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Пилюгин Владислав Олегович. Анализ аутентичных материалов и составление лингвострановедческого тематического пособия American architecture:mid 19th and late 1800s

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АННОТАЦИЯ
Выпускная квалификационная работа на тему «Анализ аутентичных
материалов и составление лингвострановедческого тематического пособия
American architecture: mid 19th and late 1800s»
Год защиты: 2018
Направление подготовки: 45.03.05 Педагогическое образование
Студент: В.О. Пилюгин
Научный руководитель: к.ф.н., доцент кафедры английской филологии
А.П. Александрова
Объем ВКР: 119 страниц, содержит 22 иллюстрации
Количество использованных источников: 33
Ключевые слова: лингвострановедение, лингвострановедческий аспект,
реалии, текст, лингвострановедческое пособие, язык, иностранный язык,
лингвострановедческая адаптация, культура, типы текстов, учебный текст.
Краткая характеристика ВКР: В данной выпускной квалификационной
работе разбирается ключевое для работы понятие «лингвострановедение»;
рассматриваются базовые вопросы методологии, легшие в основу этой научной
области
знания;
анализируется
специфика
текста
в
ракурсе
лингвострановедения, с позиции разных подходов и позиций различных
авторов. Был проанализирован обширный массив иноязычных материалов с
позиции отбора аутентичного содержания, образовательной ценности, ясности
и доступности для учебной аудитории, изучающей проблематику Истории,
Культуры, Искусства и Архитектуры США и активно использующей в процессе
обучения лингвострановедческую литературу.
Методологическую основу исследования составляют диалектический метод
научного познания, общенаучные и частнонаучные методы теоретического
анализа, такие, как исторический, логический, языковедческий и сравнительнолингвистический.
По результатам проведенного исследования сделаны
выводы теоретического и практического характера.
5
СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
Введение………………………………………………………………………….8
Глава 1. Теоретические основы лингвострановедения ……..…………..……11
1.1. Определение лингвострановедения и ее методологические основания...11
1.2. Цели, задачи, объект и предмет лингвострановедения ………………....14
1.3.
Роль
и
место
лингвострановедческого
аспекта
при
обучении
иностранным языкам……………………………………….. ………………....16
Глава 2. Текст в лингостановедческом рассмотрении…………………....….18
2.1. Прагматичные и проективные тексты……………….……………….……18
2.2. Специфика отбора лингвострановедческих учебных текстов и их
адаптация…………………………………………………………….…………..20
Глава
3.
Лингвострановедческое
тематическое
пособие
«American
architecture: mid – 19th century and late 1800s»..……….…………….……...24
3.1. Описание лингвострановедческого пособия «American architecture: mid –
19th century and late 1800s»……………………………………………...……24
3.2. «American architecture: mid – 19th century and late 1800s»……………..27
3.2.1. The Neo-Classicism of the United States (1775-1850)………………....27
3.2.1.1 A list of realities………………………….………………………31
3.2.1.2 Glossary………………………….………..………………………33
3.2.1.3 Check yourself…………………………….………………………34
3.2.1.4 Keys…………………………………….…………………………36
3.2.2. Elements of the Neo-classicism (1775-1850)…………………………….37
3.2.2.1 A list of realities…………………………….……………………41
3.2.2.2 Glossary……………………………………..……………………43
3.2.2.3 Check yourself……………………………………………………44
3.2.2.4 Keys………………………………………………………………46
3.2.3. The Architecture of Thomas Jefferson…………………..………………47
3.2.3.1 A list of realities………………………………..…………………51
3.2.3.2 Glossary…………………………………….……………….……53
3.2.3.3 Check yourself……………………………………………………54
6
3.2.3.4 Keys……………………………………………………………….56
3.2.4. The Architecture of Benjamin Henry Latrobe…………….……….…….57
3.2.4.1 A list of realities…………………………………….….…………61
3.2.4.2 Glossary…………………………………………………………...63
3.2.4.3 Check yourself……………………………………….……………64
3.2.4.4 Keys……………………………………………..……….…..……66
3.2.5. The Architecture of William Strickland…………………………………67
3.2.5.1 A list of realities………………………………………….………71
3.2.5.2 Glossary…………………..……………………………………..…74
3.2.5.3 Check yourself……………….……………………………………75
3.2.5.4 Keys………………………….……………………………………77
3.2.6. The White House ………………………………………………………….78
3.2.6.1 A list of realities……………………………………………………81
3.2.6.2 Glossary…………………………………………………………..83
3.2.6.3 Check yourself……………………………………………………84
3.2.6.4 Keys……………………………………………………………….86
3.2.7. Capitol, Washington……………………………………………….…….87
3.2.7.1 A list of realities……………………………………………..……90
3.2.7.2 Glossary…………………………………………………………..92
3.2.7.3 Check yourself……………………………………………………93
3.2.7.4 Keys………………………………………………………………95
3.2.8. Independence Hall……………………………………………………….96
3.2.8.1 A list of realities…………………………..………………………99
3.2.8.2 Glossary…………………………………..………………………101
3.2.8.3 Check yourself………………………………..…………………102
3.2.8.4 Keys………………………………………………………………104
3.2.9. Monticello……………………………………..…………………………105
3.2.9.1 A list of realities………………………..…………………………107
3.2.9.2 Glossary…………………………………………..………………108
3.2.9.3 Check yourself……………………………………………………109
7
3.2.9.4 Keys………………………………………………………………111
Заключение…………………………..…………..…………………..………….112
Список литературы…………………………………..………………………..114
8
ВВЕДЕНИЕ
В настоящее время лингвострановедение является одним из значимых
научных направлений, которое включает в себя, во-первых, процедуры
освоения иностранного языка, а, во-вторых, стремящееся дать определенное
представление
о
стране,
изучаемого
языка,
таким
образом,
лингвострановедение стремиться дать обучаемому целостное представление
о процессе специфической коммуникации, соединив его с типичными
проявлениями и реальностью изучаемого языка. Лингвострановедение
объединяет два важнейших компонента процесса обучения иностранному
языку, коммуникативную компетентность лингвострановедение сочетает с
аутентичным восприятием реальности, которую создает иностранный язык,
используя языковые средства характерные для определенного иностранного
языка. Иностранный язык сложное лингвистическое новообразование,
которое включает не только рутинное знание о специфических языковых
механизмах, но также существенно дополняет представление студента о
культурных особенностях, традициях, установках и ценностях носителей
языка. Лингвострановедение раскрывает секреты процесса практического
освоения языка и таким образом, данную дисциплину можно рассматривать в
качестве методического средства позволяющего существенно повысить
качество изучения иностранного языка.
Значение фоновых знаний иностранного языка в процессе его изучения
довольно
детально
изучены
известными
специалистами
в
области
лингвострановедения России Е.М. Верещагиным, В.Г. Костомаровым,
А.Н. Щукиным.
Главной целью квалификационной работы является исследование
аутентичных
материалов
и
составление
лингвострановедческого
тематического пособия «American architecture: mid – 19th century and late
1800s».
9
Для достижения выше указанной цели были сформулированы
следующие задачи:
1) проанализировать определение лингвострановедения и рассмотреть его
методологическую основу;
2) рассмотреть цели, задачи, объект и предмет лингвострановедения;
3) определить роль и место лингвострановедческого аспекта при обучении
иностранным языкам;
4) скомпоновать и проанализировать аутентичные материалы для получения
необходимых сведений об американской архитектуре середины 19 – конца 18
века;
5) составление словарных словарей по заранее избранному материалу о
каждой реалии;
6) составление лингвострановедческого тематического пособия «American
architecture: mid – 19th century and late 1800s».
Объектом квалификационной работы является лингвострановедение
как отрасль лингвистики.
Предмет квалификационной работы составляют базовые правила и
принципы
отбора
и
описания
лексики
при
составлении
лингвострановедческого пособия.
Актуальность
выпускной
квалификационной
работы
связана
с
анализом значимого лингвострановедческого материала и создание пособия,
раскрывающего сущность ключевых исторических событий в культурной
истории Америки.
Выпускная квалификационная работа состоит из теоретической и
практической части. В теоретическую часть включены введение, две главы,
посвященные
вопросам
определения
лингвострановедения
и
его
методологическим основаниям, а также рассмотрения вопросов, имеющих
отношение к тексту и его месту в лингвострановедении.
Практическая часть включает лингвострановедческое тематическое
пособие «American architecture: mid – 19th century and late 1800s», дающее
10
описание основных направлений и образцов американской архитектуры в
середине 19 и конце 18 века, а также словарь с транскрипцией трудных для
чтения или понимания слов, перечнем реалий, тестами и ключами к тестам.
Практическая значимость квалификационной работы заключается в
том,
что
созданное
лингвострановедческое
пособие
может
быть
использовано студентами для самостоятельной подготовки к семинарским
занятиям по дисциплинам «История и география стран изучаемого языка»,
«Культура стран первого изучаемого языка».
11
ГЛАВА 1. ТЕОРЕТИЧЕСКИЕ ОСНОВЫ ЛИНГВОСТРАНОВЕДЕНИЯ
1.1.
ОПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕ
ЛИНГВОСТРАНОВЕДЕНИЯ
И
ЕЕ
МЕТОДОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ ОСНОВАНИЯ
В лингводидактике принято выделять отдельный раздел дисциплины,
основной целью которого является освоение языка в совокупности с
информацией страноведческого характера изучаемого языка. Обычно в
большинстве
параллельно
вузов
со
нашей
страны
специальными
иностранный
предметами,
язык
осваивается
иллюстрирующими
соответствующие языковые реальности, характерные для той или иной
страны. На учебных занятиях иностранного языка учащиеся приобретают
большой объём знания, касающийся не только грамматики и синтаксиса
языка, но и сведения о культуре, искусстве, обычаях носителей изучаемого
языка. Хороший преподаватель всегда стремиться на своих учебных занятиях
дать важную дополнительную интересную информацию о людях-носителях
языка и о их месте проживания. Лингвострановедение как особая область
филологии возникла как раз на фундаменте разностороннего, издавна
накопленного опыта преподавания языка [10, с.77].
Е.М. Верещагин и В.Г. Костомаров дали следующее определение
лингвострановедению: лингвострановедение – это аспект преподавания
русского
языка
коммуникативности
иностранцам,
обучения
в
и
котором
для
с
решения
целью
обеспечения
образовательных
и
гуманистических задач лингводидактически реализуется кумулятивная
функция языка и проводится аккультурация адресата, причём методика
преподавания имеет филологическую природу - ознакомление проводится
через посредство русского языка и в процессе его изучения.
Государственный образовательный стандарт обучения иностранному
языку на базовом уровне требует у учащихся воспитания «положительного
отношения к иностранному языку, культуре народа, говорящего на этом
языке … Образование средствами иностранного языка предполагает
12
…знание о культуре, истории, реалиях и традициях страны изучаемого языка
…включение школьников в диалог культур…» [4, с.5].
В силу своего большого формирующего и развивающего потенциала
лингвострановедение призвано реализовывать «гуманистическую» функцию,
с помощью чего возможно существенно повысить качество образования
личности: развития ее сознания, интеллекта, чувств и эмоций.
Внимание
специалистов,
занимающихся
лингвострановедением,
направлено на изучение приемов и способов включения ознакомительнопознавательного
потенциала
языка
в
процессе
его
преподавания
иностранцам. Для анализа страноведческой информации следует хорошо
владеть методологическими основами лингводидактики, что позволяет
создавать практические средства реализацией страноведческой информации
в учебном процессе.
Основу
лингвострановедения
образуют
пять
базовых
методологических принципов:
Первый принцип – это понимания факта того, что в процессе усвоения
иностранного языка, обучаемые имеют возможность приобщиться к иной
реальности. Общественная природа языка реализует три базовые функции:
коммуникативная функция направлена на передача информации от одного
участника
акта
коммуникации
к
другому,
кумулятивная
функция
подразумевает не просто передачу информации, но и накопление ее и
последующее использование и директивная функция призвана управлять
процессом развития и формирования личности.
Второй принцип связан с необходимостью понимания процессов
изучения и преподавания иностранного языка как процесса передачи
культуры или аккультурации.
Третий принцип направлен на передачу позитивной установки по
отношению к стране изучаемого языка в процессе аккультурации.
Четвертый принцип ответственен за целостность процесса изучения
языка, который направлен на органичное сочетание процесса получения
13
сугубо языковой информации со страноведческими сведениями, облекающие
процесс изучения иностранного языка в естественные формы.
Пятый принцип указывает на доминирование филологического способа
изучения языка по отношению к вторичности познания реальности.
Осознания и присвоение значимых элементов иноязычной культуры,
которые не имеют аналогов в родном языке и культуре, является важнейшим
элементом обучения лингвострановедению.
Таким образом, преподавание иностранного языка сегодня можно
рассматривать не просто как инструмент речевого взаимодействия, но как
средство познания иного культурного пространства и ментальности
определенной
нации.
Иностранный
язык
одновременно
открывает
возможности познания уникального языкового мира, а с другой стороны
позволяет открыть собственные скрытые способности и таланты. Таким
образом,
изучение
иностранного
языка
существенно
раскрывает
интеллектуальные способности учащегося, обогащают его и эмоциональной
мир, что открывает удивительные возможности развития диалога культур.
14
1.2.
ЦЕЛИ,
ЗАДАЧИ,
ОБЪЕКТ
И
ПРЕДМЕТ
ЛИНГВОСТРАНОВЕДЕНИЯ
Лингвострановедение сочетает, с одной стороны, собственно процесс
обучения языку, а с другой, образовательный потенциал данной дисциплины
направлен на передачу информации о стране изучаемого языка.
Основным
содержанием
лингвострановедения
является
культура
страны изучаемого языка в широком смысле, то есть включения большого
количества детальной информации об уникальной языковой реальности.
Главная
цель
лингвострановедения
призвана
реализовать
коммуникативные компетенции в актах межкультурной коммуникации, через
аутентичное восприятие речи собеседника и понимание оригинальных
текстов.
