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Europe and Middle East
around 800 AD
How Arabs and Turks Ruled Region
• Treated conquered people respectfully
• Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians were
called “People of the Book”
• Non-Muslims paid tax for military
exemption
• Allowed non-Muslims to be important
scholars and members of bureaucracy
How could cultural tolerance
lead to advancements in math
and science?
Which factor helps explain the
scientific and literary achievements
of the Muslims during their Golden
Age (A.D. 800-1300)?
• 1. expansion of trans-Atlantic trade
• 2. innovations introduced by the Europeans
during the Renaissance
• 3. cultural diversity accepted by many
Islamic governments
• 4. legal equality of all people in the Islamic
empire
How can learning be linked to
geography/geographic
location?
• Trade routes (land and coastline)
• Merchant contact
• Religious pilgrimage
Science and Math
• Arabic numerals (1,2,3…)
• al-Khwarizmi…invents algebra (Al Jabr)quadratic equations
• Trigonometry
• Hospitals/pharmacies*
• Medical books
• Disinfection w/alcohol
#4 Why does this matter to
scientists?
House of Wisdom
•
•
•
•
First university
Opthamology/optics
spyglass
Astrolabe/compass from China
Leads to a Golden Age Across the Empire
• Time of peace and safe for mix of cultures
• Damascus, Baghdad, Granada, Cordoba
huge cities!
• 4 social classes:
– Muslims by birth
– Muslims by conversions
– People of the Book
– POW slaves…Janissaries
Without the Arabs/Turks…no Renaissance!
• Crusades (1300s) opens trade again with
Asia (Mideast)
• Knowledge had been preserved by Arab
and Turkish world after Fall of Rome
• Europeans learn and are inspired!
#1: Based on this map, where are
the trade “hubs”? What would
account for this?
Contributions…Economics
• Banking system organized
• The dinar* -official paper currency
• Letters of credit, sakks/“checks”, offered by
banks…exchanged for cash at banks
• Cosmopolitan blend of culture, religion, $
Scholarship
• Encouraged in the Quran
• “Acquire knowledge…it enables possessor to
distinguish between right and wrong; lights way
to heaven; guides to happiness; an armor
against enemies” Prophet Muhammad
• Muslim world preserved learning
• 800’s Baghdad opens House of Wisdom:
academy, library, translation center
• Worked on translating texts from Greece,
India, Persia into Arabic
Advancements
• Persian scholar al-Razi compiles medical
encyclopedia/smallpox treatment book
• Al-Khwarizmi invents al-jabr=algebra
• Cartography
• Early astronomical devices before telescope
• Astrolabe
• Calligraphy as text and art
• Literature…1,001 Arabian Nights
Gibraltar-Muslim Spain
• Named for Berber
general named Jabal
Tariq
• An entire peninsula
and waterway is
named after him
• Jabal Tariq = Gibraltar
Muslim Spain
•
•
•
•
Known as Moors
Called Spain al-Andalus (Andalusia!)
Granada is the jewel city!
Battled the Franks battle Moors near
Paris (Battle of Tours) in 732
• Halted spread of Islam to Europe
Al-Hambra Palace in Granada, Spain
Moorish Culture
Isabella, Ferdinand, and Columbus chilling at
Al-Hambra Palace
After the
Reconquista/
Spanish
Inquisition
• King-new wife every night and execute
next morning
• Sheherazade great story-teller…
• The King became so entranced by
Sheherazade's stories that he wanted to
hear the conclusion of each one.
• Night after night Sheherazade would
leave him in suspense, postponing her
execution for 1,001 nights until he
pardoned her!
• Ali Baba and the 40 Thieves (open sesame)
• Aladdin
• Seven Voyages of Sinbad the Sailor
Muslim View of the Ideal Man ~800AD
• “The ideal man should be from East
Persia, Muslim in faith, Arabic in
language, Iraqi education, Hebrew in
astuteness, Christian in conduct, a
Greek in science, Indian in
interpretation, and lastly a Sufi in
spiritual life”
• What does this quote imply about
their culture?
4 Muslim Empires
• Arab
• Spanish-Moorish –alAndalus(Andalusian)
• Ottoman Turkish
• Mughal in India
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