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Explanation of Terms
Phonological awareness
Phonemic awareness (p.a.)
Phonics (alphabetic principle,
letter-sound knowledge)
Orthographic skills
Blend (n)
Sight word
Sight vocabulary
Onset and rime
A broad term; an awareness of the sounds of the
English language, including rhythm, rhyme,
pattern of intonation, and single sounds
A single sound; the smallest part of the English
language that makes a difference to a word; e.g.
log and dog differ by one phoneme;
May be represented by one letter or more,
e.g. t th ng ough
Awareness of the individual sounds of the
English language
The relationship between letters and the sounds
they represent; not the same as phonemic
awareness; but builds on phonemic awareness
The “picture of the word”; including spelling
A unit of meaning; e.g. –s, -ing, dis- un-, and
whole words
A letter or combination of letters that represents
one phoneme in the spelling of a word; e.g. t, sh,
ph, tch, igh,
Two consecutive letters that represent one
phoneme; e.g. ph, th, ck, oa, ea, oy, ay
Two letters that frequently go together in words,
and are said quickly, but which are two distinct
A single phoneme that slides from one vowel
sound to another
Knowing something, like a sight word or
combination of letters, so thoroughly that virtually
no cognitive effort is required to remember it
The ability of the human speech apparatus to
compress and merge sounds together so they
are heard as seamless speech
Words that cannot be decoded and have to be
learnt by sight, such as have, was, said
Words that are automatically recognised by sight,
not just sight words
Intra-syllabic units
Onset – the phoneme(s) before the vowel
Rime – the vowel and following phonemes
b at
tr ain
str ipe
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