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Understanding and Applying Valid
Metrics Guidelines
February, 2011
The Valid Metrics Guidelines
•
The Valid Metrics guidelines were developed by an AMEC taskforce
following the launch of the Barcelona Principles. The initial draft of the
guidelines were previewed at the IPR Measurement Summit in Portsmouth
USA, in October 2010 and made available for public comment. Input was
received from a number of international industry bodies, including the CIPR,
PRCA, PRSA and IPR. The final guidelines were then presented at the
London Measurement Conference run by AMEC and PRSA in November
2010, supported by CIPR and PRCA.
•
These guidelines should serve as a framework for indentifying possible
metrics for individual PR programs. They are not intended to be the
definitive rules of measurement and therefore do not include every possible
metric. As all PR programs need customized measurement, the user should
feel free to consider other metrics which demonstrate progress against
objectives and combine metrics as needed to suit the details of the
communications program under consideration.
Understanding the Valid Metrics
Guidelines
Philosophy Behind the Guidelines
•
The AVE taskforce faced two primary challenges as it developed the
structure for the guidelines:
1. The industry has become used to AVEs, even though there is no single perfect
metric to measure the entire breadth of PR. PR addresses multiple publics and
has multiple forms of impact. Recognizing the many achievements of PR
requires more than one metric.
2. To truly demonstrate the value of PR, metrics need to be linked to the business
objective of the program. The guidelines are therefore based on the philosophy
that PR measurement has to move beyond measuring outputs to measuring
outcomes.
3. As a result, the taskforce came to the conclusion that PR measurement needs to
be shown as a continuum of metrics – starting with outputs, but including
outcomes and ultimately business results – with the desired business results
corresponding to the campaign objective.
Understanding the Matrix
•
The matrix was constructed to reflect the simplified process of how PR
works:
1. Public Relations Activity – metrics reflecting the process of producing or
disseminating the desired messages
2. Intermediary Effect – metrics reflecting the third party dissemination of the
messages to the target audience
3. Target Audience Effect – metrics showing that the target audience has received
the communications and any resulting action-driven outcomes
A (Very) Simplified View of How PR Works
PR Activity
• The PR professional
creates and tells the story
Intermediary
• The story is distributed
through a third party
Target
Audience
• The story is consumed
by the target audience
Business Results
What about Outputs, Outtakes, Outcomes?
PR Activity
Intermediary
• What was created/carried
out
• What was carried by the
third party that could impact
the target audience
(OUTPUTS)
Target
Audience
• The impact on the target
audience (OUTTAKES,
OUTCOMES)
Business Results
Understanding the Matrix, cont.
•
The matrix was then applied to a series of grids, recognizing that the
desired business result for different types of campaigns varies according to
the objective. Each grid pertains to a different function of PR/Public Affairs.
While each grid outlines specific metrics for its campaign objectives, there is
some overlap. The desired business result for each type of campaign is
captured in the final box on the grid.
•
The continuum concept was also applied to how communications are
received by the target audience. The horizontal axis is based on the
Communication or Marketing Funnel. Metrics have been grouped under
these stages to help PR practitioners demonstrate how communications are
absorbed in nomenclature that marketers understand.
Aligning with the Communication Funnel
AWARENESS
KNOWLEDGE
INTEREST
PREFERENCE
ACTION
Applying the Matrix
•
There are five simple steps to applying the matrix:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Choose the grid that is relevant to the campaign being measured.
In the “Public Relations Activities” row, determine the activities being conducted
for the campaign and identify metrics for each.
In the “Intermediary Effect” row, review the suggested metrics and determine
which are appropriate to collect, given the resources available. Try to apply as
many of these metrics as possible.
In the “Target Audience Effect” row, review the suggested metrics and again
determine which are appropriate given the resources available. Some require a
survey, which can be done cost-effectively through online polls. Others can be
gathered through web analytics and from online communities.
In the “Action” box, determine which of the business or organizational outcomes
are relevant to the client and are feasible to track. Identify at least one as the
ultimate objective of the campaign.
Points to Note
•
•
•
•
•
Once selected, the metrics should be tracked over time to identify trends.
Consider plotting outcome metrics from the “Target Audience Effect” row
against metrics from the “Intermediary Effect” row to show correlations.
Consider applying cost per thousand (CPM) calculations against the
“Intermediary Effect” and “Target Audience Effect” metrics. CPM is
calculated by dividing the total cost by the relevant number to get cost per
message, cost per article, etc.
Approaches using gross rating points (GRP), which measure reach against
percent of total population, and target rating points (TRP), which measure
reach against percent of targeted population, can also be applied to
“Intermediary Effect” metrics if relevant population numbers are available.
