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16 Analysis
Follows on to Coding and Analysis (7)
–Presentations (14)
NEXT CLASS Analysis II
Helene Starks
READ THE ARTICLES SENT OUT
- Malcolm SE, Ng JJ, Rosen RK, Stone VE. An examination of HIV/AIDS patients who have
excellent adherence to HAART. AIDS Care. 2003;15(2):251-261
-Kylma J, Vehvilainen-Julkunen K, Lahdevirta J. Hope, despair and hopelessness in living with
HIV/AIDS: a grounded theory study. J Adv Nurs. March 16, 2001 2001;33(6):764-775
FILL IN THE REVIEW AND SCORE SHEET
AND BRING TO THE CLASS
Learning Objectives
express analysis in terms of different levels,
specialization and applicability to drawing
conclusions
Analysis
what is done between the gathering of data,
and the output,
–usually a report/presentation
an attempt to draw meaning from qualitative
data
Analysis Characteristics
In good analysis researchers clarify their
preferences/orientation/bias/paradigm
–Paradigm: world views, ways of ordering and
simplifying the perceptual world’s overwhelming
complexity by making certain fundamental
assumptions about the nature and
interrelationships of the university, of the individual
and of society
paradigms are normative
Reflect a (usually accepted)standard
Discover by determining what individual views as:
–important and unimportant
–reasonable and unreasonable
–legitimate and illegitimate
–possible and impossible
–what to attend to, and what to ignore
paradigms are learned
theory, method, standards all acquired together in
an inextricable mixture
paradigms
basis for all scientific activity including
–underlying assumptions made
–problem definition
–areas of investigation
–questions posed
–how data will be interpreted
–what conclusions will be drawn
–any recommendations made at the end of the
research process
In any discussion there are three
questions to ask:
What are the facts?
What is the interpretation of those facts.
What are the presuppositions behind the
interpretations.
–That is in what way are you supposedly constrained to
think?
Paradigms
–All theories, methodologies and methods -ULTIMATELY PARADIGM-BASED
–E.g. "dominant ideology" "dominant stratification
ideology" or "logic of opportunity syllogism"
accepted by 70+% of Americans, but not in many
other countries
• opportunity for economic advancement based on hard
work (Protestant work ethic) is plentiful leads to
deductions that:
–individuals are personally responsible for own economic fate,
hence
–resulting inequality distribution of economic rewards is equitable
and fair
VALUE CRITICAL SYSTEMS APPROACH
Tenets
• properties or behavior of each element in the system affect the
properties or behavior of the whole system
• properties or behavior of each element and the way
each affects the whole, are, in turn, affected by the
properties or behavior of at least one other element in
the system
• since each element exerts a non-independent effect on
the whole, a system cannot be understood by analyzing
its elements independently, for each element interacts
with others and each affects the performance of the
whole
• a system is always more than the sum of its parts,
because any system always exhibits some properties or
behavior that none of its elements can
Value Critical: Based on doctrines
of:
expansionism
–all problems are subsets of larger wholes, tend to focus on whole, rather than
parts
relativity
–there are no universal (non-contextual) laws or truths,
–only contextually determined truths
teleology
–all systems are purposeful, hence fundamentally normative and value-laden,
so scientists
and researchers inevitably take sides,
consciously, or unconsciously, and are interested an
influenced by what is good or bad, right or wrong,
what ought to be
–Self-serving
Value Critical: Based on doctrines of:
integrative mode of thinking
conflicting ideologies and purposes are at the heart of every urgent practical
problem
technical and scientific considerations inevitably merge with value structures,
so implicitly or explicitly address issues such as:
»Equity
»POWER
»individual or collective human rights
»social obligation
»guiding ethics
»basic value assumptions
data and findings are less a matter of fact, than of interpretation
»but dominant research paradigm assumes a value-free or
value-neutral approach
Value critical approach
asks that all value-structures, means and ends, basic assumptions
and ethical frames associated with competing perspectives
regarding the problem under study, BE MADE EXPLICIT in order
to subject them to critical review
My value: humans basically act in their best interests given their
circumstances
–E.g. Harlem fires
»Keeping infants malnourished in Madagascar so the families could receive
food supplements
Question the following:
Purpose in doing the research
Problem Identification
–Who has identified the problem, and why is it perceived as a problem,
ie what is explicitly the rationale for such a definition?
