Practice Test US History Unit Seven • Instructions for Use – Click the mouse and a question will appear, some with answers to choose from, some without. – Click on the answer you think is correct or if there are not answers to choose from try to answer it in your head and then click the mouse button. – The correct answer will then be highlighted or will appear on the screen. – Click the mouse button again and the next question will appear. • If you cannot finish the Practice test in one sitting, use the scroll bar on the right to remember where you left off. Joseph Stalin was/did NOT a. Totalitarian b. Communist c. launch a massive drive to collectivize agriculture d. enter into a pact or alliance with Germany in 1936 e. responsible for the execution of millions as he restructured Soviet society Benito Mussolini was/did NOT a. Fascist b. Nationalist c. A militaristic expansionist d. launch an invasion of Ethiopia e. support government ownership of property Adolph Hitler was/did NOT a. Nationalist b. wrote Mein Kampf c. leader of the National Socialist German Workers' Party d. A militaristic expansionist e. support the Treaty of Versailles Japan's militarists were/did NOT a. expansionists b. launched an invasion of Manchuria c. forced Japan to become China's ally d. came to power through acts of aggression e. pulled Japan out of the League of Nations Francisco Franco was/did NOT a. Spanish b. socialist c. totalitarian d. aided by Hitler and Mussolini e. came to power through a civil war Which of the following leaders transformed the Soviet Union from a rural nation into an industrial power? a. Stalin b. Hitler c. Lenin d. Mussolini Which of the following correctly matches the politician with his nation? a. Austria -- Joseph Stalin b. Spain -- Francisco Franco c. Britain -- Charles de Gaulle d. France -- Neville Chamberlain Leader of the fascist government in Italy • Answer – Benito Mussolini Leader whose political philosophy was based on both nationalism and racism • Answer – Adolf Hitler Leader whose totalitarian regime was based on a communist philosophy • Answer – Joseph Stalin At the end of World War I, many new democracies were established in Europe. In the years between the two world wars, what happened to most of these democracies? a. They thrived. b. They became Communist. c. They were torn apart by civil wars. d. They were replaced by dictatorships. What caused militarist leaders to gain control of the Japanese government in the early 1930s? a. a civil war in Japan b. Hideki Tojo'sappointment as prime minister c. U.S. shipments of arms and supplies to China d. their successful invasion of resource-rich Manchuria By signing the Munich Pact, Britain and France agreed to take this policy toward German aggression. • Answer – Appeasement This British prime minister signed the Munich Pact. • Answer – Neville Chamberlain The result of this led Hitler to call off the invasion of Britain indefinitely. • Answer – Battle of Britain This German military strategy of "lightning war" was first used in Poland. • Answer – blitzkrieg In 1938, this country was Germany's first target. • Answer – Austria This nation ceased to exist after it was divided between Germany and the Soviet Union. • Answer – Poland The terms of surrender forced on this nation included German occupation of the northern part of the country and the establishment of a Nazi-controlled puppet government in the southern part. • Answer – France Which of the following did Winston Churchill oppose? a. the Munich Pact b. the Atlantic Charter c. the Lend-Lease Act d. the Treaty of Versailles Which nation(s) signed a nonaggression pact with Germany that led to the invasion and division of Poland? a. Italy b. Spain c. Italy and Japan d. the Soviet Union In following a policy of appeasement, what did Britain and France do? a. declared war on Germany b. submitted to Hitler's demands c. entered into a formal defense alliance d. pressured the United States to enter the war Leader who made concessions to Hitler in hopes of ending German aggression • Answer – Neville Chamberlain Country that, with England, declared war on Germany after the German invasion of Poland • Answer – France Country that was split between Germany and the Soviet Union near the beginning of the war • Answer – Poland Leader who disapproved of the policy of appeasement • Answer – Winston Churchill Country that began the war in an alliance with Germany but ended the war fighting against Germany • Answer – Soviet Union How were Britain and France drawn into war with Germany? a. Hitler had taken power in Germany. b. Germany had attacked Poland. c. Germany had attacked Czechoslovakia. d. Germany had pulled out of the League of Nations. What happened during the Battle of Britain? a. Germany joined the Axis powers. b. Germany