SOCOMUN XXIII Freshmen Committee #9 Nuclear Proliferation Hello, my name is Kennedy Farrell, and I will be one of your co-chairs at SOCOMUN this year! I am a senior at SMCHS, and this is my third year involved in MUN, as I entered the program in my sophomore year. Model United Nations has become a big part in my life, and a big part in shaping my previous two years of high school. It has broadened my mind to the world we live in, and to the issues that people, and countries face globally. Through Model United Nations, I have developed better speaking skills, and found a love for debate, which I hope to utilize as a Lawyer for International Affairs in the future. I have participated in numerous MUN conferences and traveled to London, England with my school for a conference my junior year. Outside of MUN, I spend my free time playing golf on the SMCHS team in the fall, or running track in the spring. I am also involved in National Charity League, in addition to serving at the Laura’s House ReSale Store. I will do my best to ensure that SOCOMUN is a positive experience. For some of you it will be your first conference! Model United Nations is an opportune way to make friends in committee, while discussing issues of great importance. We will begin discussing the topic, Nuclear Proliferation, in debate, where you will voice your countries resolutions to the committee. You will have a chance to discuss those resolutions with others during cacaus, which is a time to find other countries who take a similar stance as you regarding the topic. When you have found others who maintain the same country policy as you, you will create a resolution, which will be voted on during committee. If you have any questions, do not hesitate to email me at [email protected] . I look forward to making your acquaintance in committee, and wish you the best of luck in your overall experience as a delegate in this committee! Background: By definition, nuclear proliferation is the spread of nuclear weapons, nuclear knowledge, and nuclear materials since the development of nuclear weapons technology in the United States. In the year of 1954, advancement in nuclear technology became apparent when the United States and Russia had both created the first Hydrogen Bomb, known short as the H-bomb. The H-bomb is a weapon of mass destruction as high amounts of energy, which causes fusion of hydrogen nuclei. By October 16, 1964, the five countries of the United States, Russia, United Kingdom, France, and China had the power to develop nuclear weapons. As consequential to the increasing number of countries developing technology for the intended use of nuclear weapons, the United States and the Soviet Union issued a Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, the official name of the NPT July 1, 1968. The enforcement of the NPT on March 5, 1970, divided countries into two groups. The first being the five countries who already had nuclear capability, and the second being the countries who had not already developed nuclear technology. The treaty states that all five of the countries who have developed nuclear technology are not to use it to release weapons, or assist any states in developing their own technology. This reiterates another clause of the treaty which prohibits non-nuclear countries from developing nuclear weapons. In regards to the countries known to have nuclear SOCOMUN XXIII capability, the NPT states they are legally obligated to disarm their weapons and halt the arms race. Other states known to have nuclear arms, but have failed to sign on to the NPT treaty are India, Israel, and Pakistan. The only state to have withdrawn from the treaty is North Korea in the year of 2003, and as consequence, tested weapons in 2006, 2009, and 2013. Although the NPT was created with the intent of diminishing nuclear proliferation as a whole globally, it is simply not so as seen in past variables throughout history. Although some of those variables proved to be minimal in terms of casualties, such as India’s first nuclear test in 1974, and an explosion thought to be set off by South Africa in the Indian Ocean, the casualties have been adding up in a step towards nuclear proliferation. Other variables have been of immense priority, such as the revelation of Israel’s nuclear program inclusive of two hundred nuclear weapons in 1986 by nuclear connoisseur Mordechai Vanunu. Steps towards these minimal and extensive issues have been confronted by programs such as the signing of the nuclear test ban in 1996, which India refused to sign, but was supported by China, France, United Kingdom, Russia, and the United States. To this date, the Unites States has still not ratified the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. The United Nations is continuing the fight on nuclear weapons through Resolution 1540, created in 2004 to secure International Peace and Security from nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons. Possible Solutions: When creating solutions for the intent of fighting this issue, keep in mind any current laws which are already in place, and any solutions which have already been attempted. Remember, all solutions are viable regardless of funding, as that is dealt with in the 5th committee and the World Bank. Feel free to take any of the following solution into consideration, but also remember to be unique when writing your own! Keep in mind your country’s policy regarding nuclear weapons, as whether they are for developing them or not (think of the NPT). I am looking forwards to seeing how your country plans to confront nuclear proliferation! In order to confront nuclear proliferation, one could retreat back to the original treaty of Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Although times were different at the creation of this treaty, the treaty could be fulfilled in disarmament of nuclear weapons in reference to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The United States could be encouraged in taking initiative to ratify the treaty, confirming they will not engage in a test explosion, or encourage other test explosions. By doing so, they will join the one hundred and fifty seven countries who have ratified the treaty, and influence Pakistan, India, China, Israel, and North Korea to ratify as well. In addition, the IAEA will be encouraged to perform consistent inspection of nuclear facilities, and perform inventory inspections to ensure no multiplication of nuclear weapons or technology to do so. In order to keep creation of nuclear weapons monitored, we need to enforce political and economic pressure with the use of sanctions if a country is found guilty of harboring nuclear weapons despite any treaties signed, as well as hold the United Nations accountable for taking note of securing on fissile materials in all Nations. SOCOMUN XXIII Questions to consider: The following questions are provided for consideration for the duration of your research, but no direct answers are required at the conference. 1. Regarding the issue, what is your countries policy? Is your country apart of the NonProliferation of Nuclear Weapons treaty? 2. If your country is a part of the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons treaty, which side is it on? Is it apart of the five superpowers? 3. If your country is not a part of the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons treaty, why? Has your country developed nuclear weapons illegally? 4. If your country has developed nuclear weapons illegally, did it do so with the assistance of another country? If so, which? What is that country’s stance in terms of the treaty? 5. Has your country participated in any test explosions involving nuclear weapons? If so, where? Was the intent behind the test peaceful? What type of weapons is your country testing? 6. Is your country one of one hundred and fifty seven to ratify the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)? Have they upheld the two clauses stated in that treaty? 7. Taking into account the NPT and CTBT, is your country for eradication of all nuclear weapons globally? If not, why? 8. If nuclear proliferation was inevitable, what defense would your country have against others in the event of war? 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