Наиболее значимой задачей лингвострановедения является анализ
языковых единиц, которые наиболее точно передают культурную специфику
географии изучаемого языка. К таким языковым единицам можно отнести:
– реалии (феномены и объекты, имеющиеся в изучаемой культуре и
отсутствующие в родной);
– коннотативная лексика (одинаковые по основному значению слова,
но разные по культурно–историческим ассоциациям);
– фоновая лексика (объекты, аналогичные в двух культурах, но
отличные по национальным особенностям функционирования и формы). [11]
При
этом
следует
учитывать,
что
культурологическая
и
страноведческая значимость информации, ее уникальность и обыденность,
четкая
ориентация
на
существующие
в
действительности
понятия,
тематичность и функциональность языковых единиц являются наиболее
существенным
основанием
отбора
лингвострановедческого
элемента
содержания обучения иностранному языку.
Предметом
лингвострановедения
является
отобранный
языковой
материал, адекватно отражающий культуру страны изучаемого языка.
15
Основным объектом лингвострановедения, с точки зрения Г.Д.
Томахина
являются
фоновые
знания,
которыми
располагают
определенной языковой и этнической общности. [10, с.77]
члены
16
1.3. РОЛЬ И МЕСТО ЛИНГВОСТРАНОВЕДЧЕСКОГО АСПЕКТА ПРИ
ОБУЧЕНИИ ИНОСТРАННЫМ ЯЗЫКАМ
Ввиду
специфики
обучения
иностранного
языка
как
учебной
дисциплины следует отметить, что собственно языковая информация не
является приоритетной частью содержания обучения, т. к. его изучение языка
происходит не только на основе языкового материала, но и на основе
совокупного
знания
языковой
реальности,
которая
включает
как
исключительно важный компонент лингвострановедение.
Лингвострановедческий аспект до недавнего времени в содержание
обучению
иностранному
языку
включали
лишь
редкие
методисты,
обращавшие внимание обучавшихся на экстралингвистический компонент
при освоении иностранного языка.
По мнению О.Н. Яремчук, вычленение лингвострановедческого
аспекта предполагает уточнение его места в содержании обучения.
Содержание обучения состоит из трех компонентов:
1)
языкового и речевого материала (лингвистическая информация);
2) определенное предметное содержание, передаваемое с его помощью
(экстралингвистическая информация);
3)
действия по приему, переработке и передаче этого содержания,
реализуемые
через
упражнения,
в
результате
выполнения
которых
формируется знания, умение и навыки, и способность осуществлять
иноязычное общение.
При таком понимании содержания обучения иностранному языку
экстралингвистический материал занимает важное место в процессе изучения
иностранного языка, так как она является необходимым компонентом для
освоения определённых ключевых тематических единиц, а тексты для чтения
и
аудирования
являются
конкретными
лингвострановедческого материала.
содержательными
объектами
17
В
современных
условиях
изучения
иностранного
языка
лингвострановедческий аспект преломляется в целях и задачах обучения
иностранному языку, а также и в содержательной части обучения, начиная на
предварительном этапе освоения языкового знания.
Хороший преподаватель стремится использовать на своих учебных
занятиях увлекательный страноведческий материал, так как он эффективно
мотивирует обучающихся к самостоятельному поиску полезной языковой
информации. Учебная работа с аутентичными источниками на учебном
занятии позволяет создать позитивную эмоциональную атмосферу для
качественного восприятия языкового материала.
В процессе изучения иностранного языка лингвострановедческий
аспект позволяет успешно создавать условия естественной коммуникации.
Адекватное речевое поведение невозможно без знания национальной
культуры, обычаев, способов типичной коммуникации страны изучаемого
языка.
18
ГЛАВА
2.
ТЕКСТ
В
ЛИНГВОСТРАННОВЕДЧЕСКОМ
РАССМОТРЕНИИ
2.1. ПРАГМАТИЧНЫЕ И ПРОЕКТИВНЫЕ ТЕКСТЫ
Понятие
«текст»
имеет
множество
определений.
Существует
общераспространённая трактовка термина «текст» – это законченное в
содержательном и структурном отношении речевое произведение: продукт
речи, отчужденный от субъекта речи и, в свою очередь, являющийся
основным объектом ее восприятия и понимания. Существуют и более
сложные определения понятия «текст» – зафиксированное высказывание,
выходящее за рамки фразы, т.е. являющееся дискурсом и представляющее
собой нечто законченное, единое и целое, наделенное внутренней структурой
и организацией, соответствующей правилам какого-либо языка.
С лингвострановедческой точки зрения текст – это любое речевое
произведение.
Текст
характеристики,
обязательно
должен
то есть иметь отношение
иметь
предикативные
к реальности.
Свойство
предикативности текста наделяет информацию новизной и имеет некую
установку, которая сосуществует в тексте с коннотативными его свойствами.
Предикативный характер текста позволяет решить одна из наиболее
значимых
задач
современного
обучения
иностранному
языку
–
коммуникативность.
Любую новую информацию можно передавать разными способами, вопервых, напрямую, стремясь построить коммуникацию наиболее ясным,
точным и конкретным образом, во-вторых, сведения могут передаваться
опосредованно, косвенно, используя указание на явления и факты, которые
не имеют прямого отношения к передаваемой информации, но связь с ними
обнаружить возможно.
Опираясь на выше приведенные два способа передачи новой
информации
в
лингвистике
выделяют
прагматичные тексты и проективные тексты.
различные
типы
текстов:
19
Прагматичные тексты содержат указание на прямую передачу
информации, которая не требует по большей части интеллектуальных
спекуляций для ее понимания, прагматичные тексты предназначены для
прямой передачу значимой информации.
Проективные тексты имеют отличные от прагматичных текстов
характеристики,
которые
связаны
с
косвенным
посылом
передачи
информации, они не имеют прямого указания и связи с предметом речи, а
лишь передает скрытые интенции.
С точки зрения лингвострановедения оба типа текстов имеют для нее
большой утилитарное значение, и их следует уметь отличать друг от друга.
Учебно-методические
комплексы
обучения
иностранному
построены в соответствии с прагматичными аспектами текста.
языку
20
2.2
ПРИНЦИПЫ
ОТБОРА
ЛИНГВОСТРАНОВЕДЧЕСКИХ
УЧЕБНЫХ ТЕКСТОВ И ИХ АДАПТАЦИЯ
Выбор и составление учебных текстов и текстовых фрагментов требует
большой
тщательности,
так
как
они
выполняют
определенные
образовательные функции и должны отвечать образовательным задачам, то
есть содержать значимую учебную информацию, выполнять практические
учебные задачи и нести воспитательную нагрузку.
Хороший учебный текст несет положительный эмоциональный заряд и
создает позитивную образовательную атмосферу, способствующую более
эффективному освоению иностранного языка, и конечно, он содержит
интересный
полезный
качественный
страноведческий
материал,
обеспечивающий глубокое погружение в иноязычную культуру.
Для повышения образовательной ценности оригинального текста порой
требуется его адаптация.
Любой учебный текст рассматривается в совокупности его формы и
содержания, то есть с языковой позиции и с познавательно-воспитательной
позиции, включая его внеязыковую сторону.
Е. М. Верещагин и В. Г. Костомаров убеждены что, приоритетным
основанием для оценки содержательного компонента учебных текстов
является их учебно-методическая ценность, которая отражает следующие
положения:
1) содержательная ценность текста связана с его страноведческим
наполнением. Чем больше страноведческой информации содержит учебный
текст, тем выше его ценность;
2) страноведческая ценность текста зависит от степени его новизны и
актуальности, так как исключительно свежие и текущие факты являются
наиболее адекватным методическим средством обучения;
3) Принцип актуального историзма. В тексте учебного пособия
рекомендовано использовать широко известные исторические факты,
21
позволяющие наиболее полно раскрыть культурную специфику страны
изучаемого языка;
4) Принцип типичности используемых данных. Не рекомендуется
переполнять учебный текст любопытными, курьезными, но крайне редкими
не типичными явлениями, например, описанием исключительных или
чрезвычайных событий, или обстоятельств, которые не являются типичными
проявлениями для страны [3, с.119].
И. Г. Розова обращает внимание на еще одну группу оснований для
страноведческого материала, к которой она относит:
1)
Принцип
аутентичности,
направленный
на
расширение
страноведческого кругозора обучаемых;
2) Принцип воздействия на эмоциональную и мотивационную сферу
личности, которая направлена на учет возрастных и индивидуальных
особенностей обучаемых, повышающих их мотивационный потенциал с
помощью страноведческого материала;
3) Принцип методической ценности для формирования базовых
речевых навыков и умений учащихся. [9, с.2]
Для отбора учебных текстов важно принимать во внимание все выше
перечисленные основания.
Одним из важнейших приоритетов выбора лингвострановедческого
текста является стремление обучаемых к восприятию страноведческой
информации. Подобное стремление предполагает интенсивное развитие
необходимых внутренних психологических качеств учащихся вкупе с
имеющимися лингвистическими способностями, умениями и навыками [7,
с.38].
З.Н. Никитенко полагает, что выбор лингвострановедческого текста
должен осуществляться с использованием культурологического критерия и
страноведческой ценности текста. В процессе отбора тех или иных реалий и
актуальной
информации,
направленной
на
повышение
степени
страноведческой образованности и культуры в целом, закладывается основа,
22
которая в дальнейшем может послужить развитию национально–культурной
грамотности.
Еще одним важным основанием для выбора учебного текста является
уровень его современности. Именно современность позволяет обозначить
границы отбора реалий. З.Н. Никитенко уверен, что необходимо учитывать и
возраст учащихся, и их индивидуальные особенности, и мотивы, а также их
исходный общеобразовательный уровень и уровень языковой подготовки [8,
с.4].
В статье «Отбор материалов лингвострановедческого содержания для
чтения в 7-9 классах» М.А. Нефедова утверждает, что первоначально следует
принимать
обучаемого.
во
внимание
В
лингвострановедческие
психологии
противоречивым,
поэтому
понятие
потребности
потребность,
предлагается
интерес
использование
самого
остается
понятия
«лингвострановедческий интерес».
Лингвострановедческий интерес – это важный дополнительный
инструмент
для
самовыражения
и
самоутверждения
обучаемых,
позволяющий им в наибольшей степени актуализировать их знание
иностранного языка.
Как отмечалось выше оригинальные тексты, прежде чем они станут
частью учебного пособия проходят процесс адаптации. Основную цель,
которую преследуют составители учебных пособий, заключается в языковой
адаптации информации, содержащейся в тексте, который приближает к
уровню языкового владения языком, что подчас сводится к уменьшению и
упрощению учебного текста.
Однако не менее важной проблемой языковой адаптации является
вопрос снижения трудностей, которые связаны с пониманием и усвоением
страноведческой информации в тексте.
В теории методики обучения иностранному языку предлагается
несколько ступеней лингвострановедческой адаптации:
23
1) Первоначальный анализ текста с целью определения основной
страноведческой темы текста и возможных смежных тем;
2) Анализ страноведческой информации, заключенной в тексте,
вычленение для обучаемых новой незнакомой страноведческой информации,
и информации, которая уже известна обучаемым, но может быть закреплена,
активизирована и углублена в рамках определенного текста;
3) Выделение известной ранее страноведческой информации, на
которую будут опираться обучаемые при усвоении данного текста;
4) Анализ безэквивалентной и фоновой лексики с учетом того, к какой
теме – основной или одной из смежных для данного текста – она относится;
5)
Удаление
из
лингвострановедческой
текста
ценности
частей,
или
не
которые
имеют
не
имеют
непосредственного
отношения к ведущей страноведческой теме, с целью концентрации
внимания учащихся;
6) Насыщение текста дополнительными фактами, помогающими более
глубокому раскрытию темы;
7) Изъяснение новых страноведчески ценных слов непосредственно в
тексте или в системе комментариев и методического аппарата учебника или
учебного пособия. [1, с.69]
В соответствии с целью и задачами учебного занятия, возрастными и
индивидуальными
особенностями
обучаемых,
с
уровнем
освоения
иностранного языка существуют различные уровни лингвострановедческой
адаптации
текстов:
оригинального
от
языкового
минимальной
текста,
адаптации практически бесконечны.
до
максимальной
вариации
обработки
лингвострановедческой
24
ГЛАВА 3. ЛИНГВОСТРАНОВЕДЧЕСКОЕ
ТЕМАТИЧЕСКОЕ
ПОСОБИЕ «AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE: MID – 19TH CENTURY
AND LATE 1800S»
3.1. ОПИСАНИЕ ЛИНГВОСТРАНОВЕДЧЕСКОГО ПОСОБИЯ
«AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE: MID – 19TH CENTURY AND LATE
1800S»
Целью
данной
выпускной
квалификационной
работы
является
составление лингвострановедческого тематического пособия «American
architecture: mid – 19th century and late 1800s», которое соответствует
принципам отбора текстов, сформулированных Е.М. Верещагиным и
В.Г. Костомаровым.
Во время подбора текстов для лингвострановедческого пособия
учитывались определенные основания подбора. Текстовая информация
соответствует заданной теме, и согласована с лингвострановедческим
аспектом подбора иноязыкового материала. Все тексты подбирались в
соответствии с актуальными и современными характеристиками, что
позволяет определить, применение аутентичных материалов в процессе
выполнения практического задания исследования. Информация в учебном
пособии в соответствии с требованиями актуальности, адекватности,
аутентичности.
За основу текстового материала для лингвострановедческого пособия
были использованы базовые критерии для составления учебно-методических
материалов, такие как доступность текста для понимания обучаемыми,
ясность и точность изложения материала, сопровождение учебного текста
перечнем основных реалий и терминов, предложение иллюстрированного
материала.
25
Лингвострановедческое пособие «American architecture: mid – 19th
century and late 1800s» разделено на главы, что способствует лучшему
восприятию учебного материала обучаемыми:
1. The Neo-Classicism of the United States (1775-1850)
2. Elements of the Neo-classicism
3. The Architecture of Thomas Jefferson
4. The Architecture of Benjamin Henry Latrobe
5. The Architecture of William Strickland
6. Capitol, Washington
7. Independence Hall
8. The White House
9. Monticello
Каждая часть лингвострановедческого пособия включает иллюстрации
и небольшой материал, содержащий описание, имеющее отношение к
американскому неоклассицизму периода 1775-1850. Кроме того, каждый
текст сопровождает раздел “Check yourself”, в котором сформулированы
вопросы, нацеленные на проверку понимания содержания. После части
“Check yourself” находится перечень “Keys”, содержащий верные ответы на
ранее поставленные вопросы. Данные разделы помогают преподавателю
проверить понимание студентами смысла текста, а у студентов есть
возможность самостоятельно проверить собственное понимание учебного
текста.
