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АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
ДЛЯ ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОЙ
ДЕЯТЕЛЬНОСТИ
Методическое пособие для студентов
электромеханического факультета
Составители: В. П. Рубаева, Л. М. Делиева
Владикавказ 2015
0
МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РФ
Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
"СЕВЕРО-КАВКАЗСКИЙ ГОРНО-МЕТАЛЛУРГИЧЕСКИЙ ИНСТИТУТ
(ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ТЕХНОЛОГИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ)"
Кафедра иностранных языков
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
ДЛЯ ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОЙ
ДЕЯТЕЛЬНОСТИ
Методическое пособие для студентов
электромеханического факультета
Составители: В. П. Рубаева, Л. М. Делиева
Допущено
редакционно-издательским советом
Северо-Кавказского горно-металлургического института
(государственного технологического университета).
Протокол заседания РИСа № 4 от 16.07.2014 г.
Владикавказ 2015
1
УДК 811.11
ББК 81.2 Англ.
Р82
Рецензент
кандидат педагогических наук,
доцент Северо-Кавказского горно-металлургического института
(государственного технологического университета)
Агузарова К. К.
Р82
Английский язык для профессиональной деятельности: Методическое
пособие для студентов электромеханического факультета / Сост. В. П. Рубаева,
Л. М. Делиева;
Северо-Кавказский
горно-металлургический
институт (государственный технологический университет). – Владикавказ:
Северо-Кавказский
горно-металлургический
институт
(государственный технологический университет). Изд-во «Терек»,
2015. – 24 с.
УДК 811.111
ББК 81.2 Англ.
Редактор Хадарцева Ф. С.
Компьютерная верстка Цишук Т. С.
 Составление. ФГБОУ ВПО «Северо-Кавказский
горно-металлургический институт
(государственный технологический университет)», 2015
 Рубаева В. П., Делиева Л. М., составление, 2015
Подписано в печать 10.03.2015. Формат 60х84 1/16. Бумага офсетная. Гарнитура «Таймс».
Печать на ризографе. Усл. п.л. 1,4. Уч.-изд. 0,8 л.. Тираж 15 экз. Заказ №
.
Северо-Кавказский горно-металлургический институт (государственный технологический
университет). Издательство «Терек».
Отпечатано в отделе оперативной полиграфии СКГМИ (ГТУ).
2
362021, г. Владикавказ, ул. Николаева, 44.
3
ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ
Пособие предназначено для обучения студентов неязыковых
факультетов английскому языку. Пособие направлено на формирование
умений чтения, перевода литературы по специальности и навыков
получения необходимой для практики информации. Большое внимание
уделяется накоплению активного словарного запаса, который включает
наиболее употребительные для специальности термины и слова
общетехнического значения. В каждом учебном цикле даётся
грамматическая справка, упражнения на тренировку грамматических и
синтаксических структур, необходимых для современной научнотехнической литературы. В пособие включены задания, способствующие
расширению словарного запаса и созданию потенциального словаря.
Комплекс упражнений представляет собой тексты, которые
разработаны с учётом достижений в области тестирования, широко
применяемого в зарубежных пособиях, имеющих целью обучение
английскому языку как иностранному языку.
Различные типы заданий предлагаются для развития речи по
специальности: вопросно-ответные упражнения, итоговые выступления с
сообщениями по темам текстов.
4
ENERGY
Read and translate the following text:
1. Energy is the ability to do work. There are many forms of energy, such
as heat, mechanical, electrical, chemical and so on. There are two kinds of mechanical energy – potential and kinetic. Potential energy is the energy of position. Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. One form of energy can be
changed into another.
2. A waterfall may serve as an example. When water falls from its raised
position, energy changes from potential to kinetic one. The energy of falling
water is used to turn turbines of hydroelectric stations. The turbines in their
turn drive the electric generators, which produce electric energy. Thus, the mechanical energy of falling water is turned into electric energy.
3. The electric energy may be transformed into any other form. The
sources of energy which produce current are either chemical, as in the battery,
or mechanical, as in the electromagnetic generator.
