Module 8 Grammaire-2pages Talking about professions: 1. When describing your profession, do NOT use, un, une, des a. For example, in English we say: I am a teacher. My uncle is a business man. b. But in French: Je suis professeur. Mon oncle est homme d'affaires. Question words: In English we do not always use the prepositions when asking questions but it is always necessary to use them in French. Look at the following examples. Avec qui tu parles? A qui est ce journal? With whom do you speak? (Proper English) Whose newspaper is this? Who are you talking to? (Every day English) Whom does this newspaper belong to? Question words with prepositions: avec qui with who or with whom pour qui for who or for whom de qui of who or whose à qui to who or to whom de quoi avec quoi pourquoi of what with what why Using qui and que: We use qui and que to combine two shorter sentences into one longer one and to avoid repetition. Ex: I have a dog. I love my dog. Combined: I have a dog that I love. Ex: I have a friend. My friend is tall. Combined: I have a friend that is tall. The relative pronouns (qui and que) are used to begin a clause that describes a noun. QUI Qui is used as the subject of the verb in the clause. There is no other subject after it. Qui is always followed by a VERB Ex: Où est ta cousine qui danse bien? C'est mon frère qui conduit vite. Que Que is used as the direct object of the verb in the clause. Que is usually followed by a subject (noun or pronoun.) Que becomes Qu' before a vowel. Ex: que followed by elle become qu’elle Que followed by il becomes qu’il If you look at the example below, you will see that there is a direct object (les, le, la) and that que is used to join the two sentences and replace the direct object pronoun . J'ai des copains. Je les vois souvent. J'ai des copains que je vois souvent. Continue to page 2 These pronouns replace nouns and agree with the nouns that they replace . To replace the noun "le livre," you would use "lequel" (which one) because livre is mascline To replace the noun "la porte," you would use "laquelle" (which one) because porte is feminine. Which, which one at which one, to which one from which one, of which one lequel (m) à laquelle (f) de laquelle (f) laquelle (f) auquel (m) duquel (m) lesquels (mp) auxquels (mpl) desquels (mpl) lesquelles (mf) auxquelles (fpl) desquelles (fpl) Remember how à and le combined become au ? When the noun is preceded by à you make a contraction : Also, you have to be aware of the contractions when using these interrogative/ relative pronouns. Singular Forms Plural forms Forms à + lequel de + lequel Masculine lequel auquel duquel Feminine laquelle à laquelle de laquelle Masculine lesquels auxquels desquels Feminine lesquelles auxquelles desquelles Look at the examples: Voici 3 livres. Lequel veux-tu? (Here are 3 books. Which one do you want ?) Il y a 2 pizzas. Laquelle prenons-nous? (There are 2 pizzas. Which one should we take ? Voilà le café à côté duquel [de lequel] il m'a retrouvé. Voici les amis desquels [de lesquels] je te parlais.