivatives [54].
54
Crystal Cathedral
Orange County, California, 1980
Style: high-tech/ postmodern
The Crystal Cathedral is the first great church, designed and conceived to be a
“study” of live television to convey his congregation Christian worship, which
allowed it to be observed by the international architectural community and recognized
as a beautiful and creative building. The Crystal Cathedral, with a plant in the form of
four-pointed star, occupies 126.49 m long, 63m wide and 39m high. Its size is
reinforced by glass cover that surrounds the building.
The pipe organ of the Cathedral, which was made possible by a donation, is the
third largest pipe organ in a church in the world. The shape of the building is a fourpointed star, bigger than the Cathedral of Notre Dame of Paris. Huge pillars of white
concrete balconies remain in place. These columns are hinged at its junction with the
balconies and the ground to allow movement and able to cope with earthquakes up to a
magnitude of 8 on the Richter scale. More than 10,000 panes of tempered glass, silver is
held in place by a lace frames created with white steel beams. These 16,000 trusses
were manufactured specifically for this engineering. On the basis of 20,000 tons
structure were poured concrete. All concrete has a white marbled appearance. All
service can be seen on a giant indoor TV screen that measures 11 1/2 “X 15”.The bell
tower is constructed of stainless Needs Actionor plates with a polished mirror, which
catches the light in all directions [42].
55
Lipstick Building,
New York, New York, 1986
Style: postmodern
Designed by Philip Johnson and John Burgee,
this building whose official name is “53rd at Third”
is popularly known as The Lipstick Building. Its
elegant elliptical shape differentiates it from the
buildings in its surroundings. This is the second
post-modern contribution of the architect Philip
Johnson on the Manhattan skyline, after the Sony
building he built two years earlier. This time the
unusual shape, which ended up naming the building,
was a requirement of the owner to make the building
appear tilted out, compensating for the less
fashionable position at that time on Third Avenue.
The Lipstick Building is located between the rectangular blocks of buildings of
Midtown, its exact address is 885 Third Avenue, between East 53rd Street and 54th
Street in New York, United States. The 138m high building consists of three oval
cylinders placed one on top of the other, its oval shape occupies less surface at the
base than a conventional skyscraper with quadrilateral footprint. According to the
architect, the elliptical shape of the perimeter colonnade surrounding the building is
reminiscent of the Baroque period in which this form was very fashionable.
Not only because of the height of the building but also because of its unique
shape, it was decided to use a steel structure to support the loads and transmit them to
the foundation. On the facade of this 34-level building, red granite alternates with
horizontal bands of glass framed in aluminum and steel. Steel and concrete were used
in the structure [46].
56
Pittsburgh’s PPG Placel
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1984
Style: neo-gothic
In PPG Place, Johnson made loose use of Gothic architectural vocabulary,
translating it into modern materials and construction techniques. By mixing historical
forms with modern methods of construction, Johnson created a post-modernist building
which is truly unique, in part due to its use of materials, which were immensely
appropriate since PPG is a leading manufacturer of curtain wall assemblies.
PPG Place’s neo-gothic forms are the perfect architectural bridge between the
historical structures of the city and the newer geometrical high-rise towers.
The building has its distinctive white framing, and in the night the almost gothic
pinnacles are lit internally by fluorescent bulbs.
Nearly one million square feet of PPG Solarban 550 clear reflective glass was
used, which provides a high degree of energy efficiency unmatched in many buildings.
The expansive tower lobbies are paneled in PPG Spandrelite Glass and the elevators are
enhanced with a laminated cracked glass mirror [77], [30], [26].
57
3.2.2.5 SOM (SKIDMORE OWINGS MERRILL)
Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP (SOM) is one of the largest and
most influential architecture, interior design, engineering, and urban
planning firms in the world. Founded in 1936, SOM has completed more than 10,000
projects in over 50 countries. It is renowned for its iconic buildings and commitment to
design excellence, innovation, and sustainability.
Fazlur Khan (1929-1982)
Magie David Childs (1941)
invented tubular designs for towers.
architect and chairman
Nathaniel Owings
John Merrill
(1903-1984) designed
(1896-1975)
Sears Tower, Chicago.
designed Lever House.
58
Buildings:
 The Willis Tower, Chicago, Illinois, 1973
 Cadet Chapel, Colorado Springs, Colorado, 1962
 One World Trade Center, New York, New York, 2013
 Time Warner Center, New York, New York, 2004
 John Hancock Center, Chicago, Illinois, 1968-1976
 Chinatown Branch of the Chicago Public Library, Chicago, Illinois, 2015
Awards:
Throughout its history, SOM has been recognized with more than 1,700 awards
for quality and innovation.
More than 900 of these awards have been received since 1998. In 1996 and 1962,
SOM received the Architecture Firm Award from the American Institute of Architects,
which recognizes the design work of an entire firm. SOM is the only firm to have
received this honor twice.
In August 2009 SOM received four of 13 available R+D Awards* from Architect
Magazine. In addition, a collaboration between SOM and Rensselaer Polytechnic
Institute, The Center for Architecture, Science and Ecology, was honored with a fifth
award [65].
59
The Willis Tower (Sears Tower)
Chicago, Illinois, 1973
Style: modern
For nearly 25 years, the Tower held the record
of being the tallest building in the world until the
Towers Petronas to Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were
built in 1998. The Tower is strategically located in the
business district of Chicago, Illinois, United States, on
233 South Wacker Drive, in the heart of the West
Coast. One of the very important aspects to consider
when a skyscraper is done is that the higher the greater
height is the effect of the wind on its structure. Sears Tower is an attractive and modern
office with a floor area of 418.64 square meters of which are rentable 353 961 m². The
surface is divided into 110 apartments, 108 above ground, which is accessed with 104
elevators, 16 of which are double height. It was the first skyscraper in the world to
incorporate this type of lifts.
In front of the tower there is a separate entrance for tourists wishing to enter the
Skydeck Pavilion. 412.69m high, in 103 floor is a viewing platform which on clear days
allows see four states, Illinois, Indiana, Wisconsin and Michigan. Minimum glass
balconies allow five sided views in all directions and provide an experience that
approximates feel suspended in the air. The projections are approximately 1.22m deep,
3m high and 3m wide. They are made of laminated glass panels 3.81cm thick hanging
from a steel frame that rides on rails, allowing it to be retracted into the building for
cleaning and maintenance. It is the tallest building in the world with all-steel structure,
columns and beams. The structural modules are inserted into reinforced concrete
caissons reaching bedrock and are also joined by a concrete mat. The structural steel
frame was pre-assembled in sections and then bolted in place. Black aluminum and
bronze tinted glass reduces reflections and maintain a relatively constant temperature,
which minimizes the expansion and contraction of the frame [35].
60
Cadet Chapel
Colorado Springs, Colorado, 1962
Style: modern (futurism)
Cadet
Chapel
was
the
highlight architectural element of the
master plan by the architectural firm
SOM for the entire campus of the
United States Air Force Academy and has become an example classic and very
appreciated of modernist architecture. In 1996, the Chapel of Cadets won the Twentyfive Year Award from the American Institute of Architects as part of an Area of Cadets
was named Historical Monument Nacionall of United States in 2004.
The Chapel of the United States Air Force Academy is a religious building. The
building has a surprising succession of 17 needles of glass and aluminum, each
composed of 100 tetrahedra, involving the whole deck, continuous panels of bright
colored glass tubular dress tetrahedra, allowing diffused light into the building. The
front facade on the south side, has a wide granite staircase with steel railings topped by
a handrail** aluminum leading to an esplanade** which highlights the band aluminum
doors gold anodized** aluminum sheets also anodized gold, apparently covering the
original windows. The Chapel was specifically designed to accommodate three distinct
areas of worship under one roof. The main program requires three distinct and separate
entrances chapels: Protestant, Catholic and Jewish. The main floor of the Protestant
chapel, on the top floor, is enclosed by the extruded** aluminum coated tetrahedra**
separated by continuous panels of colored glass and special laminated glass windows.
The terraced level of the Catholic chapel on the ground floor, is characterized by the
prefabricated masonry forming the pattern of the roof, sidewalls with amber glass**
windows and rows of faceted crystals. Jewish chapel is a circular room closed with
cypress frames and slabs of colored glass with a brown lobby Jerusalem stone donated
by the Air Force of Israel. It is located on the ground floor as well as the Buddhist
shrine*[58].
61
One World Trade Center
New York, New York, 2013
Style: contemporary modern
One World Trade Center was specifically
constructed with the memory of the Twin Towers’
collapse on their original place.
One World Trade Center became the tallest
structure in New York City (and the sixth-tallest in the
world) on April 30, 2012, when it surpassed the height
of the Empire State Building. On May 10, 2013, the
final component of the skyscraper's spire was installed,
making the building, including its spire, reach a total height of 1,776 feet (541 m). The
building's architect was David Childs, whose firm Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM)
also designed the Burj Khalifa (the highest building in the world). The main structure of
the building is steel with a concrete core, organized around a strong steel frame and
redundant columns and beams resisting lateral loads through bending of the elements
frame. In conjunction with shear walls that form the heart of the building concrete
structural frames provide great rigidity** to the overall structure of the tower. At its
center, the tower forms a perfect octagon.
The building uses a new form of technology with glass coating with low
emissivity** and high performance to maximize the “light of day” and minimize heat
gain. Maximize the amount of natural light that is used in the building help save energy
by reducing the need for artificial lighting. The One WTC uses new technologies to
maximize efficiency, minimize waste and pollution, and reduce the impact of
development. The building’s design incorporates strategies for conservation of water
and energy. A collection system 100% of the rainwater that falls within the boundaries
of the site is recycled, the recycled water is used for watering gardens and filling the
square pool [49].
62
Time Warner Center
New York, New York, 2004
Style: modern
The Time Warner Center is
located in the heart of Manhattan,
New York, United States.
The outer skin of the buildings
underwent several changes before
reaching the final. Art-deco style was
discarded in favor of a flat modernist
coating. Intense bronze and green
shades
on
the
windows
were
prevented by the similarity with the
surrounding buildings, preferring a
reflective pale blue which could
reflect the sky and clouds.
The top of the building is surmounted by a pierced frieze representing a funny
retro style, and an important legacy of Central Park West.
Both the twin towers as the podium are designed as volumes that fill the space
defined by panoramic views, height restrictions, zoning regulations and the adjoining**
urban plan. The foundations of the complex are 132 meters deep. The facades layered
and staggered volumes are taken to reduce the apparent mass of this large building.
The frame is steel and is fitted with joints streamlined for quick and secure
assembly, able to withstand** heavy stone walls as effectively as lightweight glass
packaging. Slabs made of composite steel and concrete are adapted to the variety of
forms of the plane [56].
63
John Hancock Center
Chicago, Illinois, 1968-1976
Style: structural expressionism
Member of “World Federation of Great
Towers”.
This
1,499-foot
(456.9-meter)
skyscraper’s groundbreaking engineering helped
to make buildings taller than 100 stories – a new
possibility – and freed skyscrapers to come from
their traditional rectilinear** shapes.
Skidmore, Owings & Merrill chose a bold
form for the Hancock Center. The X-bracing on
the building's exterior enables it to resist wind
loads. The lateral load-resisting system also
reduces the need for internal columns, opening up
the building’s interior and increasing available
floor space. Known locally as 'Big John', the John Hancock Center is one of the
Chicagoans' favorite skyscrapers. In 1969, it was the 2nd tallest building in the world.
Engineer Fazlur Khan's idea of the “trussed tube system”* was an important stage
in the development of the skyscraper. This design made it possible to build to
unprecedented heights and also resulted in about fifty percent less steel required
compared to skyscrapers built with interior columns. Visually, the braces create an
impression of stability and they move the eye away from the human-sized windows.
Just like Marina City, the John Hancock Center is a multifunction building. It includes
48 stories of apartments, 29 stories with offices, shops, a hotel, a swimming pool, an ice
rink, restaurant and on top of the 344 meters (1127 ft) tall building there are radio and
television facilities. It even offers services like its own post office and a refuse
collection. The apartments are located at the top of the tower. Some of them are so high
that the inhabitants sometimes have to call the doorkeeper to ask what the weather's like
down on the ground, as the apartments are sometimes above the clouds [16], [20].
64
Chinatown Branch of the Chicago Public Library
Chicago, Illinois, 2015
Style: modern
Architecture firm SOM incorporated principles from Feng Shui, the ancient Chinese
design philosophy, while conceiving the new Chinatown Branch Library in Chicago.
The two-storey building's rounded triangular form was inspired by the layout of
neighbouring roads and Feng Shui, an ancient Chinese philosophical system that is
focused on spatial arrangements and the flow of energy.
The building has a double-layer glass curtain-wall that is wrapped with 118 vertical
fins** of varying heights. The louvres – made of anodised aluminium with a light
bronze finish – reduce heat gain and glare while maintaining views of the
neighbourhood for visitors inside the library.The roof, which is visible from a nearby
metro station, is covered with native grasses. Eco-friendly features include low-energy
LEDs* placed throughout the facility, ample natural light, a radiant cooling and heating
system, and permeable paving that reduces stormwater runoff. The facility replaces a
former library that was one of the most visited in the city's public library system [83].
65
3.2.2.6 JEANNE GANG (B.1964)
The leader and founder of Studio Gang Architects,
an architecture and urban design firm based in Chicago
and New York.
Buildings:
 Bengt Sjostrom Starlight Theatre at Rock Valley College, Rockford, Illinois,
2003
 Aqua Tower, Chicago, Illinois, 2010
 Arcus
Center
for
Social
Justice
Leadership
at
Kalamazoo
College,
Kalamazoo Michigan, 2014
 Writers Theatre, Glencoe, Illinois, 2016
Awards:

