close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

код для вставкиСкачать
ATMOSPHERE HEATING RATE:
CLOUD FREE ATMOSPHERE
Words and Equation from Petty: Radiative Heating Rate
Heating Rate Due to Absorption (positive) and emission (negative) by gases
in the atmosphere. Cloud free atmosphere. (Wallace and Hobbs pg 139.)
Solar radiation: Solid curves.
Terrestrial radiation:
Dashed curves.
Heavy Black: Combined effect
of solar and terrestrial radiation.
Notes:
Stratosphere near balance.
CO2 cooling, O3 heating.
Troposphere, water vapor
dominates, with mostly IR
cooling and some solar heating.
BALANCE:
Achieved by addition of latent
and sensible heat from the
surface. The surface is heated
by absorption of solar and IR
radiation.
From
Petty.
Tropical
Atmosphere.
From Petty.
Total heating,
tropics,
dependent
on sun angle.
From
Petty.
From Petty,
dependence
on
geographical
location.
ATMOSPHERE HEATING RATE:
CLOUDY ATMOSPHERE
Schematic of Cloud Heating and Cooling Effects:
Wallace and Hobbs Pg 139.
IR cooling at cloud
top and heating at
cloud base tends to
increase the lapse
rate, promoting
convection.
Daytime heating by
solar radiation heats
cloud tops,
suppressing
convection.
IR Cooling Rates
(from Liou)
Messages:
Clouds are good
absorbers and
emitters of IR
radiation. Solar
heating most at
cloud top, countering
cloud top cooling in
the IR, during day.
Cooling rate is from
the vertical
divergence of the net
irradiance absorbed
and emitted.
dFnet
T
 cp

dz
t
OVERALL RADIATION BALANCE:
Increased solar absorption in
troposphere (lowers albedo) ->
increased IR from atmosphere to
gnd, gnd to atmosphere,
atmosphere to space (response to
lowering albedo).
Radiation Pathways and ‘Budget’
(342 W/m2 is the total Solar 1,370 W/m2 averaged over the Earths’ Surface)
Radiative Balance: Wallace and Hobbs Ch10.
70 net
absorbed
70 net
emitted
100 units solar solar radiation
= 342 W/m2.
Black=Solar Radiation,
Red = IR Radiation.
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа