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Systems Investigation and Analysis
Chapter 12
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
1
Principles and Learning Objectives
• Effective systems development requires a team effort
of stakeholders, users, managers, systems
development specialists, and various support
personnel, and it starts with careful planning.
– Identify the key participants in the systems development
process and discuss their roles.
– Define the term information systems planning and list
several reasons for initiating a systems project.
– Identify important system performance requirements for
applications that run on the Internet or a corporate intranet or
extranet.
– Discuss three trends that illustrate the impact of enterprise
resource planning software packages on systems
development.
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
2
Principles and Learning Objectives
• Systems development often uses tools to select,
implement, and monitor projects, including net present
value (NPV), prototyping, rapid application development,
CASE tools, and object-oriented development.
– Discuss the key features, advantages, and disadvantages of the
traditional, prototyping, rapid application development, and enduser systems development life cycles.
– Identify several factors that influence the success or failure of a
systems development project.
– Discuss the use of CASE tools and the object-oriented approach
to systems development.
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
3
Principles and Learning Objectives
• Systems development starts with investigation
and analysis of existing systems.
– State the purpose of systems investigation.
– Discuss the importance of performance and cost
objectives.
– State the purpose of systems analysis and discuss
some of the tools and techniques used in this phase
of systems development.
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
4
An Overview of Systems
Development
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
5
Participants in Systems
Development
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
6
Initiating Systems Development
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
7
Information Systems Planning
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
8
Aligning Corporate and IS Goals
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
9
Developing a Competitive Advantage
• Creative analysis
• Critical analysis
– Going beyond automating manual systems
– Question assumptions
– Identify and resolve conflicting objectives
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
10
Establishing Objectives for Systems
Development
• Performance objectives
– Output quality or usefulness
– Output format quality or usefulness
– Speed at which output is produced
• Cost objectives
– Development costs
– Fixed investments
– Ongoing operating costs
– Uniqueness costs
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
11
Systems Development and ECommerce
• Internet technology - enables companies to
extend their information systems beyond their
boundaries to reach their customers, suppliers,
and partners.
• Dynamic Core Business Application that
runs over the Web - must be reliable and fault
tolerant, providing continuous availability while
processing all transactions accurately.
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
12
Trends in Systems Development and ERP
• ERP vendor as one-stop provider
• Applications to integrate with ERP systems
• External consulting
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
13
Systems Development Life
Cycles
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
14
Systems Development Life Cycles
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
15
The Traditional Systems Development
Life Cycle
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
16
Advantages and Disadvantages of
Traditional SDLC
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
17
Prototyping
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
18
Prototyping
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
19
Advantages and Disadvantages of
Prototyping
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
20
Rapid Application Development (RAD)
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
21
Reasons for Outsourcing
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
22
Factors Affecting Systems
Development Success
• Degree of Change
– Continuous Improvement versus Reengineering
– Managing change
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
23
Factors Affecting Systems
Development Success
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
24
Quality and Standards
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
25
The Capability Maturity Model (CMM)
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
26
Project Management
•
•
•
•
Project schedule
Project milestone
Project deadline
Critical path
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
27
Use of Project Management Tools
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
28
Use of Project Management Tools
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
29
Computer-Aided Software
Engineering (CASE) Tools
Automate many of the tasks required in a systems development
effort and enforce adherence to the SDLC, thus instilling a high
degree of rigor and standardization to the entire systems
development process
• Upper-CASE tools - CASE packages that focus on activities
associated with the early stages of systems development.
• Lower-CASE tools - focus on the later stages of systems
development and are capable of automatically generating structured
program code.
• Integrated-CASE tools - provide links between upperand lower-CASE packages.
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
30
CASE Tools
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
31
Object-Oriented Systems
Development
Object-oriented systems development typically involves:
• Identifying potential problems and opportunities within the
organization that would be appropriate for the OO approach
• Defining the kind of system users require
• Designing the system
• Programming or modifying modules
• Evaluation by users
• Periodic review and modification
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
32
Systems Investigation
In general, systems investigation attempts to uncover
answers to the following questions:
– What primary problems might a new or enhanced system solve?
– What opportunities might a new or enhanced system provide?
– What new hardware, software, databases, telecommunications,
personnel, or procedures will improve an existing system or are
required in a new system?
– What are the potential costs (variable and fixed)?
– What are the associated risks?
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
33
Participants in Systems Investigation
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
34
Feasibility Analysis
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
35
Sample Net Present Value
Calculation
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
36
Object-Oriented Systems
Investigation
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
37
The Systems Investigation Report
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
38
Systems Analysis
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
39
Identifying Sources of Data
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
40
Collecting Data
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
41
Data Analysis
•
•
•
•
•
Data modeling
Activity modeling
Application flowcharts
Grid charts
CASE tools
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
42
Data and Activity Modeling
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
43
Application Flowcharts
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
44
Grid Charts
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
45
Requirements Analysis
•
•
•
•
Asking directly
Critical success factors (CSFs)
The IS plan
Screen and report layout
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
46
The IS Plan
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
47
Screen and Report Layout
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
48
Object-Oriented Systems Analysis
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
49
The Systems Analysis Report
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
50
Summary
• Systems development team - of stakeholders, users,
managers, systems development specialists, and
various support personnel
• Five phases of the traditional SDLC - investigation,
analysis, design, implementation, and maintenance and
review
• Systems investigation participants - stakeholders,
users, managers, employees, analysts, and
programmers
MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan
51
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