Louis I. Kahn Memorial Award, Philadelphia Center for Architecture (2017)

Chicagoans of the Year, Chicago Tribune (2016)

Chevalier dans l’Ordre national de la Légion d’Honneur (2015)

New Generation Leader, Women in Architecture Awards (2014)

Jesse L. Rosenberger Medal, University of Chicago (2013)

Elected into the National Academy of Design (2012)

John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Fellow (2011)

Fellow, American Institute of Architects (2009)

“Cultural Heroes”, Time Out Chicago (2008)

Emerging Voices Award, Architecture League of New York (2006)

Chicagoans of the Year, Chicago Tribune (2004) [62], [14]
66
Bengt Sjostrom Starlight Theatre at Rock Valley College
Rockford, Illinois, 2003
Style: modern
The Bengt Sjostrom Theatre (usually referred to as
Starlight Theatre by local residents) is an outdoor
community theater located on the Rock Valley College
campus in Rockford, Illinois. It houses the Rock Valley
College Starlight Theatre, one of two theatres operated by
the college.
The Bengt Sjostrom Theatre was constructed in 1983 and is dedicated to the
memory of Bengt Sjostrom, builder and civic leader, who was the general contractor
when the college buildings were constructed, from 1967 to 1971. Mr. Sjostrom was
president and chairman of the board of Sjostrom & Sons, Inc., the construction firm
started by his father in 1914. Rock Valley College began remodeling the Bengt
Sjostrom Starlight Theatre in 2001 with Studio Gang Architects. The design of the
theatre renovation maintains the tradition of open–air performances at Rock Valley
College while allowing the theatre company to extend its season in any weather. The
roof comprises six 36-foot-wide (11 m), 42-foot-long (13 m) triangle-shaped panels
weighing a total of 86 tons. The roof can open to give the audience a star-shaped view
of the sky, or it can be closed to fully shelter the audience.
Under the folded, origamilike roof, an intimate social setting
is created with a porous boundary
to the landscape. The central
theatre space forms an unexpected
vertical axis to the sky; an
observatory to the stars through a kinetic roof. The kinetic center sections open upward
like the petals of a flower in a helical order so that each roof petal overlaps its neighbor.
Starlight has become a popular regional destination since its opening in 2003 [73], [60].
67
Aqua Tower
Chicago, Illinois, 2010
Style: modern
Located at 225 N. Columbus Drive, near
Lake Michigan in the north of the city of Chicago,
Illinois, USA. Its vertical topography is defined by
the terraces that change of plane along the entire
facade of the tower, allowing a strong connection to
the outdoors and the city as it offers a front to be
occupied and enjoyed by its inhabitants. Its
powerful form suggests the memory of the
limestone outcrops and geological forces that shaped the Great Lakes region*. The
facade, with its irregular curves and opaque** glass designed to prevent bird collisions.
In conjunction with a water collection system, a power efficient system and the
large roof garden located on the level of amenities**, sought to turn the Aqua tower in a
tower with LEED certification*. The vegetation on the roof of the podium is not only a
cosmetic benefit, also fights heat island effect during the summer months to reduce the
temperature around the block. Instead of feeding the plants with collected rainwater, has
set up a drip irrigation system** for efficient use of water, which balance is
continuously drained through a layer of gravel** under the ground water leading
directly to the sewers** to prevent moisture** from reaching the walls. The reinforced
concrete structure is supported by 31 drawers drilled into the rock 110 meters below
ground and placed six meters in a layer of dolomite**. These are supplemented with
274 bells of compressed air, smaller and sunken clay.
Technical Data:
 Height 249.74 m
 Structural Concrete Materials
 82 apartments on surface
 Material concrete facade
 Floor area 1.9 million meters square
 System structure exposed facade [40]
68
Arcus Center for Social Justice Leadership at Kalamazoo College
Kalamazoo Michigan, 2014
Style: modern
At 10,000 square feet, the
Arcus Center for Social Justice
Leadership, on the campus of
Kalamazoo
College
here,
is
modest.
It doesn’t pierce a skyline or explode with titanium panels and big glass sails.
All the more reason to make a pilgrimage**. It’s a high-tech throwback by Studio
Gang, the well-known Chicago architecture firm led by
Jeanne Gang. A Y-shaped, steel-frame, single-story
pavilion, the building, on the site of what had been the
college president’s house, makes itself improbably at
ease among leafy blocks of stuffy neo-Georgian brick
homes. Its three concave** facades, with cordwood
masonry cladding, can, in certain light, almost make
you think of lizard skin. Porthole windows, echoing the
cordwood, float like soap bubbles along two of the
facades.
What makes the building special is partly the
novel form, which grows straight out of the center’s
ambitions. It’s also the element of handicraft (those
cordwood masonry exteriors) when so much marquee
architecture leans on high-tech materials and 3-D printing.
The design’s wishbone geometry – an inflected deltoid of unequal sides, to be
exact – becomes complicated on closer inspection. One facade bulges to allow a vertical
eyelet window; one wing cantilevers over the street where the site falls toward the
campus. Wide exterior steps on two sides create mini-amphitheaters [92].
69
Writers Theatre
Glencoe, Illinois, 2016
Style: modern-Tudor
The lobby’s transparent exterior, comprising large glass sliding doors, can
physically open up to the community and nearby parks for open-air performances and
festivals. Acoustic wood ceiling panels and theatrical lights further its ability to function
for these purposes. The canopy walk is hung from wooden battens performing in
tension, and their splayed geometry animates the facade. The wood battens are bundled
at the glulam beams** to minimize the load at mid-span and are offset to distribute the
load evenly. The flared detail at the lower cord connects the battens and beams without
any mechanical fasteners. Made locally with conventional woodworking tools, the
battens are steamed before the wedges are inserted. This innovative use of wood
improves the environmental performance of the building. Organized as a village-like
cluster of distinct volumes that surround a central hub, the building’s form resonates
with the character of Glencoe’s downtown. Structured by great timber trusses with a
lighter wood lattice supporting its second-floor canopy walk, the lobby is designed to
accommodate multiple uses including informal performances, talks, and community
events. [15], [95].
70
3.2.2.7 STEVEN HOLL (B. 1947)
a
New
York-based
American
architect
and
watercolorist
a tenured Professor at Columbia University's
Graduate School of Architecture and Planning
has been recognized with architecture's most
prestigious awards and prizes
a member of the American National Council of
Architectural Registration Boards (NCARB)
Buildings:
 Simmons
Hall,
Massachusetts
Institute
of
Technology,
Cambridge,
Massachusetts, 2002
 University of Iowa School of Art and Art History, Iowa City, Iowa, 2006
 Campbell Sports Center at Columbia University, New York, New York, 2013
 University of Iowa Visual Arts Building, Iowa City, Iowa, 2016
 Princeton University Lewis Center for the Arts, Princeton, New Jersey, 2017
Awards:
 VELUX Daylight Award (2016)
 Praemium Imperiale Award (2014)
 AIA Gold Medal (2012)
 Jencks Award of the RIBA (2010)
 Arts Award of the BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Awards (2008)
 Honorary Fellow of the Royal Institute of British Architects (2003)
 the Smithsonian Institute’s Cooper Hewitt National Design Award in
Architecture (2002)
 the French Grande Medaille d’Or (2001)
 the prestigious Alvar Aalto Medal (1998)
71
Simmons Hall, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2002
Style: post-modern
The Simmons Hall dormitories for students are part of the expansion project at
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). It is about connecting all the
properties in one place and to become one of the university’s art world. Holl has
designed a building “porous” with a transparent skin and with large openings on the
landscape. Designed like a sponge, construction is defined by exterior walls marked by
more than 3,000 small openings, spaced by larger openings in correspondence with
common services, with the entrances and outdoor spaces. Organized as a city, has a road
system which connects the areas allocated to the rooms for students, with spaces added,
such as study rooms and areas for computers, a theater for 125 spectators, a bar opens
24 hours, a gym and a dining room with tables outdoors.
The recreational spaces, holes are large, cut inside the compact grid that breaks
the monotony of the residential block, and distinguishing feature, with irregular curves
of cement in sight, the areas allocated to group activities. All windows can be opened,
allowing regular ventilation inside the room, and also illuminate, plus the thickness of
the wall perforated, as a large parasol**, stops them from entering the sun of summer,
while leaving to spend the winter that have different angles [53].
72
Art Building West University of Iowa
Iowa City, Iowa, 2006
Style: international/ modern
One
examples
of
of
the
foremost
contemporary
architecture on campus, this
building renews the University’s
commitment to the “Iowa Idea” of linking humanists and artists. Space for the studio
and academic study of art has been reconsolidated. The site, recommended by Steven
Holl for its visual appeal, creates an informal quad** for the school. That relationship is
reinforced by the choice of a weathering steel facing that reflects the red brick of
George Horner’s original Art Building. Because this building had to be a work of art
itself, Holl sought inspiration in Pablo Picasso’s 1912 sculpture, Guitar (Museum of
Modern Art, New York). The conceit is visible in the cantilevered wing
—
the
instrument’s fret board — and its curved east facade — the soundbox. The dynamic
forms of Art Building West engage and energize the lagoon, weaving it into the life of
the campus and encouraging people to linger by the water and adjacent limestone bluff.
Art and nature merge sympathetically.
Designing around the school’s artistic needs, as well as those of the site, led Holl
to create a building of custom exteriors. Channel glass along the north facade and
sawtooth skylighting maximize valuable northern light for studios and are examples of
the unique glazing of Holl’s design. The cantilever tilts upward dramatically, while
inside, the extreme projecting end houses the Art Library’s imposing two-story reading
room. Art Building West plays with a certain fuzziness, allowing walls and structure to
exist independently and different planes to project in unanticipated ways. Employing a
concept, he designated “horizontal porosity,” Holl opens up interior walls unexpectedly
to bring light to the innermost spaces of the building. In the atrium**, a seemingly selfsupporting steel stair evokes the revolutionary early twentieth-century style of Russian
Constructivism and acts as a floating piece of sculpture in this community space [67].
73
Visual Arts Building University of Iowa
Iowa City, Iowa, 2016
Style: modern (futurism)
The Visual Arts Building replaces an original arts building from 1936, which was
heavily damaged during a flood of the University of Iowa campus in June 2008. The
new building forms an Arts Quad with Art Building West, which was designed by
Steven Holl Architects. While the 2006 Arts Building West is horizontally porous and
of planar composition, the new building is vertically porous and volumetrically
composed. The aim of maximum interaction between all departments of the school
takes shape in social circulation spaces. Natural light and ventilation reach into the core
of the building via “centers of light”. The seven vertical cutouts are characterized by a
language of shifted layers, where one floor plate slides past another. This geometry
creates multiple balconies, providing outdoor meeting spaces and informal exterior
working space, further encouraging interaction between the building’s four levels. Stairs
are shaped to enable informal meeting, interaction and discussion.
The original grid of the campus breaks up at the Iowa River, becoming organic as it hits
the limestone bluff. The Arts West building reflects this irregular geometry in fuzzy
edges. The new building picks up the campus grid again in its simple plan, defining the
new campus space of the “arts meadow” [74].
74
Princeton University Lewis Center for the Arts
Princeton, New Jersey, 2017
Style: postmodern
The arts complex brings together the Lewis Center for the Arts’ Programs in
Dance, Theater and Music Theater. The complex comprises the Wallace Dance
Building and Theater; the Arts Tower and the New Music Building. The three buildings
are integrated below ground in a Forum, an 8,000 square-foot open indoor gathering
space that serves the various arts venues in the complex.
Wallace Dance Building and Theater. Developed according to the idea of a “thing
within a thing.” The interior of the Wallace Theater (black box) is finished in perforated
75
black steel, while the Hearst Dance Theater is finished in foamed** aluminum; the
Roberts Dance Studio, in whitewashed wood; and the Murphy Dance Studio, in board
form concrete. A “dancing stair” connects all levels.
New Music Building. Developed according to an idea of “suspension.” Above the
large orchestral rehearsal room, individual practice rooms are suspended on steel rods.
Acoustically separate, these wooden chambers have a resonant quality.
Arts Tower. The six-story stone tower references the proportions of the
University’s nearby historic Blair Arch.
The steel and cast-in-place concrete structure of the three buildings is faced in
thick, 21-million-year-old limestone from a quarry in Lecce, in southern Italy. Insulated
glass units with Okalux Kapipane* infill
—
a type of insulated glass unit that appears
translucent on the building and helps achieve an energy-efficient, high-performance
envelope while still letting natural light into the building — supported on a steel mullion
system; insulated glass supported on steel cable system (New Music Building only);
Interior materials are American cherry, foamed aluminum, perforated steel,
bamboo, whitewashed ash wood, painted wood, walnut, stainless steel [93].
76
3.2.2.8 THOM MAYNE (B. 1944)
American architect, whose bold and unconventional works
were noted for their offset angular forms, layered exterior
walls, incorporation of giant letter and number graphics, and
emphasis on natural light.
helped
found
the
Southern
California
Institute
of
Architecture (SCI-Arc) in 1972, where he is a trustee
received the Pritzker Architecture Prize in March 2005
Buildings:
 41 Cooper Square, Manhattan, New York City, New York, 2009
 The Perot Museum of Nature and Science (shortened to Perot Museum), Dallas, Texas,
2006,
 Emerson College, Los Angeles, California, 2014
Awards:

Rome Prize Fellowship, American Academy in Rome, Italy (1987)

Eliel Saarinen Chair, Yale School of Architecture, Yale University (1991)

Brunner Prize or Award in Architecture, American Academy of Arts and Letters (1992)

Los Angeles Gold Medal, American Institute of Architects (2000)

Chrysler Design Award of Excellence (2001)

Pritzker Prize (2005)

Top Ten Green Project Award, American Institute of Architects Committee on the
Environment (2007)

The Edward MacDowell Medal (2008)

Neutra Medal for Professional Excellence (2011)

American Institute of Architects Gold Medal (2013) [66]
77
41 Cooper Square
Manhattan, New York City, New
York, 2009
Style: post-modern
41 Cooper Square, is the new
academic building for college,
privately funded, The Cooper
Union for the Advancement of Science and Art, commonly known as the Cooper Union.
With this project by the architectural firm Morphosis Team Associate entity seeks to
express the character, culture and vitality of the 150th anniversary of both the institution
and the city where it was founded.
41 Cooper Square building is the first LEED-certified academic laboratory in the city of
New York, with a Platinum rating for its advanced green building initiatives. In its
construction it has been used mainly steel, aluminum, glass and concrete, the latter
visible in the outer inclined structural columns and part of the rear facade formwork
where brands have been used as decoration. An outer skin created by a semi-transparent
layer of perforated stainless steel covers the glass facade of the building to provide
indoor environmental control, while through transparencies can reveal the creative
activity occurring within. Glass panels of the outer wall are mounted on aluminum. Grid
panels reduce the impact of solar radiation to help control the heat during the summer
and insulate in winter indoors.
304 stainless steel panels were manufactured with an “angel hair”* whose fine finish
line help hide wear and scratches that can add up over the years. Energy efficiency is
driven by the use of heating and cooling panels placed on the roof heating, making the
new building resulting 40% more energy efficient than a standard building of its kind. A
green roof insulates the building, reducing the “heat island” effect*. Rain water is
filtered and reused for maintenance. 75% of spaces used regularly take advantage of
natural lighting [39].
78
The Perot Museum of Nature and Science (shortened to Perot Museum)
Dallas, Texas, 2006
Style: deconstructivism
The Perot Museum
of Nature and Science is
located in Victory Park,
adjacent to the Dallas Arts
District, and is a destination
for
everything
from
dinosaurs to DNA, the
expanding
universe
to
dazzling gems** and minerals. The revolutionary Perot Museum extends beyond the
typical “museum” perception. The extraordinary building and outdoor space serves as a
living science lesson, offering provocative illustrations of engineering, technology and
conservation.
Five floors house 11 permanent exhibit halls containing state-of-the-art video and
3-D computer animation with thrilling, life-like simulations where visitors can exercise
their brains through hands-on activities, interactive kiosks and educational games. The
lower level of the cube houses a state-of-the-art, modular traveling exhibit hall; an
education wing with six learning labs; a flexible space auditorium; and a children's
museum including outdoor play space and a courtyard.
Inside and out, the Museum features natural sustainability and environmental
friendliness including a rainwater collection system, LED lighting and solar-powered
water heating [21], [23].
79
Emerson College
Los Angeles,
California, 2014
Style: modern (futurism)
Although its main campus is in
downtown Boston, Emerson College
is staking a claim in Hollywood with
a
dramatic
complex
to
new
house
$110-million
and
instruct
students who come West to sample the entertainment industry.
The new Emerson building on Sunset Boulevard — a 10-story futuristic complex
of aluminum and glass — is a major upgrade for the program that trains students in
writing, design, acting and producing and lands them internships in the film, television
and advertising industries here.
Composed of two slender residential towers bridged by a multi-use platform, the
10-story square frame encloses a central open volume to create a flexible outdoor
“room.”
Anticipated to achieve a LEED Gold rating, the new center champions Emerson’s
commitment to both sustainable design and community responsibility. Defining the
building’s facades to the East and West, the residential towers feature an active exterior
skin. Responding to local weather conditions, the automated sunshade system opens and
closes horizontal fins outside the high-performance glass curtain-wall to minimize heat
gain while maximizing daylight and views. Further green initiatives include the use of
recycled and rapidly renewable building materials, installation of efficient fixtures to
reduce water use by 40%, energy savings in heating and cooling [28], [89].
80
3.2.2.9 KPF (KOHN PEDERSEN FOX)
An American architecture firm, which provides
architecture, interior, programming and master planning
services for clients in both the public and private
sectors.
A. Eugene Kohn
Sheldon Fox
(B. 1930)
(1930-2006)
William Pedersen
(B. 1938)
Buildings:
 333 Wacker Drive, Chicago, Illinois, 1984
 The Procter & Gamble World Headquarters in Cincinnati 1987
 One Jackson Square, New York, New York, 2011
 McCord Hall, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 2013
Awards:
 seven National Design Awards
 the Rome Prize in Architecture (1965)
 the Arnold W. Brunner Memorial Prize from the American Academy and the
National Institute of Arts and Letters
 the University of Minnesota’s Alumni Achievement Award
 the Gold Medal from the national architectural fraternity, Tau Sigma
 the Lynn S. Beedle Lifetime Achievement Award from the CTBUH
 the Medal of Honor from the AIA of New York
81
333 Wacker Drive
Chicago, Illinois, 1984
Style: postmodern
Sited at the point of the Chicago River
where the main branch meets its south branch,
this 36-floor office building designed by Kohn
Pedersen Fox (KPF) stands out among its
neighbors. Its 489-foot curved, blue-green
glass facade mimics the color of the river. Like
a chameleon, it seems to transform as the sun
moves across it throughout the day. Similar to
another Chicago favorite, Millennium Park’s
Cloud Gate sculpture, 333 West Wacker’s
reflective facade compresses and stretches the
skyline to the delight of onlookers.
When work began on 333 West Wacker in 1979, much of the surrounding
property was bleak and dilapidated. This inspired Pedersen to create a splendid entrance
on the Franklin-Lake Street side that echos the city's street grid. Meanwhile, its curved
riverside entrance contains richly sheathed octagonal support columns.
The design of 333 West Wacker echos traditional Chicago commercial buildings
of the late 19th century. Its tripartite structure includes a base, shaft and capital. The
base serves as the entrance, is composed of stone, and allows the glass facade to appear
to “float” above the river. The shaft is a combination of transparent thermal glass
windows and double thick, darker, opaque spandrel glass. Brushed stainless steel
horizontal banding gives the shaft textural contrast. Its capital is a glass curvature with
squared sides that intersect in a notched fold, creating a sharp, six-floor arc. Architect
William Pedersen never used the term “Postmodern”. He preferred “contextualist.” But
that contextualism is one reason why some consider this to be Chicago's first
Postmodern skyscraper [17].
82
The Procter & Gamble World
Headquarters
Cincinnati, Ohio, 1987
Style: postmodern
The Proctor and Gamble
complex spans over two city
blocks and is comprised of three
major
building
projects
and
extensive landscaping. In 1956
architects Voorhees, Walker, Smith and Smith designed an eleven-story limestone,
granite and marble office building for the site at 6th and Sycamore Streets. Skidmore,
Owings and Merrill extended this structure east of Broadway in 1972. At this time the
half block south was cleared and extensively landscaped as well as the construction of a
corporate conference and data center on the north side of 6th Street.
In 1985 a seventeen-story building with twin octagonal buildings on a six- story
L-shaped base was built east of Broadway. The prior structures were updated to match
the new construction. The complex is pulled together by plaza. This plaza consists of
grand driveways, flagpoles, fountains and a grand courtyard with wisteria-covered
pergolas**. The New York firm, Kohn Pederson Fox Associates, designed the building
in 1985. The building’s limestone cladding connects it to the existing structure, while
white marble accentuates the structure, bringing it to a higher visual pitch.
The buildings are situated on the eastern edge of Cincinnati’s downtown core and
are therefore required to be a gateway and a terminus** to the city. The duality of this
role is exploited by positioning two tower forms at the joint of the L-shaped figure.
Externally, they symbolize a gateway to the city. Internally, they focus on and embrace
the garden which terminates the eastern edge of the city. The architects were recognized
with an Honor Award from the American Institute of Architects in 1987 [85], [38].
83
One Jackson Square
New York, New York, 2011
Style: postmodern
Home to the highest concentration of early architecture in New York City, the
historic district of Greenwich Village requires that new structures must respect its
existing architecture, the artistic life within its boundaries, and the history that
permeates its streets. Formerly a surface parking lot, the six-sided, split-zone site above
two subway tunnels posed significant challenges, which the design of the 30-unit luxury
residential development negotiated through its massing, material expression, and robust
foundation.
The building volume steps down from 11 stories to seven stories, from north to
south, accommodating the zoning laws and mediating the varied scales of the
neighborhood. Undulating bands of glass identify individual floors, creating a ribbonlike series of convexities and concavities along the street wall. The predominantly
masonry structures of the immediate surroundings, along with the park, are “played
back” in the glazed facade, creating an intimacy of scale congruent with the local
context through juxtaposition. The fluid form of the facade is reprised in the lobby,
where a bamboo-clad volume is conceived as a block of wood eroded over time by the
ebb and flow of residents, much like a river erodes its banks [87].
84
McCord Hall, Arizona State University
Tempe, Arizona 2013
Style: modern
McCord Hall is home to several master's programs within the W. P. Carey School
of Business. The building also accommodates MBA Administration and Career