»what is known about any given problem depends on how the
problem was defined
–Whose interests are served by defining the problem in this particular
way?
–Are there other stakeholders (individuals or collectivities) in the
outcome of this research project, and therefore, in the way in which
this particular problem is to be defined? If so, have their definitions of
the same problem been considered and given equal consideration? If
not, why not?
FUNDING BIAS
Theory Selection
–Have I made my theoretical framework explicitly?
»Have I made the basic assumptions that underlie the theory
explicitly? That is, have I made the assumptions and the underlying
values that led me to seek this particular theory explicit for all to
see?
–Have the major contending theoretical constructions been examined
critically for “fit” with the problem understudy?
»What are those factors (assumptions, rationale, values, technical
considerations, etc.) that provide the bases for rejecting those
alternative theories
»Have individuals from other disciples of who hold a different
theoretical perspective been consulted for critiques and
suggestions?
–Have the potential consequences for different population groups of
selecting one theory when an alternative theory may in fact be correct
been assessed?
Analysis
every qualitative researcher approaches this
differently
Paradigms in qualitative research (these
terms used below do not have universal
meaning, each writer uses them differently):
Paradigms in Qualitative Research
REALISTS
–social phenomena exist not only in mind, but in
objective world, and there are relationships
among these phenomena
Qualitative Paradigms also called Strategies
interpretivists (symbolic anthropology)
–knowledge, facts, come laden with theory
• e.g. table before me is a desk rather than a dressing
table (interpret certain physical sensations)
• or I feel happy (rather than say, drunk - interpret
physical sensations, and a mental state)
–useful in approaching meaning and action
–many other "paradigms" strategies
• not get bogged down there
Body ritual among the naciremA
Varieties of
Qualitative
Strategies
qualitative research
3 types of questions
1. characteristics of language itself
2. regularities in human experience
3. comprehension of meaning of text or action
Major types of Qualitative Strategies
Ty p e of Re searc h Q ue sti on
S tr ategy
P ara d ig m
Me th od
Ot he r Da ta S ou rc e s
Mea nin g qu estion s - -
P he no m en ology
P hil osop h y
audi o- tap ed co n ve r sa ti on s,
P he no m en olog ica l lit era tu re ;
(ph en om en ology)
wr it te n a n ec d otes of p er sona l
phi lo sop hic al re fl ec ti on s; p oe try , ar t
(E li cit in g essen ce of
ex p er ien ce s)
De scr ip tions qu esti on s – o f
ex p er ien ce s
E thn ogra p hy
va lu es, b eli efs, p ra c tice s of
A nt hr opo logy
U n stru ctu re d int erv iew s;
Doc um en ts; re c or d s; ph otog r ap hs ;
(cul tu re )
p ar ti cipa nt o bs erva ti on s;
m ap s; ge n ea log ies; soc ial n etw or k
fi eld n ot e s
di agra m s
Int erv iew s
P art icip ant o b se rvat ions ; m emo in g;
a cu ltu ra l g r ou p
" Pro c ess"
G ro und ed the ory
qu esti on s—ex p er ie nc e
S oc iology (sy mb oli c
in te rac tio n alis m )
d airy
over t im e or c ha n ge ; may
h ave stages an d p ha ses
Qu esti on s regar din g
E thn ome th od ology;
ver b al int era c tion a nd
di sco u rse ana lysi s
S emi ot ics
D ialog u e
Ob se r vat ion s; fi eldn otes
A nt hr opo logy
Ob se r vat ion s; field n otes
in te rv iews , ph otogra p hs
Zoo logy
ob se r vat ion s
vid eo tap e s;
di alogu e
B e hav iora l q ue sti on s
Macro
P art icip ant
ob se r vat ion
M icro
Qu alitati ve eth ology
n ot e taki ng
features of qualitative research:
intense or prolonged contact with "field" or life situation (which are normal in
the sense of everyday phenomena)
researcher attempts to gain "holistic" overview of study question
researcher tries to get emic view
in process researcher may isolate themes (interpretation) (informants may
not necessarily agree with interpretation)
task is to try to explain ways people manage/understand day-to-day
situations
–many ways to interpret this material, some may be more
compelling than others
no standard instrument for doing this
words are the key features of qualitative analysis
– computers make words too easily accessible
Bernard Chapter 16, 17
process of analysis (looking for patterns in data
and explanation of why patterns there) via
–Coding
–looking for themes (he doesn't call them that,
Spradley uses that word, Bernard talks more
about analytic categories)
–matrix displays (profile and proximity)
–causal flowcharts (far advanced into analysis
when can draw these)
CON TACT SUMMARY FO RM
Contact type:
Visit
Phone
_____________ ______
____ _______________
(with whom)
Site:
________________
Contact date: ________________
Today's date: ____________ ____
Written by:
_____ ___________
1.