The grids are not exhaustive and there may be other metrics that are
appropriate to the campaign being measured.
The Valid Metrics Matrix
COMMUNICATION / MARKETING FUNNEL
Awareness
Knowledge/
Understanding
Interest/
Consideration
Preference/
Support
Action
Public
Relation
Activity
P
H
A
S
E
S
Intermediary
Effect
Target
Audience
Effect
Org/
Biz
Result
Brand / Product
Marketing
Awareness
Public
Relations
Activity
• Media
engagement
• Blogger
engagement
• Influencer
engagement
• Events/
speaking
opportunities
• Content
creation
• Site/social
media posts
Intermediary
Effect
(Media, Bloggers)
Target
Audience
Effect
(Customers and
Consumers)
Knowledge
Consideration
Preference
Action
Brand / Product
Marketing
Awareness
Knowledge
Consideration
Preference
• Number of
articles
• Frequency
• Prominence
• Target
audience
reach/
impressions
• Earned media
site visitors
• Social network
site/channel
visitors
• Video views
• Cost per
thousand
reached
• SOV in target
media/online
discussion
• Key message
alignment
• Accuracy of
facts
• Key message
alignment
• Expressed
opinions
• Frequency of
(positive)
mentions
• SOV in target
media/online
discussion
• Social network
fans and
followers
• Retweets/likes/
linkbacks
• Online
comments
• Endorsement
by journalists
and/or
influencers
• Expressed
recommendations
• Rankings on
industry lists
• Social network
fans and
followers
• Retweets/likes/
linkbacks
• Online
comments
Public
Relations
Activity
Intermediary
Effect
(Media, Bloggers)
Target
Audience
Effect
Action
Brand / Product
Marketing
Awareness
Knowledge
Consideration
Preference
Action
• Unaided
awareness
• Aided
awareness
• Knowledge of
company,
product
attributes and
features
• Brand
association
and
differentiation
• Expressed
opinions in
online
communities
• Brand/product
relevance to
consumer/
customer
• Visitors to site
• Click-thru to
site
• Time spent on
site
• Site downloads
• Calls to infoline
• Event/meeting
attendance
• Attitude uplift
• Purchase
consideration
• Brand
preference/
loyalty/trust
• Expressed
advocacy
• Links to site
• Requests for
quote
• RFPs/RFQs
(B2B)
• Product trials
• Leads
generated
• Sales
• Market share
• Cost per
thousand sold
• Cost savings
• Customer
loyalty
Public
Relations
Activity
Intermediary
Effect
(Media, Bloggers)
Target
Audience
Effect
(Customers and
Consumers)
Applying the Approach to Other Objectives
COMMUNICATION / MARKETING FUNNEL
Awareness
Knowledge/
Understanding
Interest/
Consideration
Preference/
Support
Action
Public
Relation
Activity
P
H
A
S
E
S
Intermediary
Effect
Target
Audience
Effect
Org/
Biz
Result
Brand / Product
Marketing
Awareness
Public
Relations
Activity
• Media engagement
• Blogger engagement
• Influencer
engagement
• Events/ speaking
opportunities
• Content creation
• Site/social media
posts
Intermediary
Effect
•
•
•
•
(Media, Bloggers)
•
•
•
•
•
Target
Audience
Effect
(Customers and
Consumers)
Number of articles
Frequency
Prominence
Target audience
reach/ impressions
Earned media site
visitors
Social network
site/channel visitors
Video views
Cost per thousand
reached
SOV in target
media/online
discussion
• Unaided awareness
• Aided awareness
Knowledge
Consideration
Preference
• Key message
alignment
• Accuracy of facts
• Key message
alignment
• Expressed opinions
• Frequency of
(positive) mentions
• SOV in target
media/online
discussion
• Social network fans
and followers
• Retweets/likes/
linkbacks
• Online comments
• Endorsement by
journalists and/or
influencers
• Expressed
recommendations
• Rankings on industry
lists
• Social network fans
and followers
• Retweets/likes/
linkbacks
• Online comments
• Knowledge of
company, product
attributes and
features
• Brand association
and differentiation
• Expressed opinions
in online communities
• Brand/product
relevance to
consumer/ customer
• Visitors to site
• Click-thru to site
• Time spent on site
• Site downloads
• Calls to infoline
• Event/meeting
attendance
• Attitude uplift
• Purchase
consideration
• Brand preference/
loyalty/trust
• Expressed advocacy
• Links to site
• Requests for quote
• RFPs/RFQs (B2B)
• Product trials
Action
•
•
•
•
Leads generated
Sales
Market share
Cost per thousand
sold
• Cost savings
• Customer loyalty
Reputation
Building
Awareness
Public
Relations
Activity
• Media engagement
• Blogger engagement
• Influencer
engagement
• Events/ speaking
opportunities
• Content creation
• Site/social media
posts
Intermediary
Effect
•
•
•
•
(Media, Bloggers)
•
•
•
•
•
Target
Audience
Effect
(Multiple
Stakeholders)
Number of articles
Frequency
Prominence
Target audience
reach/ impressions
Earned media site
visitors
Social network
site/channel visitors
Video views
Cost per thousand
reached
SOV in target
media/online
discussion
• Unaided awareness
• Aided awareness
Knowledge
Interest
Preference
• Key message
