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PAST TENSE
1
PAST SIMPLE
•
•
•
•
•
Form
Use
Time expression
Spelling of verb + -ed
Irregular verbs
FORM
(Positive)
• I worked in New York.
• She studied English 7 years
ago.
• They left school at 5 o’clock.
FORM
(Positive)
I worked in New York.
S + V-ed
FORM
(Negative)
• I didn’t work in New York.
• She didn’t study English 7 years ago.
• They didn’t leave school at 5 o’clock.
FORM
(Negative)
She didn’t study English 7 years ago.
S + didn’t V
FORM
(Short question)
• Did you work in New York?
• Did she study English 7 years ago?
• Did they leave school at 5 o’clock?
FORM
(Short question)
Did they leave school at 5 o’clock?
Did + S + V ?
FORM
(Short question)
Did + S + V ?
Yes, S + did
No, S + didn’t (did not)
FORM
(Question)
• When did she study English?
• When did they leave school?
FORM
(Question)
When did she study English?
Wh-word + did + S + V?
USE
1. A finished action in the past:
• John left 3 minutes ago.
• Thomson and Tintin met in 1960.
• I went to Hanoi last week.
2. Actions that follow each other in a
story
Mary walked into the room and stopped.
She listened carefully. She heard a noise
coming from behind the curtain. She threw
the curtain open, and then she saw a monster…
3. A past situation or habit
When I was a child I lived in a
small town near the sea. Every
morning my uncle and I walked
for miles along the beach…
This is often expressed with
- I used to live in a small
village near the sea.
- I and my uncle used to
walk for miles
used to
Time expression
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Last night
Two days ago
Yesterday morning
In 2008
In winter
When I was young
…
Spelling of verb + -ed
1. Most verbs add –ed to the base form of
the verb
•
•
•
•
•
•
worked
wanted
helped
watched
covered
…
Spelling of verb + -ed
2. When the verb ends in –e, add –d
•
•
•
•
•
•
liked
used
hated
cared
moved
…
Spelling of verb + -ed
3. If the verb has only one syllable, with one
vowel + one consonant, double the
consonant before adding –ed.
•
•
•
•
•
Note
stopped
planned
robbed
hugged
…
We write cooked, seated, moaned
because there are two vowels.
Spelling of verb + -ed
4. The consonant is not doubled if it is
–y or –w
• played
• showed
• bowed
•…
Spelling of verb + -ed
5. In most two-syllable verbs, the end
consonant is doubled if the stressed is
on the second syllable.
• preferred
• admitted
• …
Note
We write entered, visited because
the stress is on the first syllable.
Spelling of verb + -ed
6. Verbs that end in a consonant + -y
change the –y to –ied.
•
•
•
•
Note
carried
hurried
buried
…
We write enjoyed because it ends
in a vowel + -y.
Pronunciation
/t/
laughed
stopped
looked
danced
/id/
wanted
shouted
boasted
pointed
/d/
covered
listened
opened
screamed
Pronunciation
/id/
For verbs ending with
•
•
•
•
•
wanted
needed
prevented
divided
…
t /t/ and d /d/
Pronunciation
/t/
f/f/, p/p/, k/k/,
ch /t /, sh//, x/ks/, s/s/ and ss /s/
For verbs ending with
•
•
•
•
•
•
laughed
cooked
boxed
focused
kissed
…
Pronunciation
/d/
The rest . . .
•
•
•
•
•
opened
changed
allowed
preserved
…
Irregular verbs
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
bite
bit
bit
cut
cut
cut
fly
flew
flown
get
get
get
run
ran
run
speak spoke spoken
…
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