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Les Nouvelles Traversées Alpines : Entre co-spatialité de systèmes nationaux et recherche d'interspatialité, une géopolitique circulatoire

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Les Nouvelles Traversées Alpines : Entre co-spatialité de
systèmes nationaux et recherche d’interspatialité, une
géopolitique circulatoire
Kevin Sutton
To cite this version:
Kevin Sutton. Les Nouvelles Traversées Alpines : Entre co-spatialité de systèmes nationaux et
recherche d’interspatialité, une géopolitique circulatoire. Histoire. Université de Grenoble, 2011.
Français. <NNT : 2011GRENA026>. <tel-00689249>
HAL Id: tel-00689249
https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00689249
Submitted on 19 Apr 2012
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ƉŽƌƚĠǀĞƌƐůĞĐŚŽŝdžĚĞůĂĐĂƌƌŝğƌĞŵŝůŝƚĂŝƌĞ͕ĚĠƐŝͲ
ƌĞƵdž ĚĞƐ ƚƌŽƵƉĞƐ ĂůƉŝŶĞƐ͘ YƵĂƚƌĞ ĂŶƐ ĚĞ >LJĐĠĞ
DŝůŝƚĂŝƌĞ͕ ĚĞ ůĂ ƉƌĞŵŝğƌĞ >ŝƩĠƌĂŝƌĞ ă ůĂ <ŚąŐŶĞ͕
ĞƚůĂƌĠƵƐƐŝƚĞĂƵĐŽŶĐŽƵƌƐĚ͛ĞŶƚƌĠĞĚĞů͛^DƉůƵƐ
ƚĂƌĚ͕ůĂƋƵĞƐƟŽŶĚƵƐĞŶƐĚĞů͛ŝŶƚĠŐƌĂƟŽŶƐ͛ĞƐƚƉŽͲ
ƐĠĞ͕ăŽģƚƋƵŝĚĂŶ͘>ĞƐĞŶƐŵŝůŝƚĂŝƌĞĞŶƋƵĞƐƟŽŶ
ƌĞƐƚĞůĞĚĠƐŝƌĚ͛ůƉĞƐ͕ĞƚƵŶŝŶƚĠƌġƚƉŽƵƌůĂŐĠŽͲ
ŐƌĂƉŚŝĞĞƚů͛ĂŵĠŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚ͘>ĂƌŽƵƚĞĚĞƌĞƚĂŐŶĞ
ĐŽŶĚƵŝƚ ĂůŽƌƐ ă EĂŶƚĞƌƌĞ Žƶ ůĞ ĐŚŽŝdž ŐĠŽŐƌĂͲ
ƉŚŝƋƵĞƐ͛ĞƐƚĂĸƌŵĠĂƵĐŽŶƚĂĐƚĚ͛ĞŶƐĞŝŐŶĂŶƚƐŚƵͲ
ŵĂŝŶĞŵĞŶƚ Ğƚ ƐĐŝĞŶƟĮƋƵĞŵĞŶƚ ƌĞŵĂƌƋƵĂďůĞƐ͕
ŶŽƚĂŵŵĞŶƚ:͘&͘^ƚĞĐŬĞƚ:͘W͘ŚĂƌǀĞƚ͘ĞĚĞƌŶŝĞƌ
ĨƵƚăůĂƐƵŝƚĞŶŽƚƌĞĚŝƌĞĐƚĞƵƌĚĞŵĠŵŽŝƌĞĚĞDĂŠͲ
ƚƌŝƐĞ͕ĞŶϮϬϬϰ͘>ĞƌŝĂŶĕŽŶŶĂŝƐĞƚůĞƐƚƌĂǀĞƌƐĠĞƐ
ĂůƉŝŶĞƐ;ĂůŽƌƐƐĂŶƐŵĂũƵƐĐƵůĞƐͿĨƵƐŝŽŶŶĞŶƚĚĂŶƐ
ů͛ĠƚƵĚĞĚƵƉƌŽũĞƚĚĞƚƵŶŶĞůĨĞƌƌŽǀŝĂŝƌĞƐŽƵƐůĞĐŽů
ĚƵDŽŶƚŐĞŶğǀƌĞ;^ƵƩŽŶ͕ϮϬϬϰͿ͘ĞƐƵũĞƚŶŽƵƐĂ
ƉĞƌŵŝƐĚĞĨĂŝƌĞŶŽƐƉƌĞŵŝğƌĞƐĂƌŵĞƐĞƚŶŽƐƉƌĞͲ
ŵŝĞƌƐƉĂƐͨƐĐŝĞŶƟĮƋƵĞƐͩůĞůŽŶŐĚĞƐƋƵĞƐƟŽŶƐ
ĚĞ ƚƌĂǀĞƌƐĠĞ͕ ĚĞƐ ,ĂƵƚĞƐͲůƉĞƐ ĞŶ ƵƚƌŝĐŚĞ͘
>͛ŐƌĠŐĂƟŽŶ ƉĂƐƐĠĞ ;ϮϬϬϱͿ͕ ǀŝĞŶƚ ůĂ ĚĠĐŽƵǀĞƌƚĞ
ĚĞ ů͛hŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚĠ ĚĞ ^ĂǀŽŝĞ ƉŽƵƌ ůĂ ƌĠĂůŝƐĂƟŽŶ ĚƵ
DĂƐƚĞƌ Ϯ ƌĞĐŚĞƌĐŚĞ ƐŽƵƐ ůĂ ĚŝƌĞĐƟŽŶ ĚĞ :͘ sĂƌͲ
ůĞƚ ;ϮϬϬϲͿ Ğƚ ůĂ ƌĞŶĐŽŶƚƌĞ ă ůĂ ĨŽŝƐ ŚƵŵĂŝŶĞ Ğƚ
ƐĐŝĞŶƟĮƋƵĞ ĂǀĞĐ y͘ ĞƌŶŝĞƌ͕ ƐĂŶƐ ŶŽƵƐ ĚŽƵƚĞƌ
ƋƵĞŶŽƵƐĂůůŝŽŶƐĚĞǀĞŶŝƌ͕ĂƵŵŽŝƐĚĞƐĞƉƚĞŵďƌĞ
ƐƵŝǀĂŶƚ͕ ůĞƵƌ ĐŽůůğŐƵĞ ĐŽŵŵĞ WZ'͘ ĞƵdž ĂŶͲ
ŶĠĞƐĚ͛ĞŶƐĞŝŐŶĞŵĞŶƚƉůƵƐƚĂƌĚ͕ŶŽƵƐĐŚŽŝƐŝƐƐŽŶƐ
ĚĞ ŶŽƵƐ ůĂŶĐĞƌ ĚĂŶƐ ĐĞƩĞ ƚŚğƐĞ ĂƵ ůĂďŽƌĂƚŽŝƌĞ
zdD;ŶǀŝƌŽŶŶĞŵĞŶƚĞƚƚŶĂŵŝƋƵĞƐĚĞƐdƌͲ
ƌŝƚŽŝƌĞƐĚĞDŽŶƚĂŐŶĞͿ͕ƚŽƵũŽƵƌƐĞŶĠƚĂŶƚWZ'͘
ĐŽŵƉĂƌĂƟǀĞ ĂǀĞĐ ƵŶĞ ĐŽŶĮŐƵƌĂƟŽŶ ƌĠƟĐƵůĂŝƌĞ
ŝŶƐƉŝƌĠĞƉĂƌƵŶƐĠũŽƵƌĚĞůŽŝƐŝƌĚĂŶƐůĞƐdĂƵĞƌŶ͘
>͛ĂƉƉƌŽĐŚĞ ĚƵ ƌĠƐĞĂƵ ĐŽŵŵĞ ůĞ ĚĞƐƐ;ĞͿŝŶ Ě͛ƵŶ
ƚĞƌƌŝƚŽŝƌĞ ĚĞǀŝĞŶƚ ĂůŽƌƐ ůĞ ƉƌĞŵŝĞƌ ƚĞŵƉƐ ĚĞ
ŶŽƚƌĞĚĠŵĂƌĐŚĞƐĐŝĞŶƟĮƋƵĞ͕ƚĞƌƌŝƚŽŝƌĞĞƚƌĠƐĞĂƵ
ƐĞƌĞŶĐŽŶƚƌĂŶƚĚĂŶƐƵŶĞĐŽŶƐŝĚĠƌĂƟŽŶĚĞƐƚĞŵͲ
ƉŽƌĂůŝƚĠƐĂůŽƌƐăůĂŵŽĚĞĐŽŵŵĞĞŶƚĠŵŽŝŐŶĞůĞ
ƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĞĚĞů͛ĂŐƌĠŐĂƟŽŶĚĞů͛ĂŶŶĠĞĚĞŶŽƚƌĞ
ƉƌĠƉĂƌĂƟŽŶ͘EŽƚƌĞĂƉƉƌŽĐŚĞŐĠŽŐƌĂƉŚŝƋƵĞƐ͛ĞƐƚ
ŶŽƵƌƌŝĞ ĚĞ ůĂ ƉƌĂƟƋƵĞ ĚĞ ĐĞƩĞ ƋƵĞƐƟŽŶ͕ ƋƵŝ
ŶŽƵƐ ĞŶƚƌĂŠŶĞ ǀĞƌƐ ůĂ ƉŽůĂƌŝƚĠ ͨ ZĠƐĞĂƵ ͩ ƉůƵƐ
ƋƵĞͨdĞƌƌŝƚŽŝƌĞͩ͘>͛ĂƉƉƌŽĐŚĞĚƵŵĠŵŽŝƌĞĚĞDϮ
ĞŶƚĠŵŽŝŐŶĞ;^ƵƩŽŶ͕ϮϬϬϲͿ͘^ƵŝǀĂŶƚĞŶĐĞůĂůĞƐ
ĠǀŽůƵƟŽŶƐĞŶĐŽƵƌƐĚĞůĂƌĞĐŚĞƌĐŚĞŵŽƟǀĠĞƉĂƌ
ů͛ĞƵƉŚŽƌŝĞĚĞů͛ĂŶŶŽŶĐĞĞƚĚĞůĂƉƌĠǀŝƐƵĂůŝƐĂƟŽŶ
ĚĞƐĞīĞƚƐĚĞƐƚƵŶŶĞůƐĚĞďĂƐĞ;ƌĂƉƉĞůŽŶƐƋƵĞůĞ
ƚƵŶŶĞůĚĞďĂƐĞĚƵ>ƂƚƐĐŚďĞƌŐĂĠƚĠŵŝƐĞŶĞdžƉůŽŝͲ
ƚĂƟŽŶĞŶϮϬϬϳͿ͕ůĞƉƌŽƉŽƐƐ͛ĞƐƚĂƩĂĐŚĠăĂŶĂůLJƐĞƌ
Ě͛ƵŶƉŽŝŶƚĚĞǀƵĞĠƉŝƐƚĠŵŽůŽŐŝƋƵĞĞƚƚĞĐŚŶŝƋƵĞ
ůĞƐĠǀŽůƵƟŽŶƐĚĞƐũĞƵdžĚĞŶŽĚĂůŝƚĠĂƐƐŽĐŝĠƐĂƵƐ
ƚƌĂǀĞƌƐĠĞƐĂůƉŝŶĞƐ͘EŽƵƐĞŶƐŽŵŵĞƐĂƌƌŝǀĠƐăƵŶ
ĐŽŶƐƚĂƚƌĞƉƌŝƐĚĂŶƐůĞĐŽƵƌƐĚĞĐĞƚƌĂǀĂŝů͗ůĂŶĠͲ
ĐĞƐƐĂŝƌĞƉƌŝƐĞĞŶĐŽŵƉƚĞĚĞůĂƐŝŵƵůƚĂŶĠŝƚĠĚĞƐ
ĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐ ĚĞ ĨƌĂŶĐŚŝƐƐĞŵĞŶƚ͘ ĮŶ ĚĞ ůĞ ŵŽŶͲ
ƚƌĞƌ͕ŝůŶŽƵƐĂĨĂůůƵĐƌĠĞƌƵŶŝŶĚŝĐĞƐŽƵƐůĂĨŽƌŵĞ
Ě͛ƵŶ ƌĂƉƉŽƌƚ ĐŽŶĨƌŽŶƚĂŶƚ ƚƌĂǀĞƌƐĠĞ Ğƚ ĨƌĂŶĐŚŝƐͲ
ƐĞŵĞŶƚ ͗ &ͬd͘ >͛ŚLJƉŽƚŚğƐĞ ĚĞ ďĂƐĞ ĠƚĂŝƚ ƋƵĞ ůĞ
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ƉŽƐĂŶƚĞŵŽďŝůĞĚĂŶƐůĂƚƌĂǀĞƌƐĠĞƋƵŝ͕ĞůůĞ͕ƌĞƉƌĠͲ
ƐĞŶƚĂŝƚů͛ĠůĠŵĞŶƚĮdžĞĚƵƌĂƉƉŽƌƚ͕Ě͛ŽƶƐŽŶƉŽƐŝͲ
ƟŽŶŶĞŵĞŶƚĞŶĚĠŶŽŵŝŶĂƚĞƵƌ͘>͛ŝĚĠĞĠƚĂŝƚƋƵĞůĂ
ĐŽƵƌƐĞĚĞů͛ĠǀŽůƵƟŽŶĚĞƐƚƌĂǀĞƌƐĠĞƐĂůƉŝŶĞƐƉŽƵͲ
ǀĂŝƚƐ͛ĂƉƉƌĠŚĞŶĚĞƌƐŽƵƐůĂĨŽƌŵĞĚ͛ƵŶĞĞdžƚĠƌŝŽͲ
ƌŝƐĂƟŽŶƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐŝǀĞĚƵĨƌĂŶĐŚŝƐƐĞŵĞŶƚ͕ƉĂƐƐĂŶƚ
Ě͛ƵŶĞĐŽŶĮŐƵƌĂƟŽŶ&фdă&сd͕ŽƶůĞƉĠƌŝŵğƚƌĞĚƵ
ĨƌĂŶĐŚŝƐƐĞŵĞŶƚĠƚĂŝƚůĞŵġŵĞƋƵĞĐĞůƵŝĚĞůĂƚƌĂͲ
ǀĞƌƐĠĞ͘ĞƚсƉŽƵǀĂŝƚƐŽŝƚƐĞĐŽŵƉƌĞŶĚƌĞĐŽŵŵĞ
ůĞĨƌĂŶĐŚŝƐƐĞŵĞŶƚƋƵŝƌĞĐŽƵǀƌĂŝƚůĂƚƌĂǀĞƌƐĠĞĞŶ
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ŐůŽďĠĚĂŶƐůĂƚƌĂǀĞƌƐĠĞĞƚŶŽŶƉůƵƐĐŽŶƚĞŶƵ͕ƐŽŝƚ
ƵŶĞďĂŶĂůŝƐĂƟŽŶĚĞůĂůŝŐŶĞĚĞĐƌġƚĞ͘>ĞƉŽƐƚƵůĂƚ
ĠƚĂŝƚ͕ĂůŽƌƐ͕ƋƵĞůĂƉŚĂƐĞ;ĞƚŶŽŶů͛ğƌĞăů͛ĠƉŽƋƵĞͿ
ĚĞƐ ŶŽƵǀĞůůĞƐ ƚƌĂǀĞƌƐĠĞƐ ĂůƉŝŶĞƐ ;ƚŽƵũŽƵƌƐ ƐĂŶƐ
ŵĂũƵƐĐƵůĞƐͿ ĐŽƌƌĞƐƉŽŶĚƌĂŝƚ͕ ƐĞůŽŶ ĐĞƩĞ ĚLJŶĂͲ
ŵŝƋƵĞ͕ ă ƵŶĞ ĐŽŶĮŐƵƌĂƟŽŶ &хd͕ ƐŽŝƚ ă ƵŶ ĨƌĂŶͲ
ĐŚŝƐƐĞŵĞŶƚƋƵŝ͕ĞŶŐůŽďĂŶƚůĂƚƌĂǀĞƌƐĠĞ͕ƐĞďĂŶĂͲ
ůŝƐĞƌĂŝƚĚĞůƵŝͲŵġŵĞ͘>ĂǀŽůŽŶƚĠĚĞĐĂƌĂĐƚĠƌŝƐĞƌ
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KS, 2011.
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Etablissement d’un code couleur à partir des travaux de V. Kandinsky
+
Espérance
Couleur base de mélange
Couleur fruit de mélange
+
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Espérance
+
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+
Faisceau de convergence des couleurs de base
Distanciation / concentration
Diffusion
Aire de neutralité et d’immobilité
+
KS, 2011.
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Possibilité
Couleur rouge, l’instabilité matrice des modalités
qui s’exprime à la rencontre des couleurs de base
par la production des tons modaux d’instabilité
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Gothard
Gothard
Furka
Hospental
Vue de la chapelle d’Andermatt et détail du tympan.
Photo A. Bazin, mars 2010.
Andermatt
« Ici se séparent les chemins
Ô ami, où vas-tu ?
Veux-tu descendre vers la Rome éternelle,
Veux-tu accompagner le Rhin allemand vers Cologne la Sainte
Veux-tu poursuivre vers l’ouest jusque dans le pays des Francs ? »
(Traduction personnelle)
Schöllenen
Oberalp
« Andermatt ». Affiche pour le syndicat d’initiative du village. Anonyme, atelier Brunner, 1927.
Cette affiche met en acène de Val d’Urseren,
vu depuis les lacets du col de l’Oberalp dessinés par la ligne du Furka-Oberalp (ligne ouverte en 1926).
Le train à voie métrique fait d’ailleurs l’objet d’une mise en scène,
notamment par l’entremise de la voiture panoramique découverte.
Les villages d’Andermatt et d’Hospental se détachent de l’étendue,
ainsi que les ouvertures vers les deux autres cols qui encadrent le Val, le Gothard et la Furka.
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120
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1600
0
110
18
19
00
00
L’Arc
00
17
00
1500
1400
13
Chambéry
KS, 2011.
1100
1200
N
II. Une tête de tunnel ferroviaire
(1871-1980) :
le développement
urbain industriel frontalier
200 m
La mise en place d’une centralité ferroviaire frontalière
Réseau ferroviaire répondant
de la gestion italienne
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(étendue de 1946)
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Quai international
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commutation 1500 V/3000 V
Ancien portail inscrit aux
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Caserne
Trajectoire dominante de l’axe
Modane
0
150
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d’un appareil de réversibilité de l’ouverture
Fort du Replaton
1400
0
130
Nouvelle orientation de la frontière
0
120
Empises militaires
1600
0
110
18
19
00
00
L’Arc
00
17
1500
1400
Les Fourneaux
13
00
1200
1100
Chambéry
KS, 2011.
Turin
N
200 m
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Bâtiment des douanes
et de la police françaises
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Espace urbanisé entre 1871 et 1980
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et de la nodalité de Franchissemen
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la reconversion d’une centralité frontalière affaiblie
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Autoroute
Tunnel routier du Fréjus
1800
17
Trajectoire dominante de l’axe
00
Requalification de la route du Mont-Cenis
Diminution de la charge de traitement de transit
au faisceau des Fourneaux
1600
Le Bourget
Dédoublement de la centralité
de contrôle du Franchissement
Poste de contrôle du tunnel routier du Fréjus
Fort St-Gobain
L’épreuve de l’ouverture des frontières
Caserne
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Modane
Bâtiment des douanes et de la police françaises :
permanences des contôles (quasi-systématiques)
à la frontière ferroviaire
Empises militaires abandonnées
0
150
Fort du Replaton
1400
0
130
0
120
Les Fourneaux
Reconversion patrimoniale du Fort de St-Gobain
1600
0
110
Reconversion patrimoniale de la «maison enchée»
18
19
00
00
L’Arc
00
17
1500
1400
00
13
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Milan
KS, 2011.
1100
1200
N
Paris
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200 m
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1600
Le Bourget
Station de sport d’hiver
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Caserne
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Modane
0
150
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Fort du Replaton
1400
0
130
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0
120
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1600
0
110
18
00
19
L’Arc
00
17
00
1500
1400
00
13
KS, 2011.
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KS, 2011.
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Goppenstein, une avant-porte de tunnel, un lieu du Franchissement
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le centre de voyage du BLS
K. Sutton, novembre 2010.
Vue du hameau de Goppenstein.
K. Sutton, mars2010.
Gare routière pour les cars Steg-Lötschental
en correspondance avec les régionaux.
K. Sutton, novembre 2010.
Image Google earth de Goppenstein.
Google, 2007.
Vue des rampes et des voies constituant le terminal
de la navette-auto Goppenstein-Kandersteg construit en 1975.
K. Sutton, mars2010.
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L’axe du Brenner : un pont identitaire et fonctionnel au coeur de l’Europe
Innsbruck
Innsbruck
Brenner
Brenner
Brenner
Eisach
Pass
Innsbruck
Franzenfest
Colle
Isarco
Fortezza
Bressanone
Merano
Brixen
Bozen
Trent
Colle
Isarco
Merano
Fortezza
Bolzano
Bressanone
Bolzano
Trento
Trento
KS, 2011.
1. Un pont intérieur au Tyrol,
2. Une intériorisation de la frontière politique,
3. L’émergence d’une zone neutre
une voie de projection de la centralité politique
une double projection
dont la fonction première est
la connexité des sillons :
vers les périphéries italiennes (1869)
des fonctions nodales vers le col :
le Brenner comme agent de continuité un lieu de la continuité communautaire (2011)
au-delà de la discontinuité politique (1938)
Versant cadencé depuis Innsbruck
Pied de col
Col topographique
Matérialisation de la discontinuité politique
par la discontinuité technique
Centralité administrative sud
Ligne électrifiée 3 KV (Italie)
Ligne électrifiée 15 KV 50 Hz (Autriche)
Noeud intermédiaire
Frontière politique
Zone neutre : le col comme zone franche
Commutateur
L’Inntal Tunnel ouvert en 1994
Projection des fonctions nodales
Ligne de crête
Voie ferrée traction autonome
Versant cadencé depuis Bolzano
Le nouveau système de Franchissement
en cours de réalisation :
Unterinntal Bahn et tunnel de base
Pied-de-Traversée
Ligne italienne modernisée
Ligne historique transformée en piste cyclable
Une intériorisation de la frontière identitaire :
l’affirmation d’une entité culturelle et fonctionnelle «Tirol»
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Vue du terminal de Rola de Brennersee.
Chargement en cours (phase arrimage) avant départ vers Wörgl.
Photo. K. Sutton, décembre 2009.
Centre commercial côté autrichien.
Photo. K. Sutton, décembre 2009.
Jonction entre la ligne historique et
l’Inntal Tunnel
au sud d’Innsbruck.
Photo. K. Sutton, mai 2010.
Une matérialisation de la frontière politique
par l’affichage des opérateurs de réseau.
Photo. K. Sutton, mai 2010.
La frontière politique patrimonialisée
par la mise en valeur de la borne.
Photo. K. Sutton, décembre 2009.
Vue Google earth des emprises ferroviaires
de Brennero.
Google, 2007.
Monument en l’honneur de l’ingénieur qui réalisé la ligne,
Carl von Etzel, situé sur le quai de la gare de Brennero.
Photo. K. Sutton, décembre 2009.
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Modane, l’enjeu du lieu de l’écriture de la mémoire de l’entreprise
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Détail du monument
à l’ingénieur G. Sommeiller :
citation prévue pour orner
l’encoche du portail monumental.
K. Sutton, 2009.
Le portail monumental
du Fréjus
sur la commune
des Fourneaux.
K. Sutton, 2009.
Plaque de 1957
commémorant
les pertes humaines
lors de la réalisation
du tunnel du Fréjus.
K. Sutton, 2009.
Monument
à l’ingénieur
Sommeiller
sur le quai 1
de la gare
de Modane.
K. Sutton, 2009.
Blasons et carte du jeu urbain représenté
sur le fronton du portail monumental
dans le contexte politique de
l’achèvement des travaux (1870).
K. Sutton, 2009.
Front du bâtiment
situé sur le quai international
de la gare de Modane, côté Chambéry.
K. Sutton, 2009.
Plaque identifiant
le patrimoine industriel
du XXe siècle
située sur la façade
de la gare de Modane.
K. Sutton, 2009.
Détail du contenu discursif
Projection initiale d’emplacement
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KS, 2009.
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Enseigne de «l’Hôtel Simplon»
situé dans l’alte Simplonstrasse,
à Brigue :
côté pile le col,
côté face le portail nord du tunnel.
K. Sutton, 2009.
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Médaille commémorative
des travaux de percement du tunnel du Simplon.
Les dates qui figurent (1898-1905)
au-dessus de cette représentation du portail sud du tunnel
marquent le début et l’achèvement du percement du tunnel.
Musée lausannois, 1905.
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Affiche pour le cinquantenaire du tunnel du Simplon.
A. Holy, 1956.
Photo d’un portail
dressé lors des festivités
pour la mise en exploitation
du tunnel du Simplon
dans la rue Chanrau.
les dates qui figurent (1898-1906)
marquent le début des travaux
et l’ouverture à l’exploitation
Musée lausannois, 1906.
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A. Holy, 1956.
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présentes dans le hall commercial
de la gare de genève-Cornavin.
Photos K. Sutton, 2008.
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L’emprise de la gare CFF, contexte d’incription spatiale du monument
Détail : cette scène mortuaire
met particulièrement en scène
la figure du mineur
que l’on peut identifier à travers la lampe
qui figure au premier plan de l’oeuvre
Détail côté pile :
« A l’occasion du 50è anniversaire
de la grande victoire humaine
qui permit de relier les peuples par l’ouverture
de la voie du Saint Gothard,
est apposé ce monument où l’art donne à voir et consacre
l’obscur et héroïque fatigue
du travailleur ignoré
1882-1932 »
Traduction personnelle
Photos K. Sutton, novembre 2010.
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Détail côté face : Tunnel du Gothard
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Iselle, un monument à l’unité de l’Italie
par et dans la souffrance
Monument aux ouvriers italiens morts
lors du percement du tunnel du Simplon,
érigé en 1905 en face de la gare d’Iselle.
K. Sutton, mars 2010.
« Sous la marche grave et irréversible
d’une civilisation chancelante,
les bases de granite de cet ouvrage jouèrent
de la vie et du sang italien versé
de pionniers obscurs mais féconds
Ainsi est achevé le passage victorieux
comme les compagnons le voulurent »
traduction personnelle
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Montage KS, 2011.
Vue du portail.
K. Sutton, juillet 2010.
Bandeau apposé sur le portail de 2007 à 2009.
K. Sutton, mars 2009.
Vue de l’intersection ferroviaire entre le tunnel de base et la gare de Frutigen.
Notons le shunt souterrain de la gare de Frutigen (premier plan)
qui étend l’effet du tunnel jusqu’à la gare de Spiez.
K. Sutton, juillet 2010.
Vue Google Earth verticale
de l’entrée du tunnel de base.
Notons la superposition
des deux linéaires de Franchissement,
ainsi que le dédoublement
des tabliers du viaduc consécutif
au doublement
de la voie (achevé en 1992)
Google Earth, 2009.
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Vue Google Earth « niveau du sol»
du complexe ferroviaire de Frutigen.
La ligne de fuite dessinée
par la ligne de faîte apparaît nettement,
de même que l’effacement du portail
qui n’est ici visible
que par la disparition du faisceau bétonné
qui y conduit.
Google Earth, 2009.
Vue d’un « Lötschberger » qui s’engagent sur le viaduc
situé à la sortie nord de Frutigen sur la ligne de faîte.
Notons les deux séries de piles qui soutiennent le tablier historique
et celui issu du doublement de la voie.
K. Sutton, juillet 2010.
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La démonumentalisation du portail, un retour au trou diabolique ?
Vue du site des Schöllenen.
La route du bas est l’ancien tracé du sentier muletier
ouvert par le «pont du diable»,
aujourd’hui évité par un pont plus moderne
qui enjambe le premier
et se poursuit dans un «trou» dont la paroi commémore
l’épisode diabolique !
K. Sutton, mars 2010.
Vue du tube descendant de l’entrée sud
du tunnel de base du Lötschberg
(Rarogne)
Affiche pour l’exposition du musée suisse des transports
depuis l’étage d’une rame IC 2000
«Traversées alpines. Une histoire diablement passionante»
Brigue-Romanshorn.
organisée à l’occasion des 125 ans du Gothard.
K. Sutton, juin 2008.
Verkerhshaus, 2007.
Montage KS, 2011.
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Le Pied-de-Franchissement...
Un terminal...
... d’éclatement d’axes ...
KS, 2011.
... de Franchissement...
... produit par une projection ultra-frontalière...
... une centralité logistique
... qui prend la forme d’une zone neutre
héritière du pied de col.
Le terminal propose un éclatement dans une métrique de corridor, ce qui le fait répondre de l’ordre du Franchissement.
Il cumule différentes qualités d’interface qui traduisent ses filiations paradoxales avec le pied de col, la tête de tunnel et le commutateur.
A l’échelle de sa métrique, il s’entend comme une articulation matrice de corridor, mais,
projeté à l’échelle des Traversées Alpines,
il peut consister en un facteur d’incohésion en provoquant un accroissement des divergences entre les secteurs de Traversée.
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Ljubljana
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KS, 2011.
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1984 (fondation d’Ökombi) - 2002
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en 3 ensembles disctincts
sans redondances de terminaux
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diffusée à petite échelle avec Lorry Rail
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dans les Alpes : une première lecture de l’incohésion alpine
Eclatement des services de Rola autrichiennes
en trois bassins
Elargissement de l’UE : vers un espace européen
uniformément «libre» de circuler
L’adaptation de l’offre à la nouvelle donne géopolitique
III. D’intégration européenne en réunification : l’adaptation de l’offre à la nouvelle donne européenne
2003 (réforme des écopoints) - 2011
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Le tunnel de base du Lötschberg, un roman photo :
les livrées de locomotives, un enjeu d’appropriation de l’ouvrage
Re 645 du BLS en livrée Alp Transit dans
la rampe sud du Lötschberg de faîte, à l’approche de Brigue,
au crochet d’une Rolling Highway de Ralpin.
Photo. BLS, 2005.
Une annonce portée sur tous les réseaux,
même de modélisme !
Publicité Roco, fabricant autrichien
de trains électriques, pour le modèle réduit
de la locomotive du BLS avec la livrée Alp Transit.
Roco, 2003.
La promesse de l’arrachement du portail...
Une réalité saluée par l’autre entreprise en confrontée aux roches
des massifs suisses, les CFF.
Au passage, un peu de pub pour les nouvelles relations voyageurs
par le tunnel de base. «Explorer le tunnel de base du Lötschberg» :
seuls les CFF proposent des trains de voyageurs dans ce tunnel.
Merci BLS !
Photo. M. Stefani, 2007.
...une réalité
lors de l’inauguration du tunnel de base du Lötschberg,.
Habemus Tunnel !.
Photo. BLS Alp Transit, 2007.
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Le réseau des services shuttle de Hupac, une écriture des Traversées Alpines polarisées depuis les terminaux sud
Des relations tracées depuis les terminaux du versant sud
Taulov
Deux terminaux principaux,
deux exclaves de la politique des transports suisses
Terminal de Busto-Arsizio Gallarate
Lübeck
Hambourg
Relations depuis Busto
Hannovre
Terminal de Novare
Zeebrugge
Rotterdam
Anvers
Relations depuis Novare
Duisbourg
Des terminaux complémentaires :
une diversification de l’offre,
Gand
Singen
Cologne
Terminal de Vérone : desserte par le Brenner
Bâle
Relations depuis Vérone
Ludwigshafen
Aarau
Autres terminaux desservis depuis
la ligne du Gothard (Lugano, Chiasso, Milan, Desio)
Gothard
Relations depuis ces autres terminaux
Lötschberg
Une polarisation des flux sur l’axe du Gothard
Viège
Lugano
Simplon
Chiasso
Lugano+
Chiasso+
Desio
Novare
Busto-Arsizio
Novare
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Busto-Arsizio
Gallarate
Milan +
Brescia
Tunnel
Vérone
N
100 km
KS, 2011.
200 km
Nombre de trains qui franchissent un tunnel
par semaine
ϲϬϳϬ Ϯϴϴ
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par semaine
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« Gloire du Gothard » : affiche des ateliers Chiattone (Milan, 1902) et croquis interprétatif
Une mise en scène de l’acteur :
le Gotthard Bahn
La mise en scène de la prouesse technique :
une singularisation du réseau du GB
et notamment des ouvrages techniques
comme les tunnels hélicoïdaux...
... et le tunnel de faîte.
Une mise en scène de la desserte
Faisceau de convergence :
le Gothard comme centre d’un monde...
fait de lacs...
... accessibles grâce
aux voitures directes
qui triomphent
des discontinuités passées
grâce au tunnel (et à l’acteur).
Une mise en scène de l’Europe
KS, 2011.
Une unité accomplie
par l’entremise
de la ligne et du tunnel alpin...
... et le chemin de fer à qui sont associés les attributs de Mercure...
... par lesquels les deux ennemis géopolitiques
qui font la division de l’Europe convergent en un même centre éternel du continent, Rome.
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Affiche pour les CFF
de promotion
de la ligne du Gothard
par la mise en scène
du paysage
qui s’offre au voyageur
dans les boucles
de Wassen
E. Cardinaux, 1914.
1000
1500
100
0
KS, 2011.
Croquis des boucles de Wassen
réalisé à partir
de la carte Swisstopo 1/25 000
K. Sutton, 2011.
1500
2000
2000
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Village
de Wassen
Courbes de niveau
(éq. 100m)
Angle de vue
proposé
Route
nationale
Sentier
Belvédère de l’église de Wassen
situé sur le sentier-découverte
de la rampe nord du Gothard,
et détail du panneau «tunnels hélicoïdaux».
Photo. K. Sutton, juillet 2010.
Autoroute
Autoroute
en souterrain
Voie ferrée
Voie ferrée
en souterrain
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0RQWDJH.6XWWRQ
1 km
N
00
15
Vue depuis le bas du village de Wassen
des rampes composant les boucles
Photo. K. Sutton, juillet 2010.
Les boucles de Wassen, un haut lieu du paysage ferroviaire en Europe
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Mitschek, 1931.
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le sommet du Cervins.
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«Simplon Orient Express» Affiche pour la CIWL
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«Voyages en Espagne» représentation du pont de Tolède
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La régionalisation «classique» des Traversées Alpines : un séquençage physique au service d’une démarche descriptive
d’après J.F. Bergier (1975)
DANUBE
Alpes orientales
RHIN
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Drave
Ensemble
Gothard
RHÔNE
Ensemble
valaisan
Ensemble
Grisons
Ensemble
franco-italien
Alpes
centrales
Alpes occidentales
ADIGE
PÔ
KS, 2011
N
100 km
La préséance des bassins versants européens
Les Alpes, un château d’eau en Europe
Ligne de crête de premier rang
Ligne de crête de deuxième rang
RHÔNE
Bassin versant de premier ordre
Un découpage binaire
Une structuration de l’espace
autour de 6 grands axes
Trois régions divisées en deux sous-ensembles chacunes
Alpes occidentales
Axe majeur
structurant un sous-ensemble
Alpes centrales
Alpes orientales
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La régionalisation métropolitaine des Traversées Alpines :
un séquençage fonctionnel au service d’une analyse des effets de polarisation urbaine par les réseaux routiers alpins
d’après C. Raffestin (1975)
Brenner
Gothard
San
Bernardino
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Petit-St-Bernard
Venise
Vérone
MILAN
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TURIN
Montgenèvre
Larche
KS, 2011
N
Tende
100 km
Une lecture des convergences métropolitaines australes
Passages et itinéraire de franchissement
Une lecture des interrelations intersectorielles :
le dépassement de l’approche physique...
Rencontre des aires turinoise et milanaise...
Les Alpes occidentales :
Turin et son aire d’influence : la région centralisée
Mont-Blanc
Les Alpes centrales :
Milan et son aire d’influence : la région polarisée
Les Alpes orientales : une dilution
du fait métropolitain italien
et des itinéraires de franchissement
... malgré quelques permanences
... sur fond d’ouverture
des premiers tunnels routiers
Toujours une place importante
à la ligne de crête...
... qui dévalorise le poids des frontières
sur fond de mirage européen
Le Gothard, d’un massif château d’eau
à un carrefour au coeur de l’Europe
L’axe du Gothard,
la dorsale des Traversées Alpines
«L’aire métropolitaine de l’Italie septentrionale» :
espace de convergence des itinéraires de franchissement
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N
100 km
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N
Milan
ϭϵϴϲ
Transfert de l’origine d’une relation
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KS, 2011.
100 km
KS, 2011.
Terminal déserté
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1996
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N
N
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Milan
100 km
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KS, 2011.
100 km
Milan
KS, 2011.