engaged in a three-front war. c. Germany bombed Britain for two months. d. Germany entered into a nonaggression pact with Britain. What is genocide, as practiced by the Nazis? a. the broadcasting of anti-Semitic ideas b. the deliberate extermination of a specific group of people c. the abuse of a nation's citizens by their own government d. the killing of people for the purpose of creating terror What is the name of the areas that Jews were originally relocated to by the Nazis? a. Slums b. suburbs c. ghettos d. tenements Which group was not targeted by the Nazis? a. Jews b. Gypsies c. Anglo-Saxons d. Jehovah's Witnesses What is the name of the "master race" that Hitler wanted to preserve? a. Poles b. Aryan c. Slav d. Freemasons Which group of people suffered 6 million deaths during the Holocaust? a. Nationalists b. Aryans c. Facists d. Jews After promising his emperor that he would try to maintain peace, Japanese Prime Minister ___ ordered the Japanese navy to prepare for attack on the United States. • Answer – Hideki Tojo Germany, Italy, and Japan were called the ___ powers. • Answer – Axis Congress boosted defense spending and created the first peacetime ___ in U.S. history. • Answer – draft Germany invaded ___ in spite of the peace treaty signed between the two nations just prior to the invasion of Poland. • Answer – The Soviet Union Japan took over French military bases in Indochina. In response, the United States placed a(n) ___ on Japan. • Answer – Trade embargo Churchill and Roosevelt met secretly aboard the U.S.S. Augusta. Together, they drafted the ___. • Answer – Atlantic Charter Japan launched a surprise attack on the naval base at ___. • Answer – Pearl Harbor The actions of which country finally forced the United States to enter the war? a. Italy b. Japan c. Germany d. the Soviet Union Who or what did President Roosevelt describe as "the rattlesnakes of the Atlantic"? a. Axis nations and their leaders b. U.S. Navy ships and their crews c. German U-boats and their crews d. Japanese warplanes and their pilots Which of the following statements most accurately reflects Roosevelt's feelings toward joining the war? a. He agreed with the isolationists and promoted an isolationist policy. b. He wanted to help the Allies but had to appease U.S. citizens who opposed entering the war. c. He wanted to avoid the war because he did not see it as a threat to the United States. d. He did not understand the position of isolationists and was eager to join the war. What was the Lend-Lease Act? a. a statement of war aims compiled by Roosevelt and Churchill b. a nonaggression pact between Germany and the Soviet Union c. a policy allowing the president to provide arms to certain foreign countries d. an order to shoot German U-boats on sight This is the code name for the atomic bomb program. • Answer – Manhattan Project This expanded the draft and eventually provided 10 million soldiers. • Answer – Selective Service System This was the method used to decrease the use of scarce and essential wartime goods. • Answer – rationing This Army Chief of Staff general pushed for the formation of a Women's Auxiliary Army Corps. • Answer – George Marshall This labor leader strongly encouraged President Roosevelt to issue an executive order discouraging discrimination in the workplace. • Answer – A. Philip Randolph This assumed the responsibility for converting industry from peacetime to wartime production and distributing raw materials to key industries. • Answer – War Production Board and Development This was responsible for improvements in radar and sonar and the development of "wonder drugs" such as penicillin that saved countless lives. • Answer – Office of Scientific Research The problem of ___ was targeted by the Office of Price Administration. a. inflation b. recession c. depression d. unemployment To combat wartime inflation, the U.S. government did all of the following except a. raise and extend the income tax. b. impose wage and price controls. c. encourage the purchase of war bonds. d. increase production of consumer goods. During the war, women in the WAACs served as a. fighter pilots and foot soldiers. b. shipbuilders and waitresses. c. scientists and factory workers. d. nurses and radio operators. He was Roosevelt's vice-president. • Answer – Harry S. Truman This death camp was the first liberated by the Allies. • Answer – Majdanek This was the code name for the invasion of Axis-controlled North Africa. • Answer – Operation Torch Convoys, sonar, and radar helped the Allies to win this battle. • Answer – Battle of the Atlantic General ___ led the Third Army into Paris to liberate the city from German occupation. a. George Patton b. George Marshall c. Douglas MacArthur d. Dwight D. Eisenhower The Battle of the Bulge was significant