Management services for graduate students, as well as undergraduate Carey Academy
Suite and team rooms. The hall features state-of-the-art classrooms and computer labs,
as
well
as
specialized
industry
spaces,
executive
education
facilities,
conference/seminar rooms, interview rooms, and study areas for undergraduate,
graduate and executive students. The four-story building emphasizes sustainability, with
a minimum goal of LEED silver certification.
As a new cornerstone for the University, McCord Hall frames the entrance to the
eastern section of the business school district while creating an exciting new public hub
for the student community. Situated on the prominent Palm Walk, the building hinges
around a massive 22’ diameter oculus which crowns a grand gateway to the plaza and
academic buildings beyond. Thick masonry walls scored with vertical windows feature
splayed interior apertures** to help control glare and redirect daylight for useful and
dynamic illumination [10], [71].
85
3.2.2.10 CHECK YOURSELF
1. Look at the pictures and name the architects/ architect firms correctly.
a) Thom Mayne
e) Philip Johnson
b) Peter Eisenman
f) Jeanne Gang
c) Frank O.Gehry
g) Steven Holl
d) SOM
h) KPF
i) Harrison & Abramovitz firm
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
86
2. Multiple choice.
1. The Metropolitan Opera house was designed by
1) Thom Mayne
2) SOM
3) Wallace Harrison
2. The Phoenix Mutual Life Insurance Building, also known locally as
1) the “Ship Building”
2) the “Boat Building”
3) the “Nave Building”
3. University of Phoenix Stadium is located in
1) Columbus, Ohio
2) Cincinnati, Ohio
3) Glendale, Arizon
4. The outside shape of the University of Phoenix Stadium represents
1) a barrel lotus
2) a barrel cactus
3) a barrel dandelion
5. Walt Disney Concert Hall was designed by
1) Steven Holl
2) Jeanne Gang
3) Frank O. Gehry
6. Beekman Tower was built in
1) 2013
2) 2011
3) 2006
7. Seagram Building has
1) 103 floors
2) 50 floors
3) 39 floors
87
8. The pipe organ of the Crystal Cathedral is … largest pipe organ in a church in the
world.
1) the first
2) the second
3) the third
9. Choose the right surnames for SOM company.
1) Scott, Olson, Mason
2) Shelton, Owens, Madden
3) Skidmore, Owings, Merrill
10. The Chapel was specifically designed to accommodate three distinct areas of
worship under one roof. They are:
1) Protestant, Muslims and Jewish
2) Protestant, Catholic and Jewish
3) Protestant, Catholic and Muslims
11. John Hancock is locally known as
1) 'Big John'
2) 'Big Boss'
3) 'High John'
12. Aqua Tower was built in
1) 2015
2) 2012
3) 2010
13. Emerson College achieved
1) a LEED Silver
2) a LEED Gold
3) a LEED Platinum
14. The Proctor and Gamble complex symbolizes
1) Cincinnati’s downtown
2) a gateway to the city
3) unity of mothers and their children
88
15. Choose the right surnames for KPF company.
1) Kim, Pittman, Foster
2) Kohn, Pedersen, Fox
3) Kane, Powell, Floyd
4) Khan, Porter, Fisher
3. Choose True or False for each sentence.
1. The Avery Fisher Hall was renamed David Geffen Hall after David Geffen donated
$100 million to the Lincoln Center.
2. LEED certification has four levels of excellence: copper, silver, gold and platinum.
3. Gravel is small pieces of stone used for making paths and roads.
4. One Jackson Square was built in a postmodern style.
5. SOM received six of 13 available R+D Awards from Architect Magazine.
6. Octagon is a shape with six straight sides.
7. Masonry is a piece of stone or wood that supports the wall above a door or window.
8. The Trump International Hotel & Tower belongs to a private entity.
9. One World Trade Center was built on a Twin Towers' place.
10. The Procter & Gamble World Headquarters was built in a 1978.
4. Answer the Questions.
1. What is the official name of Lipstick Building? Why?
2. How many years was The Willis Tower the tallest building in the world?
3. What is the Great Lakes region?
4. What is the function of grid panels in a 41 Cooper Square Building?
5. What are Interior materials of Princeton University Lewis Center for the Arts?
6. What are the Technical Data of Aqua Tower?
7. What are the Eco-friendly features in the Chicago Public Library?
8. What does the John Hancock Center include?
9. What were the changes of the outer skin of the Time Warner Center before its final?
10. What was the main meaning of One World Trade Center building?
89
3.2.2.11 KEYS
1. Look at the pictures and name the architects/ architect firms correctly.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
c
f
e
a
b
g
i
h
d
2. Multiple Choice
1. 3)
2. 2)
3 1)
4. 2)
5. 3)
6. 2)
7. 3)
8. 3)
9. 3)
10. 2)
11. 1)
12. 3)
13. 2)
14. 2)
15. 2)
3. Choose True or False for each sentence
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
T
F
T
T
F
F
F
T
T
F
4. Answer The Questions.
1. “53rd at Third”, The Lipstick Building is located between the rectangular blocks of
buildings of Midtown, its exact address is 885 Third Avenue, between East 53rd
Street and 54th Street in New York, United States.
2. For nearly 25 years the Tower held the record of being the tallest building in the
world until the Towers Petronas to Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were built in 1998.
3. A bi-national Canada-American region that partly includes eight U.S. states of
Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin
as well as the Canadian province of Ontario.
4. Grid panels reduce the impact of solar radiation to help control the heat during the
summer and insulate in winter indoors.
5. Interior materials of Princeton University Lewis Center for the Arts are American
cherry, foamed aluminum, perforated steel, bamboo, whitewashed ash wood, painted
wood, walnut, stainless steel.
90
6. Height 249.74 m, 82 apartments on surface, floor area 1.9 million meters square,
structural Concrete Materials, material concrete facade, system structure exposed
facade, color White facade.
7. Eco-friendly features in Chinatown Branch of the Chicago Public Library include
low-energy LEDs placed throughout the facility, ample natural light, a radiant cooling
and heating system, and permeable paving that reduces stormwater runoff.
8. The John Hancock Center includes 48 stories of apartments, 29 stories with offices,
shops, a hotel, a swimming pool, an ice rink, restaurant and on top of the 344 meters
(1127 ft) tall building there are radio and television facilities. It even offers services like
its own post office and a refuse collection.
9. The outer skin of the buildings underwent several changes before reaching the final.
Art-deco style was discarded in favor of a flat modernist coating. Intense bronze and
green shades on the windows were prevented by the similarity with the surrounding
buildings, preferring a reflective pale blue which could reflect the sky and clouds.
10. One World Trade Center was specifically constructed with the memory of the Twin
Towers’ collapse.
91
3.2.3 GREATEST AMERICAN BUILDINGS (1920S - PRESENT)
3.2.3.1 MARINA CITY
Architect: Bertrand Goldberg
Year: 1962-1964
Location: Chicago, Illinois
Style: international modernism
Marina City was the first residential high
at United States after the Second World War
and is credited as being responsible to
reinvigorate residential projects within cities.
Their type of residence with parking provided
the template split urban development in many
cities internationally.
The complex consists of two tall towers in the form of corncob, 65 floors each, with
five lifts and a penthouse at 179 meters. It also includes a saddle-shaped** building that
houses an auditorium, and mid-rise building containing a hotel.
At the end of the works, Marina City was not only the world’s tallest residential
complex, he was also building the world’s tallest reinforced concrete. The towers were
also known for reaching high speed elevators. It took just 35 seconds to go from the
bottom to the 61st floor lobby.
The project is basically made entirely of concrete. In this way the architect
intended to relate visually and materially all buildings in the complex. Theatre buildings
and offices also feature unique design elements. The facade of the office building was
intended as a texture, not as a means of showing the construction system of the building.
It also incorporates concrete mullions able to withstand high loads.
The New York Chapter of the American Institute of Architects awarded in 1965,
this project an award for innovation [48].
92
3.2.3.2 THE PENTAGON
Architect: George Bergstrom
Year: 1941-1943
Location: Washington, Virginia
Style: stripped classicism
The Pentagon is the Virginia
headquarters of the U.S. Department of
Defense, located in a massive five-sided
concrete and steel building that is a
potent symbol of America’s military
strength. With more than 6 million square feet of floor space, the Pentagon ranks among
the largest office buildings in the world. Construction on the Pentagon began on
September 11, 1941.
Roosevelt himself had personally approved construction of a new War
Department facility at 21st Street in the city’s Foggy Bottom neighborhood. Built for
$18 million, it was set to open in June 1941. By that time, however, the building was
deemed far too small. (In 1947, it would become the headquarters of the U.S. State
Department).
When Somervell’s* lead architect, G. Edwin Bergstrom, drew up the design for
the building, he was forced by the position of existing roads at the site to use an
asymmetrical five-sided shape. Somervell had determined that the building could be no
more than four stories high, both to accommodate a wartime scarcity of steel and to
prevent blocking the views of Washington, D.C.
Bergstrom’s team made the pentagon symmetrical, with multiple concentric
pentagons placed inside one another, interlaced with corridors and surrounding a
courtyard.
A pentagonal shape meant shorter interior distances than with a rectangle, while
the straight sides were easier to build than a circular building; the shape also recalled
traditional fortress constructions, as well as Civil War-era battlements [86].
93
3.2.3.3 GRIFFITH OBSERVATORY
Architect: John C. Austin, Frederic M.
Ashley
Year: 1935
Location: Los Angelels, California
Style: art-deco
Griffith Observatory's unique architecture and setting, compelling programmatic
offerings, and cinematic exposure have made it one of the most famous and visited
landmarks in southern California. This cultural and scientific icon owes its existence to
the dream of one man, Jenkins Griffith, and to the dedicated scientists and public
servants who worked to fulfill his vision of making astronomy and observation
accessible to all.
Griffith's dream finally began to become reality in the spring of 1930.
It was shaped not only by the minds of scientists, but also by the times in which it
was built. A major earthquake in Long Beach in March 1933 - just as construction plans
were being finalized - led the architects to abandon the planned terra cotta exterior in
favor of strengthening and thickening the building's concrete walls.
Lower-than-usual prices caused by the Great Depression* enabled the selection of
the finest materials of the day for the interior walls, floors, and finishes, making the
building both beautiful and durable. And a depression-era Federal public works
program employed six sculptors to create a public sculpture at Griffith Observatory. The
resulting Astronomers Monument, dedicated in November 1934, was hailed as one of
the most important pieces of art to be completed by the program.
The dedication and formal opening of Griffith Observatory took place amid much
fanfare on May 14, 1935 [9].
94
3.2.3.4 BAHA’I HOUSE
Architect: Louis Bourgeois, George A.
Fuller
Year: 1953
Location: Wilmette, Illinois
Style: modern (art nouveau)
Listed in the National Register of
Historic Places, it's one of seven Baha'i
temples in the world and the only one in the
U.S. The Bahá'í House of Worship in
Wilmette reflects oneness for humanity as
well as the unity of all religions. All seven
temples
share
certain
design
features,
including domes** and gardens. Each temple
is nine-sided because Bahá’ís consider the
number nine—the highest single number—a symbol of oneness, comprehensiveness
and unity. In Wilmette, the temple includes nine entrances and nine verses above the
doors and the alcoves**.
The Bahá’í religion was founded in the Middle East in the 1840s. By 1900, there
were nearly 1,000 Bahá’ís living in the U.S. and Canada. Plans to construct a Bahá’í
temple in the Chicago area emerged in 1903, but two World Wars and the Great
Depression slowed things down. The building combines neoclassical symmetry, Gothic
ribbing, a Renaissance dome, a Romanesque clerestory and Islamic arabesque tracery**
with the suggestion of minarets. The carvings on the nine exterior pillars reference
various world religions with symbols like the Star of David, crucifixes** and the
Islamic star and crescent. On the Bahá’í Temple were used two types of quartz to give
the exterior an almost luminescent quality. The result inside and out is stunning,
resulting in the structure sometimes being referred to as the “Temple of Light and
Unity” [18], [8].
95
3.2.3.5 HEARST TOWER
Architect: Foster + Partners Gensler Adamson
Associates Architects
Year: 2003-2006
Location: New York, New York
Style: art-deco
—
modern (high-tech)
The tower is located at the corner of Eighth
Avenue and 57th Street in New York, United
States, in the middle of Manhattan shopping
business. It is a glazed tower which rises from the
interior of the building art deco 1928, producing a
big contrast. The basement Art Deco stands out for
its structure fluted columns and statues depicting allegories of music, art, commerce and
industry, framing square.
The most characteristic feature of the tower is the design of its facade in the form
of diamond. The new building was conceived as a striking glass and steel skyscrapers
that enshrines a number of milestones related to the environment and design. The Hearst
Tower became true pioneer in environmental sustainability, after being declared the first
offices building “green” of the City of New York. The environmental care has been
decisive in the design of the tower. The rainwater is stored to replace the evaporated
water from the air conditioning system and use it to water indoor plants and trees of the
avenue. The Hearst Tower was the first skyscraper in New York in obtaining LEED
Gold distinction. The tower is supported by a set of huge steel columns 12 that rise from
the interior of the base. The triangular frames, four stories high, used in the design gives
the building its distinctive, modern and at the same time a structural efficiency higher
aspect. The tower structure is steel, closed by a glass curtain wall. The original facade of
the building, used by Foster as the basis for the new tower of steel and glass, is made of
cast stone, a mixture of sand and concrete [43].
96
3.2.3.6 SEATTLE PUBLIC LIBRARY
Architect: Joshua
Prince-Ramus Rem
Koolhaas,
Joshua
Prince-Ramus
Year: 2004
Location: Seattle,
Washington
Style: postmodern
The Library is located on Fourth Avenue in downtown Seattle, United States. The
building has been a great success for the city, helping to attract new economic activities,
much of which comes from tourism. In its first year, the library received 2.3 million
visitors. The concept involves the reinvention of the library as an access point to
information presented in a variety of media. The main feature of the interior is its large
public spaces and leisure reading, illuminated with natural light coming through the
glass walls. Also noteworthy plants collections, consisting of a ramp that goes over 4
floors. All Areas bind with brightly colored escalators (except collections), and the
furniture and objects are modern and colorful design. Inside the building, a spiral
structure provides a continuous surface with coated side shelves that offer different
themed collections. This spiral that rises four floors, has required the creation of a
system of zigzag ramps accessible to all ages and needs. These ramps are supported on
slender columns.
The building is covered by a striking glass and steel structure. Designed taking
into account the function and aesthetics, the building has incorporated many elements
supporting sustainability, so it has been awarded the “Silver” Certification granted by
US. Green Building Council*, becoming one of the largest buildings in receiving
certification for Leadership in energy and Development. The construction won
numerous awards including the Platinum Award from ACEC* and the AIA National
Architecture Award 2005 [52].
97
3.2.3.7 AMERICAN RADIATOR BUILDING
Architect:
Foster
+
Partners
Gensler
Adamson
Assaciates Architects
Year: 1924
Location: New York, New York
Style: art-deco - modern (high-tech)
The American Radiator Building, at 40 West 40th
Street, is now just extra inventory in a recession-bloated
sea of empty space. But it was once a dazzling new idea
that promised to remake the city. Raymond Hood
embraced both the esthetic and business sides of
architecture and was proud that the Radiator building
steelwork was completed only seven months after the
design. The building opened in 1924 and embodied several departures from existing
practice.
In basic form it is a free-standing tower, a type diametrically opposed to the
notion that buildings should have some shoulder-to-shoulder harmony. Hood also
disliked the typical office building facade, so he called for the American Radiator
Building to be built of black brick (a product that proved very difficult to obtain) and
topped it with gold-colored masonry units, which supposedly recalled the black iron and
glowing embers of furnaces of the day. The basic feeling of the tower is neo-Gothic and
the exquisite bronze and marble entry is explicitly so. But the general ornament is
abstract and clearly moving toward Art Deco, which would become important a year or
two later. The efficiency of building to fill the zoning envelope offered a greater logic,
and the free-standing tower later appeared only on a huge scale, like the Empire State
and Chrysler Buildings. The Landmarks Preservation Commission* designated the
Radiator building a landmark in 1974. American Radiator eventually became the
American Standard Company, which in 1988 sold the building to a Japanese company,
Clio Biz, just as a buying binge by Japanese peaked in New York [90].
98
3.2.3.8 CHRYSLER BUILDING
Architect: William Van Allen
Year: 1928-1930
Location: New York, New York
Style: art-deco
The Chrysler Building is a magnificent
example of Art Deco architecture and the
perfect monument to American capitalism.
The structure has been made with a steel
frame, masonry and metal cladding**.
The skeleton of the dome is made of
curved steel beams. The interior walls are
brick dome but the outside is coated with a
stainless steel. This space is richly decorated
with red Moroccan marble walls, floors and
onyx sienna** and numerous compositions
Art Deco in blue marble and steel. The
murals** that decorate the roof praised the
progress of modern technology.
Chrysler was one of the first major
buildings that used massive metal on the
outside, this time the metal ornament refers to
the car, symbol of the machine age. Metal
hubcaps, gargoyles with the shapes of the radiator caps, car fenders, flared ornaments
and metal shafts used as decoration on the facades of black and white brick.
The building is clad in white and dark gray brick used as decoration to enhance
the horizontal rows of windows [41].
99
3.2.3.9 CHECK YOURSELF
1. Fill in the information for each building in the table.
Architect: ………………….
SEATTLE PUBLIC LIBRARY
Year: ……………………….
Location: …………………..
Style: ………………………….
Architect: ………………….
THE PENTAGON
Year: ……………………….
Location: …………………..
Style: ………………………….
Architect: ………………….
GRIFFITH OBSERVATORY
Year: ……………………….
Location: …………………..
Style: ………………………….
Architect: ………………….
BAHA’I
Year: ……………………….
HOUSE
Location: …………………..
Style: ………………………….
100
Architect: ………………….
HEARST
Year: ……………………….
TOWER
Location: …………………..
Style: ………………………….
Architect: ………………….
MARINA
Year: ……………………….
CITY
Location: …………………..
Style: ………………………….
Architect: ………………….
AMERICAN
Year: ……………………….
RADIATOR
Location: …………………..
BUILDING
Style: ………………………….
Architect: ………………….
CHRYSLER
Year: ……………………….
BUILDING
Location: …………………..
Style: ………………………….
101
2. Multiple Choice.
1. How much does it take to go from the bottom to the 61st floor lobby of Marina City?
1) 35 seconds
2) 1 minute
3) 20 seconds
2. The Pentagon was built for
1) $15 million
2) $10 million
3) $18 million
3. In what state does Baha’i House located?
1) Virginia
2) Illinois
3) California
4. What building was opened on May 14, 1935?
1) The Pentagon
2) Baha’i House
3) Griffith Observatory
5. The Hearst Tower combines such architecture styles as
1) futurism – international
2) art-deco - modern
3) stripped classicism - postmodern
102
3. Choose True or False for each sentence.
1. The Marina City complex consists of two tall towers in the form of corncob.
2. The Pentagon has seven sides.
3. The carvings on the seven exterior pillars of The Bahá’í reference Seven Wonders of
the World.
4. Hearst Tower has a facade in the form of diamond.
5. American Radiator Building has art-deco elements.
6. The Landmarks Preservation Commission designated the Radiator building a
landmark in 1984.
7. Chrysler Building was built in 1935.
8. Inside the Seattle Public Library has a spiral structure.
9. Griffith Observatory is located in San-Francisco, California.
10. Seattle Public Library has been awarded the “Silver” Certification granted by US.
Green Building Council.
4. Answer the Questions.
1. What was the first residential high at United States after the Second World War?
2. What does Pentagon symbolize?
3. Because of what were the prices of the materials for the Griffith Observatory lower
than usual?
4. H ow many Baha'i temples are there in the world?
5. Where does Seattle Public Library located?
6. What is a dome?
7. What building became true pioneer in environmental sustainability?
8. What is the general ornament of The American Radiator Building?
9. What was one of the first major buildings that used massive metal on the outside?
10. What was the first skyscraper in New York in obtaining LEED Gold distinction?
103
3.2.3.10 KEYS
1. Fill in the information for each building in the table.
SEATTLE PUBLIC LIBRARY
Architect: Rem Koolhaas, Joshua
Prince-Ramus
Year: 2004
Location: Seattle, Washington
Style: postmodern
THE PENTAGON
Architect: George Bergstrom
Year: 1941-1943
Location: Washington, Virginia
Style: stripped classicism
GRIFFITH OBSERVATORY
Architect: John C. Austin, Frederic
M. Ashley
Year: 1935
Location: Los Angelels, California
Style: art-deco
BAHA’I HOUSE
Architect:
Louis
Bourgeois,
George A. Fuller
Year: 1953
Location: Wilmette, Illinois
Style: modern (art nouveau)
HEARST TOWER
Architect:
Gensler
Foster
Adamson
+
Partners
Associates
Architects
Year: 2003-2006
Location: New York, New York
Style: art-deco - modern (high-tech)
104
Architect: Bertrand Goldberg
MARINA CITY
Year: 1962-1964
Location: Chicago, Illinois
Style: international modernism
AMERICAN RADIATOR
Architect: Foster + Partners Gensler
BUILDING
Adamson Assaciates Architects
Year: 1924
Location: New York, New York
Style: art-deco - modern (high-tech)
Architect: William Van Allen
CHRYSLER BUILDING
Year: 1928-1930
Location: New York, New York
Style: art-deco
2. Multiple Choice.
1. 1)
2. 3)
3. 2)
4. 3)
5. 2)
3. Choose True or False for each sentence.
1T
2F
3F
4T
5T
6F
7F
8T
9F
10 T
4. Answer the Questions.
1. Marina City
2. America’s military strength.
3. Because of the Great Depression.
4. Seven
5. The Library is located on Fourth Avenue in downtown Seattle, United States.
6. A roof shaped like the top half of a ball.
7. The Hearst Tower
8. The general ornament is abstract and clearly moving toward Art Deco.
9. The Chrysler Building
10. The Hearst Tower
105
3.2.4 GREATEST AMERICAN BRIDGES (1920S - PRESENT)
3.2.4.1 GOLDEN GATE BRIDGE
Architect: Irving Morrow, Charles Alton Ellis, Joseph Strauss
Year: 1937
Location: San Francisco, California
Style: a suspension bridge**
The world’s most famous bridges may not be the longest bridges, tallest
bridges or highest bridges, but they are the most recognizable bridges in the world by
far. Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco, United States – This world famous symbol of
the West Coast of the United States and the most popular attraction of San
Francisco has a main span of 1,280 meters (4,199 ft) which makes it around the 11th
longest span** in the world. With the view of the bay around it, it is truly a sight to see.
Taking into consideration that the bridge opened in 1937 makes it quite remarkable as
the other were built during the last 10-20 years [36].
106
3.2.4.2 SUNSHINE SKYWAY BRIDGE
Architect: Eugene Figg, Jean Maller
Year: 1987
Location: Tampa, Florida.
Style: a cantilever, cable-stayed bridge
The full name of this bridge is the Bob Graham Sunshine Skyway Bridge and it
crosses Tampa Bay* in Florida. This cable-stayed bridge** covers a length of 4.1 miles
and both US 19* and I-275* run across it. This allows the bridge to connect Terra Ceia*
within Manatee County with St. Petersburg in Pinellas County. The bridge construction
spanned from 1982 to 1987, replacing an older bridge. No matter whether you cross the
bridge on foot, by bike, or in your car, it is a gorgeous trip without any worries about
collapsing.
The bridge has a vertical clearance of 193ft and consists of a substructure, a
1,200ft main span, two low level approach spans and two high level approach spans.
The substructure of the bridge is made of piles and 606 match cast box pier spans,
which rise from 26ft to 135ft. The main span consists of two towers located in the
center of the bridge, which is supported by 42 continuous stay cables** with 21 located
on either side, sheathed in 9in diameter steel pipes. The 40ft-wide roadway on the main
span is made of over 300 precast concrete segments [78], [94].
107
3.2.4.3 NEW RIVER GORGE BRIDGE
Architect: Michael Baker Company
Year: 1977
Location: Fayetteville, West Virginia.
Style: deck arch bridge**
The New River Gorge Bridge finished construction in 1977 and it was designed
to solve a serious travel problem. Before the bridge, travelers had to spend 40 minutes
driving along an old river and narrow mountain roads, but the bridge allowed them to
instead take a one minute drive across it. This bridge has the longest span of steel within
the western atmosphere. Due to its scenic location, this bridge has become one of the
places in West Virginia that is photographed the most frequently. There is also an
annual Bridge Day which takes place the third Saturday every October. During the
celebration, pedestrians can cross the bridge and enjoy music, crafts, food, and more. It
is also a major extreme-sports event with BASE jumping* and rappelling*.
Before the arch design was chosen, there were other bridge types considered for
the 3,030 foot (924 mtr) long gap including a suspension bridge, a jackknife trussarch** and a continuous truss. Luckily, the best design prevailed and West Virginia
became the proud owners of one of the largest and most beautiful bridge structures in
the world [79].
108
3.2.4.4 SUNDIAL BRIDGE
Architect: Santiago Calatrava
Year: 2004
Location: Redding, California
Style: glass decked, cable-stayed, suspension bridge
The Sundial Bridge in Redding is one of only three bridges in the United States
designed by world-renowned architect Santiago Calatrava. It is a glass decked, cablestayed pedestrian bridge that spans the Sacramento River and forms the world's largest
sundial. The 217foot pylon of the bridge points due north at a cantilevered angle. The
tip of the shadow moves at a speed of approximately one foot per minute, so the Earth's
rotation can be seen with the naked eye! The deck is surfaced with translucent glass
which is illuminated from beneath and glows aquamarine at night. This decking casts
less of a shadow on the river below and, along with the fully suspended surface,
minimizes impact on the delicate salmon spawning grounds in the river. As an
environmentally-conscious structure, Sundial Bridge was intentionally constructed
without river footings to leave the salmon-spawning habitat undisturbed. Worldrenowned and environmentally sensitive, Sundial Bridge also inspires onlookers with its
“bird in flight” design, symbolizing overcoming adversity [33].
109
3.2.4.5 CORONADO BRIDGE
Architect: Robert Mosher
Year: 1969
Location: Fayetteville, West Virginia.
Style: box girder bridge**
To design the bridge from Coronado to San Diego, California hired Robert
Mosher as the principle architect. Mosher's job was to create a bridge that provided
adequate transportation across the bay, left ship access to the bay unimpeded, and added
an iconic landmark to the cityscape. He proposed a basic box and girder style bridge, in
which a prestressed concrete and steel deck would sit atop steel girders, resting on
towers. To increase the strength and resistance of the bridge, Mosher decided to make
an orthotropic roadway, which used a stiffening technique that was new to the USA (it
was first used to make battle ships in Europe during World War II), which made the
entire structure lighter. The bridge rests on 30 towers across the bay, but these aren't
ordinary bridge towers. They are supported by a tall and tapered arch. At its highest
point, the bridge has a clearance of 200 feet, enough to let an empty aircraft carrier pass
underneath. However, to achieve this height, the towers supporting the bridge had to get
progressively taller from the shoreline to the center. The curve was added to give the
bridge the distance needed to achieve its height. That's why the bridge does not take the
shortest route across the San Diego Bay. and curves; making it longer than it has to be
[69].
110
3.2.4.6 NAVAJO BRIDGE
Architect: Kansas City Structural Steel Company
Year: 1929, 1995
Location: Marble Canyon, Arizona
Style: The steel spandrel bridge**
Built by the Arizona Highway Department and opened in 1929, the original
Navajo bridge crosses 470 feet (143 m) above the Colorado River. The third highest
bridge in North America at the time of its opening, the truss-arch bypassed nearby Lee’s
Ferry* and became the only road crossing of the river for hundreds of miles in either
direction. It was not until the construction of the Glen Canyon Dam bridge in 1959 that
another route crossed the river within Northern Arizona. The opening of the Navajo
bridge changed the region forever as it allowed easier access to Grand Canyon National
Park from Utah and points further north. It also opened up the North Rim* of the Grand
Canyon to travelers from Arizona.
The narrow, 9 foot (2.7 mtr) wide lanes that were adequate in the 1930s became
dangerous in later decades with frequent head on collisions occurring on the bridge. In a
period of just 13 years, 8 people were killed and many others were injured. The 40 tons
weight limitation was also becoming a problem and after several studies, it was decided
to build a completely new span next to the old one [27].
111
3.2.4.7 SEVEN MILE BRIDGE
Architect: Henry Flagler and Clarence S. Coe
Year: 1912, 1982
Location: Florida Keys, Florida.
Style: box and girder bridge
It was constructed from 1909 to 1912 under the direction of Henry
Flagler and Clarence S. Coe as part of the Florida East Coast Railway's Key West
Extension, also known as the Overseas Railroad. After the railroad was damaged by
the Labor Day Hurricane of 1935, the line was sold to the United States government,
which refurbished Seven Mile Bridge for automobile use.
The current road bridge was constructed from 1978 to 1982. The challenge with a
bridge like the new Seven Mile Bridge isn't that the structure has to support its own
weight over a deep chasm**. So, many traditional types of bridges (from arch to
suspension) were not viable. The Seven Mile Bridge is, therefore, a very simple box and
girder style of bridge, in which a deck of concrete is supported by steel girders that
distribute weight across dozens of columns. To mitigate the challenges of building at
sea, the bridge was created from precast concrete spans that were built offsite and
assembled over the water [80], [70].
112
3.2.4.8 CHECK YOURSELF
Fill in the information for each bridge in the table.
Name: …………………………….. 1.
Year: ……………………………....
Location: ………………………….
Name: …………………………….. 2.
Year: ……………………………....
Location: ………………………….
Name: …………………………….. 3.
Year: ……………………………....
Location: ………………………….
Name: …………………………….. 4.
Year: ……………………………....
Location: ………………………….
Name: …………………………….. 5.
Year: ……………………………....
Location: ………………………….
Name: …………………………….. 6.
Year: ……………………………....
Location: ………………………….
Name: …………………………….. 7.
Year: ……………………………....
Location: ………………………….
113
2. Multiple Choice.
1. Golden Gate Bridge was built in
1) 1935
2) 1940
3) 1937
2. New River Gorge Bridge is
1) a suspension bridge
2) a deck arch bridge
3) a box girder bridge
3. Coronado Bridge connects
1) Coronado and Fayetteville
2) Coronado and Florida Keys
3) Coronado and San Diego
4. Seven Mile Bridge also known as
1) the Overseas Line
2) the Overseas Route
3) the Overseas Railroad
5. Navajo Bridge is located above
1) Gila River
2) Santa Cruz River
3) the Colorado River
6. Sunshine Skyway Bridge was designed by
1) Eugene Figg and Jean Maller
2) Irving Morrow
3) Santiago Calatrava
7. Sundial Bridge symbolizes
1) overcoming severity
2) overcoming adversity
3) overcoming poverty
114
3. Choose True or False for each sentence
1. Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge.
2. An annual Bridge Day takes place the third Sunday every October.
3. Sundial Bridge is one of four bridges in the U. S. A. designed by Santiago Calatrava.
4. The Coronado Bridge rests on 20 towers across the bay.
5. Seven mile bridge was damaged by the Labor Day Hurricane of 1935.
4. Answer the Questions.
1. What connects the Bob Graham Sunshine Skyway Bridge?
2. How long does it takes to cross The New River Gorge Bridge
3. What is the height of the the Sundial Bridge’s pylon?
4. How many towers does the Coronado Bridge have?
5. What bridge represents the West Coast?
6. What roadway did Robert Mosher decided to make for the Coronado Bridge?
7. Why was the Sundial Bridge intentionally constructed without river footings?
115
3.2.4.9 KEYS
1. Fill in the information for each bridge in the table.
1
Name: Golden Gate Bridge
Year: 1937
Location: San Francisco, California
2
Name: Sunshine Skyway Bridge
Year: 1987
Location: Tampa, Florida.
3
Name: New River Gorge Bridge
Year: 1977
Location: Fayetteville, West Virginia
4
Name: Sundial Bridge
Year: 2004
Location: Redding, California
5
Name: Coronado Bridge
Year: 1969
Location: Fayetteville, West Virginia
6
Name: Navajo Bridge
Year: 1929, 1995
Location: Marble Canyon, Arizona
7
Name: Seven Mile Bridge
Year: 1912, 1982
Location: Florida Keys, Florida
116
2. Multiple Choice.
1. 3)
2. 2)
3. 3)
4. 3)
5. 3)
6. 1)
7. 2)
3. Choose True or False for each sentence.
1
2
3
4
5
T
F
F
F
T
4. Answer the Questions.
1. Terra Ceia within Manatee County with St. Petersburg in Pinellas County.
2. 1 minute.
3. 217 feet.
4. 30.
5. The Golden Gate Bridge.
6. orthotropic roadway.
7. Sundial Bridge was intentionally constructed without river footings to leave the salmonspawning habitat undisturbed.
117
A LIST OF REALITIES (*)
A material process developed to soften the high-reflectivity of
standard grain finishes. The process uses precision-controlled
“angel hair”
machinery to etch stainless steel with a fine grain. Available on
a variety of metal alloys, this is the finest, smoothest, and most
uniform light-diffusion metal surface available for architectural
metal.
A smooth architectural surface made out of concrete. The
“beton brut”
concrete is left unfinished or roughly-finished after casting and
it remains exposed visually. The final surface often shows the
forms and structures of the formwork.
Represents a classic solution for improving the efficiency of
“trussed tube
the framed tube byincreasing its potential for use to even
system”
greater heights as well as allowing greater spacing between the
columns.
“heat island”
The term “heat island” describes built up areas that are hotter
effect
than nearby rural areas.
ACEC
The American Council of Engineering Companies is the oldest
and largest business association of engineering companies. It is
organized as a federation of 52 state and regional councils with
national headquarters in Washington, D.C., comprising
thousands of engineering practices throughout the country. It
administers extensive lobbying and education programs.
An École des
Beaux-Arts
Avery Fisher
One of a number of influential art schools in France.
The founder of the Fisher electronics company and a
philanthropist who donated millions of dollars to arts
organizations and universities.
118
BASE jumping
Parachuting or wingsuit flying from a fixed structure or cliff.
“BASE” is an acronym that stands for four categories of fixed
objects from which one can jump.
Building information modeling (BIM) is a process involving
the generation and management of digital representations of
BIM technology
physical and functional characteristics of places. Building
information models (BIMs) are files which can be networked to
support decision-making regarding a building or other built
asset.
Buddhist shrine
A beautiful reminder of Amida and his teaching.
CATIA (an acronym of computer-aided three-dimensional
CATIA software
interactive application) is a multi-platform software suite for
computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing
(CAM), computer-aided engineering (CAE), PLM and 3D,
developed by the French company Dassault Systèmes.
David Geffen
An American business magnate, producer, film studio
executive, and philanthropist.
Donald Trump
The 45th and current President of the United States, in office
since January 20, 2017. Before entering politics, he was a
businessman and television personality.
Pseudotsuga menziesii, commonly known as Douglas
Douglas fir
fir, Douglas-fir and Oregon pine, is an evergreen conifer
species native to western North America.
A mathematical system attributed to the Alexandrian Greek
Euclidean
mathematician Euclid. Euclid's method consists in assuming a
geometry
small set of intuitively appealing axioms, and deducing many
other propositions (theorems) from these.
119
Exposition
Internationale des
Arts Decoratifs et
Industriels
Modernes
In Paris was a World's fair held in Paris, France, from April to
October 1925. It was designed by the French government to
highlight the new style moderne of architecture, interior
decoration, furniture, glass, jewelry and other decorative arts in
Europe and throughout the world. Many ideas of the
international avant-garde in the fields of architecture and
applied arts were presented for the first time at the Exposition.
Giacomo
Puccini’s La
fanciulla del West
Great Depression
An opera in three acts by Giacomo Puccini to an
Italian libretto by Guelfo Civinini and Carlo Zangarini
Worldwide economic downturn that began in 1929 and lasted
until about 1939.
Great Lakes
region
A bi-national Canada-American region that partly includes
eight U.S. states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota,
New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin as well as the
Canadian province of Ontario.
I-275
Interstate highway.
A flat panel display, which uses an array of light-emitting
diodes as pixels for a video display. Their brightness allows
LED screen
them to be used outdoors where they are visible in the sun
for store signs and billboards, and in recent years they have
also become commonly used in destination signs on public
transport vehicles,
as
well
as variable-message
signs on
highways.
LEDs
A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light
source. This effect is called electroluminescence. LEDs are
typically small (less than 1 mm2).
120
Lee’s Ferry
A site on the Colorado River in Coconino County, Arizona in
the United States, about 7.5 miles (12.1 km) southwest
of Page and 9 miles (14 km) south of the Utah–Arizona border.
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) is a
LEED certification
certification program for the design, construction and operation
of high performance green buildings since 2002. This mark of
excellence is known across the world and there are three levels
of excellence: silver, gold, platinum.
North Rim
The North Rim of the Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona less visited than the south rim but equally scenic, with many
tranquil viewpoints and trails.
Okalux Kapipane
One of the leading suppliers of design and functional insulating
glass for facades and the interior.
The Wendell O. Pruitt Homes and William Igoe Apartments,
were joint urban housing projects first occupied in 1954 in the
U.S. city of St. Louis, Missouri. By the late 1960s, the complex
Pruitt–igoe
had become internationally infamous for its poverty, crime, and
racial segregation. All 33 buildings were demolished with
explosives in the mid-1970s, and the project has become an
icon of failure of urban renewal and of public-policy planning.
R+D Awards
The Research and Development Awards program is open to
architects, engineers, fabricators, manufacturers, researchers,
faculty, and students worldwide.
Rappelling
The most dangerous and frightening part of climbing.
A large historical corporation headquartered
Seagram & Sons
in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, that was the
largest distiller of alcoholic beverages in the world.
121
One of the largest and most influential architecture, interior
design, engineering, and urban planning firms in the world. It
was formed in Chicago in 1936 by Louis Skidmore and
SOM
Nathaniel Owings; in 1939 they were joined by John
O. Merrill.
Brehon Burke Somervell was a general in the United States
Somervell
Army in World War II. Somervell took charge of the
construction of the Pentagon.
Tampa Bay
A large natural harbor and shallow estuary connected to the
Gulf of Mexico on the west central coast of Florida.
An unincorporated census-designated place in Manatee
Terra Ceia
County, Florida.
An American architectural firm formed by eight architects in
The Architects
1945 in Cambridge, Massachusetts. TAC created many
Collaborative
successful projects, and was well respected for its broad range
(TAC)
of designs, being considered one of the most notable firms in
post-war modernism.
The Chicago
A daily newspaper based in Chicago, Illinois, United States,
Tribune
owned by Tronc, Inc., formerly Tribune Publishing.
The
Landmarks
Preservation
is
the New
York
City
agency charged
with
administering the city's Landmarks Preservation Law.
Commission
The New
(LPC)
York
Stock Exchange
US 19
An American stock exchange located at 11 Wall Street, Lower
Manhattan, New York City, New York. In 1920, a bomb
exploded on Wall Street outside the NYSE building.
a north–south U.S. Highway.
US. Green
is committed to a sustainable, prosperous future through LEED,
Building Council
the leading program for green buildings and communities.
122
GLOSSARY (**)
A jackknife
truss-arch
combines the elements of the truss bridge and the arch bridge.
Adherents
a supporter of a set of ideas, an organization, or a person.
Adjoining
next to and connected to another building, room, area etc.
Alcove
a small area in a room that is created by building part of one wall
further back than the rest of the wall.
Amber Glass glass made of a hard yellow
brown substance used for making jewellery.
Amenities
something that makes it comfortable or enjoyable to live or work
somewhere.
Anodized
coat (a metal, especially aluminium) with a protective oxide layer by an
electrolytic process in which the metal forms the anode.
Aperture
a small narrow hole.
Armor
metal clothing that soldiers wore in the Middle
Ages to protect their bodies.
Atrium
a large open hall that goes up through all the levels of a building to
the roof, which is usually made of glass.
Austere
severe or strict in manner, attitude, or appearance.
Avantgarde
people or works that are experimental, radical, or unorthodox with
movements
respect to art, culture, or society.
Axiality
situated in or on an axis.
Barrel
are various members of the two genera Echinocactus and Ferocactus,
Cactus
found in the deserts of Southwestern North America.
Beam
a long thick piece of wood, metal, or concrete that supports a roof.
Beehive
a structure in which you keep bees, and from which
you collect their honey.
Bemoan
to complain or say that you are disappointed about something.
123
Box girder
a bridge in which the main beams comprise girders in the shape of a
bridge
hollow box. The box girder normally comprises either prestressed
concrete, structural steel, or a composite of steel and reinforced
concrete. The box is typically rectangular or trapezoidal in crosssection.
Cable
a strong
thick metal rope.
Cable-stayed a bridge similar to suspended bridge in that it has towers and a deck that
bridge
is held by cables, but its cables hold the deck by connecting it directly
to the towers instead via suspender cables. It usually carries pedestrians,
bicycles, automobiles, trucks, and light rail.
Chasm
a very deep crack in rock or ice.
Cladding
a hard substance such as wood, stone, or metal that is put on
the outside of a structure, especially a building, to protect it
or make it look more attractive.
Coated
a solid contained by four plane faces; a triangular pyramid.
Tetrahedra
Coined
invent (a new word or phrase).
Concave
curved inwards.
Congenial
Crucifix
pleasant because of a personality, qualities, or interests that are similar
to one's own.
a model of Jesus Christ dying on a cross, often found in
a church or worn as jewellery.
Curvilinear
contained by or consisting of a curved line or lines.
Deck arch
This type of bridge comprises an arch where the deck is completely
bridge
above the arch. The area between the arch and the deck is known as
the spandrel. If the spandrel is solid, usually the case in a masonry or
stone arch bridge, the bridge is called a closed-spandrel deck arch
bridge. If the deck is supported by a number of vertical columns rising
124
from the arch, the bridge is known as an open-spandrel deck arch
bridge.
Demolition
the deliberate destruction of a building.
Dolomite
an anhydrous carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium
carbonate.
Dome
a roof shaped like the top half of a ball.
Drip
the most efficient method of irrigating. While sprinkler systems are
Irrigation
around 75-85% efficient, drip systems typically are 90% or higher.
System
What that means is much less wasted water.
Elimination
the process of getting rid of something that is not wanted or needed.
Emissivity
defined as the ratio of the energy radiated from a material's surface to
that radiated from a blackbody (a perfect emitter) at the same
temperature and wavelength and under the same viewing conditions.
to express something in a short clear form that gives the most important
Encapsulate
facts or ideas.
Epitomize
to be a perfect example of smth.
Esplanada
a long road for people to walk along, especially one next to the beach in
a town.
the movement of a lot of people from a place the movement of a lot of
Exodus
people from a place the movement of a lot of people from a place the
movement of a lot of people from a place.
Exterior
support
a support which is on the outside of some structure or object.
Extruded
pushed out with force through a small hole.
Fin
a part of a temperature system that keeps it steady or in the correct
position.
Foam
a soft light rubber or plastic substance containing many
125
very small holes, used especially for making furniture more comfortable
Gems
a beautiful expensive stone that is used to make jewellery.
Glulam
2x4 or 2x6 Douglas Fir dimensional lumber layered and laminated
Beam
together with durable, moisture-resistant structural adhesives. By
laminating a number of smaller pieces of timber, a single large, strong,
structural member is manufactured from smaller pieces.
Gravel
small pieces of stone used for making paths and roads.
Handrail
a long bar that you can hold on to for support, for example at the side
of stairs.
Hyperboloid
a quadric surface, that is a surface that may be defined as the zero set of
a polynomial of degree two in three variables.
Interior
supports
a support which is to the inside of something.
Lenticular
an adjective often relating to lenses.
Lintel
a piece of stone or wood that supports the wall above a door or window.
Masonry
bricks or stones that make a building, wall, or other structure.
Mecca
a place that a lot of people visit, because it is famous for something that
they want to see or do.
Mesh
a piece of material like a net, made from a lot of closely connected
wires, strings etc.
Moisture
a small amount of water or another liquid in the air, on the surface of
something, or in a substance.
Mullion
a vertical bar between the panes of glass in a window.
Mural
a large painting done on a wall.
Onyx sienna
a type of smooth stone with layers of white and black in
it, used in jewellery of a red or yellow brown color.
Opaque
opaque glass, liquid etc. is difficult to see through.
126
Orthogonal
a grid is called orthogonal if all grid lines intersect at a right angle. An
Grid
orthogonal grid offers significant advantages in the solution of systems
of partial differential equations and in the simulations of computational
fluid dynamics.
Parasol
the protection from the sun.
Patio
a flat area covered with stone, brick etc. at the back of a house,
where people can sit outside.
Pergola
a wooden frame for growing plants on outside a house and
for sitting or walking under.
Pile
a large strong post that is driven into the ground to support a building or
other structure.
Pilgrimage
a journey that a religious person makes to a holy place.
Post
a strong thick pole made of wood or metal that is put upright in
the ground, used as part of a fence, gate etc.
Preconceived (of an idea or an opinion) formed too early, especially without enough
symmetry
Pre-eminent
Pressroom
Purist
Quad
thought or knowledge.
better or more important than anyone or anything else in a particular
activity.
a room in a printing plant containing the printing presses.
someone who wants people to be correct, and to follow rules carefully,
especially in language and the arts
a square area in a school or university surrounded on all sides
by buildings.
Ramp
a slope or inclined plane for joining two different levels, as at the
entrance or between floors of a building.
Rectangular
placed or having parts placed at right angles.
Rectilinear
in the form of a straight line.
Rejuvenate
to make something such as an organization, system, or place good or
127
effective again
Retractable
able to be pulled backwards or inside something larger.
Rigidity
the quality of being solid.
Saddleshaped
Shaped in a leather seat that you put on a horse’s back when you ride it.
Sewers
an underground pipe or passage that carries sewage.
Shell
the outer walls of a building that remain after a fire or an explosion.
Silhouette
Slab
the dark shape and outline of someone or something visible against a
lighter background, especially in dim light.
a large, thick, flat piece of stone, concrete, or wood, typically
rectangular.
Sleek
smooth and glossy.
Span
(v) to cover smth (a period of time), (n) the width of something.
Spandrel
bridge
Spatial
a type of deck arch bridge where the spandrel area is not solid.
relating to the size, shape, and position of things, and
the relation of objects to each other in space.
Stem
Sterile
imitation
Supplant
a long thin part of an object that supports something on the end of it.
a copy which is lack of originality
to replace something or someone, often as a result of being more
powerful
Suspension
a type of bridge in which the deck (the load-bearing portion) is hung
bridge
below suspension cables on vertical suspenders.
Terminus
the end of a bus or train line/ a bus or train terminal.
Tracery
a pattern of curving lines in the stone above a church window.
Travertine
white or light-colored calcareous rock deposited from mineral springs,
128
used in building.
Trellis
an upright frame for plants to grow on, made of narrow pieces of wood
that cross over each other.
Trusses
a wooden or metal frame that supports a structure such as
a roof or bridge.
Tubular
shaped like a tube, or made from tubes.
Turf
a sports ground covered with short grass.
Vet
to make a careful and critical examination of smth.
Whimsical
made or done for fun, not seriously.
Withstand
to be strong enough not to be harmed or destroyed by something.
Zenith
the highest point reached by a celestial or other object [82], [68], [81],
[91], [63].
129
ЗАКЛЮЧЕНИЕ
В последнее время в лингводидактике выделяют особое направление,
главной задачей которого является изучение языка в тесной связи с культурой
страны-носителя языка. К стандартной программе во многих высших учебных
заведениях к языковому курсу прибавляется специальный курс страноведения. На
уроках в школе учащимся предоставляется много страноведческой информации.
Они изучают географию страны, быт, культуру и т.д.
Основа лингвострановедения – издавна накопленный опыт преподавания
языка.
В моей выпускной квалификационной работе рассматривается понятие
«лингвострановедение»; разбираются основы методологии, которые стали
фундаментом данной дисциплины; рассматриваются особенности текста в
лингвострановедческом аспекте, опираясь на различную литературу по данному
вопросу. В процессе составления лингвострановедческого пособия “American
Architecture. The Modern Movement: since 1920s” важнейшим пунктом выступал
анализ существующей аутентичной литературы по данной теме. Работая с ней, я
рассматривала литературу с точки зрения содержания, учебной ценности и,
конечно же, доступности не только для взрослой аудитории, интересующейся
архитектурой Америки XX-XXI веков, но и для студентов институтов
иностранных
языков,
которые
являются
активными
пользователями
лингвострановедческой литературы. Затронутая мной тема отличает данное
пособие от других справочных и учебных, тем что в данном пособии это тема
освещается наиболее подробно. Составленное мною пособие также может быть
использовано как учебная книга по данной теме, так как в нем присутствуют
такие разделы, как «Реалии» и «Глоссарий», что делает его справочным.
Таким образом, данная выпускная квалификационная работа является
весьма актуальной; в процессе ее написания были достигнуты все поставленные
задачи.
130
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