alignment
• Accuracy of facts
• Key message
alignment
• Expressed opinions
• Frequency of
(positive) mentions
• SOV in target
media/online
discussion
• Social network fans
and followers
• Retweets/likes/
linkbacks
• Online comments
• Endorsement by
journalists and/or
influencers
• Expressed
recommendations
• Rankings on industry
lists
• Social network fans
and followers
• Retweets/likes/
linkbacks
• Online comments
• Knowledge of
company profile and
offer
• Expressed opinions
in online communities
• Acknowledge-ment of
relevance of
company by
stakeholders
• Visitors to site
• Click-thru to site
• Time spent on site
• Site downloads
• Calls to infoline
• Event/meeting
attendance
• Attitude uplift
• Uplift in reputation
drivers (e.g. Trust,
Admiration)
• Belief in corporate
brand
• Expressed advocacy
• Links to site
• Relationships with
key stakeholders
Action
•
•
•
•
•
•
Sales
Market share
Cost savings
Customer loyalty
Share price
Talent retention and
recruitment
• Legislation change
• Regulation change
Issue Advocacy
/Support
Awareness
Public
Relations
Activity
• Media engagement
• Blogger engagement
• Influencer
engagement
• Events/ speaking
opportunities
• Content creation
• Site/social media
posts
Intermediary
Effect
•
•
•
•
(Media, Bloggers)
•
•
•
•
•
Target
Audience
Effect
(General Public)
Number of articles
Frequency
Prominence
Target audience
reach/ impressions
Earned media site
visitors
Social network
site/channel visitors
Video views
Cost per thousand
reached
SOV in target
media/online
discussion
• Unaided awareness
• Aided awareness
Understanding
Interest
Support
• Key message
alignment
• Accuracy of facts
• Key message
alignment
• Expressed opinions
• Frequency of
(positive) mentions
• SOV in target
media/online
discussion
• Social network fans
and followers
• Retweets/likes/
linkbacks
• Online comments
• Endorsement by
journalists and/or
influencers
• Expressed
recommendations
• Rankings on industry
lists
• Social network fans
and followers
• Retweets/likes/
linkbacks
• Online comments
• Knowledge of issue
• Knowledge of client
POV
• Expressed opinions
in online communities
• Acknowledge-ment of
relevance of issue by
target audience
• Visitors to site
• Click-thru to site
• Time spent on site
• Site downloads
• Calls to infoline
• Event/meeting
attendance
• Attitude uplift
• Expressed advocacy
• Links to site
Action
• Letters of support (to
Congressmen, MPs,
etc.)
• Registrations to join
support group
• Donations
• Sponsorship
• Legislation change
• Regulation change
• Cost savings
Public
Education/
Not-for-Profit
Awareness
Public
Relations
Activity
• Media engagement
• Blogger engagement
• Influencer
engagement
• Events/ speaking
opportunities
• Content creation
• Site/social media
posts
Intermediary
Effect
•
•
•
•
(Media, Bloggers)
•
•
•
•
•
Target
Audience
Effect
(General Public)
Number of articles
Frequency
Prominence
Target audience
reach/ impressions
Earned media site
visitors
Social network
site/channel visitors
Video views
Cost per thousand
reached
SOV in target
media/online
discussion
• Unaided awareness
• Aided awareness
Understanding
Interest
Support
• Key message
alignment
• Accuracy of facts
• Key message
alignment
• Expressed opinions
• Frequency of
(positive) mentions
• SOV in target
media/online
discussion
• Social network fans
and followers
• Retweets/likes/
linkbacks
• Online comments
• Endorsement by
journalists and/or
influencers
• Expressed
recommendations
• Rankings on industry
lists
• Social network fans
and followers
• Retweets/likes/
linkbacks
• Online comments
• Knowledge of facts
• Expressed opinions
in online communities
• Acknowledge-ment of
relevance of issue by
target audience
• Visitors to site
• Click-thru to site
• Time spent on site
• Site downloads
• Calls to infoline
• Event/meeting
attendance
• Expressed advocacy
• Links to site
Action
• Progress against
target (e.g. reduction
in teen pregnancies)
• Cost savings
Crisis & Issues
Management
Awareness
Public
Relations
Activity
• Media engagement
• Blogger engagement
• Influencer
engagement
• Events/ speaking
opportunities
• Content creation
• Site/social media
posts
Intermediary
Effect
(Media, Bloggers)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Target
Audience
Effect
(Multiple
Stakeholders)
Balanced (not total)
coverage measured
through:
Number of articles
Frequency
Prominence
Target audience
reach/ impressions
Earned media site
visitors
Social network
site/channel visitors
Video views
Cost per thousand
reached
SOV in target
media/online
discussion
• Increase or decrease
(dependent on
objective) in:
• Unaided
awareness
• Aided awareness
Knowledge
Interest
Support
• Key message
alignment
• Accuracy of facts
• Key message
alignment
• Expressed opinions
• Frequency of
positive and neutral
mentions vs.