What were the main issues or themes that struck you in this contact?
2.
Summarizre the information you got (or failed to get) on each of the target questions yo u
had for this contact?
Q uestion
Information
3.
Anthing else that struck you as salient, interesting, illuminating or important in this contact?
4.
What new (or remaining) target questions do you have in considering the next contact with
this site?
Type of contact:
1.
PAGE
CONTACT SUMMARY FORM WITH CODED THEMES
Mtg. _______________ ___________________ _____________
place
date
Phone ______________
with whom, by whom
___________________
place
_____________
date
Inf. Int. _____________
with whom, by whom
___________________
place
_____________
date
SITE ______________
Coder ______________
Date coded __________
Pick out the most salient points in the contact. Number in order on this sheet and note page number on which point appears.
Number point in text of write-up. Attach theme or aspect to each point in
CAPITALS . Invent themes where no existing ones
apply and asterisk those. Comment may also be included in double parentheses.
SALIENT POINTS
THEMES/ASPECTS
DOCUMENT SUMMARY FORM
Name or description of document:
Event or contact, if any, with which document is associated:
Significance or importance of document:
Brief summary of contents:
IF DOCUMENT IS CENTRAL OR CRUCIAL TO A PARTICULAR CONTACT
(e.g. a meeting agenda, newspaper clipping discussed in an intervie w)
make a copy and include with write up. Otherwise put in document file .
Site: ____________
Document: ____________
Date received or picked up: ___ _________
Cycle of
data --->analysis/interpretation---> data
monitor & report your own thought processes
as much as possible (keep info on decision
you make about coding & extracting
patterns), ie keep a log book
Analytic Foci
chronological
key events
setting
GRAND THEORY
Mid-Range Theory
meaning, interaction
people
processes
issues
patterns, grouping
describing items, concepts
Analytic Foci: Chronological
Big Time
Series of events:
Determinants of Health
Development at FIUTS
Trader Jo's
Blood Donors
Colonics
University Police
Madison Markets
Elevator riders
GRAND THEORY
Mid-Range Theory
meaning, interaction
patterns, grouping
describing items, concepts
Analytic Foci: Key events
Big Time
Determinants of Health
Development at FIUTS
Trader Jo's
GRAND THEORY
Mid-Range Theory
meaning, interaction
Blood Donors
Colonics
University Police
Madison Markets
Elevator riders
patterns, grouping
describing items, concepts
Analytic Foci: settings,
Big Time
Determinants of Health
Development at FIUTS
places, sites, locations, then
cross-setting analysis
how does behavior change in
different sites, why?
Trader Jo's
Blood Donors
Colonics
University Police
Madison Markets
Elevator riders
GRAND THEORY
Mid-Range Theory
meaning, interaction
patterns, grouping
describing items, concepts
Analytic Foci: People
Big Time
Determinants of Health
people (within or across
cases),
Development at FIUTS
Trader Jo's
Blood Donors
Colonics
GRAND THEORY
Mid-Range Theory
meaning, interaction
patterns, grouping
University Police
Madison Markets
Elevator riders
describing items, concepts
Analytic Foci: Processes
Big Time
Determinants of Health
Development at FIUTS
control, recruitment,
decision making,
socialization,
communication, etc.