because it marked the ___. a. last German offensive b. liberation of the death camps c. Allies' first victory in a land battle d. Axis powers' first loss in a land battle The Allied invasion of ___ was given the code name D-Day. a. Japan b. Italy c. North Africa d. Nazi-occupied Europe V-E Day, or May 8, 1945, was the day when ___. a. the United States entered the war b. Allied forces invaded France c. Germany surrendered d. the Soviets stopped the Germans at the Volga Germany's goal in the Battle of the Atlantic was to a. invade the coast of Great Britain and then take over the entire country. b. keep food and war supplies from reaching Great Britain and the Soviet Union. c. prevent Allied forces from landing in Normandy and liberating France. d. prevent the invasion of North Africa. The Supreme Commander of U.S. forces in Europe was a. George Patton. b. George Marshall. c. Douglas MacArthur. d. Dwight D. Eisenhower. In the Battle of Stalingrad, all of the following contributed to the Soviet victory except a. a brutal winter. b. a massive Allied invasion. c. a massive Soviet counterattack. d. Hitler's refusal to order a German retreat. When forced to abandon the Philippines, ___ made the vow, "I shall return." a. Hideki Tojo b. Chester Nimitz c. Douglas MacArthur d. Franklin D. Roosevelt What was the Manhattan Project? a. the plan to crash Japanese suicide planes into Allied ships b. the plan to develop the atomic bomb c. the historic meeting of the "Big Three" d. the training of the Navajo code talkers Which nation was defeated at the Battle of Midway after its plans of an attack were intercepted? a. the Soviet Union b. the United States c. Japan d. Great Britain Where did the United States drop the atomic bomb? a. Hiroshima and Nagasaki b. Hiroshima and Okinawa c. Okinawa and Iwo Jima d. Iwo Jima and Guadalcanal Which of the following leaders did not attend the Yalta Conference? a. Joseph Stalin b. Winston Churchill c. Harry S. Truman d. Franklin D. Roosevelt Who were the defendants at the Nuremberg trials? a. Soviet occupants of Eastern European countries b. the developers of the atomic bomb c. Nazi leaders d. Japanese war criminals Truman's aim in deciding to drop the atomic bomb was to ___. a. find out how destructive the bomb really was b. teach Japanese military leaders a lesson c. end the war and save American lives d. show how powerful the United States was The general who led Allied troops in battles on the islands of Bataan, Leyte, and Iwo Jima was a. Dwight D. Eisenhower. b. Chester Nimitz. c. Charles Brown. d. Douglas MacArthur. In deciding to use the atomic bomb against Japan, President Truman's main goal was to a. end the war quickly. b. weaken Japan for a long time. c. get revenge for Pearl Harbor. d. save Japanese lives. To protest discrimination, ___ organized a march on Washington on July 1, 1941. a. Franklin D. Roosevelt b. Harry S. Truman c. General George Marshall d. Phillip Randolph With respect to finding better jobs, the war years marked a period of ___ for African Americans. a. decline b. advance c. stagnation d. uncertainty The GI Bill of Rights made it possible for a. African Americans to serve in combat positions. b. soldiers to take short leaves from fighting. c. veterans to attend college for free. d. enlisted men to receive officer training. Roosevelt's decision to remove people of Japanese ancestry to internment camps was a response to a. strong anti-Japanese sentiment. b. verified reports of Japanese Americans acting as spies. c. the lack of Japanese Americans serving in the armed forces. d. rumors that the Japanese were developing an atomic bomb. An example of racial tensions during the war years is a. sit-ins in the South staged by CORE. b. the actions of the Tuskegee Airmen. c. anti-Mexican demonstrations in Detroit. d. the "zoot-suit" riots in Los Angeles. This group consisted of Eastern European nations that were dominated by the Soviet Union. • Answer – Satellite nations This action provided vital supplies to a region blockaded by the Soviet Union. • Answer – Berlin Airlift Both the United States and the Soviet Union joined this organization after World War II. • Answer – United Nations He arranged for about 400 million dollars in aid to be sent to postwar Turkey and Greece. • Answer – Harry S. Truman This defensive military alliance was the first military alliance that the United States ever entered during peacetime. • Answer – NATO This aid program was directed "not against any country or doctrine but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos." • Answer – Marshall Plan This term refers to the indirect but hostile conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union that began at the end of World War II. • Answer – Cold War He believed that the best way to