4. The great quantities of electric energy generated today come from various forms of mechanical energy. Every year we need more and more energy.
That’s why it’s necessary to find new sources of energy. The sun is an unlimited source of energy. Using semiconductors scientists have transformed solar
energy into electric energy.
Remember the following words:
to change, current, to generate, generator, to produce, quantity, semiconductor, source, to transform.
Notes:
such as – такой как
so on – и т. д.
in their turn – в свою очередь
either … or – или … или
that’s why – вот почему
thus – таким образом
Exercises
I.
Answer the questions:
1) What is energy?
2) What forms of energy do you know?
3) What is potential energy?
5
4) We need more and more electric energy every year, don’t we?
5) What is kinetic energy?
6) What is the unlimited source of energy?
II. Read and translate the following words:
to form, a form, chemistry, chemist, chemical, to move, motion, to production, to generate, a generator, to conduct, a conductor, a semiconductor.
III. Find in the text English equivalents for the followings:
1. Электрическую энергию можно преобразовать в любую другую
энергию.
2. Источниками энергии, которые вырабатывают ток, являются или
химический, или механический.
3. Используя полупроводники, учёные преобразовали солнечную
энергию в электрическую.
CONDUCTORS AND INSULATORS
1. All substances have some ability of conducting the electric current but
they differ greatly in the ease with which the current can pass through them.
For example, metals conduct electricity with ease, while rubber does not allow
it to follow freely. Thus, we have conductors and insulators.
2. Substances through which electricity is easily transmitted are called
conductors. Any material that strongly resists the electric current flow is known
as insulators.
3. The conductance depends on the size of the wire, its length and temperature and the kind of material. A large conductor will carry the current more
readily than a thinner one. The longer the wire, the greater is its opposition or
resistance to the passage of current.
4. All metals are good electric conductors. But there is a great difference
in the conducting ability of various substances. For example, copper carries
current more freely than iron; and silver is a better conductor than copper.
But copper is the most widely used conductor for it is cheaper than silver.
5. There are many kinds of insulations used to cover the wires. The insulating materials we use to cover the wires are rubber, asbestos, glass, plastics
and others. One of the most important insulators of all is air.
6
Remember the words:
сonductors, conductance, insulators, to oppose, opposition, to resist, resistance, to transmit, wire.
Notes:
conducting ability – проводящая способность
for – так как
Exercises
1. Answer the following questions:
a) What substances are called conductors?
b) What are insulators?
c) What does the conductance depend upon?
d) Are metals good conductors?
e) What is the most widely used conductor? Why?
f) What insulating materials do you know?
2. Read and translate the following words:
to conduct, conductance, conductivity, conductor, large conductor, electric, electricity, to resist, resistance, resistivity, long, length, to pass, passage, to
oppose, opposition, to differ, different, difference, to insulate, insulation, insulator, insulating material, important, importance, transmit, transmission.
3. Find in the text English equivalents for the following sentences:
a) Чем длиннее проволока, тем больше её противодействие или
сопротивление прохождению тока.
b) Медь – самый широко используемый проводник.
4. Compose sentences of the following words:
а) substances, easily, through which, are called, is transmitted, electricity,
conductors.
b) any material, as an insulator, the electric current flow, is known, strongly, resists.
c) many kinds of insulations, there are, the wires, used to cover.
7
ELECTRIC CURRENT
1. The current which flows along wires consists of moving electrons. The
electron is a minute particle having an electric charge. These minute charges
travel along the wire. We say that the wire carries an electric current.
2. The electric current is the motion of electrons. The electric current can
flow through solids and gases.
3. When the electrons flow in one direction only, the current is known as
direct current. The simplest source of power for the direct current is a battery,
for a battery pushes the electrons in the same direction all the time i. e. , from
the negatively charged terminal to the positively charged terminal.
4. The current which flows first in one direction and then in the opposite
one is called alternating current. One of the great advantages of alternating current is that the power at low voltage can be easily changed into the power at
high voltage and vice versa.
5. Alternating voltage is increased when it is necessary for long-distance
transmission. It can be decreased to meet industrial requirements and to operate
various devices at home. Alternating current finds wide application for lighting,
heating, industrial and some other purposes. Yablochkov, Russian scientist and
inventor, was the first to apply alternating current in practice.
Remember the following words:
alternating current, charge, decrease, direct current, flow, increase, device,
power, terminal, voltage.
Notes:
minute – крошечный, незначительный
i. e. – то-есть
vice verse – наоборот
to meet requirements – удовлетворять требованиям
electric current – переменный ток
Exercises
I. Answer the questions:
1) What is an electron?
2) What is the electric current?
8
3) What current is called a direct one?
4) What is an alternating current?
5) When is alternating voltage increased?
6) When is alternating voltage decreased?
7) Where is alternating current applied?
8) Who was the first to apply electric current in practice?
II. Translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention to
the word for:
1) The simplest source of power for the direct current is a battery, for a
battery pushes the electrons in the same direction all the time.
2) Alternating voltage is increased when it is necessary for long distance
transmission.
III. Fill in the blanks with the necessary expressions from the text:
1) Alternating voltage can be decreased … and to operate … … at home.
2) Alternating voltage can be increased when it is necessary for … .
3) One of … of electric current is the case with which power at … … can be
changed into a similar amount of power at … … .
ELECTRIC CIRCUIT
1. We know the circuit to be a complete path which carries the current
from the source of supply to the load and then carries it again from the load
back to the source. The purpose of the electrical source is to produce the necessary electromotive force required fore the flow of current through the circuit.
2. The path along which the electrons travel must be complete. We close
the circuit when we switch on our electric lamp. If the circuit is broken anywhere, the current stops flowing everywhere. We break the circuit when we
switch off our electrical devices.
3. The current may pass through solid conductors, liquids, gases, vacuum,
or any combination of these. It may flow over transmission lines from the power station through transformers, cables and switches, through lamps, heaters,
motors and so on.
4. There are various kinds of electric circuits such as: open circuits, closed
circuits and short circuits.
5. When electrical devices are connected so that the current flow from one
device to another, they are said to be connected in series. When the current is
divided in such a way that a part of the current flows through one branch and
9
part through another, it is said to be in parallel. The lamps in our room and our
house are connected in parallel.
6. The short circuit often results from cable fault or wire fault. The short
may cause fire because the current flows where it was not supposed to flow. If
the current flow is too great, a fuse must be used as a safety device, to stop the
current flow. The fuse must be placed in every circuit where there is a danger
of overloading the line. Then all the current will pass through the fuse.
Remember the following words:
branch, break, close, closed, closed circuit, complete, electromotive force, fuse,
protecting device, safety device, series circuit, short circuit, switch on, switch
off, turn on, turn off, transmission line.
Notes:
to result from – вытекать из
to cause fire – вызвать пожар
it was not supposed – не предполагалось
too – слишком
Exercises
I. Answer the following questions:
1) What is the electric current?
2) When do we close the circuit?
3) When do we break the circuit?
4) What are the main kinds of circuits?
5) What is a series circuit?
6) What is a parallel circuit?
7) When is the fuse (предохранитель) placed in the circuit?
II. Pay attention to the translation of the following sentences:
1. We know the circuit to be a complete path which carries the current
from the source of supply to the load and then carries it again from the load
back to the source.
2. When electrical devices are connected so that the current flows from
one device to another, they are said to be connected in series.
3. When the circuit is divided in such a way that part of the current floes
through one branch and part through another, it is said to be parallel.
10
III. Give synonyms to the following words:
a complete path, to produce, to switch on, to switch off, various, fuse.
ELECTOMOTIVE FORCE AND RESISTANCE
1. The electromotive force (e. m. f.) is the very force that moves the electrons from one point in an electric circuit towards another one. If this e. m. f. is
direct, the current is direct. If the electromotive force is alternating the current
will be alternating too. The e. m. f. is measurable and the volt is the unit used
for measuring it.
2. A current is unable to flow in a circuit consisting of metallic wire alone.
A source of an e. m. f. should be provided too. The source of the e. m. f. may
be a cell or a battery, a generator, a thermocouple or a photocell.
3. Resistance greatly influences electrical flow too. All substances offer a
certain amount of opposition, that is to say, resistance to the passage of current.
This resistance may be high or low depending on the type of the circuit and the
material used. Take glass and rubber as an example. They offer a very high resistance, and they are considered to be good insulators.
4. All substances allow the passage of some current provided the potential
difference in high. Factors that greatly influence the resistance of an electric
circuit are: the size of the wire, its length and type. The thinner or longer the
wire, the greater is the resistance offer.
Remember the following words:
amount, to measure, measurable, photocell, potential difference,
thermpcouple.
Notes:
that is to say – другими словами, иначе говоря
provided – при условии
greatly – в значительной степени
Exercises
I. Answer the following questions
a) What is the electromotive force?
11
b) What is the unit for measuring the e. m. f.?
c) What are the sources of electromotive force?
d) What does resistance depend upon?
e) What are the factors that greatly influence the resistance of an electric
circuit?
II. Find in the text English equivalents for the following sentences:
1. Электродвижущая сила – та самая сила, которая движет электроны
из одной точки цепи в другую.
2. Стекло и резина оказывают очень большое сопротивление
прохождению тока.
III. Find in the text nouns to the following verbs:
to resist, to oppose, to pass, to insulate, to differ.
IV. Find antonyms to the words:
resistance, insulator, to oppose, long, thin.
GENERATORS
1. Powerful generators and alternators are in use today. We need electricity to light up millions of lamps, to run trains, to lift things, and to drive the machines. The dynamo-electric machines are used for this purpose. They turn mechanical energy directly into electrical energy with a loss only a few per cent.
2. There are two types of dynamos: the generator and the alternator.
The generator supplies d. c., and the alternator provides a. c. To generate
electricity they must be continuously provided with energy from some outside
source of mechanical energy, for example, steam engines, steam turbines or
water turbine.
3. The principal parts of both generators and alternators are: an armature
and an electromagnet. The electromagnet of a d. c. generator is usually called a
stator or it is in a static condition while the armature is rotating.
4. In order to get a strong e. m. f. the rotors in large machines rotate at a
speed of thousands of revolutions per minute (r. p. m.) . The faster they rotate
the grater the output voltage the machine will produce.
5. In order to produce electricity under the most economical conditions,
the generators must be as large as possible. They should be kept as fully loaded
as possible all the time. It is interesting to note that the biggest generators are
those installed at hydroelectric stations of Russia. The Bratsk hydroelectric sta12
tion is equipped with 225,000 kilowatt generators: 500,000 kilowatt generators:
500,000 kilowatt generators are installed at the Krasnoyarsk station.
Notes:
as large as possible – как можно больше
in order to – для того чтобы
the faster … the greater – чем быстрее, тем больше
for example – например
Remember the following words:
armature, to operate, to run, to drive, revolution, per hour, to rotate, speed,
to equip, stator, steam engine, steam power plant, winding.
Exercises
1. Define the following terms:
a) electromotive force, b) electric current, c) generator, d) alternator,
e) heating effect of an electric current.
2. Answer the following questions:
a) Can batteries supply power on a large scale?
b) What do we need electricity for?
c) What are dynamo electric machines used for? d) What types of dynamo
do you know?
e) What are the principal parts of a generator?
f) Where are the biggest and most powerful generators installed?
3. Translate the following sentences which are equipped with large
alternators.
The armature and the electromagnet are the principal parts the generator
consists of.
The alternator is a machine that generates a. c.
There is a great number of engineering problems the Soviet scientists work at.
There are many electrical appliances we cannot do without.
The experiment I told you about will take much time.
13
POWER TRANSMISSION
1. About a hundred years ago power was never carried far away from its
source.
Now it is possible to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy and
transmit the latter over hundreds of kilometers in any direction required.
In a suitable place the electric energy can be reconverted into mechanical
energy where it is desirable. It has become possible owing to generators, transformers, motors and other electrical equipment.
2. The longest transmission line in pre-revolutionary Russia was only 70
km long. The present high-tension transmission lines in Russia are 900 km
long. We may say that the length of high-tension transmission lines in Russia is
so great that they could circle the globe six times.
3. As soon as the electric energy is produced at the power station, it is to
be transmitted over wires to the consumer. The longer the wire, the greater is
its resistance to current flow. The higher the resistance offered, the greater are
the heating losses in electric wires.
One can reduce these losses in two ways, namely, one can reduce either
the resistance or current.
4. To reduce resistance it is necessary to use better conducting materials
and thicker wires. It is possible to reduce the current in the transmission line by
employing transformers.
Remember the following words:
to convert, to reconvert, to transmit, the latter, to require, direction, tension, suitable, desirable, equipment, to reduce, to employ, loss, to result in, owing to, to make possible.
Exercises
1. Define the following terms:
high-tension transmission lines; conducting material; heat losses.
2. Answer the questions:
a) What made it possible to transmit electric energy over hundreds of kilometers?
b) Can electric energy be reconverted into mechanical energy?
c) What are transformers used for?
d) In what way can the heating losses be reduced?
e) How can resistance be reduced in electric wires?
14
3. Translate the sentences into Russian:
Now it is possible to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy and
transmit the latter over long distances.
It is possible to reduce the current in the transmission line by employing
transformers.
One can reduce these heating losses in two ways, namely, one can reduce
either the resistance or current.
One can say that there are unlimited sources of energy.
One could not obtain good results without repeating the test.
It is well known that one form of energy can be converted into another
form.
4. Translate the sentences into English:
a) Чем сильнее магнитное поле, тем больше ток.
b) Чем больше ток, текущий по проводнику, тем выше температура
проводника.
c) Чем короче проводник, тем меньше сопротивление проходящему
току.
d) Чем больше скорость движения между магнитным полем и
проводником, тем больше ток.
TRANSFORMERS
1. The transformer is a device for changing the electric current from one
voltage to another. It is used for increasing or decreasing voltage. A simple
transformer is a kind of induction coil.
2. The principal parts of the transformer are: two windings ( or coils) and
an iron core. The coil which is supplied with current is called the “primary
windings” or “primary”, for short. The winding from which the current is taken
is called the “ secondary winding” or “secondary”, for short.
3. The primary is connected to the source of supply, while the “secondary”
is connected to the load.
4. When the number of turns of wire on the secondary is the same as the
number of the primary, the secondary voltage is the same as the primary, and
we get a “one-to-one” transformer. When the number of turns on the secondary
winding is greater than those on the primary, the output voltage is larger than
the input voltage and the transformer is said to be a step-up transformer.
5. When the secondary turns are fewer in number than the primary the
transformer is known as a step-down transformer.
15
6. It is important to point out that the transformer will not work on d. c. but
it is rather often employed in direct current circuits. So transformers are used in
stepping-up the voltages for transmission over long distances and then in stepping these voltages down.
7. Large step-up transformers are used to increase the potential to 275,000
volts for transmission over long-distance transmission lines. At the consumer’s
end of the line step-down transformers are used to reduce that value to 2,399
volts. Local transformers decrease 2,399 volts to lower voltages, suitable for
use with small motors and lamps. There are some other transformers in the system that reduces the voltage even further. All radio-sets and all television sets
use two or more kinds of transformers.
Remember the words:
device, to change, to increase, to decrease, induction coil, windings, iron
core, primary, secondary, to connect, load, turn, the same, one-to-one transformer, the output voltage, the input voltage, a step-up transformer, a stepdown transformer, local consumer.