Основные
лексические
единицы
учебного
текста
включены
в
лингвострановедческий словарь реалий (“A list of realities”), они отмечены
знаком “*” и расположены в тексте в алфавитном порядке для упрощенного
поиска соответствующей словарной статьи.
В разделе Glossary помещены слова из учебного текста трудные для
чтения и понимания, они снабжены объяснением и транскрипцией. Такие
слова в учебном тексте отмечены знаком “**”. Трудные для чтения и
26
понимания слова расположены в этом разделе также в алфавитном порядке,
что упрощенного поиска необходимого слова.
Мной представлена система учебных текстов, позволяющее дать
полноценное представление об американской архитектуре неоклассического
периода 1775-1850. Система учебных текстов включает общее описание
архитектурного стиля, ее важнейших элементов, биографические справки
ведущих архитекторов представленного периода и перечень наиболее
значительных
объектов
архитектуры
американского
неоклассического
периода.
Аутентичность учебных материалов также послужила одним из
важнейших
включенных
оснований
в
для
пособие,
выбора
так
как,
лингвострановедческих
историческая
текстов
действительность,
содержащаяся в учебных материалах, содержит реальную информацию и
фактические данные.
При составлении пособия, использовалась не только аутентичность в
качестве основания для отбора текста, но, также во внимание принимались и
другие важные критерии, например, степень насыщенности текста реалиями,
образами, историческими деятелями, страноведческая ценность информации.
27
3.2 AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE: MID – 19TH CENTURY AND LATE
1800S
3.2.1 THE NEO-CLASSICISM OF THE UNITED STATES (1775-1850)
In the second half of the 18th and in the 19th century the architecture in the
United States has dual characteristics. On the one hand it depended on the results
of the European architecture and followed it. But on the other hand the American
architecture modified the European one to its own image. Because of its special
conditions it was a colony** until 1780s and after 1783 became an independent
country the terminology of the styles and eras in America is entirely different from
the European. As in all colonies, North American architecture showed the
influence of the various origins of the country’s settlers**. As was the case in
Central as well as South America buildings were adapted to local geographic,
climatic and infrastructural conditions.
28
The first period in the American architecture was the so-called Colonial
style* until the end of the 17th century. The new settlers brought along the
architecture of the European continent. In the search for their own identity far from
the centres of power, the colonies were less burdened by history than their
colonizers. [14]
The next important era was the Georgian style* between 1690 - 1790. After
the recognition of the independence** of the United States after the Paris Peace in
1783 a new style came to existence, the Federal or after the president the
Jeffersonian style*. Then the architecture was to demonstrate the pride and selfconfidence of a young, democratic society. The Federal style existed between 1790
and 1830, but the Georgian style lingered on in some territories.
The European Antique Greek style was reborn between 1820 - 1860 in the
United States. This era, the Greek Revival* lasted longer than in Europe. A
knowledge of Greek Antiquity was rediscovered including its political thought,
literature and architecture. [16] At the time of the Greek Revival America can no
longer be left out of the picture of Western European architecture. American
building had been colonial to the end of the 18th century, colonial as the latest
Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque buildings of the Spanish and the Portuguese in
North, Central and South America. The Greek Revival in the United States is also
still closely dependent on European, especially English examples. But national
qualities, such as a remarkable stress on engineering technique**, sanitary
installation** and equipment** in general, now come to the fore. The ideological
background of the strict neo-Greek is the liberal humanism of the educated classes
in the early 19th century. This spirit created their first public museums and art
galleries and their first national theatres.
The Neo-Classicism* of the United States was affected by a number of
factors, among them the prevailing taste of early settlers, the general thrust of 18thcentury culture at the time of the Declaration of Independence (1776) *, and the
belief, nurtured by Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826)*, author of the famous
29
Declaration, that the architecture of Greece and Rome was both inherently civil
and democratic.
Despite these noble associations, many of the most original and handsome
Neo-Classical buildings in the US were plantation** houses built in the South for
wealthy slave-owners.
Both Greece and Rome had depended on slaves, of course, and so did
Jefferson in his home state of Virginia, where this self-taught architect designed
the State Capitol in Richmond and the University of Virginia at Charlottesville.
Neo-Classicism was favored by revolutionary governments on both sides of
the Atlantic, and Congress chose it for the major monuments of Washington, D.C.,
with the Capitol itself eventually looking like a secular St. Peter’s, Rome, or St.
Paul’s, London. The initial city plan was drawn up in 1791 by a French engineer,
Major Pierre Charles L’Enfant (1754–1825) *, who had come to America in 1777
and served with George Washington during the Revolutionary War. The result was
a system of intersecting diagonal avenues superimposed on a gridiron** plan,
based partly on Le Notre’s garden designs at Versailles, and also on the plans of
newly Classicized European cities given to L’Enfant by Thomas Jefferson. The
broad avenues L’Enfant designed for Washington radiated from the Capitol and the
White House. As the capital of the new nation, Washington, D.C. was intended to
be an impressive model for city planning throughout the United States, as well as a
symbol of governmental power to be looked upon with suitable admiration by
other nations. The plan conceived by L’Enfant is little changed today. It had been a
remarkably bold and mature adventure for this infant nation. [15]
There was Neo-Classical architecture revival of Classical architecture during
the 18th and early 19th centuries. The movement concerned itself with the logic of
entire Classical volumes, unlike Classical revivalism, which tended to reuse
Classical parts. Neoclassical architecture is characterized by grandeur** of scale,
simplicity of geometric forms, Greek - especially Doric or Roman detail, dramatic
use of columns, and a preference for blank walls. The new taste for antique
simplicity represented a general reaction to the excesses of the Rococo style*.
30
Neoclassicism thrived in the United States and Europe, with examples
occurring in almost every major city. Russia’s Catherine II* transformed St.
Petersburg into an unparalleled collection of Neoclassical buildings as advanced as
any contemporary French and English work. By 1800 nearly all new British
architecture reflected the Neoclassical spirit** such as Robert Adam*; John
Soane*.
31
3.2.1.1 A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED “*” IN THE TEXT)
Catherine II (1729–1796) – also known as Catherine the Great (Yekaterina
Velikaya), born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, was Empress of Russia from
1762 until 1796, the country's longest-ruling female leader.
Declaration of Independence (1776) – is the statement adopted by the Second
Continental Congress meeting at the Pennsylvania State House (now known as
Independence Hall) in Philadelphia on July 4, 1776.
George Washington (1732–1799) – an American statesman and soldier who served
as the first President of the United States from 1789 to 1797 and was one of the
Founding Fathers of the United States. He served as Commander-in-Chief of the
Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, and later presided over
the 1787 convention that drafted the United States Constitution.
John Soane (1753–1837) – British architect notable for his original, highly
personal interpretations of the Neoclassical style. He is considered one of the most
inventive European architects of his time.
Major Pierre Charles L’Enfant (1754–1825) – self-identified as Peter Charles
L'Enfant while living in the United States, was a French-American military
engineer who designed the basic plan for Washington, D.C. (capital city of the
U.S.) known today as the L'Enfant Plan (1791).
Le Nôtre’s garden – originally rendered to André Le Nostre, who was a French
landscape architect and the principal gardener of King Louis XIV of France. Most
notably, he was the landscape architect who designed the park of the Palace of
Versailles.
Rococo style – style in interior design, the decorative arts, painting, architecture,
and sculpture that originated in Paris in the early 18th century but was soon
adopted throughout France and later in other countries, principally Germany and
Austria.
32
Robert Adam (1728–1792) – Scottish architect and designer who, with his brother
James (1730–94), transformed Palladian Neoclassicism in England into the airy,
light, elegant style that bears their name.
The Colonial style – American colonial architecture includes several building
design styles associated with the colonial period of the United States.
The Georgian style – Georgian architecture is the name given in most Englishspeaking countries to the set of architectural styles current between 1714 and 1830.
The Greek Revival – an architectural movement of the late 18th and early 19th
centuries, predominantly in Northern Europe and the United States.
The Jeffersonian style – Jeffersonian architecture is an American form of NeoClassicism and/or Neo-Palladianism embodied in the architectural designs of U.S.
President and polymath Thomas Jefferson, after whom it is named.
The Neo-Classicism – an architectural style produced by the neoclassical
movement that began in the mid-18th century. In its purest form, it is a style
principally derived from the architecture of classical antiquity, the Vitruvian
principles, and the work of the Italian architect Andrea Palladio.
Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826) – was an American Founding Father who was the
principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third
President of the United States from 1801 to 1809. Previously, he had been elected
the second Vice President of the United States, serving under John Adams from
1797 to 1801.
33
3.2.1.2 GLOSSARY (MARKED “**” IN THE TEXT)
colony [ˈkɒlənɪ] – a group of people who leave their native country to form in a
new land a settlement subject to, or connected with, the parent nation.
equipment [ɪˈkwɪpmənt] – anything kept, furnished, or provided for a specific
purpose.
grandeur [ˈɡrændʒə] – the quality or state of being impressive or awesome.
gridiron [ˈɡrɪdˌaɪən ] – a utensil consisting of parallel metal bars on which to broil
meat or other food.
independence [ˌɪndɪˈpɛndəns] – freedom from the control, influence, support, aid,
or the like, of others.
installation [ˌɪnstəˈleɪʃən] – something installed, as machinery or apparatus placed
in position or connected for use.
plantation [plænˈteɪʃən] – a usually large farm or estate, especially in a tropical or
semitropical country, on which cotton, tobacco, coffee, sugar cane, or the like is
cultivated, usually by resident laborers.
settler [ˈsɛtlə] – a person who settles in a new country or area.
spirit [ˈspɪrɪt] – the principle of conscious life; the vital principle in humans,
animating the body or mediating between body and soul.
technique [tɛkˈniːk ] – the manner and ability with which an artist, writer, dancer,
athlete, or the like employs the technical skills of a particular art or field of
endeavor.
34
3.2.1.3 CHECK YOURSELF
1) What was the first period in the American architecture?
a) The Colonial style
b) The Georgian style
c) The Jeffersonian style
2) What did the American architecture demonstrate?
a) the pride of a young, democratic society
b) the beauty of construction
c) the power of a young, democratic society
d) self-confidence of a young, democratic society
3) When did new architecture style come to existence in The US?
a) before the Berlin Peace in 1773
b) before the Paris Peace in 1773
c) after the Berlin Peace in 1783
d) after the Paris Peace in 1783
4) When did Neo-Classicism of the United States take place?
a) From 1675 till 1750
b) From 1775 till 1850
c) From 1875 till 1915
d) From 1875 till 1950
5) The Greek Revival in the United States is closely dependent on European,
especially……..
a) English examples
b) French examples
c) Russian examples
d) German examples
6) The Neo-Classicism of the United States was affected by a number of factors,
among them the prevailing…….
a) taste of early settlers
35
b) the general thrust of 18th-century culture
c) the belief, nurtured by Thomas Jefferson
d) the will of the US presidents
7) What did Congress consider the major monument in Washington, D.C.?
a) Lincoln monument
b) Washington monument
c) the Capitol
d) the White House
8) Who designed the basic plan for Washington, D.C.?
a) Robert Adam
b) John Soane
c) Pierre Charles L’Enfant
d) Thomas Jefferson
36
3.2.1.4 KEYS
1–a
2 – a, d
3–d
4–b
5–a
6 – a, b, c
7–c
8–c
37
3.2.2 ELEMENTS OF NEO-CLASSICISM OF THE UNITED STATES
(1775-1850)
As the United States began to take its place as the world’s most powerful
country, its architects turned to Neo-Classical forms to reflect the spirit of ancient
Athenian democracy and of republican Rome*. Neo-Classicism flourished in New
England*, applied particularly to sober geometric libraries and government
buildings, but also – with a lighter touch – to residences.
Neo-Classical buildings have few defining characteristics:
- Clean, elegant lines
- Uncluttered appearance
- Free standing columns**
- Massive buildings. [17]
The ideal form that Neo-Classical architecture looks at was the temple**.
Which was represented classical architecture in its purest form.
Columns were used to carry the weight of the building's structure. But later they
became used as a graphical element.
38
Roof is usually flat and horizontal and often is visible from the ground. NeoClassical architecture style had no domes** or towers. Building's facade** is flat
and long. Often having a screen of free-standing columns, exterior** was built in
such ways as to represent classical perfection. Doors and windows were built to
represent that perfection. Decorations were reduced to a minimum on outside.
There were often gardens around buildings completed in geometric patterns.
There are some more Neo-Classical buildings characteristics:
1. Reproduction of Roman facades
The State Capitol*, Richmond*, Virginia*, was designed by Thomas Jefferson.
Based on the Maison Carrée*, Nîmes*, a 1st-century Roman temple, it was an
idealization of a “republican” building, although the Maison Carrée dates, in fact,
from the heyday of imperial Rome*.
2. Influence of Palladio
Thomas Jefferson did much to introduce his fellow Americans to the spirit of the
Renaissance* architect Andrea Palladio*. The White House*, Washington, D.C.,
shows Palladian touches - harmonious, symmetrical floor plans and extensive use
of pediments** and columns are prominent features.
39
3. Wrap-around classical porticos
Perhaps a little ironically, given the ideals of the Founding Fathers*, one of the
finest uses of ”Greek style” was in the exceptionally fine plantation houses
designed for wealthy Southern slave-owners. With their shady porticos**, these
houses were well adapted to the local climate.
4. Neo-Classical city terrace
40
Washington Square*, New York, was a version of a type of housing development
well known in London and Dublin. Regular facades with sash windows and doors
flanked by Roman columns were the norm. [15]
5. Giant obelisk
An urban gesture greater than Napoleon’s Arc de Triomphe*, the Washington
Monument* dominates downtown Washington, D.C. Based on the ancient
Egyptian obelisks*, it was built to match the scale and ambition of the US capital.