avoid a third world war was to create a new world order in which all nations had the right of self-determination. • Answer – Harry S. Truman In a capitalist system, a. the state controls economic activity. b. private citizens control economic activity. c. elected officials control economic activity. d. the dictator controls economic activity. The main goal of the Truman Doctrine was to a. promote free elections in Europe. b. restrict the spread of communism. c. force Germany to pay war reparations. d. maintain international peace through the UN. The Soviet blockade of West Berlin was a response to a. the Marshall Plan. b. the formation of NATO. c. efforts by Western nations to divide Germany. d. efforts by Western nations to reunify Germany. Although Mao Zedong won the hearts of the Chinese peasants, he failed to win American support because he a. was corrupt. b. was a Nationalist. c. was a Communist. d. had cooperated with Japan during World War II. The failure of Chiang Kai-shek's forces in the Chinese Civil War can largely be blamed on a. his weak and corrupt leadership. b. aid given by the United States to the opposition. c. the U.S. fear and distrust of communism. d. the U.S. lack of interest in the outcome of the war. Who was forced to retreat to Taiwan (Formosa)? a. the Korean Nationalists b. the Korean Communists c. the Chinese Nationalists d. the Chinese Communists Of the following participants in the Korean War, which fought on the side of the Communists? a. China b. South Korea c. the United States d. the United Nations General Douglas MacArthur argued that the Korean War a. was not a vital American interest. b. should be limited to Korea. c. should be extended into a war against China. d. should be extended into a war against the Soviet Union. The ___ were defeated in the civil war in China despite 2 billion dollars in aid sent to them from the United States. a. Nationalists b. Communists c. Soviets d. peasants The ___ appeared to be winning the Korean War until China actively entered the conflict. a. Communists b. Nationalists c. South Koreans d. North Koreans Between 1944 and 1947, Chinese Nationalists a. relied heavily on financial aid from the Soviet Union. b. ruled in the southern and eastern regions of China. c. attracted overwhelming support from the nation's peasants. d. were led by Mao Zedong. The Soviet Union did not vote to defend South Korea at the UN Security Council because a. the Soviets were boycotting the UN over the presence of Taiwan. b. the Soviets were boycotting the UN over the presence of Chinese Communists. c. the Soviets had already sent military aid to South Korea. d. the Soviets had wanted to remain neutral at the time. When an armistice was signed ending the Korean War, a. North and South Korea were still divided along the 38th parallel. b. a communist government was established in South Korea. c. communist fears in the United States were lifted. d. China gained control of the entire peninsula. ___ could only be charged with perjury, not espionage, because too many years had passed since the spying had taken place. • Answer – Alger Hiss The ___ decided not to cooperate with the investigation into whether the American film industry had been influenced by Communists. • Answer – Hollywood Ten Claiming to be persecuted for being Jewish and holding radical beliefs, ___ pleaded not guilty to the crime of espionage. • Answer – Ethel & Julius Rosenberg In pronouncing sentence on ___, Judge Irving Kaufman declared the crime "worse than murder“ because it had put "into the hands of the Russians the A-bomb." • Answer – Ethel & Julius Rosenberg In 1947, ___ subpoenaed 43 witnesses from the Hollywood film industry to give testimony on whether Communists influenced the American film industry. • Answer – HUAC To label someone's activities as ___ would be to suggest that the person is making unsupported accusations. a. brinkmanship b. Containment c. McCarthyism d. infiltration Accusations that communism was widely present in the U.S. government and military were made by a. Douglas MacArthur. b. Joseph McCarthy. c. John Foster Dulles. d. Alger Hiss. He led the nation that developed the first hydrogen bomb. • Answer – Dwight D. Eisenhower The satellite nations were members of this military alliance. • Answer – Warsaw Pact This group's covert actions helped to topple governments in Iran and Guatemala. • Answer – CIA He told an aide, "If one of these [U-2's] were lost when we were engaged in apparently sincere deliberations, it could...ruin my effectiveness." • Answer – Dwight D. Eisenhower As Secretary of State, he proposed that the United States declare its intention to use massive retaliation against any aggression. • Answer – John Foster Dulles This U.S. policy required greater dependence on nuclear weapons