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2007 Situation en 2011
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Le Bugey, une aire intermédiarisée par les modernisations des réseaux régionaux et nationaux
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Brg St Maurice
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Un réseau hiérarchisé qui porte les marques des modernisations successives
LGV, électrifiée 25 KV 50Hz
Accélération par l’effet grande vitesse d’échelle internationale
Ligne classique 25 KV 50Hz. L’étoile de la Haute Savoie a servi
d’aire d’expérimentation pour ce courant d’alimentation
avant sa diffusion dans le nord-est
Ligne à voie étroite, traction électrique
L’accélération des réseaux, une accumulation de contournements
Accélération par l’effet grande vitesse d’échelle nationale
Ligne classique électrifiée 1,5 KV
L’expérimentation de l’électrification
du réseau français, années 1930-années 1950
Ligne classique à traction autonome
50 km
Accélération du réseau régional : modernisation du Sillon alpin
Pôle régional
Pôle secondaire
Noeud intermédiaire
Terminus de desserte
Paris, tête du réseau national
Cible locale del’accélération des dessertes nationales :
la desserte touristique
Le dommage collatéral : l’intermadiarisation du Bugey
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Un héritage fortifié : l’interdiction du Mont-Cenis
Modane, une co-évolution des fortification et du noeud
Barrière de l’Esseillon
Base de la légende : figure 16.
Route du col du Mont-Cenis
1800
00
17
L’adaptation au double événement spatial
(retournement frontalier et ouverture du tunnel ) :
la réversibilité de l’ouverture
Fort du Replaton
1600
Le Bourget
Fort du Sapey
Fort St-Gobain
Cône de tir du replaton
Barrière de l’Esseillon
Première entrée du tunnel (1871-1881)
Deuxième entrée du tunnel (1881-1945)
Caserne
KS, 2011.
Fort du Sapey
N
Modane
0
150
Fort du Replaton
Cône de tir du Sapey
200 m
1400
0
130
0
120
Fort Maginot
1600
0
110
La consolidation de la clé de voûte
du sous-système Maurienne
18
Fortification de proximité
associée au tunnel
Axe de descente des cols frontaliers
00
L’Arc
1500
00
13
1400
00
17
Cône de tir des forts maginots
Entrée du tunnel de 1946
(toujours en sevice)
1200
1100
col du Fréjus
Fort du Lavoir
Sans idée d’échelle :
schématisation de la convergence
des voies de tombée
depuis le saillant de Bardonnèche
col de la Roue
col de la vallée étroite
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K. Sutton, mars 2009.
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K. Sutton, mars 2009
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K. Sutton, mars 2009.
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De la prévision à la réalité : le tunnel de base du Lötschberg, le triomphe des relations interieures
L’IC 2000, un visage du tunnel de base
Carte postale mettant en scène de la sortie sud du tunnel de base du Lötscherg (Rarogne)
qui occulte le portail pour donner le premier rôle aux trains IC des services intérieurs.
De 30 trains prévus à l’origine,
le nombre de marches IC acheminées par la ligne de base est aujourd’hui de 45 par jour.
Photo Klopfenstein
Une complémentarité verticale fonctionnelle pensée
Tableau de la prévision des capacités allouées en fonction des types de train par ligne
BLS, 2006.
Marquage d’homologation spécifique nécessaire à l’emprunt du tunnel de base du Lötschberg
Photo K. Sutton, novembre 2009.
Matériel roulant (ici une voiture) apte à 200 km/h,
la vitesse d’exploitation sous le tunnel
Matériel roulant autorisé à circuler Matériel roulant autorisé à circuler
sur la ligne nouvelle (NeuBauStrecke), dans le Lötschberg Basis Tunnel
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Vue de la façade de la gare de Brigue lors des travaux de rénovation.
Aux côtés de l’affiche annonçant «l’effet Lötschberg-base» déjà décrite
est annoncé «Viège-Brigue, des départs tout au long de la journée».
Autant d’éléments qui permettent de réaliser «plus de gare».
K. Sutton, juin, 2008.
VIEGE
Berne
Berne
genève
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Iselle
Sion
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K. Sutton, mars 2009.
Italie
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Sce : horaire CFF en ligne, septembre 2011.
KS, 2011.
Temps de stationnement en gare
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Trains circulant entre les deux pôles du binôme
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Vers une première modélisation du système des Traversées Alpines
à partir de l’application des inéquations proposées
AUTRICHE
SUISSE
Pyrhn
Karwendel
Arlberg
Semmering
Oberalp
Lötschberg
Schober
Brenner
Gothard
Furka
Albula
Vereina
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Col des Montets
Centovalli
Bernina
Simplon
Tarvis
Karawanken
Fréjus
KS, 2011.
Métrique d’itinéraire, F + 2A ≤ T
Métrique d’axe, F - 2A ≤ T
Métrique de corridor, F ≥ 2A – T
Lorsque la logique circulatoire identifie le passage
comme un trait d’union à l’intérieur d’un même espace horaire :
le passage comme élément de continuité, ordre du Franchissement dominant
Réseau à voie métrique
Discontinuité établie au passage, soit pour des raisons politiques (frontière),
soit pour des raisons techniques (graphe de circulation, aires de cadencement non connexes),
ordre de l’Approche dominant
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Inventer un exutoire alpin pour développer un réseau romand coordoné : genèse pour un passage valaisan
(Conférence de Fribourg, 1852)
Paris
BA
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Lyon
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Milan
Turin
Venise
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E
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Ϭ
Marseille
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FRANCE
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aux problématiques de
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la Suisse : centre ou périphérie ?
Frontières d’Etat
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itinéraire de franchissement ferroviaire en travaux
Le Gd St Bernard, un passage potentiellement ouvert
Frontière conflictuelle au sud des Alpes
L’enjeu : coordoner la mise en place d’un réseau ferroviaire romand
Partenaire politique étranger envisagé
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Le Simplon, opportunités et concurrences
(unification italienne, 1861)
Paris
EMPIRE D’AUTRICHE
BA
DE
BAVIERE
WURTEMBERG
Munich
Vienne
FRANCE
Zurich
Gothard
N
G
L
SEMMERING 1854
BRENNER
SUISSE
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TARVIS
Lyon
Gd St B.
FREJUS
Turin
Venise
Milan
Trieste
<^͕ϮϬϭϬ͘
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Ϭ
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La refonte du contexte géopolitique sud
ϮϬϬŬŵ
L’émergence d’une concurrence suisse : le Gothard
La Suisse : centre ou périphérie ?
Un territoire contourné par le ferroviaire
L’Italie unifiée de 1861 :
une porte sud qui s’entrouvre
sur la Lombardie
Le Gothard, un projet qui se développe depuis 1853
Cône de pertinence
du débouché envisagé
La Suisse Gothardiste
Itinéraire de franchissement ferroviaire ouvert
L’émergence de concurrences interne à l’espace romand
Itinéraire en chantier
N
Le Gd St Bernard,
un itinéraire directement concurrencé
depuis 1857 par le projet du Fréjus
G
L
Une concurrence intermétropolitaine
G. Genève ; L. Lausanne ; N. Neuchâtel
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Le Simplon oublié ?
(ouverture du tunnel du Gothard, 1882)
EMPIRE ALLEMAND
Paris
EMPIRE D’AUTRICHE
Munich
Vienne
FRANCE
Z
Zurich
L
GOT
GOTHARD
1882
18
SEMMERING 1854
BRENNER 1867
SUISSE
TARVIS
Lyon
FREJUS
1871
Turin
Milan
Venise
Trieste
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Gênes
ITALIE
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Marseille
Un projet qui avance dans l’ombre du Gothard
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Un cône d’intermédiarité
entre Gothard et Fréjus
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pour la menée des études de faisabilité
suite aux dérives budgétaires du Gothard
L
Ouverture de l’itinéraire
de franchissement du Jura
par Valorbe et le tunnel sous le col de Jougne :
Lausanne comme carrefour ferroviaire
de la Suisse romande
par la force du fait du réseau
Un regard entièrement tourné
vers la frontière et la ligne de crête
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Le chantier de la nouvelle gare centrale de Vienne
Réseau urbain majeur de Vienne, le TEN-13
Un noeud pour un corridor
Projet de nouveaux tunnels de base
Le projet de ligne de base du Semmering
Principaux ports de l’Adriatique (golfe de Trieste)
Une ouverture maritime pour le pivot d’un isthme continental
Berlin, l’autre pivot majeur
de la «réunification européenne» (Kundera)
Vienne, un pivot d’Europe
Principales villes du réseau urbain viennois considéré
dans son acceptation la plus large
Un enjeu à l’échelle du treillis européen (Brunet, 2002)
... à Villach, le commutateur clé.
Le tunnel de base du Semmering, un enjeu
à l’échelle du réseau urbain de l’Autriche du sud
Graz, seconde ville du pays, un pivot sud potentiel
en écho...
1955, un axe urbain symbolique
Un corridor Baltique-Adraitique ?
une extension potentielle du TEN-23
Corridor V (TEN-T 6)
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Aide financière de l’UE pour la réouverture
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Actuelle frontière de l’UE à 27
Ancienne frontière de l’UE des 15
Le choix du corridor, la mise en scène
d’une stratégie de politique régionale
Budapest, l’ancien parlement de Cisleithanie,
actuel point de convergence
dans la programmation communautaire
Le choix nodal européen, un choix de corridor
Une mise en question du sens d’Europe
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Dorsale européenne
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Emplacement de la Gare du sud, demain de la gare centrale
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Les prémices du projet de tunnel sous le Gothard face à son contexte géopolitique
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Paris
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La Suisse, une nation construite
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L’unité italienne, une porte qui s’ouvre au sud pour le Gothard
(1861)
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(1872)
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1. L’épisode : incendie d’un train de fret Italie-Allemagne du BLS Cargo
Le Simplon intercepté
0. L’état initial : le système de mobilité suisse
fondé sur la connexité et la connectivité des réseaux
Bâle
Bâle
Zurich
Zurich
Berne
Berne
Gothard
Spiez
Gothard
Spiez
Lötschberg-faîte
Lötschberg-faîte
Brigue
Brigue
Lötschberg-base
Lötschberg-base
Viège
Viège
Milan
Milan
L’île « Suisse », un concept réticulaire
au service de la continuité territoriale
Le traitement de l’incendie, un protocole
fondé sur la redondance des itinéraires
Intervention du train secours CFF
basé à Brigue
2. La réaction : le Simplon traité
Le Lötschberg-base intercepté
Bâle
L’île « Suisse »
Interception du Lötschberg-base
pour permettre..
La dorsale du réseau Suisse
Les échos à la dorsale
(réseau à voies étroites
Noeud
du cadencement national
Un système de Franchissement d’échelle européenne
Pied-de-Franchissement,
l’encadrement nodal du corridor
Axes nord-sud, projections nationales
et extension de l’effet de tunnel
... l’intervention
du train de secours BLS basé à Spiez.
Zurich
Berne
Gothard
Annulation de la redondance
des itinéraires du Lötschberg
Spiez
Lötschberg-faîte
Brigue
L’adaptation du réseau de continuité territoriale
Transfert des services nationaux
sur l’itinéraire de faîte
Lötschberg-base
Viège
Report des services Brigue-Iselle
par la route du Simplon
(fermée à Gondo donc à la frontière)
à l’aide des cars postaux
Milan
L’adaptation des services internationaux
3. La gestion de crise : la redondance des réseaux
l’effet corridor
Tunnel de base
Réouverture du tunnel de base
aux services nationaux
Tunnel de faîte
Localisation
des trains-incendie
L’incendie, une rupture dans le système de mobilités
Incendie du 06/06
Transfert des services
fret internationaux
et réorientation
des flux voyageurs
à destination de l’Italie
sur le Gothard
Bâle
Zurich
Berne
Gothard
Spiez
Lötschberg-faîte
Fermeture du débouché sud
de l’axe Lötschberg-Simplon
Brigue
KS, 2011.
Lötschberg-base
Milan
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La nébuleuse capitalistique DB Schenker Rail sur le marché du transit alpin
Frontières d’Etat
Groupe de capitalisation des entités fret
DB Schenker Rail
Lien de capitalisation directe DB Schenker Rail
Lien de capitalisation BLS
EWS
Lien de capitalisation EWS
Lien de capitalisation STR - Schienentransport
DB Schenker Rail DK
Lien de capitalisation RTC
DB Schenker Rail Nederland
ex - NS Cargo
BLS Cargo Deutschland
KS, 2011.
DB Schenker Rail Deutschland
ex - DB Cargo
Lokomotion
BLS
BLS Cargo SA
DB Schenker Rail Schweiz
ex- Brunner Railway Services
STR - Brenner Schienentransport
ECR
BLS Cargo Italia
DB Shenker Rail Italia
ex - SFM
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