Exercises
I. Answer the questions:
1. What is the transformer?
2. What is the transformer used for?
3. What are the principal parts of a transformer?
4. How many windings are there in a transformer?
5. What winding is connected to a load?
6. What is known as a step-down transformer?
7. Does a transformer work on d. c.?
8. In what circuits is the transformer used? 9. For what purpose are stepdown transformers used?
II. Translate the sentences into Russian:
1. Motors are widely used not only in industry but also in everyday life.
2. There is but one measuring scale in the instrument.
3. Everyone took an examination in physics but Comrade Novikov.
4. A simple transformer is but a kind of induction coil.
16
ELECTRIC MOTORS
1. The electric motor is a device used for transforming electrical energy
into mechanical energy. We know it to turn machinery and various appliances.
We have seen the generator convert mechanical energy into electrical energy.
Now the process is reversed. It is electricity that is supplied to the machine and
it is motion we obtain. Generators and motors are similar in certain respects.
There is some difference in detail but in both of them we find an armature with
windings, a commutator and brushes combined with an electromagnet for producing the magnetic field.
2. However, in an electric motor one shunt winding is not sufficient and a
second winding called a series winding should be added. The fact is, that the
motor should have effect at the very moment when the current is switched on,
as for instance, in an electric tram or train.
3. A very strong magnetic field is needed to obtain a so-called powerful
starting torque. This is by adding a series winding to the magnetic coils. It is
connected not in shunt with the armature but in series with it. Thus all the
heavy starting current, passing through the armature winding, now passes
through the series field coil and provides a strong field necessary for starting,
the shunt field winding providing the running conditions. The giant motors as
well as the small-sezed ones are widely used in industry and engineering, in
agriculture and transport, in medicine and our homes.
Remember the words:
field winding, in certain respects, to perform, shunt, so-called, torque, sufficient, brush.
Exercises
I. Define the function of the underlined words:
1. The methods applied improved the quality.
2. The machine used showed good results.
3. The amount of electricity generated depended on the quality of the coal.
4. The experiment described attracted everybody’s attention.
II. Answer the questions:
1. What device is discussed in the present article?
2. What is a motor employed for?
3. What kinds of motors do you know?
4. Does the generator convert electrical energy into mechanical energy?
5. What parts of a motor do you know?
6. What is a very strong magnetic field needed for?
7. What does the shunt field winding provide?
17
III. Translate the sentences and define the function of the word “one”:
1. One hundred years ago there were neither electric lamps, nor electric motors.
2. One might mention many more well-known facts.
3. There was only one problem to be solved.
4. The first student gave more correct answer than the last one.
5. One can reduce heat losses in a transmission line.
6. One of you will compare the results obtained.
Notes:
a. c. ( alternating current) – переменный ток
any – любой
either… or… – либо… либо…, или… или…
e. m. f. – э. д. с.
even – даже
for – так как
fence – следовательно
greatly – в значительной степени
i. e., that is – то-есть
in such a way – таким образом
in their turn – в свою очередь
over – по
so that – так, как
that is to say – иначе говоря
through – по, через
too – слишком
the very – тот самый
very – очень
vice versa – наоборот
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VOCABULARY
A
ability – способность
advantage – преимущество
alternating current – переменный ток
amount – величина, количество
apply – применять, прикладывать
application – применение
add – прибавлять, складывать
achieve – добиваться, достигать
alternator – генератор переменного тока
appliance – применение, прибор
armature – якорь
as soon as – как только
B
bare wire – оголённый провод
be unable to – не быть способным
break – размыкать цепь
become – становиться
both – оба, обе
brush – щётка
C
carry – проводить, пропускать, нести
cause fire – вызвать пожар, вызвать возгорание
cell – элемент
certain – определённый
change –менять, превращать
charge – заряжать, заряд
circuit – цепь
close – замыкать
closed – замкнутый
closed circuit – замкнутая цепь
complete – замкнутый
circle – круг
conduct – проводить
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conductor – проводник
large conductor – проводник с большим сечением
conductance – проводимость
conductivity – удельная проводимость
consider – считать, рассматривать
cover – покрывать
condition – условие
connect – соединять
conducting material – проводящий материал
coil – катушка
core – сердечник
circuit – цепь
combine – соединять
commutator – коллектор
continuously – непрерывно
convert – превращать
consumer – потребитель
D
danger – опасность
decrease – уменьшать
depend upon – зависеть от
device – прибор
direct current – постоянный ток
drive – приводить в движение, вращать
desirable – желательный
difference – различие
distance – расстояние
distribute – распределять
direction – направление
due to – благодаря
E
electromotive force – электродвижущая сила
e. m. f. – э. д. с.
