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```Chapter 5
Computer
Organization
(計算機組織)
OBJECTIVES
After reading this chapter, the reader should
be able to:
Distinguish between the three components of a computer
hardware.
List the functionality of each component.
Understand memory addressing and calculate the number of
bytes for a specified purpose.
Distinguish between different types of memories.
Understand how each input/output device works.
Continued on the next slide
OBJECTIVES (continued)
Understand the systems used to connect different
components together.
Understand the addressing system for input/output
devices.
Understand the program execution and machine cycles.
Distinguish between programmed I/O, interrupt-driven
I/O and direct memory access (DMA).
Understand the two major architectures used to define
the instruction sets of a computer: CISC and RISC.
Figure 5-1
Computer hardware (subsystems)
5.1
CENTRAL
PROCESSING
UNIT
(CPU)
Figure 5-2
CPU
5.2
MAIN MEMORY
Table 5.1 Memory units
Unit
Exact Number of bytes
Approximation
-----------kilobyte
megabyte
gigabyte
terabyte
petabyte
exabyte
-----------------------210 bytes
220 bytes
230 bytes
240 bytes
250 bytes
260 bytes
-----------103 bytes
106 bytes
109 bytes
1012 bytes
1015 bytes
1018 bytes
Figure 5-3
Main memory
Note:
Memory addresses are defined using
unsigned binary integers.
Example 1
A computer has 32 MB (megabytes) of memory.
How many bits are needed to address any single
byte in memory?
Solution
The memory address space is 32 MB, or 225 (25 x
220). This means you need
log2 225 or 25 bits, to address each byte.
Example 2
A computer has 128 MB of memory. Each word in
this computer is 8 bytes. How many bits are
needed to address any single word in memory?
Solution
The memory address space is 128 MB, which
means 227. However, each word is 8 (23) bytes,
which means that you have 224 words. This
means you need log2 224 or 24 bits, to address
each word.
Memory Types
• RAM (Random access memory):
– SRAM (Static RAM) (flip-flop gates)
– DRAM (Dynamic RAM)
• ROM (Read only memory)
– PROM (programmable)
– EPROM (erasable programmable)
– EEPROM (electronically erasable programmable)
A simple flip-flop circuit
Set
Reset
Setting the output of a flip-flop to 1
Setting the output of a flip-flop to 1 (continued)
Setting the output of a flip-flop to 1
Another way of constructing a flip-flop
Figure 5-4
Memory hierarchy
Figure 5-5
Cache
5.3
INPUT / OUTPUT
Figure 5-6
Physical layout of a magnetic disk
Figure 5-7
Surface organization of a disk
Figure 5-8
Mechanical configuration of a tape
Figure 5-9
Surface organization of a tape
Figure 5-10
Creation and use of CD-ROM
Table 5.2 CD-ROM speeds
Speed
Data Rate
Approximation
-----------1x
2x
4x
6x
8x
12x
16x
24x
32x
40x
-----------------------153,600 bytes per second
307,200 bytes per second
614,400 bytes per second
921,600 bytes per second
1,228,800 bytes per second
1,843,200 bytes per second
2,457,600 bytes per second
3,688,400 bytes per second
4,915,200 bytes per second
6,144,000 bytes per second
-----------150 KB/s
300 KB/s
600 KB/s
900 KB/s
1.2 MB/s
1.8 MB/s
2.4 MB/s
3.6 MB/s
4.8 MB/s
6 MB/s
Figure 5-11
CD-ROM format
Figure 5-12
Making a CD-R
Figure 5-13
Making a CD-RW
Table 5.3 DVD capacities
Feature
Capacity
--------------------------------single-sided, single-layer
single-sided, dual-layer
double-sided, single-layer
double-sided, dual-layer
-----------4.7 GB
8.5 GB
9.4 GB
17 GB
5.4
SUBSYSTEM
INTERCONNECTION
Figure 5-14
Connecting CPU and memory using three buses
Figure 5-15
Connecting I/O devices to the buses
Figure 5-16
SCSI controller
(Small Computer System Interface)
Daisy
Chain
Figure 5-17
FireWire controller
(IEEE 1394)
Figure 5-18
USB controller
(Universal Serial Bus)
Figure 5-19
Figure 5-20
5.5
PROGRAM
EXECUTION
Figure 5-21
Steps of a cycle
Figure 5-22
Contents of memory and register before execution
Figure 5-23.a
Contents of memory and
registers after each cycle
Figure 5-23.b
Contents of memory and
registers after each cycle
Figure 5-23.c
Contents of memory and
registers after each cycle
Figure 5-23.d
Contents of memory and
registers after each cycle
Figure 5-24
Programmed I/O
Figure 5-25
Interrupt-driven I/O
Figure 5-26
DMA connection to the general bus
Figure 5-27
DMA input/output
5.6
TWO DIFFERENT
ARCHITECTURES
Two different architectures
• CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer)
– Intel
• RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer)
– PowerPC
```
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