close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

код для вставкиСкачать
THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
Engaging or Enraging?
Sharing Learning Objects
Susan E. Metros
Deputy Chief Information Officer
Executive Director for e-Learning
Professor of Design Technology
The Ohio State University
1
THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
Agenda
1.
2.
3.
4.
The World of Learning Objects
The Knowledge Continuum
Engaging or Enraging?
Making the Cultural Shift
2
THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
The World of Learning Objects
Characteristics









Digital
Reusable
Sharable
Stand-alone and media independent
Searchable
Interoperable
Granular and modular
Assigned ownership (and a price)
Expert or peer-evaluated (ideally)
3
THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
The World of Learning Objects
What to label them…










Learning Objects
Learning Molecules
Learning Kernels
Reusable Learning Objects (RLO)
Information Objects
Knowledge Objects
Knowledge Artifacts
Sharable Content Objects (SCOs)
Digital or Media Assets
Content Nuggets
4
THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
The World of Learning Objects
What are Learning Objects?
Any digital resource that can be
reused to mediate learning.
(Wiley, 2002)
5
THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
The World of Learning Objects
What are Learning Objects?
Any digital resource that can be
reused to mediate learning …and
serve as a nucleus for subjectspecific learning outcomes, activities
and assessment.
(NLII Learning Object Workgroup, 2003)
6
THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
The World of Learning Objects
Learning Object Anatomy
Digital
Resource
Learning
Outcome
Activity
Assessment
Drawing
Photograph
Diagram/Map
Text
Simulation
Animation
Video Clip
Audio Clip
Musical Score
Remember
Understand
Apply
Analyze
Evaluate
Create
Label
Diagram/Map
Journal
Tutorial
Case study
Presentation
Game
WebQuest
Experiment
Role playing
Troubleshooting
Diagnosis
Composition
Self-test/Quiz
Essay/Report
Journal
Prognosis
Hypothesis
Classification
Plan
Visual
representation
Game score
Simulation
Presentation
Portfolio
(Bloom, (1956);
Anderson and
Krathwohl, 2001)
7
THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
The World of Learning Objects
Learning Object Reusability
Learning
Outcomes
Discipline B
Activity
Learning
Assessment
Discipline A
Digital
Resource
Learning
Outcomes
Activity
Learning
Assessment
8
THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
The World of Learning Objects
Learning Object Reusability
Recall
names of teeth
Forensic Science
Study
labeled image
Label image
Oral Anatomy
Digital
Resource
Correctly identify
remains using
deductive reasoning
Game
Score of
the game
9
THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
The World of Learning Objects
Learning Object Metatags
Teeth
Dentistry
Dentin
Incisor
Cusped
Molar
Oral Anatomy
Forensic Science
Digital
Resource
Teeth
Coloration
Position
DNA
Dental growth
patterns
10
THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
The World of Learning Objects
Learning Object
Ontology
11
THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
The Knowledge Continuum
Data, Information, Knowledge, Wisdom
Data
Definition Simple,
discrete
facts and
figures
Information
Knowledge
Data organized A mix of values,
for a meaningful experience,
purpose
contextual
information and
expert insight
Wisdom
The insightful
culmination of
data, information,
and knowledge
collected,
digested,
experienced and
practiced over
time
(Davenport and Prusak,1998)
12
THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
The Knowledge Continuum
Data, Information, Knowledge, Wisdom
Data
Information
Knowledge
Wisdom
Container Data
Warehouse
Container A collection of a
Definition wide variety of
data that
support
decision-making
by presenting a
coherent picture
of business
conditions at a
single point in
time
Digital
Library
A disciplinespecific
collection of
digitallystored
information
and media
Knowledge
Repository
A collection of
sharable
digitally-stored
educational
resources and
content
The Mind
The center of
consciousness
that generates
thoughts,
feelings, ideas,
and perceptions
and stores
knowledge and
memories
13
THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
The Knowledge Continuum
Data, Information, Knowledge, Wisdom
Data
Container Data
Warehouse
Purpose
Quickly
analyze, plan
and react to
changing
business
conditions
Information
Knowledge
Wisdom
Digital Library
Knowledge
Repository
Provide easy
access to nonpublished,
reusable and
shared digital
learning objects
The Mind
Provide a
central, virtual
location for
accessing
digital
information
and media on
specific topics
To collect, store
and pass on
undocumented
data, information
and knowledge
that is enriched
by reflection and
critical thought
14
THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
Engaging or Enraging?
Engaging or Enraging?
 Learning objects the buzz within
industry, HE instructional technology
units, publishers, public service
broadcasting, museums, and most
recently, library groups
 Not yet recognized by most
administrators and faculty, nor their
traditional educational associations and
societies
15
THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
Engaging or Enraging?
Higher Education Slow to Adopt
1. Lack of clarity and definition
2. Technology not mature
3. Considered just another short-lived
technological trend
4. Higher education is resistant to change
16
THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
Engaging or Enraging?
Academy in the Past and Present
Discipline E
Knowledge
Knowledge
Discipline C
Knowledge
Discipline B
Discipline A
Knowledge
17
THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
Engaging or Enraging?
Academy Transformed
Knowledge
Repository
or Referatory
Discipline C
Discipline B
Discipline A
Knowledge
Knowledge
Knowledge
Knowledge
18
THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
Engaging or Enraging?
Academy Transcended
Discipline C
Discipline B
Knowledge
Knowledge
Knowledge
Knowledge
Discipline A
Knowledge
Repository
or Referatory
19
THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
Engaging or Enraging?
Academy Transcended
 Additional knowledge contributors and
partners
 Other higher education institutions
 K-12 school systems
 Libraries
 Publishers
 Museums
 Arts and cultural centers
 Public broadcasting stations
20
THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
Engaging or Enraging?
Advantages









Uses technology appropriately
Fosters new relationships through sharing content
Streamlines process of course development
Provides efficiencies related to reusability
Makes content widely accessible
Customizes learning experiences
Engages learners and encourages interactivity
Cheaper and more current than textbooks
Provides intrinsic rewards for faculty
21
THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
Engaging or Enraging?
What are the top three reasons
for using Learning Objects?
1. To improve quality of the learning
experience
2. To benefit from content reusability
3. To use course materials efficiently
ECAR
Survey results
Metros and Bennett, 2002
22
THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
Engaging or Enraging?
Disadvantages









Vague and confusing definition
Difficult to search and locate
Creates fragmented concepts
GUI inconsistencies
Uneven quality
Unsettled intellectual property and copyright issues
Difficult to maintain
Requires time, skill and money
Few extrinsic rewards and incentives for faculty
developers
 Still too new of a concept
23
THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
Engaging or Enraging?
What are the top three reasons
not to use Learning Objects?
1. Concept too new
2. Lack of departmental support
3. Resistance to trying new models
ECAR
Survey results
Metros and Bennett, 2002
24
THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
Making the Cultural Shift
Making the Cultural Shift…
 Policymakers/Administrators
 Champion change
 “Chip away” at the walls between disciplines
 Reward interdisciplinary and technologyenhanced efforts
 Fund innovation
 Technicians
 Provide reliable,secure,robust technologies
25
THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
Making the Cultural Shift
Making the Cultural Shift…
 Instructional and visual designers, programmers
 Partner with faculty in the development process
 Librarians
 Index and catalogue unpublished content
 Students
 Take an active (and more time intensive) role in their
learning
Customize their learning experience

 Publishers/Vendors
 “Granularize,” tag and index their content collections
26
THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
Making the Cultural Shift
Making the Cultural Shift…
 Faculty
 Develop new or revise course content to be
digital, modular, multi-modal and interactive
 Broaden scope of study
 Relinquish control over what is theirs
 Unbundle the course design, development
and delivery
27
THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
Making the Cultural Shift
Adoption Characteristics
 The rate of adoption increases significantly
when innovations possess some of the
following characteristics:
1. Simplicity
2. Compatibility with existing methods and
techniques
3. Relative advantage in comparison with these
established methods and techniques
(Rogers, 1962)
28
THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
Making the Cultural Shift
Adoption Characteristics
 Simplicity
 Use new content instead of repurposing
existing content
 Shift development to skilled professionals
 Provide easy access to learning object
collections
29
THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
Making the Cultural Shift
Adoption Characteristics
 Compatibility with existing methods and
techniques
 Similar to using existing analog and digital
learning resources
 Make incremental changes
30
THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
Making the Cultural Shift
Adoption Characteristics
 Relative advantage in comparison with
established methods and techniques
 Faculty adoption of wordprocessing (and
email)
 Meaningful for teaching and learning
 The time is right!
31
THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
Making the Cultural Shift
Time is right!
 19th century: Land-Grant Colleges Act
 20th century: GI Bill
 21st century: Transformed Learning???
 Digital Opportunity Investment Trust (DO IT)
 http://www.digitalpromise.org/
(Grossman, 2002)
32
THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
Making the Cultural Shift
Keep your fears to yourself, but
share your inspiration with others.
Robert Louis Stevenson (1850-1894)
33
THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
Get Involved…
 NLII Fall Focus Session: Learning Objects
 October 10, 2003
 The Blackwell Hotel
The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio
 http://www.educause.edu/nlii/meetings/nlii034
 NLII Learning Objects
Virtual Community of Practice
 For more information, or to request a user account,

e-mail [email protected]
http://www.educause.edu/vcop/learningobjects
34
THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
Contact Information
 Susan E. Metros
Deputy CIO and Executive Director for e-Learning
Professor, Design Technology
The Ohio State University
614-688-8482
[email protected]
35
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа