Presented by : Ms Sabah Faisal Introduction to Robotics Sookram Sobhan, Polytechnic University [email protected] What is a Robot ? • A machine that resembles a human being and does mechanical routine tasks on command. • A robot is a re-programmable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools, or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks. What is a Robot ? • A manipulator (or an industrial robot) is composed of a series of links connected to each other via joints. Each joint usually has an actuator (a motor for eg.) connected to it. • These actuators are used to cause relative motion between successive links. One end of the manipulator is usually connected to a stable base and the other end is used to deploy a tool. What defines a robot? • Sense – A robot has to take in information about its environment • Plan – A robot has to use that information to make a decision • Act – A robot needs moving parts to carry out commands Robot Defined • Word robot was coined by a Czech novelist Karel Capek in a 1920 play titled Rossum’s Universal Robots (RUR) • Robota in Czech is a word for worker or servant Definition of robot: –Any machine made by by one our members: Robot Institute of America –A robot is a reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks: Robot Institute of America, 1979 Robots: An Introduction • A robot can be defined as a computer controlled machine with some degrees of freedom • that is, the ability to move about in its environment • A robot typically has • Sensors to sense its environment, particularly to make sure it does not hit any obstacles in its way • Goals (otherwise there is no need to have the robot) • planning to determine how to accomplish those goals • some robots are pre-programmed with the plan steps to carry out the given goals so planning is not needed • path planning to determine how to move about its environment using the available degrees of freedom • this may be the motion of an arm to pick something up or it may be a series of movements to physically move it from location 1 to location 2 • The robot usually has a 3-phase sequence of operations: sense (perception), process (interpretation and planning), action (movement of some kind) Robots Working in the World Robots Working in the World Wearable Robotic Arm and Tele-Operated Robot (KIST) Robots Working in the World HONDA (ASIMO) – Biped Robot Fujitsu – Biped Robot (Laptop Size) Robots Working in the World Sony (AIBO) – Toy robot What ways do robots move? • Rotate • Convey • Walk • Swim • Fly • Reach • Bend • Poke • Roll Snake Robot Why Robot needs to go from place to place? • Transport goods and materials • Carry messages • Get there faster • Do a task while you’re getting there or when you get there • Collect information about what’s there • Get away from something What Can Robots Do: Jobs that are dangerous for humans Decontaminating Robot Cleaning the main circulating pump housing in the nuclear power plant What Can Robots Do: II Repetitive jobs that are boring, stressful, or labor-intensive for humans Welding Robot What Can Robots Do: III Menial tasks that human don’t want to do The SCRUBMATE Robot Industries Using Robots •Agriculture •Automobile •Construction •Entertainment •Health care: hospitals, patient-care, surgery , research, etc. •Laboratories: science, engineering , etc. •Law enforcement: surveillance, patrol, etc. •Manufacturing •Military: demining, surveillance, attack, etc. •Mining, excavation, and exploration •Transportation: air, ground, rail, space, etc. •Utilities: gas, water, and electric •Warehouses •Material handling •Material transfer •Machine loading and/or unloading •Spot welding •Continuous arc welding •Spray coating •Assembly •Inspection What Can Robots Do? Industrial Robots Material Handling Manipulator Spot Welding Manipulator Assembly Manipulator Ideal Tasks of a Robot Tasks which are: • Dangerous • Space exploration • chemical spill cleanup • disarming bombs • disaster cleanup • Boring and/or repetitive • Welding car frames • part pick and place • manufacturing parts. • High precision or high speed • Electronics testing • Surgery • precision machining. Current Uses of Robots • Factory robot uses: • Mechanical production, e.g., welding, painting • Packaging – often used in the production of packaged food, drinks, medication • Electronics – placing chips on circuit boards • Automated guided vehicles – robots that move along tracks, for instance as found in a hospital or production facility • Other robot uses: • Bomb disabling • Exploration (volcanoes, underwater, other planets) • Cleaning – at home, lawn mowing, cleaning pipes in the field, etc • Fruit harvesting Robots in Action Types of Robots • Mobile robots – robots that move freely in their environment • We can subdivide these into indoor robots, outdoor robots, terrain robots, etc based on the environment(s) they are programmed to handle • Robotic arms – stationary robots that have manipulators, usually used in construction (e.g., car manufacturing plants) – These are usually not considered AI because they do not perform planning and often have little to no sensory input • Autonomous vehicles – like mobile robots, they are a combination of vehicle and computer controller • Autonomous cars, autonomous plane drones, autonomous helicopters, autonomous submarines, autonomous space probes • There are different classes of autonomous vehicles based on the level of autonomy, some are only semi-autonomous • Pick and place • Moves items between points • Continuous path control • Moves along a programmable path • Sensory • Employs sensors for feedback Types of robots A SCARA robot (Selective Compliant Articulated Robot Arm): A pick-and-place robot with angular x-y-z positioning (Adept Technology) A six-axis industrial robot ($60K)(Fanuc Robotics), but an additional $200K is often spent for tooling and programming. Robotic manipulators used in manufacturing are examples of fixed robots. They can not move their base away from the work being done. Robot Base: Fixed v/s Mobile Mobile bases are typically platforms with wheels or tracks attached. Instead of wheels or tracks, some robots employ legs in order to move about. Advantages of Robots Robots increase productivity, safety, efficiency, quality, and consistency of products. Robots can work in hazardous environments without the need. Robots need no environmental comfort. Robots work continuously without experiencing fatigue of problem. Robots have repeatable precision at all times. Robots can be much more accurate than human. Robots replace human workers creating economic problems. Robots can process multiple stimuli or tasks simultaneously. Disadvantages of Robots Robots lack capability to respond in emergencies. Robots, although superior in certain senses, have limited capabilities in Degree of freedom, Dexterity, Sensors, Vision system, real time response. Robots are costly, due to Initial cost of equipment, Installation costs, Need for Peripherals, Need for training, Need for programming.