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53:071 Hydraulics and Hydrology
Project #1
Pelton Turbine
Allen Bradley, Loren Wehmeyer,
Li-Chuan Chen, and Marian Muste
Problem Statement
A children’s museum in Colorado has
purchased a small Pelton turbine for its
new display on renewable energy.
Problem Statement
The museum wishes to operate the
turbine (with available flows) and sell
the power on the open market.
You have been hired as a consultant to
the museum.
Project Objective
Your job is to determine energy (kWh)
that can be generated from the
laboratory-scale Pelton turbine, and the
revenue it can generate ($/year) for the
museum.
Site Information
The effective head
for operations at
the site is about
120 ft
Variations in the
forebay elevation
are assumed to be
minor
Operational Information
The museum will operate the turbine 7
days a week (9 am to 4 pm).
The museum has secured water rights
to divert flows from the South Platte
River. The allotted diversion depends
on the average monthly flow rate in the
river.
Laboratory Component
Determine the energy conversion
efficiency of the laboratory-scale Pelton
turbine for the proposed operating
conditions (Havailable, Q)
Engineering Analysis Components
Compute the energy produced (kWh/yr)
if operated as planned.
Estimate the revenue that can be
generated if the energy is sold on the
open market ($/year).
Prepare a one-page flyer on the exhibit
(for distribution to museum visitors).
Principle
Pavailable  QHavailable
y
A
Control
surface
Turbine
shaft
Torque
on shaft
x
z
P  T  2NT
r
Vj
Entering jet
Nozzle
A
Exiting jet
(nil velocity)

P
Pavailable
Principle
240
10%
210
20%
30% 40%
Nozzle
full open
50%
3/4 open
180
5/8 open
60%
Q (L/m)
150
T
1/2 open
120
1/4 open
90
1/8 open
60
30
0
0
500
1000
1500
Speed (rpm)
2000
2500
3000
Laboratory Objective
To determine energy conversion
efficiency () for the laboratory-scale
Pelton turbine for three operational
discharges (Q)
Laboratory Apparatus
Laboratory Procedures
1. TA sets the discharge and initial measuring
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
speed with the brake off
Tighten the friction hand-wheel and record the
torque and rotational speed
Repeat Step 2 with ∆N ≈ 50-100 rpm until the
rotational speed reaches about 500 rpm
Measure the head on the weir (H1) and record
the reference point (H0)
TA adjusts to a lower discharge and initial
rotational speed
Repeat Steps 1 to 5
Data Sheet
Data Acquisition
H0
Run
1
Run
2
H1
Pres.
T
Data Reduction
N
Q
Pavai
P
η
Laboratory Analysis
Determine the discharge using
Q=2.49(H1-H0)2.48.
Determine the efficiency of the turbine.
Plot the rotational speed vs. the
efficiency of the turbine.
Show results for the three different
discharges.
Sample Result
efficiency
Efficiency curve
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
High flow
moderate flow
low flow
0
500
1000
1500
rotational speed (rpm)
2000
Project Report
Provide the client (the museum
director) with a concise report that
answers the project objectives
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