enough – достаточный, достаточно
either … or… – или … или…
employ – применять, использовать
energy – энергия
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equip – оборудовать
even – даже
F
fast – быстрый
far away – далеко
field – поле
find – находить
few – мало
further – дальше, далее
fault – неисправность, повреждение
flow – течь, поток
fuse – предохранитель
G
generate – вырабатывать, производить
generator – генератор
get – получать, доставать
globe – земной шар
giant – гигантский
H
hence – следовательно
heavy – тяжёлый, напряжённый
high tension – высокое напряжение
high voltage line – линия высокого напряжения
I
induction coil – индукционная катушка
input – вход
install – устанавливать
installation – установка
iron – железо
increase – увеличивать
influence – влияние
insulate – изолировать
insulator – изолятор
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insulating material – изоляционный материал
inventor – изобретатель
K
keep – содержать, держать
kind – вид, разновидность
L
length – длина
lift – поднимать
light up – зажигать
local – местный
leaking off – утечка
liquid – жидкость
load – нагрузка
loss – потеря
M
machinery – оборудование
mean – означать
measure – измерять
measurable – измеримый
meet requirements – удовлетворять требования
minute – незначительный
motion – движение
N
number – число, количество, номер
О
offer – оказывать ( сопротивление)
operate – приводить в движение
opposition – противодействие
overload – перегружать
obtain – получать
in order to – для того, чтобы
output voltage – напряжение на выходе
outside ( source) – внешний ( источник ) owing to – благодаря
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P
parallel circuit – параллельная цепь
particle – частица
pass – проходить, пропускать
passage – проход
path – путь, линия
photocell – фотоэлемент
position – положение
potential difference – разность потенциалов
power – энергия, мощность
produce – производить, вырабатывать
protecting device – защитное устройство
provide – обеспечивать
provided – при условии, если
purpose – цель
plant – установка, завод
point out – отмечать, указывать
possible – возможный
powerful – мощный
power station – электростанция
principal – главный
Q
quantity – количество
R
raise – повышать
resist – сопротивляться, оказывать сопротивление
resistance – сопротивление
result from – вытекать из
rubber – резина, каучук
rather – довольно
reconvert – преобразовывать
reduce – сокращать, уменьшать
result in – приводить к
reverse – изменять (направление)
require – требовать
revolution per minute (r. p. m.) – оборот в минуту
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rotate –вращаться
run – работать
S
safety device – предохранительное устройство
semiconductor – полупроводник
series circuit – последовательная цепь
short circuit – короткое замыкание
size – размер, сечение
solar – солнечный
solid – твёрдый
source – источник
substance – вещество
supply – подавать, снабжать, источник питания
suppose – предполагать
switch on – включать
switch off – выключать
switch – выключатель
same – тот же самый
secondary – вторичный
series winding – обмотка с последовательным соединением
set – устанавливать
shut ( winding ) – обмотка с параллельным соединением
speed – скорость
step up – повышающий
step down – понижающий
simple – простой
similar – подобный
steam – пар
starting torque – вращающийся момент, пусковой момент
T
terminal – клемма, зажим, выход
thermocouple – термопара
transform – преобразовывать
transmit – передавать
transmission – передача
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transmission line – линия передач
travel – двигаться
turbine – турбина
turn – превращать, вращать
turn on – включать
turn off – выключать
thick – толстый
U
unit – единица
unlimited – неограниченный
use – польза, использовать
useful – полезный
V
voltage – напряжение
value – величина, значение
various – различный
W
wire – провод, проводник
waste – тратить без пользы
winding – обмотка
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