41
3.2.2.1 A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED “*” IN THE TEXT)
Andrea Palladio (1508 – 1580 )– architect active in the Republic of Venice.
Palladio, influenced by Roman and Greek architecture, primarily by Vitruvius, is
widely considered to be one of the most influential individuals in the history of
architecture.
Dublin – the capital of and largest city in Ireland.
Egyptian obelisks – a tall, four-sided, narrow tapering monument which ends in a
pyramid-like shape or pyramidion at the top. These were originally called tekhenu
by their builders, the Ancient Egyptians.
Imperial Rome – the imperial form of government established in Rome in 27 B.C.,
comprising the Principate or Early Empire (27 B.C. – A.D. 284) and the Autocracy
or Later Empire (A.D. 284–476).
Maison Carrée – French for "square house" is an ancient building in Nîmes,
southern France; it is one of the best preserved Roman temple façades to be found
in the territory of the former Roman Empire.
Napoleon’s Arc de Triomphe – Triumphal Arch of the Star is one of the most
famous monuments in Paris, standing at the western end of the Champs-Élysées at
the center of Place Charles de Gaulle, formerly named Place de l'Étoile - the étoile
or "star" of the juncture formed by its twelve radiating avenues.
New England – is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern
United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island,
and Connecticut. It is bordered by the state of New York to the west and by the
Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec to the northeast and north,
respectively.
Nîmes – is a city in the Occitanie region of southern France. It is the capital of the
Gard department.
Republican Rome – the ancient Roman state from 509 BC until Augustus assumed
power in 27 BC; was governed by an elected Senate but dissatisfaction with the
Senate led to civil wars that culminated in a brief dictatorship by Julius Caesar.
42
Richmond – is the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States.
The Founding Fathers – were descendants of immigrants settled in the Thirteen
Colonies in North America who led the American Revolution against the Kingdom
of Great Britain.
The Renaissance – covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries. It is an
extension of the Middle Ages, and is bridged by the Age of Enlightenment to
modern history. It grew in fragments, with the very first traces found seemingly in
Italy, coming to cover much of Europe, for some scholars marking the beginning
of the modern age.
Virginia – is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United
States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.
Washington Square – is a 9.75-acre (39,500 m2) public park in the Greenwich
Village neighborhood of Lower Manhattan, New York City. One of the best
known of New York City's 1,900 public parks, it is a landmark as well as a
meeting place and center for cultural activity.
Washington Monument – is an obelisk on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.,
built to commemorate George Washington, once commander-in-chief of the
Continental Army and the first President of the United States.
43
3.2.2.2 GLOSSARY (MARKED “**” IN THE TEXT)
column [ˈkɒləm]
– or pillar in architecture and structural engineering is a
structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure
above to other structural elements below. In other words, a column is a
compression member.
temple [ˈtɛmpəl] – an edifice or place dedicated to the service or worship of a
deity or deities..
portico [ˈpɔːtɪkəʊ] – a structure consisting of a roof supported by columns or piers,
usually attached to a building as a porch.
pediment [ˈpɛdɪmənt] – (in classical architecture) a low gable, typically triangular
with a horizontal cornice and raking cornices, surmounting a colonnade, an end
wall, or a major division of a facade.
exterior [ɪkˈstɪərɪə] – the outer surface or part; outside.
facade [fəˈsɑːd] – the front of a building, especially an imposing or decorative one.
dome [dəʊm] – a vault, having a circular plan and usually in the form of a portion
of a sphere, so constructed as to exert an equal thrust in all directions.
44
3.2.2.3 CHECK YOURSELF
1) What did Neo-Classical forms reflect?
a) The spirit of ancient Athenian democracy
b) The spirit of republican Rome
c) The spirit of imperial Rome
2) Where did Neo-Classicism flourish?
a) in the east of the US
b) in Old England
c) in New England
3) Neo-Classical buildings have few defining characteristics. What are there?
a) Clean, elegant lines
b) Massive buildings
c) Uncluttered appearance
d) Free standing columns
4) Are there any Neo-Classical buildings characteristics? What are there?
a) Giant obelisk
b) City terrace
c) Wrap-around classical porticos
d) Reproduction of Roman facades
5) What did Thomas Jefferson introduce his fellow Americans to?
a) the spirit of the Renaissance
b) the spirit of the Baroque
c) the spirit of the Rococo
d) the spirit of the Gothic
6) Where is the Washington Square situated?
a) in Washington
b) in New York
c) in Richmond
45
d) in Philadelphia
7) Where is the Washington Monument situated?
a) in Washington
b) in New York
c) in Richmond
d) in Philadelphia
8) Who designed the State Capitol in Richmond, Virginia?
a) Robert Adam
b) John Soane
c) Pierre Charles L’Enfant
d) Thomas Jefferson
46
3.2.2.4 KEYS
1 – a, b
2–c
3 – a, b. c, d
4 – a, b. c, d
5–a
6–b
7–a
8–d
47
3.2.3 THE ARCHITECTURE OF THOMAS JEFFERSON
Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) was an outstanding personality in the history
and in the architecture of the United States. He was a simple farmer and then
studied law, and later he became a writer, architect, politician and statesman.
Jefferson took part in the writing of the Declaration of Independence in 1776. And
he was the third president of the young United States twice between 1801-1809.
In his early architectural period he followed the so-called Georgian style, as
the English architecture of the second half of the 18th century had great effect on
his architecture. He became the key figure in the turn to Neo-Classicism, at the
same time pioneering an independent North American architecture. He had studied
the works of the English Neo-Palladians* early on in his career. In 1769 he
designed and built a villa** modelled on Palladio’s centrally planned structures for
48
his country estate in Monticello*, Virginia. In a language of classical forms,
Jefferson created an elegant building, which became the cradle of the Federal style.
After some residential buildings in Virginia he designed the Virginia State
Capitol* in Richmond in 1785, the first capitol building in the United States. The
building as a capitol has symbolical meaning, that’s why here Jefferson used more
neo-classical elements than on his residential buildings. Jefferson knew the Maison
Carrée at Nimes, this splendid Antique Roman temple*, and took from it the
general scheme of deep portico and pilasters** along the sides. In front of the
building it has a two-storey high, Ionic hexastyle portico, so it looks like an
Antique temple. This is an early example of the early Neo-Classicism or the socalled Federal style. Jefferson’s main work is the University of Virginia in
Charlottesville, in Virginia, which was built between 1817 – 1826. The idea of a
university as an academical village consisting of small, linked buildings
surrounded by grass and trees had been conceived by Jefferson as early as 1804. It
was not until 1817 that the final plans were drawn up and the foundation stone laid.
Jefferson’s monumental plan showed an ideal university campus**. It is one
of the earliest examples of a campus university, in which buildings are loosely
grouped in a pavilion** system and integrated into the surrounding landscape. The
ten Palladian pavilions arranged in regular order in two rows were linked by
colonnades and were facing each other across a great lawn.
Jefferson wanted all the ten pavilions to be different so that the buildings
could serve as a model for professors of architecture. Each of the pavilions,
containing lecture rooms and living accommodations for ten professors, was
differently designed than the others. The whole ensemble** is bound by spacious
green areas. [19]
On Benjamin Latrobe’s* recommendation, Jefferson placed at the head of
the whole composition a great rotunda** containing a suite of three oval rooms and
a superb circular library and the country’s first observatory.
The circular library was linked with the pavilions by colonnades. It was
executed in the form of the Antique Pantheon* in Rome between 1823-1827. But it
49
was a copy of the Pantheon, Jefferson enlarged its scale but retained its proportions
as usually in the European Neo-Classicism. Jefferson’s circular and domed library
has two storeys and before it a two storey high Corinthian portico*.[14]
No single American embodied the principles of Neo-Classicism more than
Thomas Jefferson. In 1789 the French sculptor Jean-Antoine Houdon* (1741–
1828) carved a marble portrait bust of Jefferson during his stay in France as United
States minister to that country (1785–89). Houdon captured an air of kindly selfconfidence and suggested his sitter’s profound intellect. The indentation at the side
of Jefferson’s jutting chin, his smile, and the slight furrow of his brow convey the
impression of a composed, thoughtful individual. The portrait bust itself was a type
derived from ancient Rome and therefore reflects the Neo-Classical taste of both
Houdon and Jefferson. Jefferson’s views on contemporary architecture also reveal
his Classical education and humanist outlook**.[21, p. 115]
Although Jefferson was a native of Virginia, which was then the wealthiest
and most populous of the states, he disliked the houses of Virginia and wrote that
they were “very rarely constructed of stone and brick. . . . It is impossible to devise
things more ugly, uncomfortable, and happily more perishable.” He described the
buildings of Colonial Williamsburg*, which he knew from his student days at the
College of William and Mary*, as “rude, misshapen piles, which, but that they
have roofs, would be taken for brick-kilns**.” [30]
In addition to his other accomplishments, Jefferson studied Classical and
Palladian architectural theory, and he owned the first copy in America of Palladio’s
Four Books on Architecture. His work as an architect produced two of the finest
Neo-Classical buildings in America.
While in France, Jefferson became familiar with the elegant hôtels of Paris
and other French Neo-Classical architecture. He visited the remains of Roman
Gaul* and saw the so-called Maison Carrée at Nîmes in southern France. This was
a small, well-preserved Roman temple, similar to the Temple of Portunus*.
Jefferson used it as the model for a new State Capitol of Virginia in Richmond.
50
Both buildings were thus designed in the context of representative
government - the temple during the Roman Republic and Richmond’s State Capitol
during the early years of the American democracy.
The pride and joy of Jefferson’s later years was the University of Virginia,
the first state-supported educational establishment. Its centerpiece is the Rotunda*,
originally the library. Although its proportions are somewhat taller, its inspiration
is clearly the Pantheon in Rome. Among the purely Jeffersonian features are an
entablature** encircling the building and two layers of windows pedimented on the
ground floor, plain on the second.
Jefferson was the first rector of the university and described himself on his
tombstone** as “Father of the University.” Both the curriculum** and the
architectural concept were a tribute to Jeffersonian humanist principles. In the
quality of its individual parts and the harmony of the whole environment,
Jefferson’s “academical village,” as he called it, is a masterpiece of the Federal
style. [29]
51
3.2.3.1 A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED “*” IN THE TEXT)
Antique Roman temple – were among the most important buildings in Roman
culture, and some of the richest buildings in Roman architecture, though only a few
survive in any sort of complete state. Today they remain "the most obvious symbol
of Roman architecture". Their construction and maintenance was a major part of
ancient Roman religion, and all towns of any importance had at least one main
temple, as well as smaller shrines.
Benjamin Latrobe (1764 - 1820) – a British subject and neo-classical architect who
emigrated to the United States. He was one of the first formally trained,
professional architects in the new United States, drawing on influences from his
travels in Italy, as well as British.
College of William and Mary – is a public research university in Williamsburg,
Virginia. Founded in 1693 by letters patent issued by King William III and Queen
Mary II, it is the second-oldest institution of higher education in the United States,
after Harvard University.
Colonial Williamsburg – is a living-history museum and private foundation
presenting part of an historic district in the city of Williamsburg, Virginia, United
States. Colonial Williamsburg's 301-acre (122 ha) Historic Area includes buildings
from the 18th century (during part of which the city was the capital of Colonial
Virginia).
Corinthian portico – is the last developed of the three principal classical orders of
ancient Greek and Roman architecture. The Corinthian portico, with its offshoot
the Composite, is the most ornate of the orders. This architectural style is
characterized by slender fluted columns and elaborate capitals decorated with
acanthus leaves and scrolls.
English Neo-Palladians – is a European style, especially in England, of
architecture derived from and inspired by the designs of the Venetian architect
Andrea Palladio (1508–1580). That which is recognized as Palladian architecture
today is an evolution of Palladio's original concepts.
52
Jean-Antoine Houdon (1741 - 1828) – is famous for his portrait busts and statues
of philosophers, inventors and political figures of the Enlightenment. Houdon's
subjects included Denis Diderot (1771), Benjamin Franklin (1778-09), JeanJacques Rousseau (1778), Voltaire (1781), Molière (1781), George Washington
(1785–88), Thomas Jefferson (1789).
Monticello – was the primary plantation of Thomas Jefferson, the third President of
the United States, who began designing and building Monticello at age 26 after
inheriting land from his father. Located just outside Charlottesville, Virginia, in the
Piedmont region, the plantation was originally 5,000 acres (20 km2), with
Jefferson using slaves for extensive cultivation of tobacco and mixed crops.
Roman Gaul – under provincial rule in the Roman Empire from the 1st century BC
to the 5th century AD. It was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that
was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg,
Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the
Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
Temple of Portunus – is a Roman temple in Rome, one of the best preserved of all
Roman temples. Its dedication remains unclear, as ancient sources mention several
temples in this area of Rome, without saying enough to make it clear which this is.
It was called the Temple of Fortuna Virilis from the Renaissance, and remains
better known by this name. If dedicated to Portunus, the god of keys, doors and
livestock, and so granaries, it is the main temple dedicated to the god in the city.
The Antique Pantheon – is a former Roman temple, now a church, in Rome, Italy,
on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign
of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD).
53
3.2.3.2 GLOSSARY (MARKED “**” IN THE TEXT)
brick-kiln [brik-kil] – a kiln or furnace in which bricks are baked or burned.
campus [ˈkæmpəs] – the grounds, often including the buildings, of a college,
university, or school.
curriculum [kəˈrɪkjʊləm] – the aggregate of courses of study given in a school,
college, university, etc.
ensemble [ɒnˈsɒmbəl] – all the parts of a thing taken together, so that each part is
considered only in relation to the whole.
entablature [ɛnˈtæblətʃə] – the entire construction of a classical temple or the like
between the columns and the eaves, usually composed of an architrave, a frieze,
and a cornice.
outlook [ˈaʊtˌlʊk] – the view or prospect from a particular place.
pavilion [pəˈvɪljən] – a light, usually open building used for shelter, concerts,
exhibits, etc., as in a park or fair.
pilaster [pɪˈlæstə] – a shallow rectangular feature projecting from a wall, having a
capital and base and usually imitating the form of a column.
rotunda [rəʊˈtʌndə] – a round building, especially one with a dome.
tombstone [ˈtuːmˌstəʊn] – a stone marker, usually inscribed, on a tomb.
villa [ˈvɪlə] – any imposing or pretentious residence, especially one in the country
or suburbs maintained as a retreat by a wealthy person.
