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Oracle at Delphi
The reason I am
smarter than
anyone else is
because I know
I know nothing.




COLLECTIVE INQUIRY
AN EXCHANGE OF IDEAS
NOT A TRANSMISSION OF INFORMATION
WITHOUT “RIGHT” ANSWERS

The goal is an enlarged, shared
understanding of ideas, issues, or values
through
DIALOGUE

It is NOT
DEBATE
DIALOGUE
IS COLLABORATIVE

Multiple sides work toward
shared understanding
DEBATE
IS OPPOSITIONAL

Two opposing sides try to
prove each other wrong
IN DIALOGUE

One listens
IN DEBATE

One listens
 To understand
 To find flaws
 To make meaning
 To spot differences
 To find common ground
 To counter arguments
DIALOGUE

Reveals assumptions for
examination and
reevaluation
DEBATE

Defends assumptions as
truth
DIALOGUE

Creates an open-minded
attitude:
 an openness to being wrong
 An openness to change
DEBATE

Creates a close-minded
attitude:
 A determination to be right
IN DIALOGUE

One submits one’s best
thinking, expecting other
people’s reflections will
help improve it, rather than
threaten it
IN DEBATE

One submits one’s best
thinking and defends it
against challenge to show
that it is right
DIALOGUE

Calls for temporarily
suspending one’s beliefs
DEBATE

Calls for investing
wholeheartedly in one’s
beliefs
IN DIALOGUE

One searches for strengths
in all positions
IN DEBATE

One searches for
weaknesses in the other
position
DIALOGUE

Respects all the other
participants and seeks NOT
to alienate or offend
DEBATE

Rebuts contrary positions
and may belittle or
deprecate other
participants
DIALOGUE

Assumes that many people
have pieces of answers and
that cooperation can lead
to greater understanding
DEBATE

Assumes a single right
answer that somebody
already has
DIALOGUE

Remains open-ended.
DEBATE

Demands a conclusion.
INNER CIRCLE

SPEAKING
OUTER CIRCLE

OBSERVING
Inner Group #1 – discusses the topic for 15 minutes
Outer Group #1 – May enter discussion by posing
questions and assertions to inner participants based
upon their outer circle tasks notes. This involves both
circles and lasts 10 minutes
 Inner Group #2 – assumes the inner circle seats and
discusses same or new topic for 15 minutes
 Outer Group #2 – gets to enter discussion for the
following 10 minutes based on outer circle task sheet
notes
 This leaves approximately 10 minutes for a wrap up of
key points


SOCRATIC SEMINAR
GUIDELINES
OTHER
COMPONENTS



PARTICIPANTS
LEADER
TEXT
 All participants read the text in
advance.

QUESTIONS
 Prepare open-ended questions in
advance that reflect genuine
curiosity, and have no ‘one right
answer’!
SOCRATIC SEMINAR
GUIDELINES
OTHER
COMPONENTS

DON’T RAISE HANDS

LISTEN CAREFULLY

WAIT FOR YOUR TURN- BE
SENSITIVE AND DO NOT
INTERRUPT OTHERS

ADDRESS ONE ANOTHER
RESPECTFULLY
SOCRATIC SEMINAR
GUIDELINES
OTHER
COMPONENTS

ADDRESS COMMENTS TO THE
ENTIRE GROUP ( NO SIDE
CONVERSATIONS)

MONITOR ‘AIR TIME’ (NO
HOGGING – LET EVERYONE
HAVE A CHANCE TO SPEAK)

BASE ALL OPINION ON THE
TEXT AND BE ABLE TO REFER
OTHERS TO IT
SOCRATIC SEMINAR
GUIDELINES
OTHER
COMPONENTS

BE COURAGEOUS IN
PRESENTING YOUR OWN
THOUGHTS AND REASONING,
BUT BE FLEXIBLE AND
WILLING TO CHANGE YOUR
MIND IN THE FACE OF NEW
AND COMPELLING EVIDENCE
SOCRATIC SEMINAR
GUIDELINES
OTHER COMPONENTS







Refer to the text when needed during the
discussion. A seminar is not a test of memory. You
are not “learning a subject;” your goal is to
understand ideas, issues and values reflected in
the text.
It s OK to “pass” when asked to contribute (but you
need to make at least 2 comments to receive
credit).
Do not participate if you are not prepared. A
seminar should not be a bull session
Do not stay confused; ask for clarification.
Stick to the point currently under discussion; make
notes about ideas you want to come back to.
Speak so that everyone can hear you.
YOU are responsible for the seminar. (If the
seminar sucks, that’s on you; if it rocks, that’s on
you too!)
POSITIVE








Taking a position
Making a relevant comment
Offering evidence to support
your position
Drawing another person into
the discussion
Asking a clarifying question
Making an analogy
Recognizing a contradiction
Recognizing an irrelevant
comment
NEGATIVE





Not paying attention (in inner
or outer circle)
Interrupting the seminar
Making an irrelevant
comment
Making a personal attack
Monopolizing the
conversation
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