FAQ’s for Centralized Predictive Avoidance Process tab 1) What’s the difference between Predictive Avoidance and Laser Deconfliction? Laser Deconfliction is a general method for promoting satellite safety while Predictive Avoidance is a specific analytical technique. Most often, these terms are used interchangeably. 2) What are the choices for the method of deconfliction? Most laser programs choose to use centralized deconfliction where the LCH computes the safe firing directions and times, then provides the data to the laser operator. This is by far the simplest and cheapest method and it usually gives good results. Some advanced programs are considering a decentralized method where satellite safety decisions are made in real-time by the laser system. A hybrid approach, which combines centralized and decentralized processing, is also a possibility. The decision is made by the laser owner during the deconfliction planning process. Standardized processes and plans have been developed for each method. 3) Will the LCH provide us the software and hardware we will need to implement the approach we choose? No, each laser owner must develop, test and validate their own deconfliction capability that meets the needs of their program. However, standardized solutions are being developed by DOD agencies. Please contact the LCH for more information. 4) Can the LCH support deconfliction for all types of lasers? No. The LCH cannot support deconfliction for laser systems that do not know where their laser system will be located and/or will be pointing, in advance. We are able to provide deconfliction for several geographic areas, and numerous pointing directions, but those need be determined ahead of time for inclusion in the Predictive Avoidance Request Message (PRM) from the laser program. This issue mainly arises for tactical (man portable) laser systems intended for dynamic and active use across several locations. The decentralized deconfliction method is more suitable for these situations. 5) Which types of deconfliction techniques can the LCH support? The laser platform (Source) can be mobile, fixed, satellite or celestial object. The laser pointing (Target) can be defined as mobile (center point-centerline, four surface points, two waypoints), satellite, external ephemeris, Field of View (azimuth/elevation range), Right Ascension/Declination, Fixed Point (latitude, longitude, and height), star or celestial body (planet) or Fixed Azimuth/Elevation. In the planning process we will work with your program to determine the most suitable technique for your application. 6) If I change the design of my Laser System do I need to resubmit or update my Centralized Predictive Avoidance Plan? Yes, but only if the change affects the processes or capabilities in the Plan. Updates also might be required to the Keep-Out Cone analysis document, the System/Software Test Report. In some cases, we may need to re-do the End-to-End demonstration and re-accomplish the authorization paperwork. If any laser parameters are updated, the registration will need to be reprocessed for a new waiver determination. 7) The DOD Instruction applies to DOD programs. What is the definition of a DOD program? Any program receiving DOD funding to support their laser system is considered to be a DOD program. Also, if the laser program wishes to use a DOD test range or other DOD facility, if falls within the meaning of this term. 8) When should laser programs start the Centralize Predictive Avoidance Process (CPA)? The registration is the starting point for the CPA process. A waiver determination is provided to the laser owner 1-3 weeks after sending their registration form to LCH, and this is the decision point for whether to proceed with the CPA process or not. Typically, it takes 3-4 months to do the deconfliction planning, develop the deconfliction capabilities for the laser system, conduct testing and validation, and obtain authorization. Depending on the manning and workload of LCH, this timeline may be shorter. 9) Who will our laser program be working with at LCH? LCH is normally staffed by 3 active duty multi-service personnel. Through the Centralize Predictive Avoidance (CPA) Process you will be assigned an LCH member who will be your primary contact along the way, although we are all involved with each laser program to some degree. Technical support is provided by SERCO, Inc., which has been assisting LCH for over 15 years. The Air Force Research Laboratory provides support for laser normalization and updating the database of satellite susceptibility to laser illumination. Metatech Corp. is the support contractor.