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LEADERSHIP
BY:
Daphne B. Harley, MPA
PPA 400
FOX OR HEDGEHOG
• Differences in Leadership
• Leaders vs Managers
• Is Trust the central issue?
• Vision without a Bush, or
a Bush without a vision?
Leading For Performance
• Defining Leadership
– Getting people to do what they’ve never
done
– To take risks, even die
– Is the exercise of authority (formal or
informal)
– Requires charisma
– * Requires Self Confidence
5 Bases of Power
• Expert Power
– Knowledge or expertise
• Referent Power
– Liking or admiring
• Reward Power
– Ability to reward
• Legitimate Power
– Authority to exercise influence
• Coercive Power
– Fear of punishment
Leadership vs Management
• MANAGING
– bestowed power
– handle or direct with a degree of skill
– exercise executive, administrative and
supervisory direction
– alter by manipulation
– achieve one’s purpose
Leadership vs Management
• LEADERSHIP
– Cannot be bestowed
– Involves a relationship with the followers
– has commanding authority or influence
– The person with the Vision
– One with the capacity to lead
– The ability to guide, not row!
Essential Functions
of Leaders
• To provide a system of communication
• To promote the securing of essential
efforts
• To formulate and define the purposes and
goals of an organization
Trait Theories
• Assumes leaders possess traits different
from followers
• Unique characteristics that enable them to
do what others can’t
• However, reality never matched theory
• Unable to identify the traits
• Leadership found to be situational
Transactional Approaches
• Examines how leadership is established
and exerted
• 3 Styles Identified
– Authoritarian
• Highly directive
– Democratic
• Participative
– Laissez-faire
• Strictly facilitative
Contingency Approaches
• Contingency Theories stress:
– Type, structure, size and purpose of
organization
– The external environment in which
organization functions
– Orientation, values, goals and expectations of
the leader, his superiors and subordinates
– The expert or professional knowledge
required of the position
Transformational Leadership
• Leader with ability to change org culture
and lead them to a new vision
• Transformational Leaders
– Patton
– Iacocca
– Juliani
– Others?
Importance of Optimism
• Leaders must be cheerleaders
• Must instill a winning optimism
• Most successful have been optimistic
• Pygmalion Effect
• Fake it ‘til you make it
Other Leadership
• Too Much Leadership
– Micromanagement
– Over-management
– Examples?
• Moral Leadership
– The Bully Pulpit
– Rhetorical Leadership
– Examples?
5 Practices of Exemplary
Leadership
• Challenge the Process
• Inspire a Shared Vision
• Enable Others to Act
• Model the Way
• Encourage the Heart
– i.e. Be Optimistic
LEADERS
• A Daphne-ism;
• Leaders are Often Described
with “F” Words:
• FOCUSED,
FAR-LOOKING,
FEARLESS FOLKS
• WHO HAVE BEEN FOLLOWERS
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