54
3.2.3.3 CHECK YOURSELF
1) What was Thomas Jefferson?
a) a writer
b) an architect
c) a politician
d) a statesman
2) Jefferson took part in the writing of the Declaration of Independence, did not
he?
a) yes, he did it
b) no, he did not it
3) When was Jefferson the president of the United States?
a) between 1791-1799
b) between 1801-1809
c) between 1811-1819
d) between 1821-1829
4) In what style in the US did Jefferson become the key figure?
a) Rococo
b) Gothic
c) Baroque
d) Neo-Classicism
5) What did Thomas Jefferson design in Richmond in 1785?
a) the Virginia State Column
b) the Virginia State Obelisk
c) the Virginia State Capitol
6) Whose marble portrait bust did the French sculptor Jean-Antoine Houdon carve
in 1789?
a) of Denis Diderot
b) of Benjamin Franklin
55
c) of Jean-Jacques Rousseau
d) of Jefferson
e) of Voltaire
7) What is the Jefferson’s main work in Virginia, which was built between 1817 1826?
a) the Virginia State Capitol
b) Monticello
c) the University of Virginia in Charlottesville
d) the White House
8) What did Thomas Jefferson design and build for his country estate in Monticello
in 1769?
a) pavilion
b) rotunda
c) pilaster
d) villa
56
3.2.3.4 KEYS
1 – a, b. c, d
2–a
3–b
4–d
5–c
6–d
7–c
8–d
57
3.2.4 THE ARCHITECTURE OF BENJAMIN HENRY LATROBE
Benjamin Henry Latrobe (1764 - 1820) was another interesting architect
next to Jefferson in late eighteenth century America. He was born in England but
his father came from France. He studied in Europe, in Germany and in England. At
first Latrobe worked for Samuel Pepys Cockerell* (1754 - 1827) in London, who
was an outstanding neo-classicist architect. Latrobe immigrated to the United
States in 1796 and soon began to work as an architect in Virginia. His Bank of
Pennsylvania* in Philadelphia*, which was built between 1798-1800, was the first
Neo-Greek building in the United States and had an enormous effect there since
the Greek Revival entered America by it. [23] His deliberate return to the art of
Greek Antiquity was combined with notions of archaeological authenticity and
purity of style. Latrobe’s austere** templar building is a rectangle** with two
Greek Ionic hexastyle porticoes* at each end and a low brick dome with lantern**.
Its ground plan is simple and is composed of a long rectangle, which culminated in
58
a central, circular domed rotunda in the middle and at the back the Stockholders
Room* with two apses. The top-lit dome recalled Soane’s Stock Office* of 1792 in
the Bank of England* in London. The demolition of Latrobe’s building in the
1860s was a major loss for America. Latrobe used Doric columns already in 1800,
but the Doric gained wide American acceptance only after 1820. In the 1820s the
Greek Revival was triumphant in public buildings, as well as in simple houses built
of wood in the vernacular style. Latrobe then moved to Philadelphia where he
established his practice.
In 1803 Latrobe became surveyor** of the Public Buildings of the United
States a post that called for completing the Capitol Building, and then he spent
much of the next fourteen years working on projects in the new national capital of
Washington, D.C., (in the newly-laid out Federal capital of the District of
Columbia) where he served as the second Architect of the Capitol. Before long
Latrobe contributed to the designing of the Capitol mainly in the planning of its
structure and of its inner spaces. He also was responsible for the design of the
White House porticos.
In 1790 the site of the new federal city was selected and the new Federal
capital was called Washington in honor of the first President of the United States.
Plans were drawn up by the French major, Pierre Charles L. Enfant (1754 - 1825).
The traditional chessboard** plan was modified by allowing for differing widths of
blocks and boulevards. To build a State Capitol and also a President’s House (the
White House) was decided in 1792. On Jefferson’s suggestion, competitions were
held. The Irish James Hoban* (1762 – 1831) won the competition for the
president’s house with an old-fashioned design copied from James Gibbs’s Book
of Architecture* (edited in 1728). The office of the President of the United States
was therefore built in a very traditional, even old-fashioned manner, and in the
style of the country’s former colonial masters. Its main motif is a central
semicircular portico, which has two storey high, slender columns. The White
House owes its characteristic portico to Latrobe. [15]
59
The competition for the United States Capitol was inconclusive. In the end
William Thornton* (1759-1828), doctor of medicine of the University of
Edinburgh*, an amateur architect, won the competition with his plan. George
Washington praised its grandeur**, simplicity and convenience. Because Thornton
wasn’t skilled in the planning of structures, the French Stephen Hallet* (1755 1825) and the Irish James Hoban (1762 - 1831) and later Benjamin Latrobe
architects were requested to contribute in the work. Hallet modified Thornton’s
plan, which was a broad, domed building featuring a giant portico and a low dome.
The façade motifs show French inspiration. No wonder, as not only was Hallet
French but Thornton also knew Paris well. The Capitol was built parallel with the
White House. In 1803 Latrobe took over. He made some internal alterations and
designed a new façade with a low Greek Doric portico* and a rather inorganic
upper loggia** of much slenderer columns. The dome remained of the Pantheon
type. His alternations lend the puritan building greater charm and elegance. Charles
Bulfinch* (1763 - 1844) and at the end Latrobe’s pupil, Robert Mills* (1781-1855)
also appeared among the designers of the Capitol. The Capitol, which is a
masterpiece of the American Neo-Classicism, was finished only in the 1860s. But
the Senate wing of the Capitol was occupied in 1800. The wide, huge building
represents power. It stands on a hill and has a large cupola and a middle portico in
its centre. In contrast with the Capitol the White House represents elegance.
The competition on the new cupola of the Capitol was won by Thomas
Ustick Walter* (1804 - 1887). Walter worked first in Latrobe’s and then
Strickland’s office. He designed in Neo-Greek style as Latrobe or Strickland but he
used also Neo-Roman. He became famous when he won this competition on the
cupola of the United States Capitol in Washington.
In 1850 a substantial extension of the Capitol was recommended and a
competition held in the same year. Walter’s plan was chosen. The foundation stone
was laid in the next year, the new side wings were added between 1851- 1865. The
dome with its cast-iron frame was authorized in 1855 and completed in 1865. The
enlarged cupola** is 94 feet (30 meters) in diameter, rises to a height of 207 feet
60
(63 meters) and has trussed shells of cast iron. Perhaps Walter knew Ricard de
Montferrand*’s book about the St Isaac Cathedral in St. Petersburg* (1817 - 1857),
which was published in 1845, with its plates of the iron structure of the dome.
Cupolas with two drums out of which the lower is colonnaded were fashionable
solutions in the architecture of Neo-Classicism; as built for example on the
Panthéon in Paris (formerly church of Sainte Geneviéve*, built by JacquesGermain Soufflot* between 1755 - 1792). [13, p. 45]
As state architect Walter designed representative buildings. In this era the
historical details became more and more accurate, but the public buildings became
more schematic. All of the public buildings were designed always with portico and
tympanum**, cupola and order of columns, but the function and the structure
began to become important.
The later years of his life Latrobe spent in New Orleans, Louisiana working
on a waterworks project, and died there in 1820 from yellow fever.
61
3.2.4.1 A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED “*” IN THE TEXT)
Bank of England – Sir John Soane was a British architect notable for his original,
highly personal interpretations of the Neo-Classical style. He was appointed
architect to the Bank of England in 1788 in London.
Bank of Pennsylvania – Latrobe’s second early triumph, his Bank of Pennsylvania,
quickly became “one of the most influential buildings in the nation’s history.
Charles Bulfinch (1763 - 1844) – was an early American architect, and has been
regarded by many as the first native-born American to practice architecture as a
profession.
Church of Sainte Geneviéve – was a monastery in Paris, suppressed at the time of
the French Revolution.
Greek Doric portico – was one of the three orders of ancient Greek and later
Roman architecture; the other two canonical orders were the Ionic and the
Corinthian. The Doric is most easily recognized by the simple circular capitals at
the top of columns. It was the earliest and in its essence the simplest of the orders,
though still with complex details in the entablature above.
Jacques-Germain Soufflot (1713 - 1780) – was a French architect in the
international circle that introduced neoclassicism. His most famous work is the
Panthéon in Paris, built from 1755 onwards, originally as a church dedicated to
Saint Genevieve.
James Gibbs’s Book of Architecture – a book of architecture, containing designs of
buildings and ornaments was published in 1728.
James Hoban (1755 - 1831) – was an Irish architect, best known for designing the
White House in Washington, D.C.
62
Ricard de Montferrand (1786 - 1858) – was a French Classicism architect who
worked primarily in Russia. His two best known works are the Saint Isaac's
Cathedral and the Alexander Column in St. Petersburg.
Philadelphia – is the largest city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the
sixth-most populous city in the United States, with an estimated population of
1,567,872.
Robert Mills (1781-1855) – one of the first American-born professional architects.
Samuel Pepys Cockerell (1753 - 1827) – was an English architect.
Soane’s Stock Office – the Bank Stock Office, just north of the Bartholomew Lane
vestibule in London, represented Soane's first major work at the Bank of England.
Stephen Hallet (1755 - 1825) – was a French-born U.S. architect.
St Isaac Cathedral – in Saint Petersburg, Russia, is the largest Russian Orthodox
cathedral (sobor) in the city.
St. Petersburg – is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow.
Thomas Ustick Walter (1804 – 1887) – was an American architect, the dean of
American architecture between the 1820 death of Benjamin Latrobe and the
emergence of H.H. Richardson in the 1870s. He was the fourth Architect of the
Capitol and responsible for adding the north (Senate) and south (House) wings and
the central dome.
William Thornton (1759-1828) – one of the first American professional architects.
63
3.2.4.2 GLOSSARY (MARKED “**” IN THE TEXT)
austere [ɒˈstɪə] – severe in manner or appearance; uncompromising; strict;
forbidding.
chessboard [ˈtʃɛsˌbɔːd] – the board, identical with a checkerboard, used for playing
chess.
cupola [ˈkjuːpələ] – a light structure on a dome or roof, serving as a belfry,
lantern, or belvedere.
grandeur [ˈɡrændʒə l] – the quality or state of being impressive or awesome.
lantern [ˈlæntən] – a transparent or translucent, usually portable, case for enclosing
a light and protecting it from the wind, rain, etc.
loggia [ˈlɒdʒə] – a gallery or arcade open to the air on at least one side.
rectangle [ˈrɛkˌtæŋɡəl] – a parallelogram having four right angles.
surveyor [sɜːˈveɪə] – is someone who estimates or measures the dimensions of
land. Surveyors help make maps, and are important when planning new buildings
tympanum [ˈtɪmpənəm] – the recessed, usually triangular space enclosed between
the horizontal and sloping cornices of a pediment, often decorated with sculpture.
64
3.2.4.3 CHECK YOURSELF
1) Where was Benjamin Henry Latrobe born?
a) in the US
b) in France
c) in Canada
d) in England
2) Where did Benjamin Henry Latrobe study architecture?
a) in France
b) in Germany
c) in England
d) in Canada
3) When did Latrobe immigrate to the United States?
a) in 1799
b) in 1801
c) in 1809
d) in 1796
4) Where did Latrobe begin to work as an architect?
a) in Virginia
b) in Maryland
c) in Pennsylvania
d) in New York
5) Which of the first American Neo-Classicism building was built between 17981800?
a) The Virginia State Capitol
b) Bank of New York
65
c) Bank of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia
6) Where did Latrobe serve as the second Architect of the Capitol?
a) in Virginia
b) in Pennsylvania
c) in New York
d) in Washington
7) Where did Latrobe spend the later years of his life?
a) in Pennsylvania
b) in New York
c) in Charlottesville, Virginia
d) in New Orleans, Louisiana
8) What was the cause of Latrobe’s death?
a) murder
b) yellow fever
c) poisoning
d) cancer
66
3.2.4.4 KEYS
1–d
2 – b, c
3–d
4–a
5–c
6–d
7–d
8–b
67
3.2.5 THE ARCHITECTURE OF WILLIAM STRICKLAND
William Strickland*, (born 1788, Navesink, N.J., U.S. - died April 6, 1854,
Nashville, Tenn.), U.S. architect and engineer who was one of the leaders of the
Greek Revival in the first half of the 19th century.
Strickland first became known as a scene painter, although he studied
architecture under Benjamin Latrobe from 1803 to 1805. In 1810 he designed the
Masonic Temple* in Philadelphia. [31, p. 82] Strickland enjoyed greater popular
success than Latrobe because he was willing to provide straightforward
architectural statements without the sophistications insisted upon by Latrobe. For
this reason Strickland’s design for the Second Bank* of the United States (built
68
1819 –1824) was preferred over that submitted by his mentor**; Strickland
followed exactly the prescription of bank president Nicholas Biddle that the style
be “purest Grecian” to symbolize the freedom of business from government.
Strickland also designed in Greek Revival style the Merchants’ Exchange
building* (1834), the United States Naval Asylum* (1826), the United States
Mint* (1829), and the United States Custom House*, all in Philadelphia, as well as
the Athenaeum* (1836–38) in Providence*, R.I., and the United States Mints in
Charlotte*, N.C. (1835), and New Orleans (1835–36). [19]
Strickland’s design was modelled on the Parthenon* in Athens* but reduced
by three fifths (3/5). This was the first American public building to be based on the
Parthenon. The Second Bank of the United States has two mighty octastyle Doric
porticoes, which shows that Strickland knew well the details and proportions of the
style. In the middle of the combined ground-plan is the representative barrelvaulted** banking hall with giant Ionic columns.
His engineering projects were nearly as well-known as his architectural
designs. In 1825 he was sent to Europe to study internal improvements and on his
return did much to encourage the construction of the original line of the
Pennsylvania Railroad Company*. He also constructed the Delaware Breakwater*,
a commission** from the U.S. government. At the time of his death he was in
Nashville*, superintending the construction of the state house, the design of which
was based on several well-known Greek buildings. It is regarded by many as his
best work. By a special act of the state legislature he was buried in the building.