and the airplanes that delivered them. • Answer – Brinkmanship This U-2 pilot was convicted of espionage after his plane was shot down and he was forced to parachute into Soviet-controlled territory. • Answer – Francis Gary Powers The United States responded to fear of Soviet military action in the Middle East by issuing the ___. a. Marshall Plan b. Truman Doctrine c. Warsaw Pact d. Eisenhower Doctrine When the Soviet Union exploded an atomic bomb, the United States responded by intensifying efforts to develop ___. a. NATO b. an atomic bomb c. a space satellite d. a hydrogen bomb After the U-2 incident, all of the following events occurred except a. the Soviet Union rejected Eisenhower's "open skies" proposal at Geneva. b. Khrushchev called off a summit conference on the arms race. c. Khrushchev withdrew his invitation for Eisenhower to visit the Soviet Union. d. Francis Gary Powers was released from prison after 18 months. American interest in developing a hydrogen bomb intensified when a. the policy of containment failed in China. b. the Soviet Union launched a space satellite. c. the Soviet Union exploded an atomic bomb. d. the Soviet Union exploded a hydrogen bomb. One of the benefits that the GI Bill of Rights offered to returning veterans was ___. a. counseling b. low-interest loans c. free homes d. government jobs President Truman threatened to ___ striking workers to prevent strikes from crippling the nation. a. arrest b. Sue c. draft d. deport The Dixiecrats nominated ___ to run for president in 1948. a. Harry S. Truman b. Thomas E. Dewey c. J. Strom Thurmond d. Henry A. Wallace During the 1950s, ___ jobs declined. a. manufacturing b. advertising c. communications d. service The vast majority of new homes in the 1950s were built in the ___ . a. big cities b. suburbs c. small cities d. rural areas All of the following were early effects of the conversion from a wartime to a peacetime economy except a. increased unemployment. b. inflation. c. the supply of goods exceeding demand. d. decreased wages. All of the following contributed to the economic recovery after the war except a. consumer demand. b. labor strikes. c. the Cold War. d. the Marshall Plan. The factor that most contributed to the upset win of Truman in the 1948 election was a. his relentless campaign against a "do-nothing" Congress. b. the healthy state of the nation's economy. c. his position on civil rights. d. support from labor unions. He developed a vaccine against polio. • Answer – Dr. Jonas Salk McDonald's is one of the earliest examples of this type of business. • Answer – Franchise This is a marketing strategy in which manufacturers purposely design products to wear out or become outdates in a short period of time. • Answer – Planned Obsolescence The height of this unprecedented population explosion was in 1957. • Answer – Baby boom A ___ is a large corporation that owns a number of smaller companies. a. franchise b. monopoly c. government agency d. conglomerate With more money to spend and an increased number of products to buy, ___ became an American way of life. a. consumerism b. social conformity c. planned obsolescence d. a 40-hour work week One disadvantage of standardization in American business was that it a. led to a lower standard of living. b. discouraged individuality. c. lowered profits. d. was less efficient. The dramatic increase in car ownership in the 1950s contributed to all of the following except a. noise pollution. b. the Interstate Highway Act. c. decreased usage of national parks. d. the widening gap between the middle class and the poor. Most Americans in the 1960s relied on ___ as their primary source of entertainment and information. a. radio b. movies c. telephones d. television The expression of nonconformity by ___ developed into the beat movement. a. college students b. artists and poets c. teenagers d. rock 'n' roll performers The first politician to skillfully use the new medium of television was a. Harry S. Truman. b. Dwight D. Eisenhower. c. Richard M. Nixon. d. Adlai Stevenson. Criticism of television in the 1950s was based on a. its portrayal of an idealized society. b. weak transmitters. c. the size of the screen. d. its black-and-white images. In the 1950s, both the beat movement and rock 'n' roll were viewed as forms of a. harmless entertainment. b. rebellion. c. African-American culture. d. mainstream American values. The group that benefited most from the economy and culture of the 1950s was a. African-American women. b. African-American men. c. white women. d. white men. The Longoria incident prompted Mexican Americans to do all of the following except a. promote political candidates who represented their interests. b. organize the G.I. Forum. c. found the Unity League of California. d. return to Mexico.