Trader Jo's
Blood Donors
Colonics
GRAND THEORY
Mid-Range Theory
meaning, interaction
patterns, grouping
University Police
Madison Markets
Elevator riders
describing items, concepts
Analytic Foci: issues
Big Time
Determinants of Health
Development at FIUTS
Trader Jo's
Blood Donors
Colonics
University Police
Madison Markets
Elevator riders
GRAND THEORY
Mid-Range Theory
meaning, interaction
patterns, grouping
describing items, concepts
Bernard: text analysis
hermaneutics: looking for meanings and
interconnection in expression of culture, began
with seeking truths, interpretation of scriptures
narrative and performance analysis: looking at how
people give speeches or tell stories
–example May 21, 2002 Lakewood, going to Walmart
bathroom
schema analysis
discourse analysis
Grounded theory
identify concepts from text, and link them into theories
(discovery hypothesis)
Mechanics
–produce transcripts of interviews and read
through text parts
–identify themes/analytic categories
–compare themes/categories
–think about how themes are linked together
–build models using relations among categories
–present results using quotes that illuminate
theory
Analysis focus for SF Street youth
"Using methods developed by Strauss and Glaser, the
investigator and co-investigator read and handcoded field notes and interview data during weekly
analytic sessions. Analytic sessions were
summarized in written memos. Concepts in the text
were identified and labeled. Similar concepts were
grouped into categories. Categories and relationships
among categories were then used to generate a
preliminary model. This provisional model was tested
through theoretical sampling, a method of targeted
sampling of subjects in the field based on emerging
concepts in the analysis"
Value Critical with SF Homeless youth
“In our efforts to understand the reasons behind the
high levels of risk-taking and low levels of service
utilization in this population, we have been guided by
our clinical and research experience that sociocultural
context strongly influences the decisions people make,
including decisions regarding risky behaviors. Social
epidemiologists have argued that to understand
individuals’ decisions regarding health-related
behaviors, we must understand that the social context
of people’s lives shapes norms, expectations,
opportunities to engage in risk (or avoid it), and
exposure to stresses or changes for which risky
behaviors may represent effective short-term
coping behaviors.”
SF Youth Model similar to others:
“…lives of the marginalized and homeless
are not simply chaotic, but instead follow
reproducible patterns;
…marginalized youth and adults share
belief systems that reinforce and
rationalize their inability to exit their
marginalized roles.”
Content analysis
(test hypothesis)
develop set of codes, and apply them to the text
can use statistical methods to analyze the results
Ethnographic decision Models
Folk Taxonomies
Componential Analysis
MATRIX FOR CONSTRUCTING A DOMAIN ANALYSIS
COVER TERM
SEMANTIC
RELATIONSHIP
BOUNDARIES
Related terms/items that are not part of the domain
(esp ecially mention ed by informant as no t
part o f the do main)
INCLUDED TERMS
Componential Analysis
specify conditions under what a native speaker of a
language will call something by a particular term
understand cognitive process by which native
speakers decide which of several particular terms
they should apply to a particular thing
–ie. try to distinguish items within a domain
Pattern Identification
Descriptive
–what are different types/categories of response?
–how frequently are the different types/categories of
response mentioned?
• free lists are easiest way to get this
–what are the key quotes or observations which illustrate the
main theme?
Pattern Identification: Interpretive
What is relative priority of different types/categories of response? How is this
expressed?
What is level of agreement between respondents (are there several different
cultural models, or is it all the same model?) Bernard Table 16.1
How do these types/categories of response relate to each other ie what is the
interrelationship between these causes
How do these patterns relate to patterns you have identified in other analyses? Is there
synergy?
Do the data collected using different techniques appear to validate the patterns you
see? (triangulation)
Do the data satisfactorily answer your research question? Is there a next step?
Chart for Checking the Shared Char acter
of a Perspective Offered by Informants
Volu nteered
to observer
Observer
I
V
II
VI
individual
III
VII
group
IV
VIII
alone
Statements
Directed by
Total
to others in
everyday
conversation
Behavior or
Activities
TOTAL
Bernard Table 16.1
NEXT CLASS Analysis II
Helene Starks
READ THE ARTICLES SENT OUT
Class Exercise (30 minutes)
Each Group to write 3 themes they have
discovered, and an illustrating quote for
each theme
–consider their paradigm or value or belief
–PARADIGM WILL BE DIFFICULT TO
CONCEPTUALIZE
we will then take those themes and see how
they can be linked to a paradigm
CLASS to consider overall paradigm/belief
system/orientation
Group
Themes Quotes
Paradigm
Big Time
Determinants
of Health
GRAND THEORY
Mid-Range Theory
meaning, interaction
patterns, grouping
describing items, concepts
Development
at FIUTS
Blood Donors
1/--страниц
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