In 1826 Strickland's design for the United States Naval Asylum in
Philadelphia was accepted, and he was appointed supervising architect. Strickland
held the Asylum position until 1829, the same year as his appointment as architect
of the United States Mint (1829-1833; demolished, 1907). Together with the
Second Bank, the Naval Asylum, and the Merchants Exchange (1832-1834) - all of
which survive - the Mint was one of Strickland's most important Philadelphia
buildings; it also brought the architect commissions for branch mints in Charlotte,
NC, and New Orleans, LA.
69
In the mid-1830s Strickland began to feel the pressure of competition from
other architects, several of whom had actually trained with him. While he may
have benefitted from Latrobe's move to Washington and John Haviland*'s
bankruptcy**, Strickland began to lose major commissions to his former student
Thomas Ustick Walter and to emigre architects such as John Notman*; they took
the Girard College and Laurel Hill Cemetery commissions over Strickland's
submissions, for example. As the depression** of the late 1830s and early 1840s
deepened, the number and profitability of his commissions declined. An invitation
in 1845 to become architect of the Tennessee State Capitol* in Nashville, TN, must
have offered an attractive alternative to the architectural doldrums** of
Philadelphia. [29]
The Tennessee State Capital proved to be William Strickland's last major
commission although several substantial country houses in the Nashville area are
attributed to him. The eight years in Tennessee also produced the first Roman
Catholic cathedral* in that state (St. Mary's, 1845-1847) and the Egyptianesque
First Presbyterian Church* in Nashville (1848-1851). [23] As his health declined
after 1850, Strickland was assisted by his son Francis; and many of the Italianate
domestic structures traditionally attributed to the father may have indeed been
designed by the son. In April, 1854, the elder Strickland suffered a fall** and died.
A few days later he was interred within the Capitol, a last honor bestowed by the
Tennessee legislature.
During a career spanning over 45 years, William Strickland proved himself
to be versatile** and talented in several fields. As an architect he worked in nine
different styles and produced what may be the first American example of historic
restoration, the steeple** of Independence Hall (1828). Together with Robert
Mills, Strickland was a successor to Benjamin Henry Latrobe; he in turn helped to
train Thomas Ustick Walter and Gideon Shryock* (of Kentucky) who continued
and spread the Greek Revival style throughout the United States, ultimately
producing some of our greatest neoclassical monuments. However, Strickland was
also a successful and prominent engineer. In 1826 he was appointed engineer in
70
charge of the Eastern Division of the Pennsylvania Mixed System (a transportation
system consisting of both railroad and canal). In 1828 he was a consultant for the
Fair Mount Dam*; in 1830 he worked on the Columbia and Philadlephia Railroad
and in 1835 on the Wilmington and Susquehanna Railroad*. In Philadelphia his
engineering impact is still felt in the Delaware Breakwater for which he served as
supervising engineer from 1828 to 1840.
Strickland was among the first to lecture on architecture in the United States
and was the author of several technical publications on engineering and
architectural projects he had headed. His principal pupil was another Greek
revivalist, Thomas Ustick Walter.
71
3.2.5.1 A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED “*” IN THE TEXT)
Athens – is the capital and largest city of Greece. Athens dominates the Attica
region and is one of the world's oldest cities, with its recorded history spanning
over 3,400 years.
Charlotte – is the most populous city in the U.S. state of North Carolina.
John Haviland (1792-1852) – was an English-born architect who was a major
figure in American Neo-Classical architecture, and one of the most notable
architects working from Philadelphia in the 19th century.
Gideon Shryock (1802-1880) – was one of the first American Greek Revival
architect.
John Notman (1810-1865) – was a Scottish-born American architect, who settled
in Philadelphia. He is remembered for his churches, and for popularizing the
Italianate style and the use of brownstone.
Nashville – is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Tennessee and
the seat of Davidson County. It is located on the Cumberland River in northern
Middle Tennessee.
Providence – is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Rhode
Island and is one of the oldest cities in the United States.
Robert Mills (1781-1855) – an architect known for designing the Washington
Monument, is sometimes called the first native born American to be professionally
trained as an architect.
The Athenaeum – was a school (ludus) founded by the Emperor Hadrian in Rome,
for the promotion of literary and scientific studies (ingenuarum artium) and called
Athenaeum from the town of Athens, which was still regarded as the seat of
intellectual refinement.
72
The Delaware Breakwater – is a set of breakwaters east of Lewes, Delaware on
Cape Henlopen that form Lewes Harbor. They were listed on the National Register
of Historic Places.
The Egyptianesque First Presbyterian Church – is the First Presbyterian Church,
this building (1851) is one of the few examples of Egyptian Revival architecture in
the entire country. Notice the Egyptian columns and winged sun disk at the
entrance. Designed by architect William Strickland (1788-1854).
The Fair Mount Dam – was Philadelphia's second municipal waterworks.
Designed in 1812 by Frederick Graff and built between 1812 and 1872.
The first Roman Catholic cathedral – is a historic Catholic parish in downtown
Nashville, Tennessee, United States. Designed by architect William Strickland
(1788-1854).
The Masonic Temple – is a historic Masonic building in Philadelphia. Located at 1
North Broad Street, directly across from Philadelphia City Hall, it serves as the
headquarters of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, Free and Accepted Masons. It
was designed by architect William Strickland.
The Merchants’ Exchange building – is a historic building located on the triangular
site bounded by Dock Street, Third Street, and Walnut Street in the Old City
neighborhood of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was designed by architect William
Strickland.
The Parthenon –a temple that dominates the hill of the Acropolis at Athens. It was
built in the mid-5th century BCE and dedicated to the Greek goddess Athena
Parthenos (“Athena the Virgin”). The temple is generally considered to be the
culmination of the development of the Doric order, the simplest of the three
Classical Greek architectural orders.
The Pennsylvania Railroad Company – largest of the trunkline railroads that
connected the East Coast of the United States with the interior. It was chartered in
1846 by the Pennsylvania legislature to build a line between Harrisburg and
Pittsburgh. Its first passenger train ran in 1848 between Philadelphia and
Pittsburgh.
73
The Second Bank – is a historic building, located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,
was the second federally authorized Hamiltonian national bank in the United States
during its 20-year charter from February 1816 to January 1836. It was designed by
architect William Strickland.
The Tennessee State Capitol – located in Nashville, Tennessee, is the home of the
General Assembly of Tennessee (state legislature), the location of the governor's
office, and a National Historic Landmark. Designed by architect William
Strickland (1788-1854).
The United States Custom House – is the custom house in Charleston, South
Carolina. Construction began in 1853, but was interrupted in 1859 due to costs and
the possibility of South Carolina's secession from the Union. It was designed by
architect William Strickland.
The United States Mint – was created from the need to establish a national identity
and the needs of commerce in the United States. This led the Founding Fathers of
the United States to make an establishment of a continental national mint, a main
priority after the ratification of the Constitution of the United States. It was
designed by architect William Strickland.
The United States Naval Asylum – is a complex of buildings at Gray's Ferry
Avenue in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Built in 1827 as a hospital, it later housed
the Philadelphia Naval School, served as a home for retired sailors for the United
States Navy from 1834 to 1976. . It was designed by architect William Strickland.
The Wilmington and Susquehanna Railroad – was an American railroad company
itself a result of merger of four small lines dating from the earliest days of
American railroading in the late 1820s and early 1830s.
William Strickland (1788 - 1854) – was a noted architect and civil engineer in
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and Nashville, Tennessee.
74
3.2.5.2 GLOSSARY (MARKED “**” IN THE TEXT)
bankruptcy [ˈbæŋkrʌptsɪ] – the state of being or becoming bankrupt.
barrel-vaulted [ˈbærəl-vawltɪd] – a vault having the form of a very deep arch.
commission [kəˈmɪʃən] – the act of committing or entrusting a person, group, etc.,
with supervisory power or authority.
depression [dɪˈprɛʃən] – a period during which business, employment, and stockmarket values decline severely or remain at a very low level of activity.
doldrums [ˈdɒldrəmz] – a state of inactivity or stagnation, as in business or art.
fall [fawl] – to drop or descend under the force of gravity, as to a lower place
through loss or lack of support.
mentor [men-tawr] – a wise and trusted counselor or teacher.
steeple [ˈstiːpəl] – an ornamental construction, usually ending in a spire, erected
on a roof or tower of a church, public building, etc.
versatile [ˈvɜːsəˌtaɪl] – capable of or adapted for turning easily from one to another
of various tasks, fields of endeavor, etc.
75
3.2.5.3 CHECK YOURSELF
1) Strickland first became known as a………?
a) businessman
b) interpreter
c) enjoiner
d) scene painter
2) Strickland studied architecture from 1803 to 1805 and his mentor was….?
a) Gideon Shryock
b) Robert Mills
c) Benjamin Latrobe
d) John Haviland
3) What buildings did William Strickland create as an architect?
a) The Tennessee State Capitol
b) The United States Custom House
c) The United States Mint
d) Merchants’ Exchange building
4) Strickland’s design was modelled on……….?
a) The Parthenon
b) St. Isaac Cathedral
c) The Panthéon
d) Church of Sainte Geneviéve
5) When was Strickland’s design for the United States Naval Asylum in
Philadelphia accepted?
a) in 1825
b) in 1826
c) in 1827
d) in 1828
76
6) What building did William Strickland create in 1845 in Nashville?
a) the Virginia State Capitol
b) the Pennsylvania State Capitol
c) the Tennessee State Capitol
d) the Louisiana State Capitol
7) Who was among the first to lecture on architecture in the United States and was
the author of several technical publications on engineering and architectural
projects?
a) Gideon Shryock
b) Robert Mills
c) Benjamin Latrobe
d) William Strickland
8) What was the cause of Latrobe’s death?
a) murder
b) suffered a fall and die
c) poisoning
d) cancer
77
3.2.5.4 KEYS
1–d
2–c
3 – a, b, c, d
4–a
5–c
6–c
7–d
8–b
78
3.2.6 THE WHITE HOUSE
The official house of the US president and, by extension, one of the most
famous buildings in the world, the White House was originally designed in 1792
by the Irish architect James Hoban (1762 - 1831) in the Palladian style and built, in
sandstone**, by masons shipped from Edinburgh and by local slaves.
The White House construction began in 1792. John Adams* became the first
president to take residence in the building on November 1, 1800. It was a grand
mansion in the neo-classical federal style, with details that echo classical Greek
Ionic architecture*. James Hoban's original design was modeled after the Leinster
House* in Dublin, Ireland and did not include the north and south porticos. Still,
when it was complete, the President's house was the largest residence in the United
States and would remain so until the 1860s. [15]
79
The house that Thomas Jefferson entered in March of 1801 was still
unfinished. Among his first acts was to have proper water closets** (early toilets)
built in the upper floor to replace the outdoor privy. He created a wilderness
museum in the Entrance Hall*, with mounted animals and Indian artifacts**. He
housed his private secretary in canvas-walled chambers in the south end of the
unfinished East Room. He also had a revolving cabinet built in the Public Dining
Room (today's Family Dining Room) similar to ones he had in Monticello. And he
built pavilions on the east and west sides for servants and stables. Porticos were
added by B. H. Latrobe in 1807 - 1808. [19]
In 1814, during the War of 1812, much of Washington, DC, was burned
down by British troops and the White House was gutted, leaving only the exterior
walls standing. Despite architect Latrobe's suggestions for changes, President
James Madison* pledged to restore the White House just as it was. Original
architect James Hoban returned to supervise the reconstruction, and few
architectural changes were made when restoration was completed in 1817 under
President James Monroe*, who furnished the house in fashionable style.
The front and rear porticos were added to the White House 1825 and 1830,
when Thomas Jefferson commissioned Benjamin Henry Latrobe to make
architectural changes to the mansion. Latrobe had done proposals that included
porticos as early as 1807. Additional changes followed in 1835, when running
water and central heating** were installed.
President Johnson'*s daughter redecorated the house in bold geometric
designs. And large glass conservatories were constructed on either side of the
mansion, providing flowers and plants of all sorts, as well as a pleasant place to
talk or read a book.
President Grant* converted the White House to a high Victorian style*,
although his choices were openly mocked by some. This was further enhanced by
Louis Tiffany* with Tiffany glass windows, gaslight fixtures, and other
ornamentation in the 1890s. Electric lights replaced gaslights starting in 1891.
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Mrs. Caroline Scott Harrison* proposed a major expansion of the White
House in 1889 which was revived in 1900 by Colonel Bingham*. Wings of more
or less the same size as the Residence mansion were proposed for the east and west
sides, turned sideways to face the east and west executive drives, and a new
conservatory was proposed to connect them on their south sides. Although the
plans were rejected, the idea of building east and west wings** was taken up by
Theodore Roosevelt*.
These were enlarged in 1909 when the famous Oval Room*, the president’s
private office, was added. The house was much rebuilt with a steel frame between
1948 and 1952, when the old timbers** holding up ceilings were found to be
giving way under the weight of office. [30]
Today, the home of America's president has six floors, seven staircases, 132
rooms, 32 bathrooms, 28 fireplaces, 147 windows, 412 doors and 3 elevators. The
lawns are automatically watered with an in-ground sprinkler system. Despite two
hundred years of disaster, discord**, and remodelings, the original design of the
immigrant Irish builder, James Hoban, remains intact. At least the sandstone
exterior walls are original.
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3.2.6.1 A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED “*” IN THE TEXT)
Caroline Scott Harrison (1832-1892) – was a teacher of music, the wife of
Benjamin Harrison and mother of two surviving children; after his election as
President of the United States, she was the First Lady of the United States from
1889 until her death.
Colonel Bingham (1875-1956) – was an American academic, explorer and
politician. He made public the existence of the Inca citadel of Machu Picchu in
1911 with the guidance of local indigenous farmers. Later, Bingham served as a
member of the United States Senate for the state of Connecticut.
John Adams (1735-1826) – was an American statesman and Founding Father who
served as the first Vice President (1789 – 1797) and second President of the United
States (1797–1801).
Louis Tiffany (1848-1933) – an American artist and designer who worked in the
decorative arts and is the best known for his work in stained glass. He is the
American artist most associated with the Art Nouveau and Aesthetic movements.
President James Monroe (1758-1831) – was an American statesman and Founding
Father who served as the fifth President of the United States from 1817 to 1825.
President James Madison (1792-1852) – an American statesman and Founding
Father who served as the fourth President of the United States from 1809 to 1817.
President Lyndon Baines Johnson (1908-1973) – was an American politician who
served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the
office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from
1961 to 1963.
President Ulysses Simpson Grant (1822-1885) – was an American soldier and
statesman who served as Commanding General of the Army and President of the
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United States, the highest positions in the military and the government of the
United States.
The Entrance Hall – is the primary and formal entrance to the White House, the
official residence of the President of the United States.
The Greek Ionic architecture – in architecture is a certain assemblage of parts
subject to uniform established proportions, regulated by the office that each part
has to perform, coming down to the present from Ancient Greek and Ancient
Roman civilization,
The Leinster House – is the seat of the Oireachtas, the parliament of Ireland.
Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919) – was an American statesman and writer who
served as the 26th President of the United States from 1901 to 1909.
The Oval Room – is the working office space of the President of the United States
located in the West Wing of the White House, Washington, DC.
Victorian style – is a series of architectural revival styles in the mid-to-late 19th
century. Victorian refers to the reign of Queen Victoria (1837–1901), called the
Victorian era, during which period the styles known as Victorian were used in
construction.
83
3.2.6.2 GLOSSARY (MARKED “**” IN THE TEXT)
artifact [ˈɑːtɪˌfækt –a handmade object, as a tool, or the remains of one, as a shard
of pottery, characteristic of an earlier time or cultural stage, especially such an
object found at an archaeological excavation.
closet [ˈklɒzɪt] – a small room, enclosed recess, or cabinet for storing clothing,
food, utensils, etc.
discord [ˈdɪskɔːd] – lack of concord or harmony between persons or things.
heating [ˈhiːtɪŋ] – the degree of hotness; temperature.
sandstone [ˈsændˌstəʊn] – a common sedimentary rock consisting of sand, usually
quartz, cemented together by various substances, as silica, calcium carbonate, iron
oxide, or clay.
timber [ˈtɪmbə] – the wood of growing trees suitable for structural uses.
wing [wɪŋ] – anything suggesting a wing in form, function, or position, such as a
sail of a windmill or a ship.
84
3.2.6.3 CHECK YOURSELF
1) What is the name of official house of the US president?
a) The State Capitol
b) The Lincoln memorial
c) The United States Mint
d) The White House
2) When was the White House originally designed?
a) in 1789
b) in 1790
c) in 1791
d) in 1792
3) Who originally designed the White House?
a) Robert Mills
b) Gideon Shryock
c) James Hoban
d) William Strickland
4) What style did the architect use constructing the White House?
a) Palladian style
b) Gothic
c) Rococo
d) Baroque
5) What material did masons use building the White House?
a) sandstone
b) granite
c) marble
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d) steel and glass
6) Who became the first president to take residence in the building on November 1,
1800?
a) Theodore Roosevelt
b) Ulysses Simpson Grant
c) John Adams
d) James Madison
7) When was much of Washington burned down by British troops including the
White House?
a) in 1812
b) in 1814
c) in 1816
d) in 1818
8) What was the name of famous White House Room, the president’s private
office?
a) Oval Room
b) Square Room
c) Small Room
d) Blue Room
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3.2.6.4 KEYS
1–d
2–a
3–c
4–a
5–a
6–c
7–b
8–a
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3.2.7 U.S. CAPITOL, WASHINGTON
In accordance with the "Residence Act"* passed by Congress in 1790,
President George Washington* in 1791 selected the area that is now the District of
Columbia* from land ceded** by Maryland*. He also selected three
commissioners to survey the site and oversee the design and construction of the
capital city and its government buildings. The commissioners, in turn, hired the
French engineer Pierre Charles L'Enfant to plan the new city of Washington. He
located the Capitol at the elevated east end of the mall**, on the brow** of what
was then called Jenkins' Hill*. The site was, in L'Enfant's words, "a pedestal
waiting for a monument." [19]
L'Enfant was expected to design the U.S. Capitol Building and to supervise
its construction. However, he refused to produce any drawings for the building,
claiming that he carried the design "in his head"; this fact and his refusal to
consider himself subject to the commissioners' authority led to his dismissal in
88
1792. In March of that year the commissioners announced a competition,
suggested by Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson that would award $500 and a
city lot to whoever produced "the most approved plan" for the U.S. Capitol
Building by mid-July. None of the 17 plans submitted, however, were wholly
satisfactory. In October, a letter arrived from Dr. William Thornton*, a Scottishtrained physician** living in Tortola*, British West Indies*, requesting an
opportunity to present a plan even though the competition had closed.
Thornton's plan depicted a building composed of three sections. The central
section, which was topped by a low dome, was to be flanked on the north and
south by two rectangular** wings - one for the Senate* and one for the House of
Representatives*. President Washington commended the plan for its "grandeur,
simplicity and convenience" and on April 5, 1793. [14]
President Washington laid the cornerstone** of the U.S. Capitol in the
building's southeast corner on September 18, 1793, with Masonic ceremonies.
Work progressed under the direction of three architects in succession. George
Hadfield* was
eventually dismissed
by the
Commissioners
because
of
inappropriate design changes that he tried to impose; James Hoban*, the architect
of the White House, saw the first phase of the project through to completion.
In 1803, Congress allocated funds to resume construction. A year earlier, the
office of the commissioners had been abolished and replaced by a
superintendent** of the City of Washington. To oversee the renewed construction
effort, Benjamin Henry Latrobe was appointed architect. The first professional
architect and engineer to work in America, Latrobe modified Thornton's plan for
the south wing to include space for offices and committee rooms; he also
introduced alterations to simplify the construction work.
Latrobe began work in 1804 by removing a squat**, oval, temporary
building known as "the Oven," which had been erected in 1801 as a meeting place
for the House of Representatives. By 1807 construction on the south wing was
sufficiently advanced that the House was able to occupy its new legislative
chamber, and the wing was completed in 1811. [15]
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The War of 1812 left the Capitol, in Latrobe's later words, "a most
magnificent ruin": on August 24, 1814, British troops set fire to the building, and
only a sudden rainstorm prevented its complete destruction.
Latrobe returned to Washington in 1815, when he was rehired to restore the
U.S. Capitol Building. In addition to making repairs, he took advantage of this
opportunity to make further changes in the building's interior design, for example,
an enlargement** of the Senate Chamber, and introduce new materials, for
example, marble** discovered along the upper Potomac*. However, he came
under increasing pressure because of construction delays and cost overruns.
Latrobe resigned his post in November 1817.
On January 8, 1818, Charles Bulfinch, a prominent Boston architect, was
appointed Latrobe's successor. Continuing the restoration of the north and south
wings, he was able to make the chambers** for the Supreme Court*, the House,
and the Senate ready for use by 1819. Bulfinch also redesigned and supervised the
construction of the Capitol Building's central section. After completing the last part
of the building in 1826, Bulfinch spent the next few years on the Capitol's
decoration and landscaping. In 1829, his work was done.
90
In fact, the Capitol initially housed not only the Congress but also the
Library of Congress*, the Supreme Court, the district courts and other offices. In
the following decades the nation grew dramatically, and as a result, so did the
Congress. The Capitol Building and its grounds were enlarged accordingly, and by
1892 the building had reached essentially its present size and appearance.
3.2.7.1 A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED “*” IN THE TEXT)
District of Columbia – a federal area in the United States, on the Potomac,
coextensive with the federal capital, Washington. 69 sq. mi. (179 sq. km).
Dr. William Thornton (1759-1828) – was a British-American physician, inventor,
painter and architect who designed the United States Capitol, an authentic
polymath. He also served as the first Architect of the Capitol and first
Superintendent of the United States Patent Office.
George Hadfield (1763 - 1826) – was born in Livorno, Italy of English parents, he
was appointed superintendent of the United States Capitol's construction on 15
October 1795, and continued in that position until June 1798, resigning after an
argument with William Thornton. He is credited with part of the design of the
original Capitol building such as the north wing, but little of the related papers
remain.
Jenkins' Hill – area in a popular picnic spot in Lane Cove National Park, District of
Columbia. Children can play at the playground while you relax on the grass in the
shade.
Maryland – is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering
Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C. to its south and west; Pennsylvania
to its north; and Delaware to its east.
Potomac – is located within the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States and flows
from the Potomac Highlands into the Chesapeake Bay.
President George Washington (1732 - 1799) – was an American statesman and
soldier who served as the first President of the United States from 1789 to 1797
and was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
91
The Library of Congress – is the research library that officially serves the United
States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the
oldest federal cultural institution in the United States.
The House of Representatives – is the lower chamber of the United States
Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they compose the
legislature of the United States.
The Residence Act – was a United States federal statute adopted during the second
session of the First United States Congress, and signed into law by President
George Washington on July 16, 1790. The Act provided for a national capital and
permanent seat of government to be established at a site along the Potomac River
and empowered President Washington to appoint commissioners to oversee the
project.
The Senate – is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, the House of
Representatives being the lower chamber. Together they compose the legislature of
the United States.
The Supreme Court – is the highest federal court of the United States.
Tortola – is the largest and most populated of the British Virgin Islands, a group of
islands that form part of the archipelago of the Virgin Islands
West Indies – or the Caribbean Basin is a region of the North Atlantic Ocean in the
Caribbean that includes the island countries and surrounding waters of three major
archipelagoes: the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles and the Lucayan
Archipelago.
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3.2.7.2 GLOSSARY (MARKED “**” IN THE TEXT)
brow [braʊ] – the hair growing on that ridge.
cede [siːd] – to yield or formally surrender to another.
chamber [ˈtʃeɪmbəz] – a room, usually private, in a house or apartment, especially
a bedroom.
cornerstone [ˈkɔːnəˌstəʊn] – a stone representing the nominal starting place in the
construction of a monumental building, usually carved with the date and laid with
appropriate ceremonies.
enlargement [ɪnˈlɑːdʒmənt] – an act of enlarging; increase, expansion, or
amplification.
mall [mæl] – a large area, usually lined with shade trees and shrubbery, used as a
public walk or promenade.
marble [ˈmɑːbəl] – metamorphosed limestone, consisting chiefly of recrystallized
calcite or dolomite, capable of taking a high polish, occurring in a wide range of
colors and variegations and used in sculpture and architecture
physician [fɪˈzɪʃən] – a person who is legally qualified to practice medicine; doctor
of medicine.
rectangular [rɛkˈtæŋɡjʊlə] – having the base or section in the form of a rectangle.
squat [skwɒt] – to settle on public land under government regulation, in order to
acquire title.
superintendent [ˌsuːpərɪnˈtɛndənt] – a person who oversees or directs some work,
enterprise, establishment, organization, district, etc.; supervisor.
93
3.2.7.3 CHECK YOURSELF
1) Who hired the commissioners to plan the new city of Washington?
a) Pierre Charles L'Enfant
b) Gideon Shryock
c) William Strickland
d) James Hoban
2) Who was requesting an opportunity to present a plan of U.S. Capitol even
though the competition had closed?
a) Robert Mills
b) Dr. William Thornton
c) James Hoban
d) William Strickland
3) Who commended the plan for its “grandeur, simplicity and convenience”
a) George Washington
b) Ulysses Simpson Grant
c) John Adams
d) James Madison
4) When did President Washington lay the cornerstone of the U.S. Capitol?
a) in 1789
b) in 1790
c) in 1791
d) in 1793
5) Who was appointed architect for building the U.S. Capitol?
a) Pierre Charles L'Enfant
b) Gideon Shryock
c) Benjamin Henry Latrobe
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d) James Hoban
6) When did the British troops set fire to the building the U.S. Capitol?
a) in 1812
b) in 1814
c) in 1816
d) in 1818
7) What was a prominent Boston architect appointed to continue the restoration for
building the U.S. Capitol?
a) James Hoban
b) Robert Mills
c) Charles Bulfinch
d) Pierre Charles L'Enfant
8) What did the Capitol house in their building?
a) the Library of Congress
b) the Supreme Court
c) the district courts
d) the Federal Archive
95
3.2.7.4 KEYS
1–a
2–b
3–a
4–d
5–c
6–b
7–c
8 – a, b, c
96
3.2.8 THE INDEPENDENCE HALL
Independence Hall is the birthplace of America. The Declaration of
Independence and U.S. Constitution were both debated and signed inside this
building. The legacy** of the nation's founding documents - universal principles of
freedom and democracy - has influenced lawmakers around the world and
distinguished Independence Hall.
Construction on the building started in 1732. Built to be the Pennsylvania
State House*, the building originally housed all three branches** of Pennsylvania's
colonial government. The Pennsylvania legislature* loaned their Assembly Room
97
out for the meetings of the Second Continental Congress* and later, the
Constitutional Convention*. Here, George Washington was appointed Commander
in Chief of the Continental Army* in 1775, the Articles of Confederation* were
adopted in 1781, and Benjamin Franklin gazed upon the "Rising Sun*" chair in
1787. [14]
This building is justly famous for the pivotal** role it played in US history.
It was here, on July 4th, 1776, that the Declaration of Independence was adopted;
this document set out the rights “to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness” that
underpin the theory of government in the US.
The Independence Hall is a characterful Georgian building which emerged
over a long period, with several architects contributing to its evolution. The main
body of the building is of handsome red brick with white stone dressings; it was
completed in 1745, first serving as the State House* of the Colony of
Pennsylvania*. A tower with a distinctive steeple** was added in 1753 but was
demolished and rebuilt in 1832 by William Strickland (1787–1854), one of the
architects of the US Capitol in Washington. [16]
The architects of Independence Hall were much influenced by Queen Anne
style red-brick houses which, in turn, had been informed by mid-17th century
Dutch architecture. Both the Dutch and English were settlers here, and they passed
on the tradition for modest yet spirited design.
The building of Independence Hall was completed in 1753 as the colonial
legislature later Pennsylvania State House for the Province of Pennsylvania and
was used in that capacity until the state capital moved to Lancaster* in 1799. It
became the principal meeting place of the Second Continental Congress from 1775
to 1783 and was the site of the Constitutional Convention in the summer of 1787.
As originally designed and built, Independence Hall had no tower or steeple.
These were added around 1750. The wooden steeple had rotted by 1773 and was
removed in 1781. In 1828, the city hired architect William Strickland to restore the
original steeple. Strickland deviated from the original design, incorporating a clock
and additional ornamentation.
98
The exterior of Independence Hall retains much of its 18th century
appearance. The north facade features marble keystones above each window, a
carved wooden cornice** and a wooden balustrade** stretching between the
chimneys** on the roof. A Venetian or Palladian window graces the south facade.
This building is an example of the Georgian style architecture that was popular in
Great Britain and America. [12, p. 340]
Carver Samuel Harding* created much of the ornamentation in the central
hall. Some of that original woodwork still survives. The City of Philadelphia
removed the Assembly Room's original paneling in the early 19th century. This
move incensed the public and in 1831, architect John Haviland was hired to restore
the room where the Declaration of Independence and U.S. Constitution were both
signed.
A convention held in Independence Hall in 1915, presided over by former
US president William Howard Taft*, marked the formal announcement of the
formation of the League to Enforce Peace*, which led to the League of Nations*
and eventually the United Nations*. The building is part of Independence National
Historical Park and is listed as a World Heritage Site.
In its time, the Hall has served as a state house, a museum of art and natural
history, and a court of law.
99
3.2.8.1 A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED “*” IN THE TEXT)
Carver Samuel Harding (? - 1758) – was an 18th-century American cabinetmaker,
remembered for his Queen Anne style furniture and for the interior architectural
ornament of Independence Hall, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States.
Commander in Chief of the Continental Army – George Washington, Esqr., was
General and Commander in Chief of the Continental Army in America.
Lancaster – is a city located in South Central Pennsylvania which serves as the
seat of Pennsylvania's Lancaster County and one of the oldest inland towns in the
United States.
Rising Sun – George Washington used this chair for nearly three months of the
Federal Convention's continuous sessions.
The Articles of Confederation – was an agreement among the 13 original states of
the United States of America that served as its first constitution. It was approved,
after much debate (between July 1776 and November 1777), by the Second
Continental Congress on November 15, 1777, and sent to the states for ratification.
The Colony of Pennsylvania – was founded in English North America by William
Penn on March 4, 1681 as dictated in a royal charter granted by King Charles II.
The United Nations – is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote
international cooperation and to create and maintain international order, a
replacement for the ineffective League of Nations.
The Constitutional Convention – took place from May 25 to September 17, 1787,
in the old Pennsylvania State House (later known as Independence Hall because of
the adoption of the Declaration of Independence there eleven years before) in
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
The League of Nations – was an intergovernmental organization founded on 10
January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World
War. It was the first international organization whose principal mission was to
maintain world peace.
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The League to Enforce Peace – was an American organization established in 1915
to promote the formation of an international body for world peace. It was formed
in Philadelphia by American citizens concerned by the outbreak of World War I in
Europe.
The Pennsylvania legislature – the Pennsylvania General Assembly is the state
legislature of the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. The legislature convenes in the State
Capitol building in Harrisburg. In colonial times (1682–1776), the legislature was
known, as the Pennsylvania Provincial Assembly. Since the Constitution of 1776,
the legislature has been known as the General Assembly. The General Assembly
became a bicameral legislature in 1791.
The Pennsylvania State House – was an Independence Hall.
The Second Continental Congress – was a convention of delegates from the
Thirteen Colonies that started meeting in the spring of 1775 in Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania. It succeeded the First Continental Congress, which met in
Philadelphia between September 5, 1774 and October 26, 1774. The Second
Congress managed the Colonial war effort and moved incrementally towards
independence.
William Howard Taft (1857 - 1930) – served as the 27th President of the United
States (1909–1913) and as the tenth Chief Justice of the United States (1921–
1930), the only person to have held both offices.
101
3.2.8.2 GLOSSARY (MARKED “**” IN THE TEXT)
balustrade [ˈbæləˌstreɪd] – a railing with supporting balusters.
branches [brɑːntʃ] – any member or part of a body or system; a section or
subdivision.
chimney [ˈtʃɪmnɪ] – a structure, usually vertical, containing a passage or flue by
which the smoke, gases, etc., of a fire or furnace are carried off and by means of
which a draft is created.
cornice [ˈkɔːnɪs] – any prominent, continuous, horizontally projecting feature
surmounting a wall or other construction, or dividing it horizontally for
compositional purposes.
legacy [ˈlɛɡəsɪ] – a gift of property, especially personal property, as money, by
will; a bequest.
pivotal [ˈpɪvətəl] – of, relating to, or serving as a pivot or of vital or critical
importance.
steeple [ˈstiːpəl] – an ornamental construction, usually ending in a spire, erected
on a roof or tower of a church, public building, etc.
102
3.2.8.3 CHECK YOURSELF
1) What was debated and signed inside Independence Hall?
a) The Declaration of Independence
b) The Peace treaty
c) The Declaration of Starting War
d) The U.S. Constitution
2) When was construction on the building Independence Hall started?
a) in 1730
b) in 1731
c) in 1732
d) in 1733
3) What meetings took place in Independence Hall?
a) the First Continental Congress
b) the Second Continental Congress
c) the Third Continental Congress
d) the Constitutional Convention
4) What famous events took place in Independence Hall?
a) George Washington was appointed Commander in Chief of the
Continental Army
b) the Articles of Confederation were adopted
c) King George I signed the Peace treaty
d) Benjamin Franklin gazed upon the “Rising Sun*” chair
5) Where was the Declaration of Independence adopted?
a) in The White House
b) in The Capitol U.S.
c) in Independence Hall
d) in Monticello
6) When was the Declaration of Independence adopted?
a) on June 4th, 1776
103
b) on July 4th, 1776
c) on July 4th, 1777
d) on June 4th, 1776
7) By what style were the architects of Independence Hall much influenced?
a) by Queen Victoria style
b) by King George style
c) by King Charles style
d) by Queen Anne style
8) When was the building of Independence Hall completed
a) in 1750
b) in 1751
c) in 1752
d) in 1753
104
3.2.8.4 KEYS
1 – a, d
2–c
3 – b, d
4 – a, b, d
5–c
6–b
7–d
8–d
105
3.2.9 MONTICELLO
Monticello is the autobiographical masterpiece of Thomas Jefferson designed and redesigned and built and rebuilt for more than forty years- and its
gardens were a botanic showpiece, a source of food, and an experimental
laboratory of ornamental and useful plants from around the world.
This ingenious country house was designed by Thomas Jefferson (1743–
1826) for his own use. Jefferson – the author of the Declaration of Independence,
the US minister to France, and President of the United States (1800–08) - began
this mountaintop eyrie as a more or less conventional Palladian design. However,
during an extended posting to Paris* he absorbed the latest Neo-Classical ideas and
reworked Monticello into an altogether more fascinating and intellectually rigorous
building. [27]
Construction began in 1768 when the hilltop was first cleared and leveled,
and Jefferson moved into the completed south pavilion** two years later. The early
phase of Monticello’s construction was largely completed by 1771. Jefferson left
both Monticello and the United States in 1784 when he accepted an appointment as
America Minister to France*. Over the next five years, that is, until September
106
1789 when Jefferson returned to the United States to serve as Secretary of State*
under newly elected President Washington, Jefferson had the opportunity to visit
Classical and Neo-Classical architecture in France. [26]
Monticello built and rebuilt in two stages, from 1768 to 1784 and 1796 to
1809, Monticello had 33 well-lit rooms and no fewer than five indoor privies** - in
short, a highly desirable residence. It also housed Jefferson’s remarkable 6,700volume library, which was to form the literary foundation of the Library of
Congress*. In 1923, the house, pavilions, and grounds** - once tended by
Jefferson’s slaves - were sold to the Thomas Jefferson Foundation*, which takes
care of them to this day.
This time abroad had an enormous effect on Jefferson’s architectural
designs. In this later construction period, Jefferson fundamentally changed the
proportions of Monticello. If the early construction gave the impression of a
Palladian two-story pavilion, Jefferson’s later remodeling, based in part on the
Hôtel de Salm* (1782-1787) in Paris, gives the impression of a symmetrical singlestory brick home under an austere Doric entablature. [28] The west garden facade the view that is once again featured on the American nickel* - shows Monticello’s
most recognized architectural features. The two-column deep extended portico
contains Doric columns that support a triangular pediment** that is decorated by a
semicircular** window. Although the short octagonal** drum and shallow dome
provide Monticello a sense of verticality, the wooden balustrade that circles the
roofline provides a powerful sense of horizontality. From the bottom of the
building to its top, Monticello is a striking example of French Neo-Classical
architecture in the United States.
107
3.2.9.1 A LIST OF REALITIES (MARKED “*” IN THE TEXT)
America Minister to France – or United States Ambassador to France is the official
representative of the President of the United States to the head of state of France.
Hôtel de Salm – is a building on the Left Bank of the River Seine in Paris. The
Hôtel de Salm was constructed between 1782 and 1787 by the architect Pierre
Rousseau (1751–1810) for the German prince Frederick III.
Paris – is the capital and most populous city in France, with an area of 105 square
kilometers (41 square miles) and a population of 2,206,488. Since the 17th century,
Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion,
science, and the arts.
Secretary of State – is a senior official of the federal government of the United
States of America, and as head of the U.S. Department of State, is principally
concerned with foreign policy and is considered to be the U.S. government's
equivalent of a Minister for Foreign Affairs
The American nickel – in American usage, is a five-cent coin struck by the United
States Mint.
The Library of Congress – is the research library that officially serves the United
States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the
oldest federal cultural institution in the United States. The Library is housed in
three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C.; it also maintains the National
Audio-Visual Conservation Center in Culpeper, Virginia.
The Thomas Jefferson Foundation – is a private, nonprofit corporation founded in
1923 to purchase and maintain Monticello, the primary plantation of Thomas
Jefferson, the third President of the United States. The Foundation's initial focus
was on architectural preservation, with the goal of restoring Monticello as close to
its original appearance as possible.
108
3.2.9.2 GLOSSARY (MARKED “**” IN THE TEXT)
semicircular [ˈsɛmɪˌsɜːkəl] – anything having or arranged in the form of a half of a
circle.
octagonal [ɒkˈtæɡənəl] – having eight angles and eight sides.
ground [ ground] – the solid surface of the earth; firm or dry land.
privies [ˈprɪvɪ s] – a person participating directly in or having a derivative interest
in a legal transaction.
pavilion [pəˈvɪljən] – a light, usually open building used for shelter, concerts,
exhibits, etc., as in a park or fair.
109
3.2.9.3 CHECK YOURSELF
1) Who was the designer of Monticello country house?
a) Thomas Jefferson
b) Robert Mills
c) Benjamin Latrobe
d) William Strickland
2) When did the construction of Monticello begin?
a) in 1738
b) in 1748
c) in 1758
d) in 1768
3) When did Thomas Jefferson leave both Monticello and the United States and
accept an appointment as America Minister to France?
a) in 1764
b) tin 1774
c) in 1784
d) in 1794
4) What opportunity had Jefferson in France?
a) to visit Classical and Neo-Classical architecture
b) to visit Royal Family
c) to visit Moulin Rouge
d) to visit Covent Garden
5) How much time did Monticello build and rebuild?
a) one time
b) twice
c) thrice
d) four times
6) What did Monticello also house?
a) library
110
b) winery
c) garage
d) workshop
7) Who bought Monticello in 1923?
a) Government of France
b) the George Washington Foundation
c) U.S. Government
d) the Thomas Jefferson Foundation
8) On what American coin can we see Monticello?
a) one-cent coin
b) five-cent coin
c) American quarter
d) half dollar
111
3.2.9.4 KEYS
1–a
2–d
3–d
4–a
5–b
6–a
7–d
8–b
112
ЗАКЛЮЧЕНИЕ
В настоящее время в лингводидактике большое внимание уделяется
вопросам преподавания языка в тесной связи с лингвострановедческим
материалом, что позволяет существенно увеличить эффективность процесса
обучения и мотивировать обучаемых разного возраста и разнообразных
способностей. В учебных программах и стандартах высшего и среднего
образования большое место сегодня занимает раздел страноведения, который
серьезно
дополняет
фактическую
составляющую
курсов
изучения
иностранным языкам и обогащают ее полезной качественной информацией о
культуре,
истории,
политике,
традициях
народов,
носителей
языка.
Российская школа накопила огромный опыт преподавания языка с
использованием лингвострановедческого материала, практически на каждом
учебном занятии хороший преподаватель стремиться использовать тексты,
наполненные страноведческой информацией.
В квалификационной исследовательской работе в теоретической
части разбирается ключевое для работы понятие «лингвострановедение»;
рассматриваются базовые вопросы методологии, легшие в основу этой
научной области знания; анализируется специфика текста в ракурсе
лингвострановедения, с позиции разных подходов и позиций различных
авторов.
В процессе компоновки лингвострановедческого пособия «American
architecture: mid – 19th century and late 1800s» существенным вопросом
являлось рассмотрение актуальной аутентичной литературы по избранной
теме. Исследуя отобранную лингвострановедческую информацию, был
проанализирован обширный массив иноязычных материалов с позиции
отбора аутентичного содержания, образовательной ценности, ясности и
доступности для учебной аудитории, изучающей проблематику Истории,
Культуры, Искусства и Архитектуры США и активно использующей в
процессе обучения лингвострановедческую литературу.
113
В
созданном
лингвострановедческом
пособии
детально
рассматриваются наиболее актуальные вопросы развития американской
архитектуры в середине 19 века и второй половины 18 века – одного из
самых ярких периодов развития архитектуры США. Скомпонованное из
нескольких
текстов
лингвострановедческое
пособие
может
быть
использовано в серии учебных занятий по лингвострановедческой теме.
Пособие сопровождается такими разделами как “Словарь Реалий” и
“Глоссарий”, что делает его справочным текстом, а также серией
упражнений, позволяющих проверить понимание студентов после прочтения
лингвострановедческих текстов.
Таким образом, выполненная выпускная квалификационная работа
соответствует
методическим
критериям
написания
практического
исследования, а также написана в соответствии с заявленной целью, и
задачами, которые были выполнены.
114
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