negative mentions
• Social network fans
and followers (for
client and supporters
vs. adversaries)
• Retweets/likes/
linkbacks
• Online comments
• Endorsement by
journalists and/or
influencers
• Social network fans
and followers (for
client and supporters
vs. adversaries)
• Retweets/likes/
linkbacks
• Online comment
• Knowledge of facts of
the situation
• Knowledge of
company POV
• Expressed opinions
in online communities
•
•
•
•
•
•
• Negativity towards
company offset by
neutral and positive
opinion
• Minimal downward
movement on
reputation drivers
• Belief in company/
brand
• Expressed advocacy
Visitors to site
Click-thru to site
Time spent on site
Site downloads
Calls to infoline
Event/meeting
attendance
Action
• Minimal change in
share price/ earnings
multiple
• Minimal change in
market share/ sales/
customer loyalty
• Cost savings
Investor
Relations
Awareness
Public
Relations
Activity
• Media engagement
• Blogger engagement
• Influencer
engagement
• Events/ speaking
opportunities
• Content creation
• Site/social media
posts
Intermediary
Effect
•
•
•
•
(Media, Bloggers)
•
•
•
•
•
Target
Audience
Effect
(Financial
Community)
Number of articles
Frequency
Prominence
Target audience
reach/ impressions
Earned media site
visitors
Social network
site/channel visitors
Video views
Cost per thousand
reached
SOV in target
media/online
discussion
• Unaided awareness
• Aided awareness
• Coverage in analyst
reports
Knowledge
Consideration
Preference
• Key message
alignment
• Accuracy of facts
• Key message
alignment
• Expressed opinions
• Frequency of
(positive) mentions
• SOV in target
media/online
discussion
• Social network fans
and followers
• Retweets/likes/
linkbacks
• Online comments
• Endorsement by
journalists and/or
influencers
• Expressed
recommendations
• Rankings on industry
lists
• Social network fans
and followers
• Retweets/likes/
linkbacks
• Online comments
• Knowledge of
company profile and
offer
• Visitors to IR section
of site
• Click-thru to IR
section
• Time spent on IR
section
• Site downloads
• Calls for more
information
• Event/meeting
attendance
• Attitude uplift
• Endorsement
Action
•
•
•
•
Share price
Earnings multiple
Earnings per share
Successful
IPO/merger/
acquisition
Employee
Engagement
Awareness
Public
Relations
Activity
• Town Halls/Events
• Workshops
• Content creation,
e.g. internal
newsletters,
memos, speeches
• Intranet/social
media posts
Target
Audience
Effect
• Reach of
newsletters/
emails/intranet
across all
employee groups
and levels
(Employees)
Understanding
Interest
Support
Action
• Knowledge of CEO
vision
• Knowledge of
company strategy/
values/polices
• Expressed
opinions in
employee blogs
and online
communities
• Visitors to intranet
• Click-thru to
intranet
• Time spent on
intranet
• Intranet downloads
• Town hall/event/
meeting
attendance
• Attitude uplift
• Expressed
advocacy
• Acceptance/
preparedness for
change
• Participation in
initiatives
• Reduced employee
turnover
• Improved
employee
productivity
• Lower cost of
recruitment
Conclusion
•
The Valid Metrics guidelines are not intended to be a rulebook. Practitioners
are free to select the metrics that fit their budget and, most importantly, their
objectives. These grids are not intended to be all-encompassing. They
simply represent a starting point on the journey to objectives-based
measurement with a greater business focus and which will hopefully move
the industry beyond AVEs.
For further information contact:
Barry Leggetter, Executive Director, AMEC
[email protected]
http://www.amecorg.com/amec/index.asp
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