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Fifteen Years of Routine Aircraft
Observations - MOZAIC
A. Wahner, A. Volz-Thomas
Research Centre Jülich
J.-P. Cammas
CNRS, Université de Toulouse
A. Wahner et al., GEO-workshop 8.10.2009
http://mozaic.aero.obs-mip.fr/
MOZAIC - Measurement of Ozone, Water
Vapour, Carbon Monoxide, and Nitrogen Oxides
by Airbus In-Service Aircraft
Ozone and water vapor in the UT/LS play a key role in climate
• Large variability in space and time.
Comprehensive observations are needed for
• the assessment of climate change
• understanding the interactions between climate and atmospheric chemistry
Passenger aircraft are a powerful observing platform for studies on
• Atmospheric transport and chemical processes
• Budgets of ozone and water vapor in the UT/LS
• Inter-annual variability and longterm trends
• Aircraft impact on the atmosphere
A. Wahner et al., GEO-workshop 8.10.2009
MOZAIC (1994-2009)
1994-2001: ≈ 18000 flights with O3 & H2O
2002-2008: ≈ 13000 additional flights with CO and NOy
A. Wahner et al., GEO-workshop 8.10.2009
Water Vapour – Ice Supersaturation
Most important GHG (2/3 of warming due to water feedback)
• Control of relative humidity in the upper troposphere ?
• Global distribution highly variable (Ice supersaturation)
• Influence on radiation (directly and via cloud formation, -properties ?
P ro pa b ility [% ]
10
ECMWF
40N-60N
8
MOZAIC
6
4
2
0
0
25
50
75 100 125 150 175
Relative Humidity [% , Ice]
A. Wahner et al., GEO-workshop 8.10.2009
CO in the Upper Troposphere
Winter (DJF)
• Biomass burning over Africa
Summer (DJF)
• biomass burning
•boreal regions
•Africa
A. Wahner et al., GEO-workshop 8.10.2009
7
A. Wahner et al., GEO-workshop 8.10.2009
7
07
/0
20
7
06
/0
07
7/
20
0
07
6/
20
0
07
5/
20
0
07
4/
20
0
07
3/
160
20
7
40
05
/0
50
20
60
7
70
04
/0
100
20
EU West
7
40
20
0
50
03
/0
80
07
60
2/
70
20
0
90
O3
20
110
USA East
02
/0
80
CO in ppbv
100
CO in ppbv
120
95
19 /07
96
19 /07
97
19 /07
98
19 /07
99
20 /07
00
20 /07
01
20 /07
02
20 /07
03
20 /07
04
20 /07
05
20 /07
06
20 /07
07
/0
7
19
Ozone in ppbv
110
20
19
95
19 /07
96
19 /07
97
19 /07
98
19 /07
99
20 /07
00
20 /07
01
20 /07
02
20 /07
03
20 /07
04
20 /07
05
20 /07
06
20 /07
07
/0
7
Ozone in ppbv
Trends in the Upper Troposphere
120
180
CO
140
120
100
80
30
180
160
90
140
120
100
80
30
MOZAIC NOy JJA UT
High NOy in UT in summer
(and spring):
Convection and lightning
ppb
A. Wahner et al., GEO-workshop 8.10.2009
MOZART3 NOy JJA 2003 UT
High NOy not seen in global
CTM simulations
ppb
A. Wahner et al., GEO-workshop 8.10.2009
MOZART3 NOy JJA 2003 BL
Surface sources are there:
Convective transport too weak
ppb
A. Wahner et al., GEO-workshop 8.10.2009
MOZAIC data are essential for validation of new
forecast systems in the framework of GMES
EU-Projects in preparation of the GAS
GEMS (2005-2009) FP6
MACC (2009-2012) FP7
(ECMWF, FZJ and CNRS)
A. Wahner et al., GEO-workshop 8.10.2009
Conclusions
 MOZAIC has provided 15 years of high resolution data in the
tropopause region (> 100 Mio km) and 50 000 vertical profiles
in the troposphere for climate and air quality research.
 Europe has a world leading position in this area
 MOZAIC data have been used in more than 130 publications
 The MOZAIC community is developing a new sustainable
infrastructure (IAGOS) which aims at continuing the
observations with enhanced technology, more observables,
and more aircraft for global coverage.
 No other project in sight with similar capabilities
A. Wahner et al., GEO-workshop 8.10.2009
In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System
European Research Infrastructure
www.iagos.org
H2O, O3, CO, CO2
NOy, NOx,
aerosol,
cloud particles
100
H2O, O3,
CO, NOy
Scientific
publications
H2O, O3
1993
1993
50
1996
1999
MOZAIC
2002
2005
2001
CARIBIC
2005
2008
0
IAGOS
2011
2012
MOZAIC – IAGOS Datasets for GEOSS
http://mozaic.aero.obs-mip.fr/
Parameter
From
Until
IAGOS
Ozone
1994
2009
2010
Water Vapour
1994
2009
2010
Carbon Monoxide
2002
2009
2010
Odd Nitrogen (NOy)
2001
2006
2010
Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)
2010
Carbon Dioxide
2011
Methane
2011
Aerosol
2012
Cloud Particles
2010
A. Wahner et al., GEO-workshop 8.10.2009
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