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Chapter 7
Operating Systems
作業系統
(電腦的管家婆)
©Brooks/Cole, 2003
OBJECTIVES
After reading this chapter, the reader should
be able to:
Define the purpose and functions of an operating system.
Understand the components of an operating system.
Understand the concept of virtual memory.
Understand the concept of deadlock and starvation.
List some of the characteristics of popular operating systems
such as Windows 2000, UNIX, and Linux.
©Brooks/Cole, 2003
Figure 7-1
Computer System
©Brooks/Cole, 2003
7.1
DEFINITION
©Brooks/Cole, 2003
Note:
An operating system is an interface
between the hardware of a computer
and
the user (program or human) that
facilitates the execution of the other
programs and the access to
hardware and software resources.
©Brooks/Cole, 2003
7.2
EVOLUTION:
Batch systems
Time-sharing systems
Personal systems
Parallel systems
Distributed systems
©Brooks/Cole, 2003
7.3
COMPONENTS
©Brooks/Cole, 2003
Figure 7-2
Components of an operating system
©Brooks/Cole, 2003
Figure 7-3
Monoprogramming
©Brooks/Cole, 2003
Figure 7-4
Multiprogramming
©Brooks/Cole, 2003
Figure 7-5
Categories of multiprogramming
©Brooks/Cole, 2003
Figure 7-6
Partitioning
©Brooks/Cole, 2003
Figure 7-7
Paging
©Brooks/Cole, 2003
Figure 7-8
Virtual memory
©Brooks/Cole, 2003
Figure 7-9
State diagram with the boundaries
between a program, a job, and a process
©Brooks/Cole, 2003
Figure 7-10
Job scheduler
©Brooks/Cole, 2003
Figure 7-11
Process scheduler
©Brooks/Cole, 2003
Figure 7-12
Queues for process management
©Brooks/Cole, 2003
Figure 7-13
Deadlock
©Brooks/Cole, 2003
Figure 7-14
Deadlock on a bridge
©Brooks/Cole, 2003
Note:
Deadlock occurs when the operating
system does not put resource
restrictions
on processes.
©Brooks/Cole, 2003
Figure 7-15.a
Starvation
©Brooks/Cole, 2003
Figure 7-15.b
Starvation
©Brooks/Cole, 2003
Figure 7-15.c
Starvation
©Brooks/Cole, 2003
Figure 7-16
Dining philosophers
©Brooks/Cole, 2003
7.4
POPULAR OPERATING SYSTEMS:
Unix; Linux; Windows
©Brooks/Cole, 2003
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