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Presented by : Ms Sabah Faisal
Introduction to
Sookram Sobhan, Polytechnic University
[email protected]
What is a Robot ?
• A machine that resembles a human being and does
mechanical routine tasks on command.
• A robot is a re-programmable, multifunctional
manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools,
or specialized devices through variable programmed
motions for the performance of a variety of tasks.
What is a Robot ?
• A manipulator (or an industrial robot) is
composed of a series of links connected to
each other via joints. Each joint usually has
an actuator (a motor for eg.) connected to it.
• These actuators are used to cause relative
motion between successive links. One end of
the manipulator is usually connected to a
stable base and the other end is used to
deploy a tool.
What defines a robot?
• Sense – A robot has to take in information about its
• Plan – A robot has to use that information to make
a decision
• Act – A robot needs moving parts to carry out
Robot Defined
• Word robot was coined by a Czech novelist Karel
Capek in a 1920 play titled Rossum’s Universal Robots
• Robota in Czech is a word for worker or servant
Definition of robot:
–Any machine made by by one our members: Robot
Institute of America
robot is a reprogrammable, multifunctional
manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools or
specialized devices through variable programmed motions
for the performance of a variety of tasks: Robot Institute of
America, 1979
Robots: An Introduction
• A robot can be defined as a computer controlled machine
with some degrees of freedom
• that is, the ability to move about in its environment
• A robot typically has
• Sensors to sense its environment, particularly to make sure it does
not hit any obstacles in its way
• Goals (otherwise there is no need to have the robot)
• planning to determine how to accomplish those goals
• some robots are pre-programmed with the plan steps to carry out the
given goals so planning is not needed
• path planning to determine how to move about its environment
using the available degrees of freedom
• this may be the motion of an arm to pick something up or it may be a
series of movements to physically move it from location 1 to location 2
• The robot usually has a 3-phase sequence of operations:
sense (perception), process (interpretation and planning),
action (movement of some kind)
Robots Working in the World
Robots Working in the World
Wearable Robotic Arm and
Tele-Operated Robot (KIST)
Robots Working in the World
HONDA (ASIMO) – Biped Robot
Fujitsu – Biped Robot (Laptop Size)
Robots Working in the World
Sony (AIBO) – Toy robot
What ways do robots move?
• Rotate
• Convey
• Walk
• Swim
• Fly
• Reach
• Bend
• Poke
• Roll
Snake Robot
Why Robot needs to go from place to
• Transport goods and materials
• Carry messages
• Get there faster
• Do a task while you’re getting there
or when you get there
• Collect information about what’s there
• Get away from something
What Can Robots Do:
Jobs that are dangerous
for humans
Decontaminating Robot
Cleaning the main circulating pump housing in the
nuclear power plant
What Can Robots Do: II
Repetitive jobs that are boring, stressful,
or labor-intensive for humans
Welding Robot
What Can Robots Do: III
Menial tasks that human
don’t want to do
Industries Using Robots
•Health care: hospitals, patient-care, surgery , research, etc.
•Laboratories: science, engineering , etc.
•Law enforcement: surveillance, patrol, etc.
•Military: demining, surveillance, attack, etc.
•Mining, excavation, and exploration
•Transportation: air, ground, rail, space, etc.
•Utilities: gas, water, and electric
•Material handling
•Material transfer
•Spot welding
•Continuous arc welding
•Spray coating
What Can Robots Do?
Industrial Robots
Material Handling
Spot Welding Manipulator
Assembly Manipulator
Ideal Tasks of a Robot
Tasks which are:
• Dangerous
• Space exploration
• chemical spill cleanup
• disarming bombs
• disaster cleanup
• Boring and/or repetitive
• Welding car frames
• part pick and place
• manufacturing parts.
• High precision or high speed
• Electronics testing
• Surgery
• precision machining.
Current Uses of Robots
• Factory robot uses:
• Mechanical production, e.g., welding, painting
• Packaging – often used in the production of packaged
food, drinks, medication
• Electronics – placing chips on circuit boards
• Automated guided vehicles – robots that move along
tracks, for instance as found in a hospital or
production facility
• Other robot uses:
• Bomb disabling
• Exploration (volcanoes, underwater, other planets)
• Cleaning – at home, lawn mowing, cleaning pipes in
the field, etc
• Fruit harvesting
Robots in Action
Types of Robots
• Mobile robots – robots that move freely in their
• We can subdivide these into indoor robots, outdoor robots,
terrain robots, etc based on the environment(s) they are
programmed to handle
• Robotic arms – stationary robots that have
manipulators, usually used in construction (e.g., car
manufacturing plants)
– These are usually not considered AI because they do not
perform planning and often have little to no sensory input
• Autonomous vehicles – like mobile robots, they are a
combination of vehicle and computer controller
• Autonomous cars, autonomous plane drones, autonomous
helicopters, autonomous submarines, autonomous space
• There are different classes of autonomous vehicles based
on the level of autonomy, some are only semi-autonomous
• Pick and place
• Moves items between
• Continuous path control
• Moves along a
programmable path
• Sensory
• Employs sensors for
Types of robots
A SCARA robot (Selective Compliant
Articulated Robot Arm): A pick-and-place
robot with angular
x-y-z positioning (Adept Technology)
A six-axis industrial robot
($60K)(Fanuc Robotics), but an
additional $200K is often spent
for tooling and programming.
Robotic manipulators used in
manufacturing are examples of
fixed robots. They can not
move their base away from the
work being done.
Robot Base: Fixed v/s Mobile
Mobile bases are typically platforms with wheels or tracks
attached. Instead of wheels or tracks, some robots employ legs in
order to move about.
Advantages of Robots
Robots increase productivity, safety, efficiency, quality, and
consistency of products.
 Robots can work in hazardous environments without the need.
 Robots need no environmental comfort.
 Robots work continuously without experiencing fatigue of
 Robots have repeatable precision at all times.
 Robots can be much more accurate than human.
 Robots replace human workers creating economic problems.
 Robots can process multiple stimuli or tasks simultaneously.
Disadvantages of Robots
Robots lack capability to respond in emergencies.
 Robots, although superior in certain senses, have limited capabilities in
Degree of freedom, Dexterity, Sensors, Vision system, real time
 Robots are costly, due to Initial cost of equipment, Installation costs,
Need for Peripherals, Need for training, Need for programming.
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